WorldWideScience

Sample records for arvs patent pool

  1. Strategic inputs into patent pools

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Justus; Delcamp, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This article explores what factors determine the decision of a patent pool to accept new inputs. We propose a dynamic analysis of 1337 U.S. patent inputs into 7 important pools. This analysis highlights a trade-off between firm and patent characteristics as the determinants of inclusion of patents into pools. For instance we prove that firms already member of the pool or holding large patent portfolios are able to include lower quality patents. These findings can be explained both by bargaini...

  2. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article...

  3. The UNITAID Patent Pool Initiative: Bringing Patents Together for the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Jorge; 't Hoen, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering appropriate, affordable, well-adapted medicines for HIV/AIDS remains an urgent challenge: as first-line therapies fail, increasing numbers of people require costly second-line therapy; one-third of ARVs are not available in pediatric formulations; and certain key first- and second-line triple fixed-dose combinations do not exist or sufficient suppliers are lacking. UNITAID aims to help solve these problems through an innovative initiative for the collective management of intellectual property (IP) rights - a patent pool for HIV medicines. The idea behind a patent pool is that patent holders - companies, governments, researchers or universities - voluntarily offer, under certain conditions, the IP related to their inventions to the patent pool. Any company that wants to use the IP to produce or develop medicines can seek a license from the pool against the payment of royalties, and may then produce the medicines for use in developing countries (conditional upon meeting agreed quality standards). The patent pool will be a voluntary mechanism, meaning its success will largely depend on the willingness of pharmaceutical companies to participate and commit their IP to the pool. Generic producers must also be willing to cooperate. The pool has the potential to provide benefits to all. PMID:20309404

  4. Essential patents in pools: Is value intrinsinc or induced ?

    OpenAIRE

    Delcamp, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically the value - as measured by patent citations - of a set of 1363 essential patents belonging to 9 different patent pools. We find that pooled patents receive more cites than control patents having the same characteristics but not included in a pool. This difference stems only partly from the pools' ability to select the most cited patents. Indeed we show that being included in a pool also tends to increase the value of patents. This induced effect reflects the in...

  5. Economics of Patent Pools When Some (but not all) Patents are Essential

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Quint

    2006-01-01

    Patent pools are agreements by multiple patent owners to license certain patents to third parties as a package, and often in conjunction with the development of a technological standard. A key distinction made by regulators—between patents essential to a standard and patents that are suitable substitutes—has not been captured in existing economic models. I present a model of competition among differentiated technologies, in which some patents are essential and some are not. I show that pools ...

  6. Püsiühenduste arv kasvas aastaga poole võrra / Tõnu Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Tõnu, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Uuringufirma Point Topic andmetel oli 30. septembri 2004. a. seisuga Interneti püsiühenduste arv maailmas 136,4 miljonit. Diagrammid: Püsiühendustega leibkondade osakaal (%) Euroopas; 512 Kb/s allalaadimiskiirusega püsiühenduse kuutasu (eurodes)

  7. Arv & skifte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    Værket giver et helhedsbillede af spørgsmål om arv, skifte, boafgift og eventuel boskat. Bogen er opdelt i en teoretisk del, hvor regelsættene behandles, og en praktisk del, der behandler en lang række spørgsmål om dødsboets behandling. Skiftereformen 2011, som stiller en række nye krav til...

  8. Welfare analysis of patent pool using two-good bundling model with multi-dimensional user types: A case of uniform distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Azetsu; Seiji Yamada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, patent pools have been often established by the patent holders in order to promote R&D and set technical standards. Patent pools are one of the administration methods for licensing, that many patent holders concentrate their own patents and the administrator of patent pools offers the package licenses to licensees. This paper discusses the social welfare implications for the patent pool from the view of anti-competitive effect. We consider the asymmetry patents such as the basic pat...

  9. Medicine patent pool--pharma philanthropy or PR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Merck recently signed an agreement with The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) to license intellectual property relating to pediatric formulations of its integrase HIV drug, raltegravir (Ral) (the 'Agreement'). The Agreement is alleged to clear the way for cheaper formulations for use in developing and some middle income countries and allows for the development of novel pediatric formulations of Ral as well as novel combinations. Merck's license is royalty free and under the terms of the Agreement, manufacturers anywhere in the world who meet the quality assurance criteria, can manufacture and sell pediatric versions of the drug in the licensed countries under the agreed conditions without paying a royalty to Merck. The Agreement covers at least 92 countries and MPP reports that 98.1% of children with HIV in the developing world live in the included countries. The Agreement has been criticized as a public relations exercise. The article asks if the criticism is justified and explores several aspects of the Agreement in addressing the question. PMID:26291460

  10. Managing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) intellectual property rights: the possible role of patent pooling.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Patent applications that incorporate the genomic sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, have been filed by a number of organizations. This is likely to result in a fragmentation of intellectual property (IP) rights which in turn may adversely affect the development of products, such as vaccines, to combat SARS. Placing these patent rights into a patent pool to be licensed on a non-exclusive basis may circumvent these difficulties and set a key precedent for the ...

  11. Navigating the Patent Thicket: Cross Licenses, Patent Pools and Standard Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Carl

    2004-01-01

    In several key industries, including semiconductors, biotechnology, computer software, and the Internet, our patent system is creating a patent thicket: an overlapping set of patent rights requiring that those seeking to commercialize new technology obtain licenses from multiple patentees. The patent thicket is especially thorny when combined with the risk of hold-up, namely the danger that new products will inadvertently infringe on patents issued after these products were designed. The need...

  12. The UNITAID Patent Pool Initiative: Bringing Patents Together for the Common Good

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, Jorge; 't Hoen, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering appropriate, affordable, well-adapted medicines for HIV/AIDS remains an urgent challenge: as first-line therapies fail, increasing numbers of people require costly second-line therapy; one-third of ARVs are not available in pediatric formulations; and certain key first- and second-line triple fixed-dose combinations do not exist or sufficient suppliers are lacking. UNITAID aims to help solve these problems through an innovative initiative for the collective managemen...

  13. Familie og arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Familie og arv, familie, arv, børn, ægteskab, ægtefælle, skilsmisse, formuefællesskab, forældremyndighed, fælleseje, særråden, særeje, død, uskiftet bo, underholdspligt, samliv, tvangsarv, deling......Familie og arv, familie, arv, børn, ægteskab, ægtefælle, skilsmisse, formuefællesskab, forældremyndighed, fælleseje, særråden, særeje, død, uskiftet bo, underholdspligt, samliv, tvangsarv, deling...

  14. Open Invention Network: A Defensive Patent Pool for Open Source Projects and Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how patents impact innovation within free/libre open source software (F/LOSS businesses and projects. The number of software patent suits brought each year is increasing and is diverting millions of dollars in funds from developers to lawyers. With patent suits on the rise, the US Supreme Court has left the F/LOSS community in a position where it must either wait years for legislation or address the issue of patent suits itself. However, defending the Linux kernel and related technologies is a different challenge than the one that faces proprietary software businesses. This article describes Open Invention Network, an initiative that is designed to meet the particular challenges facing the F/LOSS community and businesses by providing a defensive patent pool.

  15. Social opdrift - social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per

    "Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...

  16. Heideggers sorte arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Gosvig

    2015-01-01

    Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker......Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker...

  17. 构建我国基因专利池的设想%Conception of Construction of Gene Patent Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莳文; 蒋风采; 孙鑫; 董博

    2012-01-01

    Patent pool is the "powerful combination" of patents, also the centralization of technical monopolies. It is urgent that we should consider the establishment of gene patent pool when the developed countries are taking gene technology patents as a fence to prevent the achievements of biotechnology in China. This article starts with the current development of gene technology and the patent system itself in China, and analyzes the benefits of patent pools and the formation experience of patent pool. It makes a reasonable assessment of the strength of gene industry. The value of this article is that, base on the proposal of four kinds of possible gene patent pool, it further discusses how to construct gene patent pool and the antitrust regulation of gene patent pool. It hopes to stimulate the establishment of gene patent pool in the biological era and the promotion of research and application of gene technology, and promote genetic industry.%专利池是专利的“强强联合”,是技术垄断者的再次集中。在发达国家纷纷发展基因专利技术,并试图对我国进行技术包围之际,我们应该未雨绸缪,思考本国基因专利池的构建。本文从基因技术的发展现状和专利制度本身出发,分析了专利池的优点和专利池的组建经验。同时对我国的基因产业实力进行合理的评估,提出了建立我国基因专利池的4种可能,论述了应该如何构建基因专利池以及基因专利池的反垄断规制。以期加速生物时代我国基因专利池的构建,并促进我国基因技术的研究和应用,推动基因产业的发展。

  18. Patents Wars (3ème partie) : Les pools, du cartel à l'abolition partielle du système des patents

    OpenAIRE

    Mangolte, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    Dans cette dernière partie sont analysés les différents pools de patents constitués dans les industries du cinéma, de l'automobile et de l'aviation, suite aux guerres des patents étudiées précédemment. L'analyse se concentre alors sur les Etats-Unis. Si les pools ou accords de licences croisées mis sur pied à l'époque relèvent bien d'une même nécessité, celle d'arrêter les litiges juridiques et d'assurer une certaine "paix des patents", leur nature et leurs buts sont bien différents. La Motio...

  19. The measurement of technical cohesion for patent pools and its applications%面向专利池的技术内聚性测度及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张米尔; 朱媛

    2012-01-01

    专利池正成为技术专利的重要组织形式,对其开展评价是一项紧迫的工作。专利池中的专利存在着复杂的引用关系,基于专利间的引用关系,研究提出测度技术内聚性的定量指标;以典型的专利池为研究样本,运用技术内聚度分析专利池的技术内聚性变化趋势;研究表明,技术内聚度在专利池创立前呈上升趋势,在创立后逐步趋于稳定;依据专利池的技术内聚度,可以将专利池划分为松散型和紧密型。%With patent pool becomes an important organization form of technical patents, the evaluation of patent pool is an urgent task. There are complicated relationships for the patent citations in patent pools. The technical cohesion index is proposed in order to quantitatively measure the technical cohesion of patent pool based on patent citations. Therefore, by utilizing the typical patent pools as research samples, the trend of technical cohesion is studied through the index. The results show that the technical cohesion is rising before patent pool formation. And the technical cohesion tends to be stable after patent pool formation. Patent pools could be divided into loose type and close type according to the values of technical cohesion index.

  20. Tööõnnetuste arv Ida-Virus väheneb / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 7. dets. 2004, lk. 3. Tööinspektsiooni viimase üheksa aasta statistikast järeldub, et tööõnnetuste arv on Ida-Virumaal aastatega vähenenud peaaegu poole võrra

  1. 基于利润最大化的专利池管理策略分析%Analysis on Management Strategy of Patent Pool Based on Profit Maximization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琦

    2011-01-01

    从专利权人加入专利池的利益动机着手,分析专利池管理的两大核心策略:独立授权策略和回授策略.通过研究核心技术、必要专利以及附属创新等内容,建立专利池简化模型.分析两类专利池的管理策略,互补型专利池通常采用独立授权策略,而且在满足一定的条件下会选择实施回授策略;替代型专利池一般不允许独立授权,而且在不存在必要专利的前提下才会形成.通过对1940年至2001年期间成立的17个专利池的管理策略进行分析,使论文的理论得到验证.%Starting from the patentees' profit motive to join the patent pool, the article analyzes two core management strategies of patent pool: independent licensing and granthack.The simplified model of patent pool is established by researching on kernel technology, blocking patent and add - on innovation.The management strategies of complementary patent pool and substitute' s patent pool are analyzed.The former usually allows independent licensing and will choose granthack under certain conditions.The latter generally does not permit independent licensing.It will not be formed unless them is no blocking patent.This theory is verified throngh analysis on manasement strategy of patent pools which were formed from 1940 to 2001.

  2. 基于网络结构的专利池许可费计算方法%Based on network architecture for computing the license fee of the patent pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫愿斌; 赵新泉; 向书坚

    2012-01-01

    Patent pool is inevitable outcome of the development of science and technology, and it is critical problem that how to reasonably compute the license fee of the patent pool. A reasonable patent pool fee is of vital importance to safeguard the patent and paid use patent, and it is an affirmance and esteem to the patentee, also it has an important bearing on the society and economy forward. In this paper, the relation every pair patents were analysed, and weight of the every pair patents i.e. the price of the every pair patents were was gained, and the price network architecture constructed. The price of patent pool should not be the sum of the each patent's price, and it should be the half of the minimum weight of an loop the patent in the network architecture, so the problem of patent pool's price become the problem TSP. Aimed the NP hard of the price network 's TSP, a novel algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization with Complex local searching (PSOC), is proposed in the paper. Numerical computations and algorithm performance analysis show that the approach has global searching capability and can give satisfactory solutions. The algorithm is applied in computing the license fee of the patent pool.%专利池是科学技术发展的必然产物,如何有效地对专利池许可费进行合理地计算是一个关键的问题。这一方面关系到对专利的有效保护与有偿使用,是对专利权人劳动的肯定与尊重;另一方面它也关系到社会与经济的向前发展。本文分析专利池中各专利之间的关系,根据两个专利之间的相关程度大小,定义两个之间的权值,即两个和在一起形成的价格,最终得出专利池的价格网络结构。专利池的价格不应该是各专利池的价格的总和,而应该是网络中一条权值最小的闭合路径的权值的一半,从而把权值的问题转化为旅行商的问题。针对专利池价格结构形成的旅行商问题是NP难问题,本文将粒子群算

  3. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoen Ellen 't

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines. Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale. Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required. One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism

  4. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Ellen 't; Berger, Jonathan; Calmy, Alexandra; Moon, Suerie

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines.Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale.Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required.One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism. However, the Pool is just one of a

  5. Biomarkers and biometric measures of adherence to use of ARV-based vaginal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Randy M; Moench, Thomas R; MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor adherence to product use has been observed in recent trials of antiretroviral (ARV)-based oral and vaginal gel HIV prevention products, resulting in an inability to determine product efficacy. The delivery of microbicides through vaginal rings is widely perceived as a way to achieve better adherence but vaginal rings do not eliminate the adherence challenges exhibited in clinical trials. Improved objective measures of adherence are needed as new ARV-based vaginal ring products enter the clinical trial stage. Methods To identify technologies that have potential future application for vaginal ring adherence measurement, a comprehensive literature search was conducted that covered a number of biomedical and public health databases, including PubMed, Embase, POPLINE and the Web of Science. Published patents and patent applications were also searched. Technical experts were also consulted to gather more information and help evaluate identified technologies. Approaches were evaluated as to feasibility of development and clinical trial implementation, cost and technical strength. Results Numerous approaches were identified through our landscape analysis and classified as either point measures or cumulative measures of vaginal ring adherence. Point measurements are those that give a measure of adherence at a particular point in time. Cumulative measures attempt to measure ring adherence over a period of time. Discussion Approaches that require modifications to an existing ring product are at a significant disadvantage, as this will likely introduce additional regulatory barriers to the development process and increase manufacturing costs. From the point of view of clinical trial implementation, desirable attributes would be high acceptance by trial participants, and little or no additional time or training requirements on the part of participants or clinic staff. We have identified four promising approaches as being high priority for further development

  6. Biomarkers and biometric measures of adherence to use of ARV-based vaginal rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy M Stalter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor adherence to product use has been observed in recent trials of antiretroviral (ARV-based oral and vaginal gel HIV prevention products, resulting in an inability to determine product efficacy. The delivery of microbicides through vaginal rings is widely perceived as a way to achieve better adherence but vaginal rings do not eliminate the adherence challenges exhibited in clinical trials. Improved objective measures of adherence are needed as new ARV-based vaginal ring products enter the clinical trial stage. Methods: To identify technologies that have potential future application for vaginal ring adherence measurement, a comprehensive literature search was conducted that covered a number of biomedical and public health databases, including PubMed, Embase, POPLINE and the Web of Science. Published patents and patent applications were also searched. Technical experts were also consulted to gather more information and help evaluate identified technologies. Approaches were evaluated as to feasibility of development and clinical trial implementation, cost and technical strength. Results: Numerous approaches were identified through our landscape analysis and classified as either point measures or cumulative measures of vaginal ring adherence. Point measurements are those that give a measure of adherence at a particular point in time. Cumulative measures attempt to measure ring adherence over a period of time. Discussion: Approaches that require modifications to an existing ring product are at a significant disadvantage, as this will likely introduce additional regulatory barriers to the development process and increase manufacturing costs. From the point of view of clinical trial implementation, desirable attributes would be high acceptance by trial participants, and little or no additional time or training requirements on the part of participants or clinic staff. We have identified four promising approaches as being high priority

  7. Abortide arv kahaneb Eestis iga aastaga / Rebekka Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Rebekka, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Vt. ka Zdorovje dlja Vsehh 2005 märts, lk. 6. Kuigi abortide arv väheneb Eestis iga aastaga, tuleb naistearstide hinnangul oodata veel kümmekond aastat, et see langeks sama madalale tasemele nagu Põhjamaades. Lisaks diagramm abortide arvu kohta 1991-2004

  8. Tallinlaste arv kukkus alla 400 000 / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 6. märts lk. 8. Rahvastikuregister kõrvaldas elanike nimekirjast kehtiva elamisloata isikud, mille tõttu kahanes Tallinna elanike arv 4766 inimese võrra. 1. märtsi seisuga on pealinlasi kokku 398 753 inimest

  9. Valuable Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, John R.; Mark A. Lemley; Moore, Kimberly A.; Trunkey, R. Derek

    2003-01-01

    While the theory of the patent system is premised on the idea that patents will be used to exclude competitors, only a tiny fraction of patents are ever enforced. Legal and economic scholars have theorized as to how to identify valuable patents based on their individual characteristics. In this paper, we present the results of the largest empirical study ever conducted of the patent system. We compare the characteristics of litigated patents to those of issued patents generally, and we find i...

  10. Tööpuudus hiilib kikivarvul Võrumaale / Arved Breidaks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Breidaks, Arved, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Võrumaal on töötute arv eelmise aastaga võrreldes tõusma hakanud: mullu suvel maakonnas registreeritud 3,9%-line töötuse määr asendus tänavu juuli lõpus 5,4%-lise töötusega. Lisa: Töötus Võrumaal. Vt. samas: Kuidas iseloomustate olukorda Võrumaa tööjõuturul? Vastavad Martin Arula (AS Toftan), Kaido Mäesalu (AS Suwem), Meelis Munski (AS Semuehitus), Indrek Klampe (OÜ Selista Ehitus), Andres Visanpuu (Võru TÜ)

  11. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi; Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  12. Software Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstadius, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of the main issues in regard to software patenting in the 21st century. The focus is on the question of patentability of software, since this is the area which has caused the most problems for patent offices and courts. The main systems of concern are the European and U.S. patent systems. The chapter begins with a presentation of the concept of software in section 2, followed by section 3 with a presentation of IP and patents and the internat...

  13. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, James Chingyu

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  14. ROYALTY COLLECTION FOR PATENTED LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Allowing animal patents provides potential benefits and costs for livestock producers. Costs, considered here, are royalty payments and collection mechanisms, made more complex by the unknown future distribution of multiple patented traits in the herd. This article evaluates three proposed collection systems, Qualified Sales, registration and pooled royalties. The first two are imposed only on breeding stock and at first sale, creating a cash flow and risk factor for producers. The third coll...

  15. Research Progress in Patent Pool-A Content Analysis of the Academic Literature at Home and Abroad%专利联盟研究进展--基于国内外学术文献的内容分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 曲世友

    2015-01-01

    Based on the database of Elsevier Science,Academic Search Premier and Business Source Premier in EBSCO, SCI,EI and CSSCI IN CNKI,this research traces recent progress of patent pool by content analysis,studies the academic community by social network,and compares the literature at home and abroad by Chi -squared test.%基于 Elsevier Science 和 EBSCO 中 Academic Search Premier 和 Business Source Premier 数据库,基于中国知网(CNKI)中的 SCI、EI 及 CSSCI 数据库,采用内容分析的方法,追踪专利联盟的最新学术进展,通过社会网络的相关方法研究了专利联盟的学术社区,借助卡方检验对国内外的研究进行了对比。

  16. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.

  17. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Google Patents (www.google.com/patents includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office, EPO (European Patent Office, etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several suggestions for improving Google Patents. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Google Patents for journals in the field of library and information science (LIS. Finally, it concludes that Google Patents provides a free alternative or complement to other patent databases. It also addressed the advantages of Google Patents, for example, easy-use search interface and fast search engine; convenient access to patent images in PDF format; and fast downloads of PDF patent documents.

  18. Quality patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K

    1994-01-01

    Watermark Patent and Trademark Attorneys has recently been accepted by the Council of National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia as operating a Quality Management System that complies with the requirements of AS3901/ISO9001 for the creation and servicing of Australian and overseas patents, trademarks and designs and provision of related advice. It is believed that Watermark is the first firm of Patent Attorneys in the world to achieve this. PMID:7765675

  19. Chasing Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Flavio Marques; Pitchford, Rohan

    2002-01-01

    We examine the problem faced by a company that wishes to purchase patents in the hands of two di¤erent patent owners. Complementarity of these patents in the production process of the company is a prime e¢ciency reason for them being owned (or licenced) by the company. We show that this very same complementarity can lead to patent owners behaving strategically in bargaining, and delaying their sale to the company. When the company is highly leveraged, such ine¢cient delay is limited. Comparat...

  20. MORBILI PADA ANAK DALAM PENGOBATAN ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Dipta Nugraha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MEASLES IN CHILDREN WITH ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV ON TREATMENT ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbili is an acute viral infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted morbili. Morbili is a contagious acute viral infectious disease that is characterized by three stages: catarrhal stage, eruption stage and convalence stage. Another name morbili is measles, measles, or rubeola. Morbili caused by a virus that is classified as Family paramyxovirus, the virus genus morbili contained in nasopharyngeal secretions and blood during the prodromal period until 24 hours after the onset of spots. Case: Patient male, 6 years old, Hindu, Balinese tribe, came with complaints of febris since 5 days ago. Febris is not measured with a thermometer. The heat is felt up and down, getting better with medicine. Complaints red spots felt since 1 day ago. Originally discovered red spots appear in the neck area and then to the face and chest. The incidence of rash accompanied by itching and heat. This complaint is accompanied with nosebleeds 1 day ago, cough with sputum since 5 days ago and the red eye from one day ago. Patients feel the first time such complaints. Having a history of antiretroviral use regularly since 1.5 years old. Keywords: rash, morbili, HIV, antiretroviral drugs.

  1. Arv1 promotes cell division by recruiting IQGAP1 and myosin to the cleavage furrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvold, Hilde; Sundvold-Gjerstad, Vibeke; Malerød-Fjeld, Helle; Haglund, Kaisa; Stenmark, Harald; Malerød, Lene

    2016-03-01

    Cell division is strictly regulated by a diversity of proteins and lipids to ensure proper duplication and segregation of genetic material and organelles. Here we report a novel role of the putative lipid transporter ACAT-related protein required for viability 1 (Arv1) during telophase. We observed that the subcellular localization of Arv1 changes according to cell cycle progression and that Arv1 is recruited to the cleavage furrow in early telophase by epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN). At the cleavage furrow Arv1 recruits myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) and myosin light chain 9 (MYL9) by interacting with IQ-motif-containing GTPase-activating protein (IQGAP1). Consequently the lack of Arv1 delayed telophase-progression, and a strongly increased incidence of furrow regression and formation of multinuclear cells was observed both in human cells in culture and in follicle epithelial cells of egg chambers of Drosophila melanogaster in vivo. Interestingly, the cholesterol-status at the cleavage furrow did not affect the recruitment of either IQGAP1, MYH9 or MYL. These results identify a novel function for Arv1 in regulation of cell division through promotion of the contractile actomyosin ring, which is independent of its lipid transporter activity. PMID:27104745

  2. Evaluating Patent Rights With Possible Patent Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Yi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how possible patent infringement and litigation may affect patent holders’ renewal decisions as well as our evaluation of underlying patent value. We utilize the renewal records of the EPO (European Patent Office) patents and estimate a stochastic patent renewal model in which patent holders face possible infringement and litigation costs. Estimation results indicate that when such possibilities exist, patent holders’ renewal behavior will change substantially, and our est...

  3. Patent Analysis with Innovative Patent Map System

    OpenAIRE

    Rain Chen; Chao-Chun Chen; Bei-Bei Yau

    2013-01-01

    Among the research on patents, the applications of Patent Map to Patent Analysis have been gradually emphasized. For three years, the researchers have applied Patent Map Theory Model to establishing Patent Map System (PMS) assisting decision-makers in Patent Analysis. Based on the system requirements, relevant function components are planned, and UML technology is utilized for the design and establishment of Patent Map Database. In the actual case study on non-glue rubber mat design, the rese...

  4. Patent office governance and patent system quality

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Pierre; van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  5. Patent Office Governance and Patent System Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Pierre; Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  6. Mentaliseringsbegrebet og dets arv fra Freuds begreb om binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger og diskuterer forskelle og ligheder mellem mentaliseringsbegrebet og Freuds bindingsbegreb. Begrebet mentalisering, som betegner en evne til at forholde sig refleksivt til egne og andres mentale tilstande, har indenfor de sidste fem- ti år vundet en central placering i klinisk...... psykologiske teoridannelser. Dets ophavsmænd Fonagy et al. forsøger imidlertid ikke at tage patent på begrebet, men peger på, at en række teoretikere har understreget betydningen af en refleksiv funktion. Alle disse begreber kan ifølge Fonagygruppen føres tilbage til Freuds begreb om binding. På baggrund af en...... udlægning af det oprindelige bindingsbegreb hos Freud, ønskes det i denne artikel at tydeliggøre den grundlæggende forskel på Freuds – og Fonagys subjektopfattelse....

  7. Patenting in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Bhattacharya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the patentability of the biotechnological inventions and the international requirements and issues that emerge in addressing patenting of life forms and how they are resolved. It analyses the international patenting trends, patents that have significant impact and countries active in patenting. It also examines Indian patenting activity and its comparison with international trends to assess the Indian efforts.

  8. Spectroscopic classification of Gaia16arv as Type Ia supernova with the SEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, D.; Walters, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Caltech Time Domain Astronomy group reports the classification of Gaia16arv, discovered by the Gaia ESA survey. This transient was also reported by MASTER as OT J220727.43-053121.8, with discovery date 2016-06-16.09813 UT (Atel #9161).

  9. Valley heat deficit as a bulk measure of wintertime particulate air pollution in the Arve River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, Charles; Arduini, Gabriele; Staquet, Chantal; Largeron, Yann; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Paci, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Urbanized valleys are particularly vulnerable to particulate air pollution during the winter, when ground-based stable layers or cold-air pools persist over the valley floor. We examine whether the temporal variability of PM10 concentration in the section of the Arve River Valley between Cluses and Servoz in the French Alps can be explained by the temporal variability of the valley heat deficit, a bulk measure of atmospheric stability within the valley. We do this on the basis of temperature profile and ground-based PM10 concentration data collected during wintertime with a temporal resolution of 1 h or finer, as part of the Passy-2015 field campaign conducted around Passy in this section of valley. The valley heat deficit was highly correlated with PM10 concentration on a daily time scale. The hourly variability of PM10 concentrations was more complex and cannot be explained solely by the hourly variability of the valley heat deficit. The interplay of the diurnal cycles of emissions and local dynamics is demonstrated and a drainage mechanism for observed nocturnal dilution of near-surface PM10 concentrations is proposed.

  10. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  11. 技术标准下的专利池对我国企业自主创新机制的影响研究%Impact of Technology Standard' s Patent Pool on Self-determined Innovation Mechanisms of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2013-01-01

    专利池作为现代技术联盟的一种高级形式,对技术标准的推广和专利技术的扩散具有重要作用,是企业自主创新的重要战略,也是提升企业自主创新能力的重要方式.企业自主创新机制由自主创新的能力子系统、动力子系统和激励子系统构成.分析了各子系统之间的相互关系,从理论上探讨了专利池对企业创新机制各组成部分的影响,并通过对闪联专利池的案例研究,阐述了闪联专利池对联盟企业自主创新的影响.%Patent pool as an advanced form of modern technology alliance plays an important role in extending technology standards and patent technology. It is not only an important strategy of self - determined innovation of enterprises, but also an important way to promote the enterprise self - determined innovation ability. Enterprises self - determined innovation mechanisms consist of self - determined innovation' s ability system, power system and incentives system. The correlation between each subsystem is analyzed and patent pools impact on the component part of enterprise self-determined innovation is discussed theoretically. Through the case analysis of IGRS, the paper analyses the influence of IGRS on the alliance membersf self - determined innovation.

  12. Droplet Digital PCR Based Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7) Detection from Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yafeng; Luk, Alison; Young, Francis P.; Lynch, David; Chua, Wei; Balakrishnar, Bavanthi; de Souza, Paul; Becker, Therese M.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7) was recently identified as a valuable predictive biomarker in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we report a new, sensitive and accurate screen for AR-V7 mRNA expression directly from circulating tumor cells (CTCs): We combined EpCAM-based immunomagnetic CTC isolation using the IsoFlux microfluidic platform with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) to analyze total AR and AR-V7 expression from prostate cancer patients CTCs. We demonstrate that AR-V7 is reliably detectable in enriched CTC samples with as little as five CTCs, even considering tumor heterogeneity, and confirm detection of AR-V7 in CTC samples from advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with AR-V7 detection limited to castrate resistant disease status in our sample set. Sensitive molecular analyses of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor nucleic acids present exciting strategies to detect biomarkers, such as AR-V7 from non-invasive blood samples, so-called blood biopsies. PMID:27527157

  13. Droplet Digital PCR Based Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7 Detection from Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Ma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7 was recently identified as a valuable predictive biomarker in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we report a new, sensitive and accurate screen for AR-V7 mRNA expression directly from circulating tumor cells (CTCs: We combined EpCAM-based immunomagnetic CTC isolation using the IsoFlux microfluidic platform with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR to analyze total AR and AR-V7 expression from prostate cancer patients CTCs. We demonstrate that AR-V7 is reliably detectable in enriched CTC samples with as little as five CTCs, even considering tumor heterogeneity, and confirm detection of AR-V7 in CTC samples from advanced prostate cancer (PCa patients with AR-V7 detection limited to castrate resistant disease status in our sample set. Sensitive molecular analyses of circulating tumor cells (CTCs or circulating tumor nucleic acids present exciting strategies to detect biomarkers, such as AR-V7 from non-invasive blood samples, so-called blood biopsies.

  14. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Distributed Generic Antiretroviral (ARV in Asian Settings: The Cross-Sectional Surveillance Study - PEDA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorapot Sapsirisavat

    Full Text Available Ensuring that medicines meet quality standards is mandatory for ensuring safety and efficacy. There have been occasional reports of substandard generic medicines, especially in resource-limiting settings where policies to control quality may be less rigorous. As HIV treatment in Thailand depends mostly on affordable generic antiretrovirals (ARV, we performed quality assurance testing of several generic ARV available from different sources in Thailand and a source from Vietnam.We sampled Tenofovir 300mg, Efavirenz 600mg and Lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50mg from 10 primary hospitals randomly selected from those participating in the National AIDS Program, 2 non-government organization ARV clinics, and 3 private drug stores. Quality of ARV was analyzed by blinded investigators at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University. The analysis included an identification test for drug molecules, a chemical composition assay to quantitate the active ingredients, a uniformity of mass test and a dissolution test to assess in-vitro drug release. Comparisons were made against the standards described in the WHO international pharmacopeia.A total of 42 batches of ARV from 15 sources were sampled from January-March 2015. Among those generics, 23, 17, 1, and 1 were Thai-made, Indian-made, Vietnamese-made and Chinese-made, respectively. All sampled products, regardless of manufacturers or sources, met the International Pharmacopeia standards for composition assay, mass uniformity and dissolution. Although local regulations restrict ARV supply to hospitals and clinics, samples of ARV could be bought from private drug stores even without formal prescription.Sampled generic ARVs distributed within Thailand and 1 Vietnamese pharmacy showed consistent quality. However some products were illegally supplied without prescription, highlighting the importance of dispensing ARV for treatment or prevention in facilities where continuity along the HIV treatment

  15. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Distributed Generic Antiretroviral (ARV) in Asian Settings: The Cross-Sectional Surveillance Study – PEDA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammajaruk, Narukjaporn; Pussadee, Kanitta; Riyaten, Prakit; Kerr, Stephen; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ensuring that medicines meet quality standards is mandatory for ensuring safety and efficacy. There have been occasional reports of substandard generic medicines, especially in resource-limiting settings where policies to control quality may be less rigorous. As HIV treatment in Thailand depends mostly on affordable generic antiretrovirals (ARV), we performed quality assurance testing of several generic ARV available from different sources in Thailand and a source from Vietnam. Methods We sampled Tenofovir 300mg, Efavirenz 600mg and Lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50mg from 10 primary hospitals randomly selected from those participating in the National AIDS Program, 2 non-government organization ARV clinics, and 3 private drug stores. Quality of ARV was analyzed by blinded investigators at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University. The analysis included an identification test for drug molecules, a chemical composition assay to quantitate the active ingredients, a uniformity of mass test and a dissolution test to assess in-vitro drug release. Comparisons were made against the standards described in the WHO international pharmacopeia. Results A total of 42 batches of ARV from 15 sources were sampled from January–March 2015. Among those generics, 23, 17, 1, and 1 were Thai-made, Indian-made, Vietnamese-made and Chinese-made, respectively. All sampled products, regardless of manufacturers or sources, met the International Pharmacopeia standards for composition assay, mass uniformity and dissolution. Although local regulations restrict ARV supply to hospitals and clinics, samples of ARV could be bought from private drug stores even without formal prescription. Conclusion Sampled generic ARVs distributed within Thailand and 1 Vietnamese pharmacy showed consistent quality. However some products were illegally supplied without prescription, highlighting the importance of dispensing ARV for treatment or prevention in facilities where continuity

  16. The ARV roll out and the disability grant: a South African dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paoli Marina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the antiretroviral (ARV drug roll out in 2004, people living with HIV (PLHIV in South Africa received disability grants when they were defined as "AIDS-sick". In the absence of available and effective medication, a diagnosis of AIDS portended disability. The disability grant is a critical component of South Africa's social security system, and plays an important role in addressing poverty among PLHIV. Given the prevalence of unemployment and poverty, disability grants ensure access to essential resources, like food, for PLHIV. Following the ARV roll out in South Africa, PLHIV experienced improved health that, in turn, affected their grant eligibility. Our aim is to explore whether PLHIV reduced or stopped treatment to remain eligible for the disability grant from the perspectives of both PLHIV and their doctors. Methods A mixed-methods design with concurrent triangulation was applied. We conducted: (1 in-depth semi-structured interviews with 29 PLHIV; (2 in-depth semi-structured interviews with eight medical doctors working in the public sector throughout the Cape Peninsula; (3 three focus group discussions with programme managers, stakeholders and community workers; and (4 a panel survey of 216 PLHIV receiving ARVs. Results Unemployment and poverty were the primary concerns for PLHIV and the disability grant was viewed as a temporary way out of this vicious cycle. Although loss of the disability grant significantly affected the well-being of PLHIV, they did not discontinue ARVs. However, in a number of subtle ways, PLHIV "tipped the scales" to lower the CD4 count without stopping ARVs completely. Grant criteria were deemed ad hoc, and doctors struggled to balance economic and physical welfare when assessing eligibility. Conclusions It is crucial to provide sustainable economic support in conjunction with ARVs in order to make "positive living" a reality for PLHIV. A chronic illness grant, a basic income grant or an

  17. Patent Quality and Pro-patent Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Koki Arai

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patent examination and litigation process in terms of a simple Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium model, and interprets the results in line with real pro-patent trends in the US and other countries. Each country’s pro-patent policy option is different from the other because of reflecting its own path-dependent patent situation. That is, when a country adopts an easy patent policy (a pro-patent policy), firms in the country gain larger payoffs in the short term. Hence, every ...

  18. Swiss Patent Jurisprudence 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rigamonti, Cyrill

    2013-01-01

    The new Swiss Federal Patent Court, with nationwide first-instance jurisdiction over all civil patent matters, has been operating since 1 January 2012. This article reviews and contextualizes the most important patent cases the Swiss Federal Patent Court and the Swiss Federal Supreme Court. It concludes that the revamped Swiss patent litigation system has the potential of turning Switzerland into a competitive venue for the adjudication of patent matters in Europe.

  19. Adherence to ARV medication in Romanian young adults: self-reported behaviour and psychological barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, A.L.; Schweitzer, A.M.; Diaconiţă, R.; Remor, E.; Wanless, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment during adolescence and young adulthood is a significant clinical issue for the current management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Romania. Understanding patients' own perceptions of their adherence behaviours and related psychological barriers is instrumental for developing robust interventions, and developing psychometrically sound instruments is essential for measuring adherence in this population. We adapted to Romanian an internationally validated q...

  20. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  1. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  2. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Distributed Generic Antiretroviral (ARV) in Asian Settings: The Cross-Sectional Surveillance Study – PEDA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsirisavat, Vorapot; Vongsutilers, Vorasit; Thammajaruk, Narukjaporn; Pussadee, Kanitta; Riyaten, Prakit; Kerr, Stephen; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; ,

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ensuring that medicines meet quality standards is mandatory for ensuring safety and efficacy. There have been occasional reports of substandard generic medicines, especially in resource-limiting settings where policies to control quality may be less rigorous. As HIV treatment in Thailand depends mostly on affordable generic antiretrovirals (ARV), we performed quality assurance testing of several generic ARV available from different sources in Thailand and a source from Vietnam. Met...

  3. Detection and characterization of two co-infection variant strains of avian orthoreovirus (ARV) in young layer chickens using next-generation sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Lin; Sebastian, Aswathy; Lu, Huaguang

    2016-01-01

    Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) for full genomic characterization studies of the newly emerging avian orthoreovirus (ARV) field strains isolated in Pennsylvania poultry, we identified two co-infection ARV variant strains from one ARV isolate obtained from ARV-affected young layer chickens. The de novo assembly of the ARV reads generated 19 contigs of two different ARV variant strains according to 10 genome segments of each ARV strain. The two variants had the same M2 segment. The complete genomes of each of the two variant strains were 23,493 bp in length, and 10 dsRNA segments ranged from 1192 bp (S4) to 3958 bp (L1), encoding 12 viral proteins. Sequence comparison of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences of all 10 genome segments revealed 58.1-100% and 51.4-100% aa identity between the two variant strains, and 54.3-89.4% and 49.5-98.1% aa identity between the two variants and classic vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a moderate to significant nt sequence divergence between the two variant and ARV reference strains. These findings have demonstrated the first naturally occurring co-infection of two ARV variants in commercial young layer chickens, providing scientific evidence that multiple ARV strains can be simultaneously present in one host species of chickens. PMID:27089943

  4. Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose...

  5. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side of...... the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the...... concordance of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of...

  6. Patent Information and Search

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep P. Paranjpe

    2012-01-01

    An important purpose of working of the patent system has been to ensure that the complete details of the inventions sought to be patented pass in the public domain. Governments compensate the inventor for this public disclosure by granting patent. However, access to this information was limited to the ‘on site’availability in the patent offices and a limited number of libraries. Globalisation of economies forced internationalcooperation in the field of patents and this coincided with the adve...

  7. Corporate science in the patent system: An empirical analysis of the semiconductor technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Della Malva, Antonio; Hussinger, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Corporate scientific publications are often presented as a strategic means for firms to create prior art with the objective to prevent others from patenting related inventions. This presumes that corporate publications enter the pool of prior art which is relevant to judge the novelty of patent applications at the patent office and that corporate science has the power to block patent applications. This paper analyses for the first time whether the presumed mechanism behind corporate publicati...

  8. Corporate science in the patent system: An analysis of the semiconductor technology

    OpenAIRE

    Della Malva, Antonio; Hussinger, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    Corporate scientific publications are often presented as a strategic means for firms to create prior art with the objective to prevent others from patenting related inventions. This presumes that corporate publications enter the pool of prior art which is relevant to judge the novelty of patent applications at the patent office and that corporate science has the power to block patent applications. This paper analyses for the first time whether the presumed mechanism behind corporate publicati...

  9. The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a

  10. Price Reversal Pattern of ARV Drugs: A Transaction-Cost Approach Digression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank LORNE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A price reversal pattern of ARV drugs was noted across lower and middle income countries in that the lower-income countries have higher prices relative to higher-income countries based on a 2008-2009 Summary Report by World Health Organization. The transaction costs affecting AVR drug pricing can be broadly classified into two kinds: One between the final users and the opinion/knowledge experts, and the other between the opinion/knowledge experts and the manufacturers. Economist’s version of price discrimination needs to be modified by including transaction costs. Transaction costs also point to institution creditability factors that will affect NGO procurement.

  11. Pooling Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ While the 1997 Asian financial crisis gave birth to the Chiang Mai Initiative,a foreign currency reserve pool to address short-term liquidity difficulties in the region,the 2008global financial crisis promoted Asian political leaders,bankers and scholars to seek closer regional financial cooperation based on the initiative's framework.

  12. Social arv, ulighed og dagtilbuds betydning med henblik på mønsterbrydning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    virkeliggørelse og effekt ved et kombineret metodisk design af et casestudie og et randomiseret, kontrolleret eksperimentstudie.Baggrunden er mange årtiers forskningsmæssige påpegning af, at det ikke er lykkedes at dæmme op for negativ social arv og denne arvs konsekvenser i form af ulige muligheder......). Men også her er der forskellige tilgange til professionel udvikling med forskellige konsekvenser. I et igangværende review af litteraturen om ’Effective Approaches to Professional Development” (Jensen et al., 2015) er identificeret tre trends. En trend drejer sig om at styrke professionel...... kompetenceudvikling gennem korte ’on-the job-training’-kurser. En anden trend lægger vægt på, at professionel udvikling kan styrkes gennem supervision og coaching. En tredje trend lægger vægt på, at det er gennem samarbejde i lærende fællesskaber blandt professionelle, at de største virkninger opnås. Det er denne...

  13. The Software Patent Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the proposed European Directive on the Patentability of Computer-Implemented Inventions and the subsequent debate that followed. Do software patents - as argued by policymakers' - result in increased innovation?

  14. A guide of patent map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces application and characteristic of patent information, types of patent information data and research of patent information, arrangement of patent information and patent map, analysis of patent information, necessity, writing period arrangement way of patent map, cases of patent map on selection of task of research and development, system of research and development and application, examples of PM such as MAP by year, application, technique, Inventor, and claim point map and computerization like data arrangement of PM patent, collection of analysis range and item analysis of patent, cases and written reports on patent analysis.

  15. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  16. Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kepatuhan ODHA Dalam Menjalani Terapi ARV Di RSU. dr. Pirngadi Medan Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lumbanbatu, Veronica Velisitas

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy was a therapy that taken by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to increase their life quality. Although it hasn’t been able to cure disease but antiretroviral therapy could suppress viral load and increase CD4 of PLWHA. More of people living with HIV/AIDS who received ARV, hope their life quality be better if ARV was used obediently. Adherence was a patient's behavior to comply with the provisions given by health workers that include discipline and obedi...

  17. Universities That Litigate Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  18. Digital library for patents

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Harish

    2002-01-01

    The present paper discusses the concept of digital library and it’s significance, various motivating factors for digital library application are also highlighted briefly. The uses of patents as a tool for protecting intellectual property rights (IPRs), major patents websites, literature on patents are discussed.

  19. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  20. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Fu Wu; Keng-Wei Chang; Wei Zhou; Juan Hao; Chien-Chung Yuan; Ke-Chiun Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regress...

  1. Strategic patenting and software innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael; Schankerman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Strategic patenting is widely believed to raise the costs of innovating, especially in industries characterised by cumulative innovation. This paper studies the effects of strategic patenting on R&D, patenting and market value in the computer software industry. We focus on two key aspects: patent portfolio size, which affects bargaining power in patent disputes, and the fragmentation of patent rights (‘patent thickets’) which increases the transaction costs of enforcement. We develop a model ...

  2. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  3. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fu Wu

    Full Text Available This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  4. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio. PMID:26098313

  5. Software Patents and the EPO: Should software patents be granted under the European patent system?

    OpenAIRE

    Drengur Óla Þorsteinsson 1981

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the European patent system under the European Patent Convention of 1977 in relation to software patents. Software patents and their granting is a matter of some controversy throughout the world and it is debated whether or not such patents should be granted at all. The central question this dissertation addresses is whether software patents should be granted under the European patent system. For the purpose of answering this question the definitions ...

  6. Standard-Essential Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Josh; Tirole, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A major policy issue in standard setting is that patents that are ex-ante not that important may, by being included into the standard, become standard-essential patents (SEPs). In an attempt to curb the monopoly power that they create, most standard-setting organizations require the owners of patents covered by the standard to make a loose commitment to grant licenses on reasonable terms. Such commitments unsurprisingly are conducive to intense litigation activity. This paper builds a framewo...

  7. University, Patents and Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio B. Zaldívar Castro; Lierli Oconnor Montero

    2012-01-01

    The limited relevance of the patents in the Latin American-innovative-culture of the university context is determined by the omission of new inventions within the productive sector, particularly in Cuba. It is easy to offer the methodological resources together with an automated data system of searching and processing through the establishment of an agreement invention-invocation with the use of the statistics of patents, the International Classification of Patent (IPC) and the System of Clas...

  8. Patent Landscape for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Streletskiy; Vladimir Zabavnikov; Emil Aslanov; Dmitriy Kotlov

    2015-01-01

    A methodological approach to patent landscaping for nanotechnology is considered in this paper. In the opinion of the authors, nanotechnologies have precedence over other technology trends that are confirmed by evaluation of the present and future market size of nanotechnology productions. An analysis of patent activity in Russia and the world is performed using patent landscape for nanotechnology as well as for metallurgy in the field of nanotechnology. A new metho...

  9. Patent litigation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Katrin; Ernicke, Max; Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Helmers, Christian; McDonagh, Luke; Schliessler, Paula; van Zeebroeck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We compare patent litigation cases across four European jurisdictions - Germany, France, the Netherlands, and the UK - covering cases filed during the period 2000-2008. For our analysis, we assemble a new dataset that contains detailed information at the case, litigant, and patent level for patent cases filed at the major courts in the four jurisdictions. We find substantial differences across jurisdictions in terms of case loads. Courts in Germany hear by far the largest number of cases in a...

  10. University, Patents and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Zaldívar Castro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The limited relevance of the patents in the Latin American-innovative-culture of the university context is determined by the omission of new inventions within the productive sector, particularly in Cuba. It is easy to offer the methodological resources together with an automated data system of searching and processing through the establishment of an agreement invention-invocation with the use of the statistics of patents, the International Classification of Patent (IPC and the System of Classification of Industrial Activities. This procedure allows the placing of university-sector patents in a given economic sector, making possible their management for innovation.

  11. GM Crops: Patently Wrong?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on the ethical justifiability of patents on Genetically Modified (GM) crops. I argue that there are three distinguishing features of GM crops that make it unethical to grant patents on GM crops, even if we assume that the patent system is in general justified. The first half of the paper critiques David Resnik’s recent arguments in favor of patents on GM crops. Resnik argues that we should take a consequentialist approach to the issue, and that the best way to do s...

  12. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  13. Monetary value estimation model for patent and patent application

    OpenAIRE

    Akaslan, Muhammed Fatih

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to estimating economic value of a patent/patent application for Biotechnology companies. To be able to perform a solid portfolio management of patents and patent applications, it is necessary to obtain an approximate economic value of patent/project in question. In this manner, this study seeks to answer the questions of how the value evolves throughout the filing process, what the value determinants of a patent are and how they affect...

  14. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of ...

  15. Advanced Analyses of Technology Innovations, Patents, and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. C. Trappey

    2013-08-01

    conduct their hybrid analyses. Their findings provide recommendations for technology development strategies. The paper, entitled “Ontology-based Patent Licensing and Litigation Strategic Knowledge System for the Light Emitting Diode Industry” co-authored by Amy J.C. Trappey, Yu-Hui Wang, Charles V. Trappey,    Chun-Yi Wu, and Tzu-Hsuan Lin, develops a scientific and analytical approach for strategic cross-licensing decision support, particularly for the extremely competitive global companies in LED industry. Yu-Hui Wang and Benjamin Liu present their research in the paper entitled “Innovation Effect on Patent Pool Formation: Empirical Case of Philips’ Patents in Digital Versatile Disc 3C.” The paper evaluates both the quantity and quality of Philips’ patents in a leading DVD patent pool. The legitimacy of patent pools and their strategic value are discussed and investigated using the DVD 3C patent pool as the case example. In the paper “Application of the Honeybee Mating Optimization Algorithm to Patent Document Classification in Combination with the Support Vector Machine (SVM,” co-authors Chui-Yu Chiu and Pei-Ting Huang combine the honeybee mating optimization algorithm with SVM as a novel  patent categorization approach with accurate results. The paper, entitled “Exploring the Innovative Value of the RFID Industry” co-authored by Pei-Shu Fan, Cheng-Chin Tsao and Yi-Ching Liaw, examines a number of patent indicators to predict and explain future technological developments in the RFID industry. The research identifies the relative regional technological advantages in RFID development using relevant patent indicators and clustering analysis.

  16. Monitoring and modeling the snowpack dynamics in the Arve upper catchment for hydrological purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Lecourt, Grégoire; Charrois, Luc; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Condom, Thomas; Dumont, Marie; Morin, Samuel; Rabatel, Antoine; Six, Delphine; Vionnet, Vincent; Zin, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Snow accumulation and its evolution over space and time have major importance for the hydrological cycle, especially at high elevations. The characteristics of mountain valley, such as a wide altitudinal range, large glaciated areas, snow presence all along the year; when combined with specific meteorological conditions like heat waves or extreme rain events, may originate dramatic flash floods, potentially affecting populated areas. Thus, improving snowpack monitoring and forecasting tools are needed to strength the reliability of warning systems. Nowadays, accurately characterising and simulating snowpack evolution over large areas still represents a challenge, and uncertainties arise. The study presented here is focused in analysing two different types of simulation of the snowpack dynamics, performed with different discretization approaches, distributed or semi-distributed, and how these could move forward assimilating remote sensing data from satellites. The considered study area is the Arve catchment at Chamonix, in the French Northern Alps. This valley has the previously mentioned characteristics: it comprises a large elevation range (between 1000 to 4800m asl, with large areas above 2000m asl) and about 32% of its extension (200km2) is glaciated. Thus, the hydrological cycle of this area is highly dependent on the snowpack and the glacier melt dynamics. The snowpack of the Arve catchment has been simulated from 1990 to 2014 with the Crocus model integrated within the SURFEX modelling platform. The input fields are provided by the SAFRAN reanalysis system and the simulations have been performed with both a semi-distributed (classifying terrain by aspect, elevation, slope and land use/land cover) and a distributed (250m spatial resolution grid cells over the study area) approaches. The use of these two approaches using the same snowpack model and same meteorological forcing, enables their comparison in terms of river discharges at several outlets; showing the

  17. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  18. Problem Solving with Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  19. A Patent Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  20. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  1. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation. PMID:26812756

  2. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  3. Geopolitical and cultural factors affecting ARV adherence on the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, Michele G; Decena, Carlos Ulises; Beltran, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The data discussed represent the findings from a study by the NIH-funded Hispanic Health Disparities Research Center, exploring the influence of institutional and psychosocial factors on adherence to antiretroviral medications by Mexican-origin persons living with AIDS on the US-Mexico Border. A qualitative approach was utilized consisting of clinic observations, baseline and follow-up interviews with patients (N = 113), key informant interviews (N = 9) and focus groups (5) with patients and health providers. Findings include the social-normative, institutional and geo-political factors affecting treatment and service delivery as well as individual variation and culturally patterned behaviors. ARV adherence and retention were found to depend on complex interactions and negotiation of co-occurring factors including the experience of medications and side-effects, patient/provider relationships, cultural norms and the changing dynamics of international borders. We note effects of drug-related violence which created border-crossing obstacles influencing mobility, access to services and adherence. PMID:22797951

  4. Patent Application Outcomes across the Trilateral Patent Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Paul H. Jensen; Alfons Palangkaraya; Elizabeth Webster

    2005-01-01

    While most developed countries apply the same criteria to determine whether an invention is eligible to be protected by a patent, there are substantial procedural differences in the way in which different patent offices examine a patent application. This means that a patent application may be granted in one jurisdiction but rejected in others, which raises welfare concerns about the ability of patents to provide an ex ante incentive for investment. In this article, we analyze whether there ar...

  5. Financial Patent Quality: Finance Patents After State Street

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Joshua; Speen, Andrew; Baker, Mark; Leamon, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, patents of inventions related to financial services (“finance patents”), as well as litigation around these patents, have surged. One of the repeated concerns voiced by academics and practitioners alike has been about the quality of these patents in particular, and business method patents more generally. In particular, because so much of the prior work in these areas has not been patented, concerns have been expressed as to the extent to which the awards reflect this ...

  6. Patent Strategy and Layout Instrument--Derivative Design Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Rain Chen; Hsin-Yu Chang

    2014-01-01

    As product technology matures, consumers will shift the focus onto the appearance and design of products. In recent years, the fierce competition between Apple and Samsung in the consumer electronics market has pushed the design patent domain into the spotlight. In Taiwan, the amendment of Taiwan Patent Act in 2011 has the Associated Design Patent (ADP) system replaced by the Derivative Design Patent (DDP) system. This is definitely a major patent reform. The DDP system is similar to the cont...

  7. Patent family data and statistics at the European Patent Office

    OpenAIRE

    Walter G Park; Peter Hingley

    2009-01-01

    At the European Patent Office (EPO) a comprehensive data file called PRI is maintained of patent families. The file records are based on published patent documents, indexed by the priority number of the first patent filing, with information on subsequent patenting activities for that invention in the four major economic blocs: EPC contracting states, Japan, USA and Others. It is possible to filter the data in order to highlight the most important inventions, for example by selecting Trilatera...

  8. The Perils of Gene Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Salzberg, SL

    2012-01-01

    I argue here that gene patents, and patented genetic tests based on them, are a very bad idea. First, I discuss whether genes can reasonably be the subject of patents in the first place; I maintain that the answer is no. Second, I explain how gene patents interfere with scientific progress, slowing down the development of new cures and treatments for genetic diseases.

  9. The dynamics of patent citations

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of patent citations as a measure of patent "quality" increased dramatically in recent years. I estimate the hazard of patent citation, and find evidence of unobserved heterogeneity. Hazard estimation provides a means to separate patent quality from citation "inflation."

  10. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  11. Cómo encontrar patentes, setiembre 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bonich, Mònica; Cervera-Farré, Albert; Santos-Hermosa, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Com es poden trobar les patents: què són les patents?, què es pot patentar?, qui assigna les patents? i com es poden trobar patents? Cómo encontrar patentes: ¿qué son las patentes?, ¿qué se puede patentar?, ¿quién asigna las patentes? y ¿cómo se pueden encontrar patentes? How to find patents: what are patents?, what can be patented?, who awards the patents? and how can patents be found?

  12. ARV robotic technologies (ART): a risk reduction effort for future unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2006-05-01

    The Army's ARV (Armed Robotic Vehicle) Robotic Technologies (ART) program is working on the development of various technological thrusts for use in the robotic forces of the future. The ART program will develop, integrate and demonstrate the technology required to advance the maneuver technologies (i.e., perception, mobility, tactical behaviors) and increase the survivability of unmanned platforms for the future force while focusing on reducing the soldiers' burden by providing an increase in vehicle autonomy coinciding with a decrease in the total number user interventions required to control the unmanned assets. This program will advance the state of the art in perception technologies to provide the unmanned platform an increasingly accurate view of the terrain that surrounds it; while developing tactical/mission behavior technologies to provide the Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) the capability to maneuver tactically, in conjunction with the manned systems in an autonomous mode. The ART testbed will be integrated with the advanced technology software and associated hardware developed under this effort, and incorporate appropriate mission modules (e.g. RSTA sensors, MILES, etc.) to support Warfighter experiments and evaluations (virtual and field) in a military significant environment (open/rolling and complex/urban terrain). The outcome of these experiments as well as other lessons learned through out the program life cycle will be used to reduce the current risks that are identified for the future UGV systems that will be developed under the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, including the early integration of an FCS-like autonomous navigation system onto a tracked skid steer platform.

  13. A Theory of Patent Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    CHOI, Jay Pil; GERLACH, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of patent portfolios in which firms accumulate an enormous amount of related patents in diverse technology fields such that it becomes impractical to develop a new product that with certainty does not inadvertently infringe on other firms' patent portfolios. We investigate how litigation incentives for the holders of patent portfolios impact the incentives to introduce new products and draw welfare implications. We also consider a patent portfolio acquisition game...

  14. "Wacky" patents meet economic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether standard patent measures for the importance and basicness of patents are able to distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group of randomly drawn patents. Our findings show that forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, the “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and average citation lags than the controls, which suggests that these indicators should be interpreted carefully.

  15. 'Wacky' patents meet economic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether standard patent measures for the importance and basicness of patents are able to distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group of randomly drawn patents. Our findings show that forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, the “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and average citation lags than the controls, which suggests that these indicators should be interpreted carefully.

  16. Patent Portfolio Race and Secrecy

    OpenAIRE

    Illoong Kwon

    2008-01-01

    When firms can protect their innovations by secrecy or lead-time, the additional effect of patent protection is not obvious. This paper shows that when firms compete for a single innovation, patent protection still increases R&D investment but decreases social welfare due to over-investment. However, when firms compete for multiple complementary patents (called a patent portfolio), patent protection decreases R&D investment and decreases social welfare due to under-investment. If firms cannot...

  17. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  18. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... exemplified by nanomedicine, while considering known interpretative issues and traditional objections to this provision. The debate concerning the patentability of ‘medical methods’ is multi-layered and complex. The ‘medical methods exception’ is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility in...... the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  19. Test Collections for Patent-to-Patent Retrieval and Patent Map Generation in NTCIR-4 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Atsushi; IWAYAMA, Makoto; Kando, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Patent Retrieval Task in the Fourth NTCIR Workshop, and the test collections produced in this task. We perform the invalidity search task, in which each participant group searches a patent collection for the patents that can invalidate the demand in an existing claim. We also perform the automatic patent map generation task, in which the patents associated with a specific topic are organized in a multi-dimensional matrix.

  20. Patent Height and Competition in Product Improvements.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Theon

    1996-01-01

    The stringency of novelty requirements that patent offices use in judging patentability defines the height of patent protection. The author studies patent height in a duopoly where firms compete in product improvements. A competitor who wants to invent around the other's patent is restricted by a minimum improvement level. The author shows that low patent protection does not affect market equilibrium without patent protection. A patent holder can lose with medium patent heights but not if pat...

  1. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  2. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  3. Comprehension and application of patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of conception of patent information such as the meaning, characteristic, function, investigation and map of patent information, pro-patent period and patent strategy of the business. It also deals with comprehension of patent information like publication of nations, patent document, patent procedure in Korea, patent procedure in Japan, the U.S, and Europe, article and function of patent document, patent information survey such as writing of search keyword, procedure of the survey and search site of other countries, patent analysis and patent map.

  4. Edison's vacuum coating patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the over one thousand patents bearing Thomas A. Edison's name are several for vacuum coating processes including chemical vapor deposition, evaporation, and sputter deposition. Beginning in 1880 Edison applied for patents that described carbon deposition processes that would now be called pyrolytic chemical vapor deposition. In 1884 Edison applied for a patent (granted in 1894) that described coating by evaporation in a vacuum by direct resistance heating or arc heating using a continuous current. Edison called the process 'electro vacuous deposition'. He prophetically wrote, 'the uses of the invention are almost infinite'. Edison also employed sputter deposition and in 1900 applied for a patent on a 'Process of Coating Phonograph Records'. Issued in 1902, the patent describes using a 'silent or brush electrical discharge' produced by an induction coil. The National Phonograph Company, one of Edison's many enterprises, used the sputtering process to deposit a thin layer of gold on wax phonograph cylinder masters that could then be electroplated to form molds to mass produce celluloid duplicates. The method was used for 20 years, from 1901 to 1921. It enabled the reproduction of cylinder grooves less than 0.001 in. deep at a density of 200 grooves per in. From 1913 to 1921, 10-in.-diameter Edison Diamond Disc phonograph records were made using the same method. Sputtering was abandoned in 1927, as it could not be scaled up to produce the 12 in. disks that were then introduced

  5. E-arved võidavad poolehoidu. Eelmise aasta kasv jätkub / Tanel Raig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raig, Tanel, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    AS-i Itella Information hinnangul tõusis e-arvete hulk kõigist arvetest 30 protsendini, firma kaudu liikus 2010. a. pea 4,5 mln. e-arvet, Eesti Posti kaudu ligi pool miljonit e-arvet. E-arvete vahendajad Eestis

  6. Patent Renewal Fees and Self-Funding Patent Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Gans Joshua S; King Stephen P; Lampe Ryan

    2004-01-01

    A socially optimal structure of application and renewal fees for patents would encourage the maximal number of applications while reducing effective patent length. We find, however, that when patent offices are required to be self-funding, resource constraints can distort this fee structure. Specifically, a financially constrained, but welfare-oriented, patent office will tend to raise initial application fees while lowering renewal fees. This creates two detriments to social welfare as it di...

  7. Security Interests in Patents and Patent Applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stevens

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a question mark in the title of this article because more questions than answers have been encountered in researching the topic. The relative certainty with which owners of furniture, equipment, accounts and most other personal property can obtain credit by granting a security in their property rapidly dissipates when the property in question is intellectual property. Owners of patents and other intellectual property find barriers to obtaining secured credit that are not faced by other property owners because there is a historical gap between the federal law protecting rights of intellectual property owners and state laws addressing secured transactions. The increasing importance of intellectual property to the economy of the United States (patent filings having increased by seventy percent since 19962 raises the visibility of this gap and urges consideration of changes in law. This would permit owners of intellectual property access to the same financing opportunities that are available to owners of other personal property. There seems to be no public policy that justifies the current situation.

  8. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  9. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin infection. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium marinum . ... A swimming pool granuloma occurs when water containing Mycobacterium marinum bacteria enters a break in the skin. Signs of ...

  10. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  11. Recent Research on the Economics of Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn H.; Dietmar Harhoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on the economics of patents is surveyed. The topics covered include theoretical and empirical evidence on patents as an incentive for innovation, the effectiveness of patents for invention disclosure, patent valuation, and what we know about the design of patent systems. We also look at what is known about some current policy areas, including software and business method patents, university patenting, and the growth in patent litigation.

  12. The Value of European Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Gambardella, Alfonso; Harhoff, Dietmar; VERSPAGEN, bart

    2008-01-01

    This paper employs data from an extensive European survey to produce one of the first systematic assessments of the private economic value of patents. The estimated mean of our patent value distribution is higher than 3 million Euros, the median is about one-tenth, and the mode is around a few thousand Euros. This is in line with previous findings about the skewed distribution of patent values. Our measure is significantly correlated with the number of patent citations, references, claims, an...

  13. The science of pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  14. Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Buchacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE. Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, P=0.05. Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, P=0.010 as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, P<0.001. Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%, and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%, but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs.

  15. Patent Valuation and Real Options

    OpenAIRE

    Deger Alper

    2011-01-01

    As the knowledge economics grows rapidly, businesses increasingly invest intellectual property and the value of intellectual property; patent, trademark, copyright etc., more emphasized in business nowadays. Thus, the valuation of intellectual property, specifically patents, has been one of the most difficult investment problems both for practitioners and academics. Traditional valuation methods fail to account for the unique characteristics of patents; uncertainty and management flexibility....

  16. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola;

    2016-01-01

    sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results and...

  17. Do Patents Perform Like Property?

    OpenAIRE

    James Bessen; Michael J. Meurer

    2008-01-01

    Do patents provide critical incentives to encourage investment in innovation? Or, instead, do patents impose legal risks and burdens on innovators that discourage innovation, as some critics now claim? This paper reviews empirical economic evidence on how well patents perform as a property system.

  18. The fallacy of Software Patents

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Software patents are usually used as argument for innovation but do they really promote innovation? Who really benefits from software patents? This talk attempts to show the problems with software patents and how they can actually harm innovation having little value for software users and our society in general.

  19. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  20. Patent foramen ovale

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent foramen ovale URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  1. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent ductus arteriosus URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  2. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  3. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  4. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  5. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discriminat...

  6. Patent Valuation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deger Alper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the knowledge economics grows rapidly, businesses increasingly invest intellectual property and the value of intellectual property; patent, trademark, copyright etc., more emphasized in business nowadays. Thus, the valuation of intellectual property, specifically patents, has been one of the most difficult investment problems both for practitioners and academics. Traditional valuation methods fail to account for the unique characteristics of patents; uncertainty and management flexibility. Patents are option-like assets that give the owner a bundle of options; to commercialize the products, to file foreign application, to license the innovation etc. Real options represent the application of options methodology to strategic business decisions, and real option method provides a richer framework to analyse the issues that confront the valuation of patent. This paper uses real option model as a framework to correctly evaluate patent and contains real option model application to patent valuation.

  7. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data for the...... years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  8. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling for...... characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  9. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  10. Patent protection strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Gupta; Suresh Kumar; Saroj Kumar Roy; Gaud, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists...

  11. The Transaction Cost Benefits of Electronic Patent Licensing Platforms: A Discussion at the Example of the PatentBooks Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Current mechanisms to compensate inventors and improve legal access to their inventions remain ineffective. Manufacturers encounter significant transaction costs in the process of licensing the multitude of patent rights implicated in their products. High-technology product manufacturing requires access to a diverse pool of technologies that are owned by different organizations all over the world. The transaction costs of licensing these disparate rights are inhibiting unlicensed manufacturer...

  12. Conflict resolution, public goods and patent thickets

    OpenAIRE

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Post-grant validity challenges at patent offices rely on the private initiative of third parties to correct mistakes made by patent offices. We hypothesize that incentives to bring post-grant validity challenges are reduced when many firms benefit from revocation of a patent and when firms are caught up in patent thickets. Using data on opposition against patents at the European Patent Office we show that opposition decreases in fields in which many others profit from patent revocations. More...

  13. Extracting value from ipr through patent brokerage

    OpenAIRE

    Mario F. Benassi; Gidion T. Geenen

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of patent brokers in creating and extracting value from patents. Based on theoretical discussions, distinctive patent market conditions are associated with specific benefits of patent brokers. We provide a conceptual model to frame the role of patent brokers. We identify patent market dimensions that are likely to affect broker selection and argue why companies should carefully select patent brokers. We conclude with an outline of implications and suggestions for empir...

  14. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impac...

  15. The resource pooling principle

    OpenAIRE

    Wischik, Damon; Handley, Mark; Bagnulo, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Since the ARPAnet, network designers have built localized mechanisms for statistical multiplexing, load balancing, and failure resilience, often without understanding the broader implications. These mechanisms are all types of resource pooling, whichmeans making a collection of resources behave like a single pooled resource. We believe that the natural evolution of the Internet is that it should achieve resource pooling by harnessing the responsiveness of multipath-capable end systems. We arg...

  16. Cold pool dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Leah D.; Heever, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) alter cold pool characteristics and dissipation rates are investigated in this study using idealized two-dimensional numerical simulations and an environment representative of daytime, dry, continental conditions. Simulations are performed with no SHFs, SHFs calculated using a bulk formula, and constant SHFs for model resolutions with horizontal (vertical) grid spacings ranging from 50 m (25 m) to 400 m (200 m). In the highest resolution simulations, turbulent entrainment of environmental air into the cold pool is an important mechanism for dissipation in the absence of SHFs. Including SHFs enhances cold pool dissipation rates, but the processes responsible for the enhanced dissipation differ depending on the SHF formulation. The bulk SHFs increase the near-surface cold pool temperatures, but their effects on the overall cold pool characteristics are small, while the constant SHFs influence the near-surface environmental stability and the turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool. The changes to the entrainment rates are found to be the most significant of the SHF effects on cold pool dissipation. SHFs may also influence the timing of cold pool-induced convective initiation by altering the environmental stability and the cold pool intensity. As the model resolution is coarsened, cold pool dissipation is found to be less sensitive to SHFs. Furthermore, the coarser resolution simulations not only poorly but sometimes wrongly represent the SHF impacts on the cold pools. Recommendations are made regarding simulating the interaction of cold pools with convection and the land surface in cloud-resolving models.

  17. Imitation versus Innovation Costs: Patent policies under common patent length

    OpenAIRE

    ICHIDA Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interaction between innovation and imitation costs for heterogeneous ideas (industries). It analyzes the effect of various patent-related policies under the common patent length across different industries. It also looks at a policy that will strengthen trade secrets such as the Soleau envelope policy. Under the common term of patent with moderate assumption about the joint distribution of costs, the model predicts the existence of imitating products which are succ...

  18. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.; Agnieszka Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani

    2015-01-01

    Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition. This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate research and development (R&D) investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the co...

  19. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Gaëtan Nicodème; Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani

    2015-01-01

    Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition.This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate R&D investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the conditionality on performing r...

  20. How Gene Patents May Inhibit Scientific Research

    OpenAIRE

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Chan, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we point out three possible ways gene patents could impede scientific research. First, gene patent laws might exacerbate the culture of secrecy ubiquitous in science. Second, gene patents may limit researchers’ ability to study poly or multigenic diseases without access to all genetic etiologies. Third, gene patents could result in a “patent thicket”.

  1. How Gene Patents May Inhibit Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we point out three possible ways gene patents could impede scientific research. First, gene patent laws might exacerbate the culture of secrecy ubiquitous in science. Second, gene patents may limit researchers’ ability to study poly or multigenic diseases without access to all genetic etiologies. Third, gene patents could result in a “patent thicket”.

  2. Guidelines and Procedures for Patent Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Aster I.

    1991-01-01

    To educate Filipinos on IPR, this article provides a rigorous discussion on the Philippine patent system and patent law. It identifies the patentable grant, the requirements of patentability and records a step-by-step patent application. This article has been presented during the DOST-PIDS Seminar-Discussion on “Intellectual Property Rights: Policy Issues and Perspectives” on December 13, 1991.

  3. 75 FR 17380 - Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... procedure. See Request for Comments on Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program, 74 FR 55212 (Oct. 27, 2009), 1348... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark...

  4. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  5. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  6. A Minimum Optimal Patent Term

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, John F

    2005-01-01

    Most investigations of the optimal patent term problem have followed Nordhaus's assumption that setting and optimal patent term requires balancing the incentives necessary to encourage innovation against the inefficiencies associated with longer lasting monopoly rights. Nordhaus, however, relied upon a static model in which all investments and innovations occur at a fixed time. If the times of investments and innovation are not fixed, the time of patent expiration becomes a "U-shaped" functio...

  7. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system? PMID:24354803

  8. Measuring Innovation Using Patent Data

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Firms and governments spend billions of dollars on R&D every year. To increase social welfare, the results of R&D must be commercialized so that consumers can benefit from improved products and lower prices. One measure of R&D output is patents; however, most patent databases contain no information on whether patents have been commercialized, i.e., whether innovations have been introduced in the market. This paper applies a new method to identify innovations in patent databases by relating tr...

  9. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department... (AIA), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) may set or adjust by rule any patent...

  10. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and...

  11. La cayorra sin patente

    OpenAIRE

    Herzovich, Guido

    2013-01-01

    En otro tiempo, tal vez la cayorra sin patente hubiera podido aspirar a las páginas del Manual de zoología fantástica de Borges, donde América Latina, generalmente tan prolífica en bestias, aportaba sin embargo únicamente una : la chancha con cadenas, oriunda de la ciudad de Córdoba. Para las autoridades (incluidas las literarias), la cayorra fue seguramente en aquel tiempo tan furtiva como la chancha, aunque sin duda más ubicua. Cuando se la quería avistar, también esta "cayorra" de la front...

  12. Patent arterial duct

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Robin P; Elmasry Ola A; Forsey Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavi...

  13. Patent statistics: a good indicator for innovation in China? Assessment of impacts of patent subsidy programs on patent quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Jangwei; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether patent subsidy programs aimed at promoting regional innovations have aroused a large number of low-quality applications in China and created biased patent statistics as an indicator for innovations. We found that patent filing fee subsidies encouraged filing of low-quality patent, resulting in a decreased grant rate. Though reward conditioned on grants increased patent grant rate, it also brought patents with narrow claim breadth. Our empirical results confirme...

  14. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties. PMID:24499438

  15. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  16. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  17. Business Method Patents, Innovation, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn H.

    2003-01-01

    The trickle of business method patents issued by the United States Patent Office became a flood after the State Street Bank decision in 1998. Many scholars, both legal and economic, have critiqued both the quality of these patents and the decision itself. This paper discusses the likely impact of these patents on innovation. It first reviews the facts about business method and internet patents briefly and then explores what economists know about the relationship between the patent system and ...

  18. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Luciano; Newman, Nils; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new global patent map that represents all technological categories and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This overlay map technique may support competitive intelligence and policy decision making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. Th...

  19. Sequential Innovation and Optimal Patent Design

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Riis; Xianwen Shi

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal patent design in a setting with sequential innovation. Firms innovate by undertaking "research" activities to generate new ideas and by undertaking "development" activities to transform these ideas into viable products. Both innovation incentives and the welfare costs of patent monopoly are multidimensional. We characterize optimal patent policy, and in particular, the tradeoff between patent length and patent breadth in this setting. The optimal size of the patent reward is ...

  20. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chao-Chan; Yao, Ching-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks...

  1. Social and Technological Efficiency of Patent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas VALLEE (LEN - IAE Nantes); Yildizoglu, Murat

    2004-01-01

    This article develops an evolutionary model of industry dynamics in order to carry out a richer theoretical analysis of the consequences of a stronger patent system. The first results obtained in our article are rather consistent with the anti-patent arguments and they do not favour the case for a stronger patent system: higher social welfare and technical progress are observed in our model in industries with milder patent systems (lower patent height and patent life).

  2. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  3. Of Smart Phone Wars and Software Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Graham; Saurabh Vishnubhakat

    2013-01-01

    Among the main criticisms currently confronting the US Patent and Trademark Office are concerns about software patents and what role they play in the web of litigation now proceeding in the smart phone industry. We will examine the evidence on the litigation and the treatment by the Patent Office of patents that include software elements. We present specific empirical evidence regarding the examination by the Patent Office of software patents, their validity, and their role in the smart phone...

  4. Commercialization, Renewal and Quality of Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    One of the major reasons why inventors are awarded patents by governments is they encourage R&D investments and commercialization of inventions. If the patent holder commercializes his invention, he has stronger incentives to retain the patent. The purpose here is to empirically analyze the relationship between commercialization and the renewal of patents. At the same time, I take into account defensive patent strategies (e.g. deterring competitors from utilizing the patent) and pointedly ask...

  5. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  6. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a subject search…

  7. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  8. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  9. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  10. Pools for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Three institutions in Ohio now stress hydrotherapy and water recreation as important parts of individual educational programs for the handicapped. Specially designed and adapted pools provide freedom of movement and ego building as well as physical education and recreation. (Author)

  11. An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M MacQueen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. Discussion: The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1 adherence support – sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2 self-reported psychometric measures – creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3 more objective measurement of adherence – real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion

  12. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  13. A Study on the patent application strategy for China from the viewpoint of the patent application procedure and patent application conditions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaji, Kazufumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines strategies for patent applications in China, focusing on the differences between Chinese patent law and Japanese patent law about the process of filling patent applications and the data on the number of patent applications to China in various technology fields. Strategies for patent applications in China for Japanese companies are proposed taking account of differences between Chinese patent law and Japanese patent law and the viewpoint of patent application data.

  14. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Mofu; Handema Ray; Chipeta James; Munthali Grace K; Byrne Nuala M; Zulu Rodah M; Hills Andrew P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particular...

  15. Modeling HIV Vaccines in Brazil: Assessing the Impact of a Future HIV Vaccine on Reducing New Infections, Mortality and Number of People Receiving ARV

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Goretti P. Fonseca; Steven Forsythe; Alexandre Menezes; Shilpa Vuthoori; Cristina Possas; Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso; Francisca de Fátima Lucena; John Stover

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spe...

  16. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  17. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  18. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal...

  19. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  20. 77 FR 16813 - Patent Processing (Updating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent Processing (Updating) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450....

  1. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  2. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  3. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  4. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  5. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  6. Rightpollex: From Patent To Startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leba, Monica; Ionica, Andreea Cristina; Dobra, Remus

    2015-07-01

    RightPollex is an innovative product patented and developed by a multidisciplinary team from the University of Petrosani. The paper presents not only the idea and implementation possibilities of this patent, but also the current stage on the path towards the development of startups, an initiative of our university together with a private investor. The result of this initiative is JV Sensor Ventures that supports several startups.

  7. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions

    OpenAIRE

    Mojadidi, MK; Christia, P; Salamon, J; Liebelt, J; T Zaman; Gevorgyan, R; Nezami, N; Mojaddedi, S; Elgendy, IY; Tobis, JM; Faillace, R

    2015-01-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary ede...

  8. Considerations in vaccine patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Lorna

    2010-12-01

    This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148

  9. Tax attractiveness and the location of patents

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkel, Andreas; Schanz, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of taxation on the location of patents within multinational groups. Based on groups with parents from 36 countries globally and their patent holdings in 36 European countries, we provide insight into the determinants of three subsequent decisions: (1) the decision of whether to locate patents abroad; (2) in which countries to locate patents; and (3) how many patents to locate in each country. Our findings indicate that multinationals take the tax attractiveness ...

  10. Patent Examination Decisions and Strategic Trade Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Palangkaraya; Paul Jensen; Elizabeth Webster

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether strategic trade behavior can explain the fact that the US, Japanese and European Patent Offices – the USPTO, the JPO and the EPO – often make different decisions about whether to grant (or reject) a given patent application. We analyse this issue by considering whether examination decisions across the patent offices vary systematically by inventor nationality, patent quality and technology area using a matched sample of 33,305 non-PCT patent applications granted ...

  11. Measuring Technological Distance for Patent Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Bowen; Luo, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Recent works in the information science literature have presented cases of using patent databases and patent classification information to construct network maps of technology fields, which aim to aid in competitive intelligence analysis and innovation decision making. Constructing such a patent network requires a proper measure of the distance between different classes of patents in the patent classification systems. Despite the existence of various distance measures in the literature, it is...

  12. Patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Shunichi; Messé, Steven R; Rundek, Tatjana; Sun, Yee-Ping; Franke, Jennifer; Davidson, Karina; Sievert, Horst; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is the most common congenital heart abnormality of fetal origin and is present in approximately ∼25% of the worldwide adult population. PFO is the consequence of failed closure of the foramen ovale, a normal structure that exists in the fetus to direct blood flow directly from the right to the left atrium, bypassing the pulmonary circulation. PFO has historically been associated with an increased risk of stroke, the mechanism of which has been attributed to the paradoxical embolism of venous thrombi that shunt through the PFO directly to the left atrium. However, several studies have failed to show an increased risk of stroke in asymptomatic patients with a PFO, and the risk of stroke recurrence is low in patients who have had a stroke that may be attributed to a PFO. With the advent of transoesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography, as well as transcranial Doppler, a PFO can be routinely detected in clinical practice. Medical treatment with either antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy is recommended. At the current time, closure of the PFO by percutaneous interventional techniques does not appear to reduce the risk of stroke compared to conventional medical treatment, as shown by three large clinical trials. Considerable controversy remains regarding the optimal treatment strategy for patients with both cryptogenic stroke and PFO. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening, management and effects on quality of life of PFO. PMID:27188965

  13. Considerations on patent valuation based on patent classification and citation in biotechnological field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kenji

    Regarding innovation measurement utilizing patent information, a number of researchers are making great efforts to measure a "patent value (patent quality)." For patent valuation, patent classification and citation are often utilized as patent information. Also, biotechnological field is attracting attention from the viewpoint of application to environmental or medical study, and considerable researches on patent valuation are ongoing in this technical field. However, it is not enough recognized that researchers cannot be too careful when they deal with classification information in the biotech field because patent classification structure in this field is not well-established. And also, it is not known enough that citation patterns of both academic papers and patent documents are so complicated that the patterns cannot be easily generalized. In this article, the issues above were verified from a position based on working experiences of biotech patent examiner at Japan Patent Office, and considerations and implications were given on what patent valuation should be.

  14. The Future of Pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Peter C.; Fone, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses seven propositions underlying the strategies that insurance pools can, will, and must pursue: (1) risk management versus risk financing; (2) elimination of windfall advantages; (3) the maintenance of market-dominant status; (4) cost leadership; (5) client focus; (6) innovation and diversification; and (7) leadership challenges. A sidebar…

  15. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  16. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    OpenAIRE

    S. Šarboh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are differe...

  17. The Effect of Patent Grant on the Geographic Reach of Patent Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Drivas, Kyriakos; Fafaliou, Irene; Fampiou, Elpiniki; Yannelis, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether patents increase the geographic reach of the market for ideas. By employing a dataset of 25,127 US patents traded between US located firms, we find that patents sold during application phase are less likely to be traded outside the seller‟s state than patents that have been issued. To tackle the endogeneity issues we employ coarsened exact matching techniques. We find that patent grant increases the likelihood of a patent to ...

  18. Patent thickets and the market for innovation: evidence from settlement of patent disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Alberto; Schankerman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We study how fragmentation of patent rights ('patent thickets') and the formation of the Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) affected the duration of patent disputes, and thus the speed of technology diffusion through licensing. We develop a model of patent litigation which predicts faster settlement agreements when patent rights are fragmented and when there is less uncertainty about court outcomes, as was associated with the 'pro-patent shift' of CAFC. The model also predicts tha...

  19. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future...

  20. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  1. Patents wars : Brevet d'invention et patent, une comparaison

    OpenAIRE

    Mangolte, Pierre-André

    2010-01-01

    Ce texte fait partie d'une étude générale sur les patents wars américaines de la fin du XIXème et du début du XXème siècle, dans trois industries émergentes : l'industrie du cinéma et les patents Edison, l'industrie automobile et l'affaire du brevet Selden, l'industrie de l'aviation et les patents des frères Wright. L'analyse est comparative, entre Etats-Unis et France, où, à la même époque, il n'y a aucun litige de même ordre, et de même importance. Cette première partie analyse plus spécifi...

  2. Need for improving quality of operating structures and processes for better ARV adherence for patients with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania and other African countries:an experi-ence from Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irunde H; Nsimba SED; Comoro CJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was carried out in order to determine the following objectives:(1)To determine the pro-portion of patients who state achieving or not achieving optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)in selected Care and Treatment Sites in Arusha and Dares Salaam regions in Tanzania.(2)To identify factors such as structural,cultural or disease related contributing to sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARVs). (3)To assess quality of operating structures and processes for provision of antiretroviral (ARVs)in the select-ed healthcare facilities.(4)To document suggestions and proposals for improving ART adherence among ARV users.Methods:Data from 7 studied facilities (3 public and 4 private /or faith based)includes 207 interviews from ARV users,28 staff interview staff,26 observations during consultations,8 focus group discussions,10 key informant interviews,and stock checks in 6 facilities.The study design was a cross-sectional using both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques.Quantitative data were collected by using an adherence tool check list,while qualitative data were obtained using a consultation observation checklist,semi-structured interviews,focus group discussions (FGDs)and key informant interviews.Results:There were slight varia-tions in the quality of operating structures and processes in the two studied regions.However results indicate that ARV adherence in Arusha region was comparatively similar to that of Dares Salaam.The composite adher-ence for one month in seven facilities was 90 % and only 21 % of ARV users achieved optimal adherence. Conclusion:The overall mean composite adherence rate of 90 % in the two areas surveyed is encouraging. More efforts to improve the quality and processes of operating structures in our study facilities and others in Tanzania are needed to ensure optimal adherence among the larger group (79 %)of ARV users who are cur-rently taking less than the critical 95 % of their medications.

  3. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  4. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  5. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers' Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  6. Argonne National Laboratory patent portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology

  7. Modeling HIV vaccines in Brazil: assessing the impact of a future HIV vaccine on reducing new infections, mortality and number of people receiving ARV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti P Fonseca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15-49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial.

  8. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  9. Large molten pool heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop on large molten pool heat transfer is composed of 5 sessions which titles are: feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling; experiments on molten pool heat transfer; calculational efforts on molten pool convection; heat transfer to the surrounding water, experimental techniques; future experiments and ex-vessel studies (RASPLAV, TOLBIAC, BALI, SULTAN, CORVIS, VULCANO, CORINE programs)

  10. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  11. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  12. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  13. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  14. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  15. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  16. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. Patent Eligibility of Business Methods in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Brian Lee

    2011-01-01

    @@ While the same fundamental principles underlining patent law are generally accepted in every major jurisdiction in the world, the patent eligibility of computer-implemented business method inventions ("business methods") has received different treatment between jurisdictions.

  18. Retrieving Patents: An Overview for Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Gokhale,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Patent system worldwide, as known today, is about two hundred years old and existed in some format least about four hundred years ago in parts of Europe. However, over the last twenty years the volumeof patents has grown phenomenally with interdisciplinary and complex subjects and the existence of internetmakes most of the information available in some form or the other and has thus made the searchers’ questmore difficult. Thus, patent search has attained much greater significance as it is always interlinked withcommercial gains. India too has observed a quantum leap in patent applications in the last decade. Organisationsare attaching greater importance to patent filing and thus for patent searching too. Patent search, as aprofession has attained a significant position in the area of intellectual property .There has been severalattempts to simplify and make the patent search more efficient and effective. The present paper provides an overview of the same.

  19. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  20. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created, and...... subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  1. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  2. A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Verbeure, Birgit; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2006-01-01

    In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors, developing and supplying standardized licences, collecting royalties, monitoring whether users respect licensing conditions, and providing dispute resolution services such as mediation and arbitration. In this way, it might function as an effective model for users to facilitate access to and use of the patented inventions. However, it remains to be seen whether patent holders with a strong patent portfolio will be convinced by the advantages of the royalty collection clearing house and be willing to participate. PMID:16710543

  3. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  4. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat ...

  5. Renewal of Patents and Government Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Roger

    2008-01-01

    I apply a survival model to a detailed dataset of Swedish patents to estimate how different factors affect the likelihood of patent renewal. Since the owners know more about the patents than potential external financiers, there is a problem of asymmetric information. To overcome this, Sweden has for a long time relied on government support rather than private venture capital. The empirical results show that patents which have received soft government financing in the R&D-phase have a higher p...

  6. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...

  7. A quality index for patent systems

    OpenAIRE

    VAN POTTELSBERGHE Bruno; de Saint-Georges, Matthis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a quality index for patent systems. The index is composed of nine operational design components that help shape the transparency of patent systems and affect the extent to which they comply with patentability conditions. Seven factors are related to rules and regulations (e.g., grace period, opposition process and continuation-inparts), while two factors measure patent offices’ resource allocation (i.e., workload per examiner and incentives). The index is computed for 32 n...

  8. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how...

  9. Patent Laws and Innovation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how the patent laws and intellectual property rights (IPR) system in China have affected innovation during the reform period. Subject to criticism due to imperfect enforcement, the patent law system has produced a stock of patents which has grown rapidly alongside economic growth. Despite significant regional disparities in income and the level of innovation, the success rates of patent applications are similar across the country. The application of the pate...

  10. Runner-up patents: is monopoly inevitable?

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Emeric

    2010-01-01

    Exclusive patents sacrifice product competition to provide firms incentives to innovate. We characterize an alternative mechanism whereby later inventors are allowed to share the patent if they discover within a certain time period of the first inventor. These runner-up patents increase social welfare under very general conditions. Furthermore, we show that the time window during which later inventors can share the patent should become a new policy tool at the disposal of the designer. This i...

  11. The New Swiss Patent Ligitation System

    OpenAIRE

    Rigamonti, Cyrill

    2011-01-01

    Switzerland is about to implement a completely new patent litigation system, following the establishment of a new specialized federal patent trial court and the replacement of twenty-six cantonal codes of civil procedure with a single uniform federal code of civil procedure. This article provides an overview of the general structure and the most important features of the new patent litigation system that may be of interest to international patent litigants and litigators.

  12. Why Don't Inventors Patent?

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Moser

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the ability to keep innovations secret may be a key determinant of patenting. To test this hypothesis, the paper examines a newly-collected data set of more than 7,000 American and British innovations at four world's fairs between 1851 and 1915. Exhibition data show that the industry where an innovation is made is the single most important determinant of patenting. Urbanization, high innovative quality, and low costs of patenting also encourage patenting, but these infl...

  13. Patent Protection, Financial Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyuan Pan; Mengbo Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically investigates the effects of patent protection on innovation and economic growth by looking at the interaction between patent system and financial system. On the one hand, patent protection accelerates economic growth through enhancing the value of innovation. On the other hand, it lowers the demand for capital by increasing the price, thereby weakening the learning-by-doing effect and raising the cost of production. It follows, in turn, patent protecti...

  14. Patents as Options: Some Estimates of the Value of Holding European Patent Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    In many countries holders of patents must pay an annual renewal fee in order to keep their patents in force. This paper uses data on the proportion of patents renewed, and the renewal fees faced by, post World War II cohorts of patents in France, the United Kingdom, and Germany, in conjunction with a model of patent holders' renewal decisions, to estimate the returns earned from holding patents in these countries. Since patents are often applied for at a nearly stage in the innovation process...

  15. Understanding Patenting Decisions: A Classroom Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, John C.; Yiannaka, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Although many students have some knowledge of patents, it can be difficult for them to understand the components of an innovator's decision-making process. Key issues, such as whether to patent or to use trade secrecy, how broad a scope to claim, and what to do in the event of patent infringement, can be difficult to grasp from a standard lecture.…

  16. India's Journey Toward an Effective Patent System

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The decade following India's accession to the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property ushered in numerous changes to the country's patent system, culminating in a series of amendments in 2005. But a functioning patent system is more than a statute. This paper discusses the steps that India must still take to develop an effective, functioning patent syste...

  17. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  18. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  19. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  20. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  1. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  2. A Study on Patent Mapping and Its Usage for Analyzing Patent Trends in Nuclear Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propose of this project is to construct our patent mapping system for its internal usage of patent map at our institute as well as preparation for our nation's related law and for obligation of patent mapping at national research institutes. The main contents carried out in this project are as follows: - Quantitative analysis about all intellectual properties applied in KAERI - Quantitative/qualitative analysis about all patents applied in food irradiation at main countries - Development of cooperation model for patent mapping

  3. The Productive Ligurian Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, E; Couvelard, X; Caldeira, R M A

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the behavior of the eddies in the open-ocean, the sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the constricted Ligurian Basin (NW Mediterranean), are unproductive but their combined effect, arranged in a rim-like fashion, contributes to the containment of a Productive Ligurian Pool (PLP). Data de- rived from MODIS satellite sensor showed persistent higher chlorophyll con- centrations in the centre of the basin, concurrent with high EKE values in its surroundings, derived from AVISO altimetry merged products. This sug- gested that this 'productive pool' is maintained by the intense (sub)mesoscale eddy activity in the rim. Numerical realistic experiments, using a Regional Ocean Model System, forced by MERCATOR and by a high-resolution COSMO- l7 atmospheric model, also showed that most of the sub-mesoscale eddies, during 2009 and 2010, are concentrated in the rim surrounding the basin, contributing to the formation of a basin-scale cyclonic gyre. We hypothesized that the interaction between eddies in the r...

  4. COLPEX - Cold Pool Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H.; Price, J.; Horlacher, V.; Sheridan, P. F.; Vosper, S. B.; Brown, A. R.; Mobbs, S. D.; Ross, A. N.

    2009-04-01

    Planning has started towards designing a new field campaign aimed at studying the behaviour of the boundary layer over complex terrain. Of specific interest is the formation of cold-pools in valleys during stable night-time conditions. The field campaign will run continuously until the end of the winter in 2009/10. The experiment will make use of a wide variety of ground-based sensors including turbulence towers, automatic weather stations, Doppler lidar, radiation sensors and soil temperature probes. We also hope to deploy an instrumented car and a tethered balloon facility for limited periods. Data from the field campaign will be used for a number of purposes. Firstly, to increase our understanding of how the valley cold pools form and why, for instance, some valleys offer a more favourable environment for their formation than others. Secondly, to investigate the formation and dissipation of fog in complex terrain. Thirdly, the data set will also be used to help validate and develop the Met Office Unified Model at high resolution. An area for the experiment has been identified in the Shropshire/Powis area of the UK where a network of valleys and low hills exist with a typical valley width of ~1.5km and hill top to valley floor heights of 75-200m. 0m.

  5. Economic valuation of patents methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, F

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Valuation of Patents provides an original and essential analysis of patent valuation, presenting the main methodologies to value patents in different contexts. Starting with an analysis of the relevance of patent valuation from a strategic, economic and legal perspective, the book undertakes a thorough review of the existing financial and qualitative valuation methodologies. The contributing authors, IP experts from academia and business, discuss the application of valuation issues in various contexts such as patent portfolio management, licensing agreements, IP litigation, IP-bac

  6. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. PMID:26948802

  7. Patent=Monopoly: A Legal Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bostyn, S.; Petit, N.

    2013-01-01

    A patent right is an exclusionary right. With it, the patent holder can exclude third parties from making, using, selling, etc. products or processes protected by his patent. In the past, this right has also been referred to as a 'monopoly right' and this has lead to considerable confusion about the scope of patent rights and the role of the patent system in a modern economy. This paper seeks to provide some clarity on this issue and highlight the distinction between the exclusionary right gr...

  8. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  9. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  10. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  11. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?

  12. E-äri kriminaalne pool / Dmitri A Kuznetsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuznetsov, Dmitri A

    2008-01-01

    Küberkuritegude arv suureneb ning kogemustega häkkerite kõrval on see muutunud jõukohaseks ka kogenematutele uustulnukatele. Lisa: Küberkuriteod liigiti. Vt. samas: Timo Teder. Kuidas kontrolliga internetikaupmehe usaldusväärsust?

  13. The boom in power pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the liberalization of the power market there is euphoria in all parts of the world concerning the establishment of power pools. Power pools are to afford the transparency necessary when competition is fiercer, and have benefits for both buyers and vendors. But the technical community expects only a few to have great chances of survival. In Europe, for instance, only one leading power pool is expected to survive in the long term. It will set the power rate index for all players in the market. The other pools might establish themselves in regional niche markets. (orig.)

  14. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  15. Patent Disclosure in Standard Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Ganglmair; Emanuele Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    In a model of industry standard setting with private information about firms' intellectual property, we analyze (a) firms' incentives to contribute to the development and improvement of a standard, and (b) firms' decision to disclose the existence of relevant intellectual property to other participants of the standard-setting process. If participants can disclose after the end of the process and fully exploit their bargaining leverage, then patent holders aspire to disclose always after the e...

  16. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    OpenAIRE

    Namdeo R Jadhav; Trupti Powar; Santosh Shinde; Sameer Nadaf

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have...

  17. A Survey of the Economics of Patent Systems and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Andrew; Langinier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The last several decades have seen increases in patenting activity worldwide, as well as growing issues related to patent quality. In response to these quality issues a recent patent literature has emerged, that investigates the behavior and incentives of patent examiners, applicants, and third parties. In this paper, we provide an overview of patent procedures, patent systems and a survey of the new economic literature on patent systems. Both theoretical and empirical papers are considered. ...

  18. Individual Inventors and Market Potentials: Evidence from US Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Agiakloglou, Christos; Drivas, Kyriakos; Karamanis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the commercialization propensities of individual inventors' patents. Exploiting a peculiarity of the US patent system, concerning patent renewal fees in order to obtain small or large entity status, we are able to distinguish patents that become part of a large corporation's patent portfolio. Using an extensive dataset of US patents, both for domestic and foreign individual inventors, we find that patent characteristics, size of research teams, prior experience and past co...

  19. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šarboh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are different Tesla’s inventions in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and processing technology, more precisely metallurgy.

  20. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  1. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  2. Evidence from Patents and Patent Citations on the Impact of NASA and Other Federal Labs on Commercial Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Adam B.; Michael S. Fogarty; Banks, Bruce A.

    1997-01-01

    We explore the commercialization of government-generated technology by analyzing patents awarded to the U.S. government and the citations to those patents from subsequent patents. We use information on citations to federal patents in two ways: (1) to compare the average technological impact of NASA patents, other Federal' patents, and a random sample of all patents using measures of importance' and generality;' and (2) to trace the geographic location of commercial development by focusing on ...

  3. Le paléogène détritique marin du pays des Arves (Savoie): analyse par thermoluminescence et paléogéographie

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaldi, Jean-Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Les caractères thermoluminescents des quartz détritiques des conglomérats, arkoses, grès et schistes à blocs paléogènes du Pays des Arves sont définis. Le champ d'application de la méthode d'analyse TL et ses limites sont précisés dans un contexte géologique régional marqué par une déformation ductile forte et un métamorphisme anchizonal à épizonal post-priaboniens générateurs de néoformations siliceuses possédant leur propre thermoluminescence. Le traitement statistique des données numérique...

  4. Are patents impeding medical care and innovation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers argue that the current patent system is crucial for stimulating research and development (R&D, leading to new products that improve medical care. The financial return on their investments that is afforded by patent protection, they claim, is an incentive toward innovation and reinvestment into further R&D. But this view has been challenged in recent years. Many commentators argue that patents are stifling biomedical research, for example by preventing researchers from accessing patented materials or methods they need for their studies. Patents have also been blamed for impeding medical care by raising prices of essential medicines, such as antiretroviral drugs, in poor countries. This debate examines whether and how patents are impeding health care and innovation.

  5. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The...... findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects of the...

  6. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  7. Patentability of Parthenogenic Stem Cells: International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-06-01

    The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has recently issued a ruling in Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents Designs and Tademarks (Case) that aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/EC (Biotech Patent Directive) in respect of patentability of human parthenogenic stem cells (hpSCs). The Case alters the patenting regime for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) applications, by stating that moral restrictions against hESC-patents are only applicable to such cells derived from embryos that had the potential to develop into a human being. Consequently, hpSC-based inventions may be patentable in Europe. This Case represents a leap forward to striking a balance between protecting human dignity and integrity whilst granting patent incentives for biomedical research. PMID:26399046

  8. Contribution of rainfall, snow and ice melt to the hydrological regime of the Arve upper catchment and to severe flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, Grégoire; Revuelto, Jesús; Morin, Samuel; Zin, Isabella; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Condom, Thomas; Six, Delphine; Vionnet, Vincent; Charrois, Luc; Dumont, Marie; Gottardi, Frédéric; Laarman, Olivier; Coulaud, Catherine; Esteves, Michel; Lebel, Thierry; Vincent, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In Alpine catchments, the hydrological response to meteorological events is highly influenced by the precipitation phase (liquid or solid) and by snow and ice melt. It is thus necessary to simulate accurately the snowpack evolution and its spatial distribution to perform relevant hydrological simulations. This work is focused on the upper Arve Valley (Western Alps). This 205 km2 catchment has large glaciated areas (roughly 32% of the study area) and covers a large range of elevations (1000-4500 m a.s.l.). Snow presence is significant year-round. The area is also characterized by steep terrain and strong vegetation heterogeneity. Modelling hydrological processes in such a complex catchment is therefore challenging. The detailed ISBA land surface model (including the Crocus snowpack scheme) has been applied to the study area using a topography based discretization (classifying terrain by aspect, elevation, slope and presence of glacier). The meteorological forcing used to run the simulations is the reanalysis issued from the SAFRAN model which assimilates meteorological observations from the Meteo-France networks. Conceptual reservoirs with calibrated values of emptying parameters are used to represent the underground water storage. This approach has been tested to simulate the discharge on the Arve catchment and three sub-catchments over 1990-2015. The simulations were evaluated with respect to observed water discharges for several headwaters with varying glaciated areas. They allow to quantify the relative contribution of rainfall, snow and ice melt to the hydrological regime of the basin. Additionally, we present a detailed analysis of several particular flood events. For these events, the ability of the model to correctly represent the catchment behaviour is investigated, looking particularly to the relevance of the simulated snowpack. Particularly, its spatial distribution is evaluated using MODIS snow cover maps, punctual snowpack observations and summer

  9. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  10. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  11. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  12. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  13. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  14. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  15. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  16. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  17. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  18. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  19. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  20. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  1. Patent foramen ovale: clinical manifestations and treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Kedia, G; Tobis, J; Lee, MS

    2008-01-01

    A persistent patent foramen ovale produces an intermittent intra-atrial right-to-left shunt and occurs in approximately 25% of the general population. Although the vast majority of people with patent foramen ovale are asymptomatic, a patent foramen ovale is believed to act as a pathway for chemicals or thrombus that can result in a variety of clinical manifestations, including stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome....

  2. India's journey toward an effective patent

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The decade following India's accession to the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property ushered in numerous changes to the country's patent system, culminating in a series of amendments in 2005. But a functioning patent system is more than a statute. This paper discusses the steps that India must still take to develop an effective, functioning patent system capable of attracting foreign direct investment, motivating domestic innovation and education, and filter...

  3. (When) Do Stronger Patents Increase Continual Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Pan, Shiyuan; Zhang, Tianle

    2012-01-01

    Under continual innovation, greater patent strength expands innovating firms’ profit against imitation, but also shifts profit from current to past innovators. We show how the impact of patents on innovation, as determined by these two opposing effects, varies with industry characteristics. When the discount factor is sufficiently high, the negative profit division effect is negligible, and innovation monotonically increases in patent strength; otherwise, innovation has an inverted-U relation...

  4. Academic patenting: the importance of industry support

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that university-industry collaboration is important for turning commercial opportunities into patents. The results suggest that researchers who receive a large share of research grants from industry have a higher propensity to file a patent. Small dissemination grants generally exert a positive effect, whether they come from industry or not. It also finds that these interactions do not increase the number of industry owned patents alone but benefit universities’ c...

  5. International Patent Protection: Time for a fully EU Functioning Supra-National Patent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Donal Loftus

    2011-01-01

    Larger industrial companies have become increasingly global in their functions and aspirations. With regard to patents, it is increasingly common for a multinational company to face alleged infringing acts committed by the same competitor in several countries. Securing international patent protection both at the acquisition and the enforcement stage is the corollary to the cross border exploitation of patents. The regulation of transnational trade and the international exploitation of patent ...

  6. Nanotechnology Patents : The next technological revolution and the future of the patent system

    OpenAIRE

    Helwegen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Experiences from ICT and biotechnology have shown that the current patent system has increasing difficulties with the numbers and complexity of patent applications. As a result, the patent system, which ultimate goal is to promote technological innovation and to reward the inventors, has been the subject of increasing criticism. Despite being in an early stage of development, nanotechnology is already the subject of a high amount of patents, and as noted by the European Parliament, the curre...

  7. Patents and Innovation: Friends or Foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, François

    2007-01-01

    Over 2 million patents are currently in force in the EU and in the USA. Do they testify innovation is blockaded for they restrict freedom in research or do they give evidence innovation is flourishing for patent law provides incentives to invent new products and processes? In other terms do patents freeze or spur innovation? The question arises for massive anecdotal evidence shows the patent system may have turned on its head, e.g., USPTO and EPO examiners spend less than 30 hours pe...

  8. The transfer of patents in Imperial Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Burhop, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We describe the transfer of patents in late 19th- and early 20th- century Germany using a new and comprehensive database containing information on about 20,000 transactions. The number of transactions shows an upward trend, in total numbers and as a share of patents in force. In total, about eight percent of patents were transferred at least once during their existence. Many transactions involved the transfer of patents with an above-average quality from individual inventors to firms and to n...

  9. Typology of the patent troll business

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Tim; Opitz, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    Patent trolls have many faces, since the media uses this expression in various ways. The patent troll phenomenon thus seems to be an ambiguous term that is discussed in several directions. This paper reveals that a patent troll as such has no distinct shape or appearance. Our analysis redeems a troll classification solely from firms’ market position, such as being non-practicing, and shows that a patent troll business can only be defined by the respective practice to enforce IPR. Using 10 cas...

  10. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  11. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  12. Current Challenges in Patent Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lupu, Mihai; Tait, John; Trippe, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Patents form an important knowledge resource --much technical information represented in patents is not represented in scientific literature -- and at the same time they are important, and economically highly relevant, legal documents. Between 1998 and 2008, the number of patent applications filed yearly worldwide grew by more than 50 percent. Yet still we see a huge gap between, on the one hand, the technologies that emerged from research labs and are in use in major Internet search engines or in enterprise search systems, and, on the other hand, the systems used daily by the patent search co

  13. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  14. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of...

  15. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; D. Kushnir; I. Rafols

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  16. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  17. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  18. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  19. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... following listing of intellectual property in the Federal Register on January 19, 2011 (76 FR 3118). A... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing...

  20. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent “Thicket”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    entrepreneurial exploitation of patents on early vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent was alleged to have ”overlapped” with De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how patent rights were resolved by...

  1. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  2. 78 FR 68422 - Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) Actions (Formerly Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) Actions (Formerly Board of Patent... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to reduce paperwork... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  3. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL...

  4. 企业协同专利分析平台%Enterprise collaborative platform for patents analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐河杭; 顾新建; 祁国宁; 王海军; 张玉梅

    2009-01-01

    A new patent analysis method based on enterprise collaboration was put forward to better use patent resources for enterprise innovation. A patent analysis platform prototype based on enterprises collaboration was constituted, which can support accurate and complete patent search by constituting and improving the ontology database. The enterprises are encouraged to upload their private patent information by incentive mechanism and confidential mechanism. Patent information in the platform database was analyzed. In addition, the platform takes advantage of relations between product technique classification and international patent classification(IPC) to form the product based patent technique classification database. An application in a digital television enterprise showed that associate patents were found by patents combination analysis with different enterprises, so as to achieve the patent collaboration, patent sharing and patent pool between enterprises%在研究如何更好的发挥专利资源对企业的创新作用基础上,提出了企业协同专利分析的思想和方法.构建出一个企业协同专利分析平台原型,通过本体库的构建和完善来支持更准、更全的专利信息搜索,通过激励机制和保密机制来鼓励企业上传其私有的专利信息.对平台专利数据库中的专利信息进行分析,其中平台还利用产品的技术分类和国际专利分类(IPC)的关联对应,形成比较完整的基于产品的专利技术分类库.其在数字电视行业中做应用尝试,将不同企业的专利组合进行分析,发现关联专利,从而促进企业之间的专利合作和专利资源共享,促进企业专利联盟和专利池的构建.

  5. Pooling techniques for bioassay screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples m the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases m all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinanalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that m a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5x5 square and 5x5x5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: 1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, 2) the screening dose-rate requirements, 3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, 4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and 5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated. (author)

  6. Preliminary study into query translation for patent retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochim, C.; Lioma, Christina; Schütze, H.; Koch, S.; Ertl, T.

    Patent retrieval is a branch of Information Retrieval (IR) aiming to support patent professionals in retrieving patents that satisfy their information needs. Often, patent granting bodies require patents to be partially translated into one or more major foreign languages, so that language...... boundaries do not hinder their accessibility. This multilingual-ity of patent collections offers opportunities for improving patent retrieval. In this work we exploit these opportunities by applying query translation to patent retrieval. We expand monolingual patent queries with their translations, using...... both a domain-specific patent dictionary that we extract from the patent collection, and a general domain-free dictionary. Experimental evaluation on a standard CLEF-IP dataset shows that using either translation dictionary fetches similar results: query translation can help patent retrieval, but not...

  7. How a patent eligibility case could affect personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougher, Joanna T

    2010-01-01

    Personalized medicine may be in danger as the doctrine of patent eligibility -which determines technological innovations that warrant patent protection -faces legal challenges. Diagnostic tests, gene patents, and more are at stake. PMID:22478808

  8. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods:...

  9. The Fate of Patents : An Exploratory Analysis of Patents as Signals of Reputational Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Basir, Nada; Beyhaghi, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the reputation literature and signaling theory, this article builds on work that looks at patents as reputation signals.We build a multi-industry database of patents that expire due to lack of maintenance fee payments and test for a relationship between these patents and the firm’s IPO date.We find a significant and positive relationship between the likelihood of patents expiring due to lack of maintenance fee payments and the time to IPO. We also find that patents associated with ...

  10. THE FATE OF PATENTS: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF PATENTS AS IPO SIGNALS OF REPUTATIONAL ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Basir, Nada; Beyhaghi, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the reputation literature and signaling theory, this article builds on work that looks at patents as reputation signals. We build a multi-industry database of patents that expire due to lack of maintenance fee payments and test for a relationship between these patents and the firm’s IPO date. We find a significant and positive relationship between the likelihood of patents expiring due to lack of maintenance fee payments and the time to IPO. We also find that patents associated wit...

  11. International Patenting Strategies of Chinese Residents: an analysis of foreign-oriented patent families

    OpenAIRE

    Mila Kashcheeva; Sacha Wunsch-Vincent; Hao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    In terms of the number of its patent applications, in 2012 China has emerged as the country with the largest IP office in the world. The performance of the Chinese IP system is thus increasingly in the spotlight. While significant economic studies have been devoted to the rise of domestic patenting in China, hardly any study has focused on Chinese patent filings in foreign countries. This paper analyzes Chinese patenting abroad by using WIPO’s foreign-oriented patent family dataset and a resp...

  12. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing. PMID:26489724

  13. Patents versus ex-post rewards : a new look

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Pénin

    2003-01-01

    Economic studies that aim at comparing the patent system social efficiency versus an ex-post reward system rest on a traditional view of patents. They make the hypothesis that firms use the patent system only in order to be granted a short-term monopoly rent and therefore that patents lead to strong and steady monopolies. This assumption is convenient because it allows straightforward comparisons between patent and reward systems. But empirical studies do not confirm this vision of patents. M...

  14. Patent Portfolio Races in Concentrated Markets for Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Jell; Joachim Henkel

    2010-01-01

    Patent application numbers grow exponentially in many industries, a phenomenon that has been linked to high fragmentation of patent ownership. Contradicting these findings and theoretical arguments, we show that such fragmentation is not a precondition for sudden and strong increases in patenting. We describe and analyze a patent portfolio race in an industry with highly concentrated patent ownership, namely the newspaper printing machines oligopoly. Triangulating data from patent analysis, i...

  15. The Sources of Knowledge and the Value of Academic Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsalis, Elefth駻ios; van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the literature on the determinants of patent value in two respects. It first puts forward new potential determinants of patent value which are mainly related to the identification of the institutional sources of knowledge and the geographical scope of patenting strategy. Second, it aims at validating the traditional and new determinants of patent value with academic patents. The empirical analysis focuses on 208 patent families applied by six main Belgian Un...

  16. Simple vs. sophisticated approaches for patent prior-art search

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy, Walid; Lopez, Patrice; JONES, GARETH J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Patent prior-art search is concerned with finding all filed patents relevant to a given patent application. We report a comparison between two search approaches representing the state-of-the-art in patent prior-art search. The first approach uses simple and straightforward information retrieval (IR) techniques, while the second uses much more sophisticated techniques which try to model the steps taken by a patent examiner in patent search. Experiments show that the retrieval effectiveness us...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February...

  18. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  19. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  20. The cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  1. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  2. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  3. Ranking Patents for Better Search Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai VLASE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increasing number of patents worldwide makes the searchingin these vast databases a real challenge. In the present paper we present a method, basedon a computed rank that attempts to order the patents by a relevant order transforming along list of hundreds of search results into a list ordered by relevance.

  4. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk? PMID:10289283

  5. Patent protection and licensing in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer control over low-volume samples in order to achieve high-throughput analysis, and reduce turnaround time and costs. Their efficient commercialisation has implications for biomedical sciences, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. In particular, market diffusion of microfluidic laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic devices can contribute to the improvement of global health. In their commercialisation, consultancy and patent protection are essential elements that complement academic publishing. The awareness of knowledge transfer strategies can help academics to create value for their research. The aim of this article is to provide a guidance to (1) overview the terminology in patent law, (2) elucidate the process of filing a patent in the US, EU, Japan and internationally, (3) discuss strategies to licence a patent, and (4) explain tactics to defend a patent in a potential infringement. Awareness of the patent law and rights allows obtaining optimised, valid and valuable patents, while accelerating implementation to market route. Striking a balance between academic publishing, consultancy to industry and patent protection can increase commercial potential, enhance economic growth and create social impact. PMID:24825780

  6. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law. The...

  7. Patents and access to essential drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loff, Bebe

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of historical developments in patent law including its recent incorporation into world trade law. The impact of patents on access to essential drugs will be discussed. The relationship between intellectual property rights and the right to health will be considered. PMID:12886793

  8. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place.

  9. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Trademark Office, 37 CFR part 5; 1 or 1 Regulations issued by the Patent and Trademark Office in 37 CFR part 5 provide for the export to a foreign country of unclassified technical data in the form... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent applications. 734.10...

  10. Patent Office Hands Blackboard a Setback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In March the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a preliminary decision that could have significant ramifications for universities that use course-management software, as well as for the companies that make it. The "nonfinal" decision rejects all 44 claims Blackboard Inc. made for its controversial patent of an online-learning system.…

  11. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  12. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  13. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  14. Can drug patents be morally justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. The working of the patent system is an important determinant of access to drugs. This paper argues that drug patents are not easily justified and that the 'architecture' of the patent system should be rethought in view of its mission of benefiting society. PMID:15727003

  15. Patent foramen ovale: clinical manifestations and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gautam; Tobis, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    A persistent patent foramen ovale produces an intermittent intra-atrial right-to-left shunt and occurs in approximately 25% of the general population. Although the vast majority of people with patent foramen ovale are asymptomatic, a patent foramen ovale is believed to act as a pathway for chemicals or thrombus that can result in a variety of clinical manifestations, including stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The optimal management of patients with patent foramen ovale who experience cryptogenic stroke is unclear. Percutaneous closure appears to have a low risk profile and has been considered in high-risk patients who are not candidates for randomized clinical trials. Randomized clinical trials that are underway should help define the best management of patent foramen ovale, as well as the true safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure devices. PMID:18953276

  16. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standardization; cooperation with the Patent Office Republic of Poland in the areas of inventiveness and patents. (author)

  17. Development of Japanese Patent Stock and Citation-Weighted Patent Stock-An Application of HJT Model to Japanese Patent Data- (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Yamada

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops patent stock and citation-weighted patent stock using Japanese patent data. In constructing database, I refer to the method of the correction of truncation bias by Hall, Jaffe and Trajtenberg(2000,2001). However, due to the differences in patent systems between Japan and the United States, I cannot simply apply the method to Japanese data. I had to adjust the method suitable for Japanese patent system. In addition, I estimate the Cobb-Douglas production function including ...

  18. How rules and procedures for reviewing patent applications and those for enforcing patents can hamper patent quality and innovation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Prud'homme, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter finds that there are a variety of concerning rules and procedures for patent application review and enforcement of patent rights in China that hamper patent quality. These range from inadequate review systems to requirements and practices that generally weaken the efficiency and effectiveness of the patent enforcement environment, which in-turn ultimately somewhat discourage building of quality patents and related innovation in China.

  19. 辨明Patent Troll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建朋

    2012-01-01

    它,究竟是凶恶的巨怪,还是可爱的精灵? 它,竟究是正当的手段,还是无赖的工具? 长久以来,patent troll便是国外学术圈、实务界探讨的焦点话题之一,如今其又转到了国内,而近来表现的越发激烈。各派对其是否应当存在、存在合法与否等等进行了持续不休的讨论与争吵,

  20. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdeo R Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have been widely designed to increase its bioavailability and for treatment of cancers like breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so on. The common nanoformulated herbal medicines are Panax ginseng, Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum, Withania somnifera, Gymnema sylvestre, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and the like, having a profound future potential.

  1. Effectiveness and tolerability of abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine (ABC/3TC/NVP in a multicenter cohort of HIV-infected ARV-experienced patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Podzamczer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Very scarce information has been published to date with the combination of ABC/3TC/NVP but it is currently being used in clinical practice in many centers in Spain. Our aim was to present the clinical experience with this regimen in a cohort of adult HIV-infected pts. Methods: Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study. Consecutive adult HIV-infected ARV-experienced pts, HLA-B*5701-negative, who started ABC/3TC/NVP between 2005–2010, with at least one follow-up visit, were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were assessed at baseline, month 1, and every 3–4 months thereafter. The primary end point was HIV-1 viral load (VL <40 c/mL at 48 weeks. Data were analyzed by intent-to-treat (ITT (non-completer=failure and on treatment (OT. Summary of results: 227 pts were included and followed up for a median of 30 (0.5–76 months. 75% male, 47 (24–83 years, 21% AIDS, 13% HCV+, baseline CD4 570 (32–1404 cells/µL and VL undetectable in 90% with a median of <1.59 (<1.59–5.1 log. Most pts were receiving NVP (63%, ABC (25% or both (4% in the previous regimen. ABC/3TC/NVP was initiated due to toxicity (42%, simplification (35% or other reasons (22% including to reduce drug cost. After 48 weeks, VL was <40 c/mL in 82% (ITT and 94% (OT, and in 94% (OT after 96 weeks. CD4 increased +63 (p<0.001 and +77 (p<0.001 cells/µL after 48 and 96 weeks, respectively. One or more drugs of the regimen were discontinued in 18% of pts during follow up: toxicity (7%, virologic failure (3%, lost to follow-up (3%, unrelated death (0.4% or other reasons (4%. No significant differences were observed in ALT, AST, or triglyceride changes during follow up. A significant increase of 7%, 10% and 14% was observed in total cholesterol, LDLc and HDLc, and a significant decrease in TC/HDL ratio (−5%, p=0.004 after 96 weeks, respectively. Conclusions: In this particular cohort of ARV-experienced pts previously receiving NVP or ABC, a

  2. Teaching Chemistry Students How To Use Patent Databases and Glean Patent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Margy; Shaw, Lawton

    2008-07-01

    Patent literature is an important source of chemical information that is often neglected by chemical educators. This paper describes an effort to teach chemistry students how to use patent databases to search for information on applied chemical technology related to the manufacture of industrial and specialty chemicals. Students in a second-year-level organic chemistry class were shown how to search patent literature as part of a group research paper assignment that involved determining the feasibility of starting an industrial chemical operation to manufacture a given industrial chemical. Students who were assigned high value or specialty chemicals were most likely to cite patent literature in their final papers. Students who were assigned plastics or bulk commodity chemicals were less likely to cite patents. It is suggested that students made choices about the usefulness of patent literature and that patents were most useful when current patents existed and provided the patent owner a competitive advantage. For plastics or commodity chemicals, manufacturing technologies tend to be mature and are well described by more accessible information sources. Suggestions are made for effective introduction of patent literature instruction into upper-level chemistry courses.

  3. A Clustering Method of Highly Dimensional Patent Data Using Bayesian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghae Jun

    2012-01-01

    Patent data have diversely technological information of any technology field. So, many companies have managed the patent data to build their RD policy. Patent analysis is an approach to the patent management. Also, patent analysis is an important tool for technology forecasting. Patent clustering is one of the works for patent analysis. In this paper, we propose an efficient clustering method of patent documents. Generally, patent data are consisted of text document. The patent documents have...

  4. Note on a Heuristic Procedure to Identify the Most Valuable Chain of Patent Priority Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hsin Chang; Kuei-Kuei Lai; Wen-Goang Yang; Ming-Chung Yang

    2015-01-01

    A patent portfolio is more valuable than a single patent. However, the analysis approach of a company's patent portfolio is still ambiguous. The patent priority approach (PPA) presented a clearer analysis method to explore the interior of a patent family; patent families provide an outline of the patent portfolio. A patent priority analysis (PPA) could give a better picture of the patent portfolio path, and provide technical tracks through the patent family priorities. This paper evaluates th...

  5. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  6. Whither ink jet? Current patent trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Stephen F.; Karz, Robert S.

    1995-04-01

    The status and potential of ink jet technology is discernible in its major technical literature forum: worldwide patents. Most ink jet technical activity is focused in commercial research and development laboratories where proprietary considerations make patents the norm for publication. Currently there are about 2,000 ink jet disclosures issued annually with over 200 enterprises represented. Ink jet patent activity is increasing about 25% per year driven by a rapidly expanding base of products, applications, and revenue. An analysis of the ink jet patent literature reveals a few major themes (i.e. continuous ink jet, piezoelectric drop-on-demand, and thermal ink jet) and numerous minor ones (i.e. electrohydro-dynamic extraction, magnetic drop-on-demand, Hertz continuous, acoustic ink printing). Patents bear witness to transformations in the industry as dominant players of the 1970's have given way to new leaders in the 1990's. They also foretell important commercial developments in ink jet's near term future. When studied in aggregate, the patent record reveals patterns for the industry in general as well as for individual companies. It becomes possible to use the patent data base not only to identify technical approaches and problems for specific firms, but also to track progress and monitor changing strategies. In addition, international filing patterns can provide insights into industry priorities. This paper presents an overview of ink jet technology as revealed by the patent literature. It will include a 25 year perspective, a review of trends over the past five years, and a survey of today's most active companies and their technical approaches. With this analysis, it will be shown that the information inherent in the patent record is more than the sum of its individual disclosures. Indeed, by using it, we can outlook whither goes ink jet.

  7. HYDROLOGY AND LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY OF VERNAL POOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernal pools are shaped by hydrologic processes which influence many aspects of pool function. The hydrologic budget of a pool can be summarized by a water balance equation that relates changes in the amount of water in the pool to precipitation, ground- and surface-water flows, ...

  8. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  9. Exploring Contextual Models in Chemical Patent Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir

    We explore the development of probabilistic retrieval models for integrating term statistics with entity search using multiple levels of document context to improve the performance of chemical patent search. A distributed indexing model was developed to enable efficient named entity search and aggregation of term statistics at multiple levels of patent structure including individual words, sentences, claims, descriptions, abstracts, and titles. The system can be scaled to an arbitrary number of compute instances in a cloud computing environment to support concurrent indexing and query processing operations on large patent collections.

  10. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triest, van Sander; Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The pat

  11. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  12. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  13. 76 FR 11206 - Proposed Collection; Patent Examiner Employment Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Proposed Collection; Patent Examiner Employment Application ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450....

  14. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Patent and Trademark Office United States Patent Applicant Survey ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort.... Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office,...

  15. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... patent offices. Originally, the PPH program was limited to the utilization of search and examination... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...

  16. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ..., Public Search Services Division, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  17. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals...

  18. 76 FR 34062 - Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  19. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  1. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  4. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  5. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  6. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent...

  7. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  8. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  9. 77 FR 29340 - Intent To Grant Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... AGENCY Intent To Grant Patent License AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Intent to Grant Co-Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 207 (Patents) and 37 CFR part 404 (U.S. Government patent licensing regulations), EPA hereby gives notice of its intent to grant...

  10. 76 FR 3128 - Intent to Grant Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... AGENCY Intent to Grant Patent License AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Intent to Grant Co-Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 207 (Patents) and 37 CFR part 404 (U.S. Government patent licensing regulations), EPA hereby gives notice of its intent to grant...

  11. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  12. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for...

  13. Monitoring pool-tail fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, K.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fine sediment deposited in pool-tail areas of mountain streams is often measured to monitor changes in the supply of fines (e.g., by dam removal, bank erosion, or watershed effects including fires and road building) or to assess the status and trend of aquatic ecosystems. Grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric bedmaterial samples are typically used to quantify pool-tail fines. Grid-count results exhibit a high degree of variability not only among streams and among operators, but also among crews performing a nearly identical procedure (Roper et al. 2010). Variability is even larger when diverse methods are employed, each of which quantifies fines in a different way: grid counts visually count surface fines on small patches within the pool-tail area, pebble counts pick up and tally surface particles along (riffle) transects, and volumetric samples sieve out fines from small-scale bulk samples; and even when delimited to pool-tail areas, individual methods focus on different sampling locales. Two main questions were analyzed: 1) Do pool-tail fines exhibit patterns of spatial variability and are some grid count schemes more likely to provide accurate results than others. 2) How and why does the percentage of fines vary among grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric samples. In a field study, grids were placed at 7 locales in two rows across the wetted width of 10 pool tails in a 14-m wide 3rd order coarse gravel-bed mountain stream with banks, sometimes interrupted by a secondary peak of fines within the central half of the wetted width. Among the five sampling schemes tested, grid counts covering the wetted width with 7 locales produced the highest accuracy and the least variability among the pools of the reach. Pebble counts between the two waterlines indicated 2-3 times more fines than grid counts, likely because grid counts did not extend exactly up to the waterline. However, when confined to the central 50% of the wetted width, grid counts indicated 1.2 and

  14. Japan's Patent System and Business Innovation: Reassessing Pro-patent Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyuki Motohashi

    2003-01-01

    TSince current Japanese patent law was enacted in 1959, it has been revised several times, mainly for the purpose of international harmonization. Recently the Japanese government stresses the importance of pro-patent policies, i.e., strengthening intellectual property right in order to stimulate business innovation and to regain international competitiveness. This paper assesses the impact of series of revisions of Japanese patent system on firm's innovation activities, by using statistical d...

  15. Trends in Indian Patent Filing in Chemical Sciences: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Dahibhate,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the trends in Indian patents filed in the area of chemical sciences during 1995 to2008. It highlights the importance of patent literature in scientific developments and global trends in patentfilings. A result of Indian patent filing analysis indicated that filing in India is increasing in the past few yearsand many public and private organisations are filing patents in India and in other countries for protecting theinventions. Among India patent filing activities, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences are the prominent areas.Individual inventors and assignees from private and public organisations are filing patents, but in India, Councilof Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR is leading patent filer.

  16. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis of the...... existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  17. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of...

  18. Managing the patent thicket and maximizing patent lifetime in vaccine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Maria M M; Stötter, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Patents are exclusive rights for a limited period of time that are granted to provide an incentive for innovation and in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. Patenting in the medical field, especially in the field of human vaccine technologies, is full of pitfalls, because the products that finally access the market are often covered by a multitude of exclusive IP rights. This commentary gives an overview on obstacles in vaccine patenting and how to overcome them, and intends to provide a patenting guideline for researchers. PMID:20948289

  19. Patent law in dentistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  20. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities. PMID:15487813

  1. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented...... distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  2. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory that a...... function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence - the...... Wright brothers' warped-wing patent; second, that strict development block, defined as the prevention, or retardation of the development of technology understood to be capable of useful development, was not illustrated by any of their examples. Therefore I conclude that their general thesis is not...

  3. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... has made the determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that human drug...

  4. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Richard L.; Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets...

  5. Patent ductus venosus: diagnosis by MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 15-year-old boy with patent ductus venosus in whom the diagnosis was made by MR angiography. A patent ductus venosus Arantii is a rare form of portosystemic shunt. Only a few cases have been reported in adults and children. The diagnosis is usually made by US and digital subtraction angiography. In our patient, the diagnosis was first made by MR angiography. This demonstrates the excellent diagnostic potential of the method in paediatric patients. (orig.)

  6. Strategic management of innovation and patenting performances

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Carine; Van Pottelsberghe, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to the literature on the determinants of firms' patenting performances. In this respect it puts forward several new hypotheses related to the relationship between the strategic management of innovation and patenting performances. It relies on an original survey questionnaire on innovation competencies, innovation strategy and the perceived innovation barriers of 148 large firms in Belgium. The econometric results confirm several hypotheses already tested in th...

  7. India’s patent laws under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Roderick, Peter; Pollock, Allyson M

    2016-01-01

    Pending cases against India's patent laws threaten public health and misinterpret international intellectual property agreements. In trying to limit compulsory licences and avoid efficacy tests on products, the Bayer and Novartis cases are seeking to undermine public health considerations aimed at improving access and therapeutic advantage. The TRIPS Agreement does not limit the grounds on which compulsory licences can be granted, and does not prevent patent applicants from having to ...

  8. Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Economists and policy makers have long recognized that innovators must be able to appropriate a reasonable portion of the social benefits of their innovations if innovation is to be suitably rewarded and encouraged. However, this paper identifies a number of specific fact patterns under which the current U.S. patent system allows patent holders to capture private rewards that exceed their social contributions. Such excessive patentee rewards are socially costly, since they raise the deadweigh...

  9. Patents as Signals for Startup Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Conti; Jerry Thursby; Thursby, Marie C

    2013-01-01

    We examine the role of patents as signals used to reduce information asymmetries in entrepreneurial finance. A theoretical model gives conditions for a unique separating equilibrium in which startup founders file for patents to signal invention quality to investors, as well as appropriating value. The theory allows for heterogeneous investors and examine the optimal match of different types of startups, as defined by the quality of their technology, to investors who differ in the amount of no...

  10. Patent Licensing in Selected European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wisła, Rafał; Sierotowicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the commercialization of patents, as an exemplification of the industrial property, is mostly considered at the microeconomic level. Patent commercialization belongs to the innovation management process, which takes place in innovative organizations. Such microeconomic research approach does not take into account the phenomenon of the intellectual property simultaneous spread and use of scientific and technical knowledge in the economy. These observations lead to u...

  11. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  12. Software Patent and its Impact on Software Innovation in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the software patent system has been reformed and now software has become a patentable subject matter. In this paper, this pro-patent shift on software is surveyed and its impact on software innovation is analyzed. Before the 1990's, inventions related to software could not be patented by themselves, but they could be applied when combined with hardware related inventions. Therefore, integrated electronics firms used to be the major software patent applicants. However, during the per...

  13. Relationships between Claim Structure and the Competitiveness of a Patent

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Miyazawa; Hiroshi Osada

    2010-01-01

    A patent’s competitiveness becomes crucial for the enforcement of patent right to protect business and ensure profits of companies. This study quantitatively analyses patent applications related to patent infringement lawsuits filed in trial courts in Japan. The total number of independent claims (k) and the maximum number of independent claims within a single claim category (l) at the time of filing patent applications of winning patents are found to have significant positive correlation w...

  14. Are Patent Litigation Insurances Fit for the Dynamics of Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ben Lakhdar

    2005-01-01

    Patent insurance policies allow firms to externalise the legal cost in case of conflicts. These litigation insurances may incite innovators to sue more often, which would increase the social cost of litigation. By modelling a patent file, we show that these patent litigation insurances incite innovators to claim for wider breadth patent too. Wider breadth patents could lead to an increased number of legal conflicts but could also lead to a slackening in the process of innovation improvement. ...

  15. PROFITING FROM INVENTION: BUSINESS MODELS OF PATENT AGGREGATING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    CAROL A. KRECH; FRAUKE RÜTHER; OLIVER GASSMANN

    2015-01-01

    Patent aggregating companies are institutions that aggregate patents for different purposes. From a managerial perspective as well as a theoretical perspective, it is interesting to understand what value such novel business models provide to inventing companies. In this paper we focus on the question how patent holders can use patent aggregating companies as means to capture value from their inventions. Therefore the business models of patent aggregating companies need to be understood. Exist...

  16. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting, because they often do not have in-house specialists dealing with patent issues. Our research reveals that the most important reasons why SMEs do not use patent information are: (i) costs; (ii) unclear p...

  17. Technology Sourcing Through Acquisitions Do High Quality Patents Attract Acquires?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses how patent quality impacts the likelihood of acquisition. If a firm owns high quality or valuable patents, other firms may be interested in buying the firm to obtain the ownership of these patents. To proxy the quality of patents, we use both forward and backward citations. Moreover, our data enables us to distinguish between cross-border and domestic targets. Multinomial logit estimations show that owning patents correlates with becoming a target for a foreign firm. The s...

  18. Patent business guide in a domestic and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains general things on industrial property right, which includes description of industrial property right, types, qualification for application of patent, application guide, on-line application, useful procedure of application, writing methods and samples for application of patents such as design patent and trademarks patent, writing skill and examples for registration, writing ways and examples related examination and writing tips and samples on international application of patent.

  19. Essays on the empirical analysis of patent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zeebroeck, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    1. The context: The European patent system has been affected by substantial changes over the past three decades, which have raised vigorous debates at different levels. The main objective of the present dissertation is to contribute to these debates through an exploratory analysis of different changes in patenting practices – in particular the way applications are drafted and filed to patent offices –, their drivers, association with the value of patents, and potential impact on the patent sy...

  20. The patents retrieval prototype in the MOLTO project

    OpenAIRE

    Chechev, Milen; González Bermúdez, Meritxell; Màrquez Villodre, Lluís; España Bonet, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the patents retrieval prototype developed within the MOLTO project. The prototype aims to provide a multilingual natural language interface for querying the content of patent documents. The developed system is focused on the biomedical and pharmaceutical domain and includes the translation of the patent claims and abstracts into English, French and German. Aiming at the best retrieval results of the patent information and text content, patent documents are preprocessed...

  1. Severallssues in the Practice of Design Patent Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Subject Matter Protected by the Design Patent Right For any legal relation to be viable there must be three elements; the subject,subject matter and content. What the subject matter protected by the design patent right is one of the basic issues of the design patent system in China. However,in the design patent examination, we have found that many parties and even senior patent attorneys have many misconceptions about the issue.

  2. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991–2008 have been examined using the “title–abstract” keyword search on esp@cenet “worldwide” database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People’s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the larges...

  3. The nucleate pool boiling dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the scatter of experimental data is due to the history and machining finish of the heated surface. All experimental pool boiling data published to date, which does not specify precisely the characteristics of the heated surface cannot be expected to provide reliable design information. (U.K.)

  4. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  5. Patent Foramen Ovale and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yee-Ping; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-07-25

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is common and found in nearly 25% of healthy individuals. The majority of patients with PFO remain asymptomatic and they are not at increased risk for developing a stroke. The presence of PFO, however, has been found to be higher in patients with cryptogenic stroke, suggesting there may be a subset of patients with PFO who are indeed at risk for stroke. Paradoxical embolization of venous thrombi through the PFO, which then enter the arterial circulation, is hypothesized to account for this relationship. Although aerated-saline transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis, aerated-saline transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial Doppler are often used as the initial diagnostic tests for detecting PFO. Patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO are generally treated with antiplatelet therapy in the absence of another condition for which anticoagulation is necessary. Based on the findings of 3 large randomized clinical trials, current consensus guidelines do not recommend percutaneous closure, though this is an area of controversy. The following review discusses the relationship of PFO and cryptogenic stroke, focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic tools, associated clinical/anatomic factors and treatment. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1665-1673). PMID:27334127

  6. A Patent Analysis on Realistic Media for R&D Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Hyun; Yeon, Seung-Jun

    In this paper, we use patent statistics as the recent status of R&D in international patents. The number of patents was used to compare different countries' share in the overall number of technology patents. Using the degree of patent citations, the influence and technological prowess of patents were examined. Also, implications were drawn from an analysis of patent contents for realistic media.

  7. You can patent that? Are patents on computer programs and business methods good for the new economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Hunt

    2001-01-01

    In other parts of the economy, firms are increasingly turning to patents to protect not just physical inventions but more abstract ones such as computer programs or ways of doing business. Just two decades ago such patents would have been impossible to obtain, let alone enforce. In "You Can Patent That? Are Patents on Computer Programs and Business Methods Good for the New Economy?" Bob Hunt describes the changes in patent law that have given rise to this phenomenon.

  8. The diffusion of patented oil and gas technology with environmental uses: A forward patent citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relevant advances in the mitigation of environmental impact could be obtained by the appropriate diffusion of existing environmental technologies. In this paper, we look at the diffusion of knowledge related to environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. To assess knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions as a measure of technology diffusion, we rely on forward patent citations methodology. Results show that there is a strong likelihood that the citing patent will be eventually linked to environmental technologies if the original oil and gas invention has already environmental uses. Moreover, both intra and intersectoral spillovers produce a “turnabout” effect, meaning that citing patents show the opposite quality level of the cited patent. Our results support the idea that more sector-specific environmental policies, with an emphasis on diffusion, would significantly improve the use of environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. -- Highlights: •Knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions are of an intrasectoral nature. •Environmental uses in original patents diffuse to patents with environmental uses. •The “turnabout” effect converts low quality patents into high quality citing patents. •Diffusion of oil and gas inventions need more ad hoc instruments

  9. Patent indicators for macroeconomic growth—the value of patents estimated by export volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frietsch, Rainer; Neuhäusler, Peter; Jung, Taehyun; Looy, Van Bart

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the linkage between patenting and export performance for selected countries at the level of technology fields. Some empirical studies show considerable correlation between the patenting behavior of countries and their economic success in international markets. Adding to the exist

  10. Published patent applications and patents from the promoted R + D area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany has sponsored technological R + D for industrial innovations since 1969. The following compilation includes the published patent applications and patents from all projects which were sponsored up to and including 1973. (orig.)

  11. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

  12. Effectiveness and tolerability of abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine (ABC/3TC/NVP in a multicentre cohort of HIV-infected, ARV-naïve patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Podzamczer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Very scarce information has been published to date with the combination of ABC/3TC/NVP but it is currently being used in clinical practice in Spain and Portugal. Our aim was to present the clinical experience with this regimen in a cohort of adult HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV-naïve patients. Methods: Retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Consecutive adult HIV-infected ARV-naïve HLA-B*5701-negative patients, who started ABC/3TC/NVP between 2005-2013, with at least one follow-up visit, were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were assessed at baseline, month 1, and every three–four months thereafter. The primary end point was HIV-1 viral load (VL<40 c/mL at 48 weeks. Data were analyzed by intent-to-treat (ITT (switch=failure, and missing=failure and on treatment (OT analyses. Results: 78 patients were included. Median follow up was 26 (0.1-84 months. 86% were male, median age 41 (23-69 years, 9% had AIDS, 8% were HCV+, baseline CD4 was 275 (10-724 cells/µL and median VL 4.58 (3.02-6.92 log. After 48 weeks, VL was<40 c/mL in 89.8% (OT, 79.7% (M=F and 65.4% (S=F and at 96 weeks in 88.5%, 78.9% and 61.6%, respectively. CD4 increased +246 (p<0.001 and +292 (p<0.001 cells/uL after 48 and 96 weeks, respectively. One or more drugs of the regimen were discontinued in 33 (42.3% patients. In 15 (19.2% patients (13 NVP, 2 ABC/3TC therapy was stopped due to toxicity after a median of one month (in only two cases after six months of follow up: 80% of them had rash/liver toxicity. Six (7.7% patients discontinued ART due to virologic failure, five (6.4% because of other reasons and seven (9% were lost to follow-up. ALT but not AST significantly increased (+0.07 ukat/L at 96 weeks, p=0.033. A significant increase of 25%, 26% and 42% in total cholesterol, LDLc and HDLc, respectively, and a significant decrease in TC/HDL ratio (6%, p=0.008 was observed after 96 weeks. Conclusions: Despite a considerable proportion of

  13. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  14. A Consensual Linear Opinion Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We propose a pooling method to aggregate expert opinions. Intuitively, it works as if the experts were continuously updating their opinions in order to accommodate the expertise of others. Each updated opinion takes the form of a linear opinion pool, where the weight that an expert assigns to a peer's opinion is inversely related to the distance between their opinions. In other words, experts are assumed to prefer opinions that are close to their own opinions. We prove that such an updating process leads to consensus, i.e., the experts all converge towards the same opinion. Further, we show that if experts are rewarded using the quadratic scoring rule, then the above mentioned assumption follows naturally. We empirically demonstrate the efficacy of our method using real-world data.

  15. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  16. Essential vernal pool habitat action plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Vernal pool ecosystem conservation and recovery requires the recovery team to develop methods to determine the distribution of vernal pool types throughout the...

  17. Extending the market exclusivity of therapeutic antibodies through dosage patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Dosage patents are one way to extend the market exclusivity of an approved drug beyond the lifetime of the patent that protects the drug as such. Dosage patents may help to compensate the applicant for the long period where the active pharmaceutical ingredient as such is already under patent prosecution, but not on the market yet, due to lengthy development and approval procedures. This situation erodes part of the time the drug is marketed under patent protection. Dosage patents filed at a later date can provide remedy for this problem. Examples of successful and unsuccesful attempts, and the reasons for the respective outcomes, are provided in this article. PMID:27115842

  18. On the price elasticity of demand for patents

    OpenAIRE

    de Rassenfosse, Gaétan; VAN POTTELSBERGHE Bruno

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether patent fee policies are a potential factor underlying the boom in patent applications observed in major patent offices. We provide the first panel-based evidence suggesting that fees affect the demand for patents in three major patent offices (EPO, USPTO and JPO), with a price elasticity of about -0.4 (similar to that of the residential demand for oil or water). The laxity of fee policies adopted by patent offices over the past 25 years therefore contributed, t...

  19. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  20. R&D Competition and Optimal Patent Design

    OpenAIRE

    Innchan Lee

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies on optimal patent design calls for diflerent patent breadth-length combinations. This is because their models are based on different nature of competition in the patented product market. This paper explores other key determinants of optimal patent design. This paper shows that optimal patent design depends not only on the nature of competition in the patented product market but also on the nature of R&D technology and the degree of R&D competition.

  1. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... its route distribution in this marketing area for 3 consecutive months or if the plant is required to... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... its route distribution in this marketing area for 3 consecutive months or if the plant is required to... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... its route distribution in this marketing area for 3 consecutive months or if the plant is required to... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a majority of its route distribution in this marketing area for 3 consecutive months or if the plant... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants...

  5. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created

  6. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship. PMID:26054209

  7. Living things, the human genome, and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warcoin, J

    2001-12-01

    For many years, patents and living things have not gotten along well in people's minds; nevertheless, patents are a real right. Even though people accept that a farmer can own a cow or that a Parisian can own a dog, they do not seem to understand that it is possible to patent a recombinant micro-organism or a DNA sequence. This is probably because industrial property is a hybrid concept, which mixes rights and science. Thus, this field is prone to misunderstanding by scientists and jurists, because of its juridical aspects for the former and because of its scientific aspects for the latter. The general public,as a result has two avenues of extravagant questioning to follow and consider. Finally, if industrial property is applied to a living phenomenon, it is often almost impossible to explain in layman's terms the ins and outs of the problems that may arise. PMID:11838955

  8. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. PMID:26542789

  9. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  10. Nanocellulose patents trends: a comprehensive review on patents on cellulose nanocrystals, microfibrillated and bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreau, Hernan; Foresti, Maria L; Vazquez, Analia

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanoparticles (i.e. cellulose elements having at least one dimension in the 1-100 nm range) have received increasing attention during the last decade. This is not only evident in academic articles, but it is also manifested by the increasing number of nanocellulose patents that are published every year. In the current review, nanocellulose patents are reviewed using specific software which provides valuable information on the annual number of patents that have been published throughout the years, main patent owners, most prolific inventors, and patents on the field that have received more citations. Patent statistics on rod-like cellulose nanoparticles extracted from plants by acid hydrolysis (nanocrystals), mechanical treatment leading to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), and microbially produced nanofibrils (bacterial cellulose, BC) are analyzed in detail. The aim of the current review is to provide researchers with patent information which may help them in visualizing the evolution of nanocellulose technology, both as a whole and also divided among the different nanosized particles that are currently the subject of outstanding scientific attention. Then, patents are not only analyzed by their content, but also by global statistics which will reveal the moment at which different cellulose nanoparticles technologies achieved a breakthrough, the relative interest received by different nanocellulose particles throughout the years, the companies that have been most interested in this technology, the most prolific inventors, and the patents that have had more influence in further developments. It is expected that the results showing the explosion that nanocellulose technology is experiencing in current days will still bring more research on the topic and contribute to the expansion of nanocellulosics applications. PMID:22747719

  11. Scientometric study of patent literature in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Biglu, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-01-01

    A scientometric study was performed to assess the quantitative trend of patent literature in MEDLINE throughout 1965-2005. The kind of languages, publication type, journals, and the origin of published documents were presented. The study showed that the growth of patent literature in MEDLINE with an annual growth of 11.4% was 3.6 times higher than the common growth of the MEDLINE database which had an annual growth of 3.1% through 1965-2005. More than 90% of all documents indexed as "pa...

  12. Synthetic biology, patenting, health and global justice

    OpenAIRE

    Belt, van den, H.

    2011-01-01

    The legal and moral issues that synthetic biology (SB) and its medical applications are likely to raise with regard to intellectual property (IP) and patenting are best approached through the lens of a theoretical framework highlighting the “co-construction” or “co-evolution” of patent law and technology. The current situation is characterized by a major contest between the so-called IP frame and the access-to-knowledge frame. In SB this contest is found in the contrasting approaches of Craig...

  13. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  14. POOL development status and production experience

    CERN Document Server

    Chytracek, R; Frank, M; Girone, M; Govi, G; Moscicki, J T; Papadopoulos, I; Schmücker, H; Karr, K; Malon, D; Vaniachine, A; Tanenbaum, W; Xie, Z; Barrass, T; Cioffi, C; IT

    2005-01-01

    The pool of persistent objects for LHC (POOL) project, part of the large Hadron collider (LHC) computing grid (LCG), is now entering its third year of active development. POOL provides the baseline persistency framework for three LHC experiments. It is based on a strict component model, insulating experiment software from a variety of storage technologies. This paper gives a brief overview of the POOL architecture, its main design principles and the experience gained with integration into LHC experiment frameworks. It also presents recent developments in the POOL works areas of relational database abstraction and object storage into relational database management systems (RDBMS) systems.

  15. Mapping Iranian patents based on International Patent Classification (IPC), from 1976 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza; Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa

    2012-01-01

    Patents are used as an indicator to assess the growth of science and technology in a given country or area. They are being examined to determine research potentials of research centers, universities, and inventors. The aim of this study is to map the past and current trends in patenting activities with a view to better understanding and tracking the changing nature of science and technology in Iran. The patenting activity in the Iran was investigated for the period 1976–2011, based on the USP...

  16. Patentability of Stem Cells in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrick, Sarah E; Zuhn, Donald L

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, the patentability of stem cells was well established within the judicial and statutory framework in the United States. However, the shifting landscape of patent law, particularly with regard to patent-eligible subject matter under 35 U.S.C. §101, presents new challenges to the patentability of stem cells. In this paper, we discuss the legal precedent that paved the way for stem cell patents, including Diamond v. Chakrabarty and In re Bergy. Additionally, we review recent Supreme Court cases and recent guidance issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office that impose new limitations on patent-eligible subject matter and thereby threaten the patentability of stem cells in the United States. PMID:26292987

  17. Why challenge the ivory tower? New evidence on the basicness of academic patents

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2009-01-01

    While often presumed in academic literature and policy discussions there is little empirical evidence showing that academic patents protect more basic inventions than corporate patents. This study provides new evidence on the basicness of academic patents using German professor patents linked to patent opposition data from the European Patent Office (EPO). Patent oppositions are the most important mechanism by which the validity of patents filed at the EPO can be challenged. Controlling for p...

  18. A top-down appraoch to patent mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Atherton, MA

    2012-01-01

    Patent mapping [1] is an attempt to present competitive patent information in graphical form for strategic decision-making purposes. Currently, patent mapping is a bottom-up process, starting from the structured data recorded in patents, through data mining, and ending at multidimensional graphs. A problem is that, as databases expand and consequently mining methods become complicated, the resultant increase in dimensions of visualisations make interpretations more difficult. In f...

  19. Patent Protection with Cooperative R&D Option

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Xiaogang; Yang, Yibai

    2009-01-01

    We investigate R&D incentive under patent protection with cooperation option. Chowdhury [Economics Letters, 2005, 89(1), 120-126] claims that patent protection may decrease R&D incentive when the tournament effect (TE) is negative. However, We show that patent protection in the presence of R&D cooperation option always increases R&D incentive. In addition, to increase R&D incentive, this option strictly dominates imitation and may dominate royalty licensing under patent protection, introduced...

  20. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  1. The Patent Troll Business: An Efficient model to enforce IPR?

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Tim; Opitz, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    Patent trolls have many faces, since the media uses this expression in various ways. The patent troll phenomenon thus seems to be an ambiguous term that is discussed in several directions. This paper reveals that a patent troll as such has no distinct shape or appearance. Our analysis redeems a troll classification solely from firms’ market position, such as being non-practicing, and shows that a patent troll business can only be defined by the respective activities to enforce IPR. Using 1...

  2. Estimates of Firms' Patent Rents from Firm Market Value

    OpenAIRE

    James Bessen

    2006-01-01

    A simple formal model shows that estimates of an upper bound on the value of firms' patent rents can be obtained from regressions on Tobin's Q. I test this model on a sample of US firms and find it is robust to a variety of considerations. The estimates correspond well with implied estimates derived from previous research. Also, these upper bound estimates are only modestly higher than estimates of patent value obtained from data on patent renewals international patent filings. This suggests ...

  3. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Luo, Shenq-Yih

    2007-01-01

    Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index) and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office) was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellec...

  4. Academic Patenting in Europe: New Evidence from the KEINS Database.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Lissoni; Patrick Llerena; Maureen McKelvey; Bulat Sanditov

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides summary statistics from the KEINS database on academic patenting in France, Italy, and Sweden. It shows that academic scientists in those countries have signed many more patents than previously estimated. This re‐evaluation of academic patenting comes by considering all patents signed by academic scientists active in 2004, both those assigned to universities and the many more held by business companies, governmental organizations, and public laboratories. Specific instituti...

  5. Prizes, Patents, and Technology Procurement: A Proposed Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Timothy J.; Macauley, Molly; Whitefoot, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Policy and entrepreneurial communities are increasingly promoting innovation by using prizes but their distinguishing features remain inadequately understood. Models of patents treat winning a patent as winning a prize; other models distinguish prizes primarily as public lump-sum (re)purchase of a patent. We examine advantages of prizes based on the ability to customize rewards, manage competition, generate publicity, and cover achievements otherwise not patentable. We compare prizes to paten...

  6. Inklusion og negativ social arv

    OpenAIRE

    Didriksen, Christine Hallier

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the problem with the high numbers of pupils that in recent years has been excreted to special education in primary school. Based on this, the government adopted a law about inclusion in April this year. Now the pupils who received less than 9 special education lessons per week, should be included in the general class and no longer receive special education. I will look into the law of inclusion and analyze if this law is in the best interest of children with difficulti...

  7. Impacto cultural de los proyectos de desarrollo. Parque Regional Ecoturístico Arví. Corregimiento de Santa Elena, municipio de Medellín: Propuesta de evaluación

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Madrigal, John Jader

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: se analiza la alteración de la dinámica cultural con la inclusión del proyecto de desarrollo Parque Regional Ecoturístico Arví en el corregimiento de Santa Elena – Medellín, en el marco de entendimiento del concepto de configuración cultural, a través de cuatro indicadores cualitativos relacionados con la comprensión del territorio, las redes culturales, la actitud social frente a los espacios públicos y la percepción patrimonial. Los resultados de esta tarea, fueron evaluados a la l...

  8. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Akhondi

    Full Text Available Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  9. 76 FR 55364 - Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees ACTION: Proposed collection... Office (USPTO) charges fees for maintaining in force all utility patents based on applications filed on or after December 12, 1980. Payment of these maintenance fees is due at 3\\1/2\\, 7\\1/2\\, and...

  10. Biotechnology Firms Gird for Clash over Patent Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, David

    1984-01-01

    Examines issues and trends related to biotechnology patents, providing data that show that foreign concerns have gained a large share of United States patents. Also lists the number of patents assigned to companies, foreign countries, and universities during 1983 and 1984. (JN)

  11. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting, becau

  12. 77 FR 64315 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Provisional Patent...

  13. 77 FR 48755 - Office Patent Trial Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... the public an opportunity to comment. Practice Guide for Proposed Trial Rules, 77 FR 6868 (Feb. 9... August 14, 2012 Part V Department of Commerce Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 42 Office Patent... and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 42...

  14. 10 CFR 603.840 - Negotiating data and patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiating data and patent rights. 603.840 Section 603... patent rights. (a) The contracting officer must confer with program officials and assigned intellectual... that would support modification of standard patent and data terms, and should include...

  15. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assure that subcontracts appropriately address patent indemnity. (b) Normally, the clause at 48 CFR 52... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3...

  16. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest....

  17. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  18. 77 FR 22298 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Summary: Pursuant to the provisions....S. Patent No. 7,391,877, issued 24 June 2008, entitled ``Spatial Processor for Enhanced Performance... for the patent unless a written objection is received within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  19. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation....

  20. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  1. 45 CFR 650.5 - Special patent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special patent provisions. 650.5 Section 650.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.5 Special patent provisions. At the request of the prospective awardee or on recommendation...

  2. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  3. 48 CFR 28.105-2 - Patent infringement bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent infringement bonds... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 28.105-2 Patent infringement bonds. (a) Contracts providing for patent indemnity may require these bonds only if— (1)...

  4. 75 FR 63443 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(c)(1) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  5. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Pursuant to the provisions of Part.... Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC AND...-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC...

  6. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.204 - Patent and data rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent and data rights. 1214.204 Section... Substantial Investment in the STS Program § 1214.204 Patent and data rights. (a) When accommodating missions... purposes rights to inventions, patents and data resulting from such missions, subject to the...

  8. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  9. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  10. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  11. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  12. 43 CFR 6.7 - Domestic patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic patent protection. 6.7 Section 6.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.7 Domestic patent protection. (a) The Solicitor, upon determining that an invention...

  13. 78 FR 61185 - Patent and Trademark Office Acquisition Guidelines (PTAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... 10, 2003 [68 FR 25, 2/ 6/03, effective 3/10/03]. This PTAG will be effective as of October 3, 2013... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I Patent and Trademark Office Acquisition Guidelines (PTAG) AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  15. 78 FR 48158 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... AGENCY Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the U.S. patent entitled PROCESS FOR THE BIODEGRADATION OF HYDROCARBONS AND ETHERS IN SUBSURFACE SOIL...,893 on March 25, 2003 and issued as U.S. Patent 7,252,986 on August 7, 2007 to Foremost...

  16. 77 FR 49354 - Revision of Patent Term Adjustment Provisions Relating to Appellate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Implement 20-Year Patent Term and Provisional Applications, 60 FR 20195 (Apr. 25, 1995) (twenty-year patent... September of 2000. See Changes to Implement Patent Term Adjustment Under Twenty-Year Patent Term, 65 FR..., 2000. See Changes to Implement Patent Term Adjustment Under Twenty-Year Patent Term, 65 FR at...

  17. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  18. Patent Aggregation Strategy: A new strategic type%专利集中战略:一种新的战略类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓东; 孟奇勋

    2011-01-01

    It is hard for traditional patent strategy theory to explain why the emerging strategy model appears in the patent exchange market. After analyzing the offensive aggregation and defensive aggregation strategy taken by foreign patent holding companies, the author put forward the conception of patent aggregation strategy and defined it. Patent aggregation strategy is the inevitable choice of the combined action of open innovation and specialization, which shows the process in which the companies gradually recognize the value of patent. The main characteristics of its evolution are: from individual patents to patent portfolio; from a single company to a patent pool, and from patent production to patent business. Confronted both the opportunities and risks brought by patent aggregation strategy, the government has to make effective decision at the policy level in China.%传统的专利战略理论难以有效解释专利交易市场上出现的新兴战略模式.通过考察国外专利经营公司采取的进攻型和防御型专利集聚两种战略类型,本文提出了"专利集中战略"的概念框架并对其内涵予以界定.专利集中战略是开放式创新和专业化分工共同作用的必然选择,也反映出公司对专利价值认识的逐渐深化过程.其演化特质体现在:一是从单项专利到专利组合;二是从单个企业到专利联盟;三是从专利产品到专利经营.面对专利集中战略带来的机遇和风险,我国有必要在政策层面加以有效应对.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Program Awards and Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Award-winning technologies and processes are hallmarks of the programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and industrial partners. Awards, patents, and other recognition validate the products of research undertaken as part of the Vehicle Technologies Program.

  20. Plant biotechnological patents from the legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abdullah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which plant biotechnological patent in terms of natural product which has human intervention, different from other product and the entitlement of such a patent whether it is the inventor or biological donor s patent? In addition, the article discusses how would one determine the value added” by the company s researchers as opposed to the value contributed by the original genetic material. Meanwhile, the poor farmers and indigenous people who are the pioneers in terms of the knowledge of the plant, they are left unprivileged and deprived of their contribution and benefits. Thus, this article would highlight the significance of the contribution made by the original donor especially, in a poor developing country whose natural heritage has been taken away without any consideration, acknowledgment and how to strike a balance between the rights of an inventor and biological donor? Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Patents, Inventor, Biological Donor, Developing countries Received: 7 July 2009 / Received in revised form: 28 August 2009, Accepted: 28 August 2009, Published online: 22 September 2009