WorldWideScience

Sample records for arvs patent pool

  1. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-19

    , other better formulations and second line ARVs for adults and more drugs and formulations for paediatric groups, that are still to be widely available in India and other developing countries. To examine whether strong intellectual property (IP) protection systems are to be considered important barriers for the limited or lack of access to ARVs, we studied the patent profile of the ARVs of the originator companies within and outside India. We could record 93 patents in the United States Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO). The originator companies have been also aggressively filing and enforcing patents in India. There have been a few efforts by companies like Gilead and GSK to grant licenses to generic manufacturers in developing countries, ostensibly to promote access to ARVs through lower (two-tier) pricing. These steps are considered as too little and too late. There is an urgent need to look for alternative strategies to promote access to ARVs both linked to and independent of IPRs. Patent pooling as a viable strategy mooted by the UNITAID should be seriously explored to promote access to ARVs. India is ideally suited for trying out the patent pool strategy as most of the global requirement of affordable ARV drugs for HIV/AIDS treatment is sourced from Indian generic companies.

  2. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  3. Püsiühenduste arv kasvas aastaga poole võrra / Tõnu Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Tõnu, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Uuringufirma Point Topic andmetel oli 30. septembri 2004. a. seisuga Interneti püsiühenduste arv maailmas 136,4 miljonit. Diagrammid: Püsiühendustega leibkondade osakaal (%) Euroopas; 512 Kb/s allalaadimiskiirusega püsiühenduse kuutasu (eurodes)

  4. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms : The effects of patent pools and industry consortia on the interplay between patents and technological standards

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Justus; Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010-13; This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical i...

  5. Innovation Effect on Patent Pool Formation:Empirical Case of Philips’ Patents in Digital Versatile Disc 3C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand the evolution of a patent pool over time, focusing on an individual firm. The legitimacy of patent pools requires a careful balance between innovation incentives, anti-competitive possibilities and consumer surpluses. Thus, it is an empirically important issue whether a patent pool continues to maintain this carefully struck balance even as the mix of its patent assets continues to evolve. The particular focus of this study is to examine the quality and quantity of Phillips’ patent holdings within the DVD 3C patent pool in order to understand the extent of the firm’s innovation within that patent pool over its lifetime, measured by four indicators that previous scholars have linked to the notion of patent quality. The result shows that, while the four indicators of patent quality varied, they together reveal that the breadth of exclusivity expanded significantly during the life of the patent pool, but that this expansion represented little innovative activity. Most of the patents issued post-formation are extensions of patents granted before pool-formation.

  6. Social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    Denne publikation er det første arbejdspapir/rapport i serien om forskningsprojektet "Handlekompetence i pædagogisk arbejde med socialt udsatte børn og unge - indsats og effekt (HPA-projektet). Social arv og det deraf afledte begreb om 'udsatte børn', som er det samfundsproblem, der danner rammen...... om HPA-projektets intervenstionsdel og -analyser er ikke et entydigt begreb. Formålet med papiret er derfor at indkredse diskussionen om social arv set som reproduktion af ulighed og på den baggrund belyse relevante indikatorer som kan tjene som baggrundvariable i studiet af effekter i relation til...... samfundets institutionelle mulighder for at skabe fornyelse på det sociale område gennem social intervention...

  7. Open Invention Network: A Defensive Patent Pool for Open Source Projects and Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how patents impact innovation within free/libre open source software (F/LOSS businesses and projects. The number of software patent suits brought each year is increasing and is diverting millions of dollars in funds from developers to lawyers. With patent suits on the rise, the US Supreme Court has left the F/LOSS community in a position where it must either wait years for legislation or address the issue of patent suits itself. However, defending the Linux kernel and related technologies is a different challenge than the one that faces proprietary software businesses. This article describes Open Invention Network, an initiative that is designed to meet the particular challenges facing the F/LOSS community and businesses by providing a defensive patent pool.

  8. Social opdrift - social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per

    "Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...

  9. Heideggers sorte arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Gosvig

    2015-01-01

    Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker......Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker...

  10. Operating Mechanism of Patent Pools in Biotechnology Industry%生物技术产业专利联盟运行机制比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 宋伟

    2011-01-01

    现代专利联盟几乎都出自电子、通信等技术标准化趋势愈演愈烈的产业,而在专利堆叠情况十分严重的生物技术产业却没有如人们所预计的那样出现大量的专利联盟.本文选取现有生物技术产业两种典型的专利联盟运行机制进行比较研究,分析两种机制存在的阻碍因素,并对我国生物技术产业专利联盟的发展提出相关的建议和对策.%Almost all modern patent pools come from the electronics and telecommunications industries because the industries have undergone extensive and in-depth standardization. On the other hand, the biotechnology industry is having serious patent stacking problems and has not witnessed a large number of patent pools as expected. This paper is a research on two typical operating mechanisms of patent pools in the current biotechnology industry. Then, the paper analyzes factors that hinder the two mechanisms. Finally, it puts forward relevant suggestions and countermeasures on patent pools in development of the biotechnology industry in China.

  11. 单一市场结构下专利联盟的市场绩效分析%Analysis of the Market Performance of Patent Pool in Single-Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅开; 杜晓君; 杨昆明

    2009-01-01

    Two duopoly firms with the perfect complementary patents may conduct three types of patent transaction, they are no patent licensing, cross licensing, patent pools licensing respectively. This paper computes the market performance of three types of patent transaction by building a two-stage dynamic game model, and analyzes the merits and demerits of three types of patent transaction standing the point of the company and the society. In conclusion, patent pools licensing is the most effective type of patent transaction from the company's perspective, because the patent pools licensing makes the most producer surplus; The government should testify and pilot the construction of patent pools from the perspective of the society, because the patent pools may impair the benefit of consumer by reducing the consumer surplus.%拥有互补性专利的双寡头厂商可以进行三种方式的专利交易,分别是无专利授权、交叉许可授权和专利联盟授权.通过构建两阶段动态博弈模型计算不同专利交易方式的市场绩效,并从企业和社会两个角度分析三种专利交易方式的优劣.结果表明:从企业层面来说,专利联盟授权是企业最优的专利交易方式,因为专利联盟授权使企业获得最大的生产者剩余;而从社会层面来说,政府应该认真审核积极引导专利联盟的组建,因为专利联盟授权有可能降低消费者剩余,损害消费者利益.

  12. Tööõnnetuste arv Ida-Virus väheneb / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 7. dets. 2004, lk. 3. Tööinspektsiooni viimase üheksa aasta statistikast järeldub, et tööõnnetuste arv on Ida-Virumaal aastatega vähenenud peaaegu poole võrra

  13. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Justus Baron; Tim Pohlmann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical investigation of the effectiveness of...

  14. Vi kan bryde den negative kulturelle arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecseli, Benedicta

    2014-01-01

    Den ny bekendtgørelse for pædagoguddannelsen fokuserer på brydning af den negative sociale arv, men det som inklusionspædagogikken skal inkludere til, eller den horisont inden for hvilken alle børn skal gives lige livschance/mulighed, er der næsten ingen redegørelse for. Begreber som Kultur og...

  15. Research on Benefit Distribution between Companies in the Patent Pools Based on Vertical Structure%基于纵向结构的专利联盟企业间利益分配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛巍; 宋伟

    2013-01-01

    基于纵向结构的专利联盟正在全球范围内产生着越来越重要的影响。根据Ki m纵向结构专利联盟研究理念,运用模型推导的方法,通过构建两阶段动态博弈模型分析许可费规则的分配形式,发现在纵向结构专利联盟形成过程中,企业的生产成本越高,其所需获得的许可费分配比例也越高。进一步逆向推导加入专利联盟的纵向一体化企业的特点可得结论:纵向结构专利联盟的形成往往表现为优势企业基于利益的强强联合,企业之间生产成本的差异则会对专利联盟的形成构成障碍。最后,提出促进专利联盟发展的相关政策建议。%The patent pools based on the vertical structure are more and more important in the world.This paper based on the Kim’s research idea of vertical structure patent pools,constructs a two-stage dynamic game model to analyze royalty distribution rules using the method of model derivation,and the results show that the formation of the vertical structure pa-tent pools needs to allocate more license fee to the relatively high cost companies.It also can be concluded that patent pools is often joined by some advantageous enterprises with mutual interests,and the difference between the cost of production in enterprises would hinder the formation of patent pools by further reverse deduction.Finally,the paper puts forward relevant policy recommendations in order to promote the development of patent pools.

  16. Software Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  17. The new development of U. S. antitrust policy on patent pool and its impacts on China%美国专利池反垄断政策的新发展及其对我国的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹映

    2011-01-01

    以飞利浦CD—R专利池案的最终裁决以及美国司法部和联邦贸易委员会联合发布的《反垄断执法与知识产权:促进创新与竞争》报告为标志,美国针对专利池的反垄断政策近年来开始由相对宽松变得更为宽容,甚至走向纵容,不仅摒弃了国际公认的“公平、合理、非歧视”的专利许可原则,对专利费率不再加以限制,而且允许专利池进行强制性一揽子许可,在专利池反垄断审查中仅采“合理原则”而排除适用“当然违法原则”。此外,美国对于专利池中非必要专利的认定标准也发生了变化。受此影响,作为国际专利池的主要许可对象,我国企业将更难抵御专利池的专利费盘剥和强制性一揽子许可,在美国发起专利池反垄断诉讼的难度将进一步增大。这一影响在我国无锡多媒体诉DVD3C专利池一案在美国屡遭驳回的裁决结果中已初现端倪,我国加快建立和完善符合本国利益的专利池反垄断制度显得更为紧迫。%In recent years, the antitrust policy on patent pool of the United States is becoming looser ever than before, when the policy has become more tolerant since 1995. The United States not only abandon the internationally recognized principle of "fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory" (FRAND), and impose no restrictions on licensing royalty rates of patent pool, but also a- gree compulsory package licensing and only apply "rule of reason" and exclude "per se role" in the antitrust review of patent pooh. In addition, the U.S. courts have changed the identification rule of "non - essential patent" in the pool. Affected by a- bove sitution, as the major international patent lx~ol licensees, Chinese enterprises will be more difficult to resist the patent pool royalty exploitation and compulsory package licensing. The difficulty for filing an antitrust lawsuit in U.S. will also be ine~ase. The

  18. Patente gera patente?

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Coeli Ribeiro Garcia

    2006-01-01

    A patente, fonte de informação e geradora de nova patente em condições e contexto favoráveis, constitui objeto desta pesquisa. Esta é respaldada em quadro teórico da Ciência da Informação e identifica os fatores intervenientes no fluxo das relações desde a patente-fonte até o registro de nova patente. Da amostra da pesquisa constam instituições privadas e públicas representadas por unidades situadas em Brasília, Belo Horizonte e Rio de Janeiro. A entrevista é a técnica usada para a coleta de ...

  19. Biomarkers and biometric measures of adherence to use of ARV-based vaginal rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy M Stalter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor adherence to product use has been observed in recent trials of antiretroviral (ARV-based oral and vaginal gel HIV prevention products, resulting in an inability to determine product efficacy. The delivery of microbicides through vaginal rings is widely perceived as a way to achieve better adherence but vaginal rings do not eliminate the adherence challenges exhibited in clinical trials. Improved objective measures of adherence are needed as new ARV-based vaginal ring products enter the clinical trial stage. Methods: To identify technologies that have potential future application for vaginal ring adherence measurement, a comprehensive literature search was conducted that covered a number of biomedical and public health databases, including PubMed, Embase, POPLINE and the Web of Science. Published patents and patent applications were also searched. Technical experts were also consulted to gather more information and help evaluate identified technologies. Approaches were evaluated as to feasibility of development and clinical trial implementation, cost and technical strength. Results: Numerous approaches were identified through our landscape analysis and classified as either point measures or cumulative measures of vaginal ring adherence. Point measurements are those that give a measure of adherence at a particular point in time. Cumulative measures attempt to measure ring adherence over a period of time. Discussion: Approaches that require modifications to an existing ring product are at a significant disadvantage, as this will likely introduce additional regulatory barriers to the development process and increase manufacturing costs. From the point of view of clinical trial implementation, desirable attributes would be high acceptance by trial participants, and little or no additional time or training requirements on the part of participants or clinic staff. We have identified four promising approaches as being high priority

  20. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi; Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  1. The market performance of competitive patent pools based on different standards%基于不同标准的竞争性专利联盟的市场绩效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓君; 王小干; 夏冬

    2012-01-01

    A model of dynamic game theory is developed to analyze market performance of Double Competitive Patent Pools (DCPP). The market structure consists two parts, one is the upstream market of patent standard licensing, and the other is the downstream market of differentiated products based on different standards. Backward induction is used to solve sub - game perfect Nash equilibrium under DCPP and compare with the market performance of single patent pool by means of comparative static anal- ysis. The conclusion indicates that DCPP has better market performance. For the downstream market, there are lower license roy- alty, lower profit, and more competitions, meanwhile for same market, there are more enterprises that enter into, lower final product price, more output, and better consumer surplus.%本文建立了一个分析基于不同标准的双竞争专利联盟市场绩效的动态博弈模型。考虑一个由上下游两部分构成的完全信息垂直结构市场,其上游是专利标准许可市场,下游是差异化产品市场,运用逆向归纳法求解竞争性专利联盟情况下子博弈精炼纳什均衡,并与单一联盟情况下的市场绩效进行比较静态分析。研究表明,竞争性专利联盟具有更高的市场绩效:(1)双竞争联盟降低了联盟设置的许可费,有利于新企业进入下游产品市场,促进下游厂商的竞争;(2)双竞争联盟降低了联盟收益,促进了上游企业的竞争,将利润从上游企业向下游企业转移;(3)双竞争联盟降低了下游厂商的生产成本,降低最终产品的价格,增加了产品的社会总产量,提高了消费者剩余。

  2. Abortide arv kahaneb Eestis iga aastaga / Rebekka Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Rebekka, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Vt. ka Zdorovje dlja Vsehh 2005 märts, lk. 6. Kuigi abortide arv väheneb Eestis iga aastaga, tuleb naistearstide hinnangul oodata veel kümmekond aastat, et see langeks sama madalale tasemele nagu Põhjamaades. Lisaks diagramm abortide arvu kohta 1991-2004

  3. Tallinlaste arv kukkus alla 400 000 / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 6. märts lk. 8. Rahvastikuregister kõrvaldas elanike nimekirjast kehtiva elamisloata isikud, mille tõttu kahanes Tallinna elanike arv 4766 inimese võrra. 1. märtsi seisuga on pealinlasi kokku 398 753 inimest

  4. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Google Patents (www.google.com/patents includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office, EPO (European Patent Office, etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several suggestions for improving Google Patents. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Google Patents for journals in the field of library and information science (LIS. Finally, it concludes that Google Patents provides a free alternative or complement to other patent databases. It also addressed the advantages of Google Patents, for example, easy-use search interface and fast search engine; convenient access to patent images in PDF format; and fast downloads of PDF patent documents.

  5. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.

  6. Lapsetoetuse saajate arv tõuseb / Eli Lilles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilles, Eli

    2007-01-01

    1. septembrist saavad lapsetoetust ja teisi peretoetusi ka 16-19-aastased noored, kes õpivad õhtuses õppevormis või kaugõppes. Ilmunud ka Türi Rahvaleht 7. september 2007, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul : lapsetoetuse saajate arv suurenes; Vooremaa 11. september 2007, lk. 5, pealkiri kujul: lapsetoetust saavad ka õhtukoolis õppijad; Lõuna-Mulgimaa 8. september 2007, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: lapse- ja peretoetused

  7. MORBILI PADA ANAK DALAM PENGOBATAN ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV)

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Dipta Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    MEASLES IN CHILDREN WITH ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV) ON TREATMENT ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbili is an acute viral infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted morbili. Morbili is a contagious acute viral infectious disease that is characterized by three stages: catarrhal stage, eruption stage and convalence stage. Another name morbili is measles, measles, or rubeola. Morbili caused by a virus that is classified as Family paramyxovirus, the virus genus morbili contained in nasopharyngea...

  8. Research Progress in Patent Pool-A Content Analysis of the Academic Literature at Home and Abroad%专利联盟研究进展--基于国内外学术文献的内容分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 曲世友

    2015-01-01

    Based on the database of Elsevier Science,Academic Search Premier and Business Source Premier in EBSCO, SCI,EI and CSSCI IN CNKI,this research traces recent progress of patent pool by content analysis,studies the academic community by social network,and compares the literature at home and abroad by Chi -squared test.%基于 Elsevier Science 和 EBSCO 中 Academic Search Premier 和 Business Source Premier 数据库,基于中国知网(CNKI)中的 SCI、EI 及 CSSCI 数据库,采用内容分析的方法,追踪专利联盟的最新学术进展,通过社会网络的相关方法研究了专利联盟的学术社区,借助卡方检验对国内外的研究进行了对比。

  9. 高科技时代专利池许可的反垄断法规制研究%The Research on Antitrust Regulation of Patent Pool License in High-tech Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩其峰

    2014-01-01

    在经济全球化的今天,能反映高科技时代特征之一的专利池已经成为发达国家技术创新、经济增长以及国际贸易的重要手段。在专利池许可中,专利权人可以凭借专利法赋予的垄断权,在一定的地域和时间内排斥他人使用该项专利技术,以保护自身的利益。但由于受到利益的驱使,专利权人常常“不适当地”扩充自身的权利范围,实施限制性竞争行为,产生排斥竞争对手、破坏竞争性市场结构的效果,最终也会间接地损害广大消费者的利益,甚至影响到一个国家的市场经济良好发展。本文认为,解决专利池许可中限制竞争行为的最有效措施就是用反垄断法对专利池许可进行合理规制,这样既能维护技术创新,又能鼓励竞争,引导市场经济良好运行,这也是我国高新技术产业中的一个热点问题。英美法系国家和大陆法系国家一直高度重视该问题,并且在长期的司法实践中积累了丰富经验。本文拟对美国和欧盟专利池的反垄断法规制的模式进行比对,深入分析,并根据我国的国情加以吸收与扬弃,最终提出一系列合理化建议,供政府决策参考。%Nowadays,under the background of economic globalization,it has already been a very important tool for the technological innovation, the economic growth and the international trade in the developed countries. During the patent pool licensing, patentees can use their legal monopoly rights to exclude others of using the patent within a certain time and certain area to protect their own interests. However, driven by the profits, the patentee always improperly widen their rights, acted as restricting competition, which will turn out to exclude the competitors, destroy the structure of competing market, and will hurt the profits of consumers indirectly, even influence the economic development of a country. In this article, the author

  10. Tööpuudus hiilib kikivarvul Võrumaale / Arved Breidaks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Breidaks, Arved, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Võrumaal on töötute arv eelmise aastaga võrreldes tõusma hakanud: mullu suvel maakonnas registreeritud 3,9%-line töötuse määr asendus tänavu juuli lõpus 5,4%-lise töötusega. Lisa: Töötus Võrumaal. Vt. samas: Kuidas iseloomustate olukorda Võrumaa tööjõuturul? Vastavad Martin Arula (AS Toftan), Kaido Mäesalu (AS Suwem), Meelis Munski (AS Semuehitus), Indrek Klampe (OÜ Selista Ehitus), Andres Visanpuu (Võru TÜ)

  11. Begreber og indfaldsvinkler i forskningsprogrammet om social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Niels

    opvækstvilkår og livschancer. Tværtimod ser denne sammenhæng ud til at være relativt stabil jf Erikson & Goldthorpe (1992), Hansen (1995). Den hidtidige forskning har således bidraget til at slå fast, at udbygningen af velfærdsstaten – mod forventning - ikke har elimineret den negative sociale arv. Den......Forskningsprogrammet om social arv er igangsat ud fra en politisk målsætning om at opnå ny forskningsbaseret viden som et input til politiske bestræbelser på at bekæmpe ’den negative sociale arv’. Politisk er det således en klar målsætning med programmet at opnå viden om forhold, der bidrager til...... forskningsmæssige udfordring bliver derfor at finde forhold, der kan forklare hvorfor en bevidst satsning på lighed gennem afskaffelse af fattigdom og satsning på uddannelse, ikke har ført til et samfund med lige chancer for alle. I den forbindelse er det relevant at overveje på, hvad begrebet ’social arv’ kan...

  12. Begreber og indfaldsvinkler i forskningsprogrammet. Forskningsprogrammet om social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Niels

    opvækstvilkår og livschancer. Tværtimod ser denne sammenhæng ud til at være relativt stabil jf Erikson & Goldthorpe (1992), Hansen (1995). Den hidtidige forskning har således bidraget til at slå fast, at udbygningen af velfærdsstaten – mod forventning - ikke har elimineret den negative sociale arv. Den......Forskningsprogrammet om social arv er igangsat ud fra en politisk målsætning om at opnå ny forskningsbaseret viden som et input til politiske bestræbelser på at bekæmpe ’den negative sociale arv’. Politisk er det således en klar målsætning med programmet at opnå viden om forhold, der bidrager til...... forskningsmæssige udfordring bliver derfor at finde forhold, der kan forklare hvorfor en bevidst satsning på lighed gennem afskaffelse af fattigdom og satsning på uddannelse, ikke har ført til et samfund med lige chancer for alle. I den forbindelse er det relevant at overveje på, hvad begrebet ’social arv’ kan...

  13. Suvehooajal Saare maakonnas ööbinud turistide arv kahanes / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2008-01-01

    Saare maakonna majutusasutustes suvel viibinud turistide arv vähenes mullusega võrreldes 7 %. Diagrammid: Eesti maakondades peatunud välisturistid; Ööbimiste arv Saare maakonna majutuskohtades; Ööpäeva keskmine maksumus suviti

  14. Aurora A regulates expression of AR-V7 in models of castrate resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dominic; Noble, Martin; Wedge, Steve R.; Robson, Craig N.; Gaughan, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Androgen receptor variants (AR-Vs) provide a mechanism of therapy evasion in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), yet mechanisms of regulation remain largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of Aurora A kinase on AR-Vs in models of CRPC and show depletion of Aurora A reduces AR-V target gene expression. Importantly, knockdown of Aurora A reconfigures splicing of AR pre-mRNA to discriminately down-regulate synthesis of AR-V transcripts, including AR-V7, without effecting full-length AR mRNA; and as a consequence, AR-V-driven proliferation and survival of CRPC cells is markedly reduced. Critically, these effects are reproduced by Aurora A inhibition. We show that Aurora A levels increase in advanced disease and AURKA is an AR-V target gene demonstrating a positive feedback mechanism of androgenic signalling in CRPC. In all, our data suggests that Aurora A plays a pivotal role in regulation of AR-V7 expression and represents a new therapeutic target in CRPC. PMID:28205582

  15. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  16. MORBILI PADA ANAK DALAM PENGOBATAN ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Dipta Nugraha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MEASLES IN CHILDREN WITH ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV ON TREATMENT ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbili is an acute viral infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted morbili. Morbili is a contagious acute viral infectious disease that is characterized by three stages: catarrhal stage, eruption stage and convalence stage. Another name morbili is measles, measles, or rubeola. Morbili caused by a virus that is classified as Family paramyxovirus, the virus genus morbili contained in nasopharyngeal secretions and blood during the prodromal period until 24 hours after the onset of spots. Case: Patient male, 6 years old, Hindu, Balinese tribe, came with complaints of febris since 5 days ago. Febris is not measured with a thermometer. The heat is felt up and down, getting better with medicine. Complaints red spots felt since 1 day ago. Originally discovered red spots appear in the neck area and then to the face and chest. The incidence of rash accompanied by itching and heat. This complaint is accompanied with nosebleeds 1 day ago, cough with sputum since 5 days ago and the red eye from one day ago. Patients feel the first time such complaints. Having a history of antiretroviral use regularly since 1.5 years old. Keywords: rash, morbili, HIV, antiretroviral drugs.

  17. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  18. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  19. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  20. Are There Enduring Patents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Elliot; Olivastro, Dominic

    1985-01-01

    A study comparing citations received by patents in given year to number received in subsequent years found that, even though influential patents remain influential, both highly and infrequently cited patents age at same rate. Distribution of patents by number of citations received is stable over time. (17 references) (EJS)

  1. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  2. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  3. Mentaliseringsbegrebet og dets arv fra Freuds begreb om binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger og diskuterer forskelle og ligheder mellem mentaliseringsbegrebet og Freuds bindingsbegreb. Begrebet mentalisering, som betegner en evne til at forholde sig refleksivt til egne og andres mentale tilstande, har indenfor de sidste fem- ti år vundet en central placering i klinisk...... psykologiske teoridannelser. Dets ophavsmænd Fonagy et al. forsøger imidlertid ikke at tage patent på begrebet, men peger på, at en række teoretikere har understreget betydningen af en refleksiv funktion. Alle disse begreber kan ifølge Fonagygruppen føres tilbage til Freuds begreb om binding. På baggrund af en...... udlægning af det oprindelige bindingsbegreb hos Freud, ønskes det i denne artikel at tydeliggøre den grundlæggende forskel på Freuds – og Fonagys subjektopfattelse....

  4. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001560.htm Patent ductus arteriosus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus ...

  5. Töötajaid jääb Eestis poole vähemaks / Katri Soe-Suren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe-Suren, Katri

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa rahvastik kahaneb ja vananeb uuringu järgi ebaühtlaselt. Eesti töövõimeline elanikkond väheneb sajandi keskpaigaks praegusega võrreldes poole peale. Skeem: Euroopa Liidu piirides ühest riigist teise asunud elanike arv 2006. aasta seisuga. Kommenteerib Allan Puur

  6. A novel rudivirus, ARV1, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Häring, Monika; Peng, Xu;

    2005-01-01

    Virus ARV1, the first member of the family Rudiviridae infecting hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Acidianus, was isolated from a hot spring in Pozzuoli, Italy. The rod-shaped virions, 610 +/- 50 nm long and 22 +/- 3 nm wide, are non-enveloped and carry a helical nucleoprotein core, with three...

  7. Adherence to ARV medication in Romanian young adults: self-reported behaviour and psychological barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dima, A.L.; Schweitzer, A.M.; Diaconita, R.; Remor, E.; Wanless, R.

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment during adolescence and young adulthood is a significant clinical issue for the current management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Romania. Understanding patients' own perceptions of their adherence behaviours and related psychological barriers is instrumental

  8. Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose of...

  9. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  10. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  11. Droplet Digital PCR Based Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7 Detection from Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Ma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7 was recently identified as a valuable predictive biomarker in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we report a new, sensitive and accurate screen for AR-V7 mRNA expression directly from circulating tumor cells (CTCs: We combined EpCAM-based immunomagnetic CTC isolation using the IsoFlux microfluidic platform with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR to analyze total AR and AR-V7 expression from prostate cancer patients CTCs. We demonstrate that AR-V7 is reliably detectable in enriched CTC samples with as little as five CTCs, even considering tumor heterogeneity, and confirm detection of AR-V7 in CTC samples from advanced prostate cancer (PCa patients with AR-V7 detection limited to castrate resistant disease status in our sample set. Sensitive molecular analyses of circulating tumor cells (CTCs or circulating tumor nucleic acids present exciting strategies to detect biomarkers, such as AR-V7 from non-invasive blood samples, so-called blood biopsies.

  12. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Distributed Generic Antiretroviral (ARV in Asian Settings: The Cross-Sectional Surveillance Study - PEDA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorapot Sapsirisavat

    Full Text Available Ensuring that medicines meet quality standards is mandatory for ensuring safety and efficacy. There have been occasional reports of substandard generic medicines, especially in resource-limiting settings where policies to control quality may be less rigorous. As HIV treatment in Thailand depends mostly on affordable generic antiretrovirals (ARV, we performed quality assurance testing of several generic ARV available from different sources in Thailand and a source from Vietnam.We sampled Tenofovir 300mg, Efavirenz 600mg and Lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50mg from 10 primary hospitals randomly selected from those participating in the National AIDS Program, 2 non-government organization ARV clinics, and 3 private drug stores. Quality of ARV was analyzed by blinded investigators at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University. The analysis included an identification test for drug molecules, a chemical composition assay to quantitate the active ingredients, a uniformity of mass test and a dissolution test to assess in-vitro drug release. Comparisons were made against the standards described in the WHO international pharmacopeia.A total of 42 batches of ARV from 15 sources were sampled from January-March 2015. Among those generics, 23, 17, 1, and 1 were Thai-made, Indian-made, Vietnamese-made and Chinese-made, respectively. All sampled products, regardless of manufacturers or sources, met the International Pharmacopeia standards for composition assay, mass uniformity and dissolution. Although local regulations restrict ARV supply to hospitals and clinics, samples of ARV could be bought from private drug stores even without formal prescription.Sampled generic ARVs distributed within Thailand and 1 Vietnamese pharmacy showed consistent quality. However some products were illegally supplied without prescription, highlighting the importance of dispensing ARV for treatment or prevention in facilities where continuity along the HIV treatment

  13. Espacio Pool

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Espacio Pool es un grupo abierto de usuarios vinculados a la Facultad de Bellas Artes UCM que actúa sobre los márgenes que la circundan. Toma su nombre de los estanques vacíos ubicados en los jardines de la cafetería, y elige el término anglosajón por sus connotaciones relativas a lo participativo y autogestionado. Su objetivo es habitar los espacios de “vacuidad” para que sean efectivos y permutadores. Espacio Pool organiza la celebración de encuentros a partir de la construcción de disposit...

  14. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  15. AR-V7 and prostate cancer: The watershed for treatment selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Buti, Sebastiano; Modena, Alessandra; Nabissi, Massimo; Artibani, Walter; Martignoni, Guido; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Despite the recent progress in targeting persistent AR activity with the next-generation hormonal therapies (abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide), resistance to these agents limits therapeutic efficacy for many patients. Several explanations for response and/or resistance to abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide are emerging, but growing interest is focusing on importance of AR splice variants (AR-Vs) and in particular of AR-V7. Increasing evidences highlight the concept that variant expression could be used as a potential predictive biomarker and a therapeutic target in advanced prostate cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of treatment resistance or sensitivity can help to achieve a more effective management of mCRPC, increasing clinical outcomes and representing a promising and engaging area of prostate cancer research.

  16. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart problem ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal ...

  17. A Patent Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  18. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  19. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    chosen a different approach to integrate in patent law similar policy considerations. Observing how this issue was debated and solved differently is in itself important, but it also allows questioning whether in future patent reforms serious consideration should not be given to alternative solutions....

  20. Detection and characterization of two co-infection variant strains of avian orthoreovirus (ARV) in young layer chickens using next-generation sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Lin; Sebastian, Aswathy; Lu, Huaguang

    2016-04-19

    Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) for full genomic characterization studies of the newly emerging avian orthoreovirus (ARV) field strains isolated in Pennsylvania poultry, we identified two co-infection ARV variant strains from one ARV isolate obtained from ARV-affected young layer chickens. The de novo assembly of the ARV reads generated 19 contigs of two different ARV variant strains according to 10 genome segments of each ARV strain. The two variants had the same M2 segment. The complete genomes of each of the two variant strains were 23,493 bp in length, and 10 dsRNA segments ranged from 1192 bp (S4) to 3958 bp (L1), encoding 12 viral proteins. Sequence comparison of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences of all 10 genome segments revealed 58.1-100% and 51.4-100% aa identity between the two variant strains, and 54.3-89.4% and 49.5-98.1% aa identity between the two variants and classic vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a moderate to significant nt sequence divergence between the two variant and ARV reference strains. These findings have demonstrated the first naturally occurring co-infection of two ARV variants in commercial young layer chickens, providing scientific evidence that multiple ARV strains can be simultaneously present in one host species of chickens.

  1. Drugmakers struggle with Indian patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies continue their legal battles for intellectual property protection for their drugs in India after the country's patent office revoked Pfizer's local patent for Sutent (sunitinib malate).

  2. Advanced Analyses of Technology Innovations, Patents, and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. C. Trappey

    2013-08-01

    conduct their hybrid analyses. Their findings provide recommendations for technology development strategies. The paper, entitled “Ontology-based Patent Licensing and Litigation Strategic Knowledge System for the Light Emitting Diode Industry” co-authored by Amy J.C. Trappey, Yu-Hui Wang, Charles V. Trappey,    Chun-Yi Wu, and Tzu-Hsuan Lin, develops a scientific and analytical approach for strategic cross-licensing decision support, particularly for the extremely competitive global companies in LED industry. Yu-Hui Wang and Benjamin Liu present their research in the paper entitled “Innovation Effect on Patent Pool Formation: Empirical Case of Philips’ Patents in Digital Versatile Disc 3C.” The paper evaluates both the quantity and quality of Philips’ patents in a leading DVD patent pool. The legitimacy of patent pools and their strategic value are discussed and investigated using the DVD 3C patent pool as the case example. In the paper “Application of the Honeybee Mating Optimization Algorithm to Patent Document Classification in Combination with the Support Vector Machine (SVM,” co-authors Chui-Yu Chiu and Pei-Ting Huang combine the honeybee mating optimization algorithm with SVM as a novel  patent categorization approach with accurate results. The paper, entitled “Exploring the Innovative Value of the RFID Industry” co-authored by Pei-Shu Fan, Cheng-Chin Tsao and Yi-Ching Liaw, examines a number of patent indicators to predict and explain future technological developments in the RFID industry. The research identifies the relative regional technological advantages in RFID development using relevant patent indicators and clustering analysis.

  3. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  4. Patents - An Information Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    cacher, ii existe dana certaines entreprises des sortes de concurrence entre lea services de propri~t6 industrielle at ceux de documentation h...spizialistea A telle ou telle entreprise . -Lea statiatiques: dont on commence b saisir l’intir~t, at qui sont devenues plus fiables avec lea ddlais...you to look at your patent office as a public organisation which in general is financed fully or to a large extend by those who file patent

  5. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  6. Price Reversal Pattern of ARV Drugs: A Transaction-Cost Approach Digression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank LORNE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A price reversal pattern of ARV drugs was noted across lower and middle income countries in that the lower-income countries have higher prices relative to higher-income countries based on a 2008-2009 Summary Report by World Health Organization. The transaction costs affecting AVR drug pricing can be broadly classified into two kinds: One between the final users and the opinion/knowledge experts, and the other between the opinion/knowledge experts and the manufacturers. Economist’s version of price discrimination needs to be modified by including transaction costs. Transaction costs also point to institution creditability factors that will affect NGO procurement.

  7. Social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    Arbejdspapir som er udarbejdet i forbindelse med HPA-projektet og brugt i en anden udgivelse fra 2007. Nu genudgivet med nyt forord og ISBN nummer, samt udgive via DPU's forlag som e-bog......Arbejdspapir som er udarbejdet i forbindelse med HPA-projektet og brugt i en anden udgivelse fra 2007. Nu genudgivet med nyt forord og ISBN nummer, samt udgive via DPU's forlag som e-bog...

  8. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  9. CHALLENGES CONFRONTING HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN GOVERNMENT'S ARV ROLLOUT: RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf A Vawda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is renowned for having a progressive Constitution with strong protection of human rights, including protection for persons using the public health system. While significant recent discourse and jurisprudence have focused on the rights of patients, the situation and rights of providers of health care services have not been adequately ventilated. This paper attempts to foreground the position of the human resources personnel located at the centre of the roll-out of the government's ambitious programme of anti-retroviral (ARV therapy.The HIV/AIDS epidemic represents a major public health crisis in our country and, inasmuch as various critical policies and programmes have been devised in response, the key to a successful outcome lies in the hands of the health care professionals tasked with implementing such strategies. Often pilloried by the public, our health care workers (HCWs face an almost Herculean task of turning the tide on the epidemic. Unless the rights of HCWs are recognised and their needs adequately addressed, the best laid plans of government will be at risk.This contribution attempts to identify and analyse the critical challenges confronting HCWs at the coalface of the HIV/AIDS treatment programme, in particular the extent to which their own rights are under threat, and offers recommendations to remedy the situation in order to ensure the successful realisation of the ARV rollout.

  10. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  11. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  12. Androgen receptor and its splice variant, AR-V7, differentially regulate FOXA1 sensitive genes in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, William C; Shafi, Ayesha A; Nakka, Manjula; Weigel, Nancy L

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease, and tumors that are resistant to androgen ablation therapy often remain androgen receptor (AR) dependent. Among the contributors to castration-resistant PCa are AR splice variants that lack the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Instead, they have small amounts of unique sequence derived from cryptic exons or from out of frame translation. The AR-V7 (or AR3) variant is constitutively active and is expressed under conditions consistent with CRPC. AR-V7 is reported to regulate a transcriptional program that is similar but not identical to that of AR. However, it is unknown whether these differences are due to the unique sequence in AR-V7, or simply to loss of the LBD. To examine transcriptional regulation by AR-V7, we have used lentiviruses encoding AR-V7 (amino acids 1-627 of AR with the 16 amino acids unique to the variant) to prepare a derivative of the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells with inducible expression of AR-V7. An additional cell line was generated with regulated expression of AR-NTD (amino acids 1-660 of AR); this mutant lacks the LBD but does not have the AR-V7 specific sequence. We find that AR and AR-V7 have distinct activities on target genes that are co-regulated by FOXA1. Transcripts regulated by AR-V7 were similarly regulated by AR-NTD, indicating that loss of the LBD is sufficient for the observed differences. Differential regulation of target genes correlates with preferential recruitment of AR or AR-V7 to specific cis-regulatory DNA sequences providing an explanation for some of the observed differences in target gene regulation.

  13. Compulsory license of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV/AIDS: review of international situation and analysis of its feasibility in China%艾滋病抗病毒药品强制许可国际现状与我国实施强制许可可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋灿瑞; 马春涛; 刘霞; 王强; 赵燕; 刘中夫

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析国际国内艾滋病抗病毒(ARV)药品强制许可状况,为中国实施强制许可提供建议.方法 在回顾知识产权与公共健康的冲突及可能解决途径的基础上,分析中国对部分ARV药品实施强制许可的必要性及可行性,以及中国实施强制许可后需要重点考虑的问题.结果 中国ARV药品费用控制形势严峻,对部分费用高的药品实施强制许可有其必要性.目前国际国内法律环境为强制许可提供了有力支持,国内已具备仿制生产技术和能力,还有相关国际组织的支持以及其他国家的经验可借鉴,故中国对部分ARV药品实施强制许可具有可行性.结论 中国可对部分ARV药品实施强制许可.除需应对国际上的质疑和诉讼考验之外,同时还应注重确保强制许可药品的质量,发展国内药品研发生产能力,以及对包括ARV药品在内的基本药物统筹考虑降低费用,增加药品可及性的综合策略和可行措施.%Objective To analyze international and domestic compulsory licensing of ARV drugs for HIV/AIDS and give relevant policy suggestions. Methods On the basis of reviewing the conflicts between pharmaceutical patents and public health and possible solutions, the necessity and feasibility of enforcing compulsory license of several ARV drugs in China were analyzed, and some issues were taken into account if compulsory license is practiced in this country. Results Considering the importance of controlling cost of ARV drugs to make them available and accessible to the population in need, it is essential to enforce compulsory license of some expensive ARV drugs. Owing to international and domestic legal support, domestic capacity of producing generic drugs, assistance from related international organizations and learning experiences of other countries, China is in a position to implement compulsory licensing of ARV drugs. Conclusion China is capable to implement compulsory licensing of some ARV

  14. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    while certainly critical to the commercialization of patentable innovations, is not explored herein. Fifth, this research only considers laws and...conclusions and recommendations. 33 Lieutenant General Robert Brown, “The Human Dimension” ( Speech ...must be likely that an Army activity will use the invention, as evaluated by the Army activity, or the invention has commercial potential as judged

  15. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  16. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  17. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zambia: implementing efficacious ARV regimens in primary health centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandala Justin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety and effectiveness of efficacious antiretroviral (ARV regimens beyond single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT have been demonstrated in well-controlled clinical studies or in secondary- and tertiary-level facilities in developing countries. This paper reports on implementation of and factors associated with efficacious ARV regimens among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health centers (PHCs in Zambia. Methods Blood sample taken for CD4 cell count, availability of CD4 count results, type of ARV prophylaxis for mothers, and additional PMTCT service data were collected for HIV-positive pregnant women and newborns who attended 60 PHCs between April 2007 and March 2008. Results Of 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered in the 60 PHCs, 2,528 (17.1% had their CD4 cells counted; of those, 1,680 (66.5% had CD4 count results available at PHCs; of those, 796 (47.4% had CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/mm3 and thus were eligible for combination antiretroviral treatment (cART; and of those, 581 (73.0% were initiated on cART. The proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women whose blood sample was collected for CD4 cell count was positively associated with (1 blood-draw for CD4 count occurring on the same day as determination of HIV-positive status; (2 CD4 results sent back to the health facilities within seven days; (3 facilities without providers trained to offer ART; and (4 urban location of PHC. Initiation of cART among HIV-positive pregnant women was associated with the PHC's capacity to provide care and antiretroviral treatment services. Overall, of the 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered, 10,015 were initiated on any type of ARV regimen: 581 on cART, 3,041 on short course double ARV regimen, and 6,393 on sdNVP. Conclusion Efficacious ARV regimens beyond sdNVP can be implemented in resource-constrained PHCs. The majority (73.0% of women identified

  18. Patent monopoly : protecting your ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.B. [Bennett Jones LLB, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    A form of intellectual property, patents can be bought and sold, thereby having a lot of financial value. The petroleum industry is a sector very involved with patent protection. At some time, it is expected that most technical companies will be involved in obtaining patent protection or busy defending themselves against a patent suit. In this paper, the author focussed on the procedure to obtain patent protection. Progressing from the basic facts concerning patents, the author then briefly described the necessary steps in the procedure. The author began by distinguishing the three major intellectual properties of use in the petroleum industry, namely patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Words, symbols or designs, including the various combinations of those, which distinguish the services of one company from those of another, are considered trademarks. Creative works, on the other hand, are protected under copyrights from being copied without permission. Inventions are protected by patents. What should be known about inventions was the focus of the next section in the presentation, followed by a section entitled: seeking patent protection: the first steps. The filing of the formal patent applications was discussed, then the emphasis was placed on after filing: the examination. The issued patent, which can be enforced against competitors, was the very last section in the presentation.

  19. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  20. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  1. IL-21 and probiotic therapy improve Th17 frequencies, microbial translocation, and microbiome in ARV-treated, SIV-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A M; Klase, Z A; DiNapoli, S R; Vujkovic-Cvijin, I; Carmack, K; Perkins, M R; Calantone, N; Vinton, C L; Riddick, N E; Gallagher, J; Klatt, N R; McCune, J M; Estes, J D; Paiardini, M; Brenchley, J M

    2016-03-01

    Increased mortality in antiretroviral (ARV)-treated, HIV-infected individuals has been attributed to persistent immune dysfunction, in part due to abnormalities at the gastrointestinal barrier. In particular, the poor reconstitution of gastrointestinal Th17 cells correlates with residual translocation of dysbiotic, immunostimulatory microflora across a compromised intestinal epithelial barrier. We have previously demonstrated that oral probiotics promote increased intestinal CD4(+) T-cell reconstitution during ARV treatment in a non-human primate model of HIV infection; however, essential mucosal T-cell subsets, such as Th17 cells, had limited recovery. Here, we sought to promote Th17 cell recovery by administering interleukin (IL)-21 to a limited number of ARV-treated, probiotic-supplemented, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-infected pigtailed macaques. We demonstrate that probiotic and IL-21 supplementation of ARVs are associated with enhanced polyfunctional Th17 expansion and reduced markers of microbial translocation and dysbiosis as compared with infected controls receiving ARVs alone. Importantly, treatment resulted in fewer morbidities compared with controls, and was independent of increased immune activation or loss of viral suppression. We propose that combining ARVs with therapeutics aimed at restoring intestinal stasis may significantly improve disease prognosis of ARV-treated, HIV-infected individuals.

  2. Patent activity in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina, Streltsova

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnologies are a priority area of development due to the scope of global challenges and social problems they help to resolve. There is demand for updated information about the the current state of research and challenges faced. This paper discusses the potential of patent analysis and surveys the Russian biotechnological market with both quantitative and qualitative methods. It reviews key statistical and analytical findings of empirical research. The main finding is that the Russian bio...

  3. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  4. Observational epidemiological study to identify the clinical profile of naïve patients starting antiretroviral (ARV therapy in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ocampo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To identify the proportion of patients starting ARV treatment with NNRTIs or with a PI/r and to explore and compare their clinical profile establishing different factors whereby physicians select the initial ARV treatment in a Spanish clinical setting. Methods: An observational study was conducted in two different phases. In Phase I a cross-sectional registration was conducted for patients who initiated ARV treatment in a 6-month period in 65 Spanish hospitals. In Phase II clinical and social-demographic features were collected retrospectively of patients who visited HIV clinics between August and November 2010 who had started ARV treatment containing an NNRTIs or a PI/r in Phase I. Summary of results: In Phase I, 1,687 subjects who initiated ARV treatment were registered, of which 53% started with an NNRTI-based regimen whereas 42% started with a PI/r-based regimen. Two percent of the treatment initiations occurred in a clinical trial. In Phase II, 642 patients were paired consecutively and retrospectively. The group of patients was composed of predominantly male subjects (81% vs 19%. The median time between diagnosis and the start of ARV treatment was 3.6±5.3 years. At the initiation of treatment, 72% of patients had a CD4 count below 350 cells/µl. Although treatment based on NNRTIs in naïve patients is the most frequent option in Spain, the analysis of clinical profiles shows that PI/r-based therapy is more often used than NNRTIs with statistical significance in patients with high viral load, Fig. A (≥100.000 copies/ml (58% vs 42%; OR:1,75; 95% CI: 1,26–2,43; p<0,01, with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl, Fig. B (68% vs 31%; OR: 2,92; 95% CI: 1,99–4,27; p<0,01, and in patients at CDC stage C (65% vs 35%; OR: 2,05; CI: 1,27–3,31; p<0,01. Conclusions: In Spain, HIV is still diagnosed late (as measured by CD4 count<350 cells/µl. Treatment based on NNRTIs are more frequently used in naïve patients, although PIs

  5. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  6. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  7. Monitoring and modeling the snowpack dynamics in the Arve upper catchment for hydrological purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Lecourt, Grégoire; Charrois, Luc; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Condom, Thomas; Dumont, Marie; Morin, Samuel; Rabatel, Antoine; Six, Delphine; Vionnet, Vincent; Zin, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Snow accumulation and its evolution over space and time have major importance for the hydrological cycle, especially at high elevations. The characteristics of mountain valley, such as a wide altitudinal range, large glaciated areas, snow presence all along the year; when combined with specific meteorological conditions like heat waves or extreme rain events, may originate dramatic flash floods, potentially affecting populated areas. Thus, improving snowpack monitoring and forecasting tools are needed to strength the reliability of warning systems. Nowadays, accurately characterising and simulating snowpack evolution over large areas still represents a challenge, and uncertainties arise. The study presented here is focused in analysing two different types of simulation of the snowpack dynamics, performed with different discretization approaches, distributed or semi-distributed, and how these could move forward assimilating remote sensing data from satellites. The considered study area is the Arve catchment at Chamonix, in the French Northern Alps. This valley has the previously mentioned characteristics: it comprises a large elevation range (between 1000 to 4800m asl, with large areas above 2000m asl) and about 32% of its extension (200km2) is glaciated. Thus, the hydrological cycle of this area is highly dependent on the snowpack and the glacier melt dynamics. The snowpack of the Arve catchment has been simulated from 1990 to 2014 with the Crocus model integrated within the SURFEX modelling platform. The input fields are provided by the SAFRAN reanalysis system and the simulations have been performed with both a semi-distributed (classifying terrain by aspect, elevation, slope and land use/land cover) and a distributed (250m spatial resolution grid cells over the study area) approaches. The use of these two approaches using the same snowpack model and same meteorological forcing, enables their comparison in terms of river discharges at several outlets; showing the

  8. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  9. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  10. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  11. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  12. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  13. Patenting of Pharmaceuticals: An Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Mathur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Patent is one of the major forms of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs used in the pharmaceutical industry. Trade mark, industrial design, geographical indication and copyright are other forms of IPRs available in India. Grant of patent in India is governed under the Patents Act, 1970. Significant changes like provision of product patents and increase in the term of patent to 20 years were introduced in the Indian patent law, after India signed TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement in 1995. This review provides a brief overview of development of patent law in India as a consequence of TRIPS agreement. Criteria of patentability and different types of pharmaceutical patents currently being granted in India are described with the aim to provide the fundamental knowledge of pharmaceutical patenting to the researchers. Other relevant provisions related with patenting of pharmaceuticals like section 3(d, transfer of the patent rights, compulsory licensing etc. are explained with suitable example.

  14. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  15. Making tenofovir accessible in the brazilian public health system: patent conflicts and generic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Juliana

    2014-08-01

    In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in.

  16. The science of pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  17. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publication sponsored by ChinaPatent Agent(H.K.)Ltd. The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and has been edited and published in HongKong for distribution in China and abroad.

  18. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  19. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    , the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  20. Recent patents on molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    The questions surrounding patenting of DNA sequences encoding specific proteins are relatively well reviewed in the available literature. However, neither applications nor molecular cytogenetic techniques, which use these sequences as a probe, have been reviewed in the light of the patenting. Furthermore, the patenting of the use of numerous probes, which are produced on different types of repetitive genome elements (i.e. satellite DNA or telomeric DNA sequences) and those generated by chromosome microdissection has not been reviewed. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are one of the most applied in current bioscience (as to June 2007, over 40,000 papers in browseable scientific databases mention one or several molecular cytogenetic techniques). Therefore, reviewing recent patents in this field is of general interest for numerous researchers in different areas of biology and medicine. Here, we address world-wide patents on DNA sequences used as molecular cytogenetic probes and molecular cytogenetic techniques to define current state and perspectives of this biomedical direction.

  1. ARV robotic technologies (ART): a risk reduction effort for future unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2006-05-01

    The Army's ARV (Armed Robotic Vehicle) Robotic Technologies (ART) program is working on the development of various technological thrusts for use in the robotic forces of the future. The ART program will develop, integrate and demonstrate the technology required to advance the maneuver technologies (i.e., perception, mobility, tactical behaviors) and increase the survivability of unmanned platforms for the future force while focusing on reducing the soldiers' burden by providing an increase in vehicle autonomy coinciding with a decrease in the total number user interventions required to control the unmanned assets. This program will advance the state of the art in perception technologies to provide the unmanned platform an increasingly accurate view of the terrain that surrounds it; while developing tactical/mission behavior technologies to provide the Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) the capability to maneuver tactically, in conjunction with the manned systems in an autonomous mode. The ART testbed will be integrated with the advanced technology software and associated hardware developed under this effort, and incorporate appropriate mission modules (e.g. RSTA sensors, MILES, etc.) to support Warfighter experiments and evaluations (virtual and field) in a military significant environment (open/rolling and complex/urban terrain). The outcome of these experiments as well as other lessons learned through out the program life cycle will be used to reduce the current risks that are identified for the future UGV systems that will be developed under the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, including the early integration of an FCS-like autonomous navigation system onto a tracked skid steer platform.

  2. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  3. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the re

  4. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the...

  6. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  7. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  8. 77 FR 4887 - DOE Patent Licensing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 781 RIN 1990-AA41 DOE Patent Licensing Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its patent... patents or patent applications vested in the United States of America, as represented by or in the...

  9. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  10. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  11. "Patent Activity and Technical Change"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Basmann; Michael, McAleer; Daniel, Slottje

    2003-01-01

    As creations of the mind, intellectual property includes industrial property and copyrights. This paper presents an aggregate production function of the generalized Fechner-Thurstone (GFT) form to analyze the impact of an important component of intellectual industrial property, namely patent activity, on technical change in the USA for the period 1947-1981. Patents should alter isoquant maps, and measuring their elasticities is both intuitively and empirically appealing. We define a technolog...

  12. Universities and Patent Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  13. Disclosing in utero HIV/ARV exposure to the HIV-exposed uninfected adolescent: is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Jennifer; Hazra, Rohan; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Abrams, Elaine J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. Discussion Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status. It is necessary to weigh the benefits and harms which could occur with disclosure in each of the following domains: psychosocial impact, long-term physical health of the HEU individual and the public health impact. Does disclosure improve or worsen the psychological health of the HEU individual and extended family unit? Do present data on the long-term safety of in utero HIV/ARV exposure reveal potential health risks which merit disclosure to the HEU adolescent? What research and public health programmes or systems need to be in place to afford monitoring of HEU individuals and which, if any, of these require disclosure? Conclusions At present, it is not clear that there is sufficient evidence on whether long-term adverse effects are associated with in utero HIV/ARV exposures, making it difficult to mandate universal disclosure. However, as more countries adopt electronic medical record systems, the HEU status of an individual should be an important piece of the health record which follows the infant not only through childhood and adolescence but also adulthood. Clinicians and researchers should continue to approach the dialogue around mother–child disclosure with sensitivity and a cogent consideration of the evolving risks and benefits as new information becomes available while also working to maintain documentation of an individual's perinatal HIV/ARV exposures as a vital part of his

  14. Disclosing in utero HIV/ARV exposure to the HIV-exposed uninfected adolescent: is it necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. Discussion: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status. It is necessary to weigh the benefits and harms which could occur with disclosure in each of the following domains: psychosocial impact, long-term physical health of the HEU individual and the public health impact. Does disclosure improve or worsen the psychological health of the HEU individual and extended family unit? Do present data on the long-term safety of in utero HIV/ARV exposure reveal potential health risks which merit disclosure to the HEU adolescent? What research and public health programmes or systems need to be in place to afford monitoring of HEU individuals and which, if any, of these require disclosure? Conclusions: At present, it is not clear that there is sufficient evidence on whether long-term adverse effects are associated with in utero HIV/ARV exposures, making it difficult to mandate universal disclosure. However, as more countries adopt electronic medical record systems, the HEU status of an individual should be an important piece of the health record which follows the infant not only through childhood and adolescence but also adulthood. Clinicians and researchers should continue to approach the dialogue around mother–child disclosure with sensitivity and a cogent consideration of the evolving risks and benefits as new information becomes available while also working to maintain documentation of an individual's perinatal HIV/ARV exposures

  15. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  16. Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Buchacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE. Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, P=0.05. Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, P=0.010 as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, P<0.001. Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%, and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%, but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs.

  17. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  18. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  19. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  20. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  1. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  2. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.

  3. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  4. Patent Eligibility of Business Methods in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Brian Lee

    2011-01-01

    @@ While the same fundamental principles underlining patent law are generally accepted in every major jurisdiction in the world, the patent eligibility of computer-implemented business method inventions ("business methods") has received different treatment between jurisdictions.

  5. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  6. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    . The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...... of the transformation of academic science into patents, particularly how university scientists take a fragmented approach to the patenting process, while scientists employed in private companies can reap the benefits of close interaction with patenting experts ? experts who potentially can assume responsibility...

  7. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  8. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  9. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  10. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  11. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  12. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  13. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  14. Research use of patented inventions: opening remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Labastida, José M.

    2006-01-01

    Opening remarks for the 2006 conference in Madrid on the research use of patented inventions. The conference, which was held at CSIC on 18-19 May 2006, was jointly organised by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (OEPM) and the OECD, with support from the European Patent Office (EPO) through its European Patent Academy. The conference brochure is also included as an attachment to the Opening remarks file.

  15. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...

  16. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  17. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting... patent licensing meeting was subsequently held February 16, 2011 at the SAIC Enterprise Bldg...

  18. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  19. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  20. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data......, confirming the importance of labor mobility for innovation in the economy....

  1. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  2. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent applications. 734.10 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.10 Patent applications. The information referred to in § 734.3(b)(3)(iv) of this part is: (a) Information contained in a patent application prepared wholly...

  3. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  4. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 780 RIN 1990-AA33 Patent Compensation Board Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... Patent ] Compensation Board regulations to provide that the Secretary of Energy, or a person acting in that position, shall appoint, as needed, a three member panel to serve as the Patent Compensation...

  5. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  6. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  7. A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Verbeure, Birgit; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2006-01-01

    In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors, developing and supplying standardized licences, collecting royalties, monitoring whether users respect licensing conditions, and providing dispute resolution services such as mediation and arbitration. In this way, it might function as an effective model for users to facilitate access to and use of the patented inventions. However, it remains to be seen whether patent holders with a strong patent portfolio will be convinced by the advantages of the royalty collection clearing house and be willing to participate. PMID:16710543

  8. Economic valuation of patents methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, F

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Valuation of Patents provides an original and essential analysis of patent valuation, presenting the main methodologies to value patents in different contexts. Starting with an analysis of the relevance of patent valuation from a strategic, economic and legal perspective, the book undertakes a thorough review of the existing financial and qualitative valuation methodologies. The contributing authors, IP experts from academia and business, discuss the application of valuation issues in various contexts such as patent portfolio management, licensing agreements, IP litigation, IP-bac

  9. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human......, and subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  10. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  11. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?.

  12. The Future of Pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Peter C.; Fone, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses seven propositions underlying the strategies that insurance pools can, will, and must pursue: (1) risk management versus risk financing; (2) elimination of windfall advantages; (3) the maintenance of market-dominant status; (4) cost leadership; (5) client focus; (6) innovation and diversification; and (7) leadership challenges. A sidebar…

  13. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  14. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    WITH END 3.8=2410 7/1974 Moay ............... 331/94S PE TAPERED WIGGLER STENT OTHER PUBLICATIONS [75] In ventors: John M. J. Malley, Palo Alto; Lo R...34, Oct. 7, 1966, pp. 267-284. 9 Claims, 3 Drawing Figares to: U.S. eettn fteArI=A19 MO.Hdf Stmet S.W. Wah.. 11C I02 Mpies of this patent are satilable W

  15. Long-term efficacy and toxicity of abacavir/lamivudine/nevirapine compared to the most prescribed ARV regimens before 2013 in a French Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, Paul; Dramé, Moustapha; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cotte, Laurent; Garraffo, Rodolphe; Delobel, Pierre; Huleux, Thomas; Rey, David; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2016-09-01

    Data on the long-term efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) are scarce. This combination has the advantage of simplifying treatment and improving long-term tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of any discontinuation of antiretroviral (ARV) regimen because of virologic failure (VF), and/or adverse drug reaction (ADR) among patients receiving stable ARV regimens for at least 6 months.ABC/3TC/NVP was compared to ABC/3TC with either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), unboosted ATV, or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with either one of the following: ATV/r, unboosted ATV, DRV/r, efavirenz (EFV), or NVP, in the French prospective multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort.The study enrolled 16,511 patients treated with following ARV regimens: ABC/3TC/NVP (n = 1089), TDF/FTC/NVP (n = 1542), ABC/3TC/DRV/r (n = 1065), ABC/3TC/ATV/r (n = 1847), ABC/3TC/ATV (n = 563), TDF/FTC/ATV/r (n = 3519), TDF/FTC/DRV/r (n = 2767), TDF/FTC/ATV (n = 419), and TDF/FTC/EFV (n = 3700). Mean follow-up was 36 ± 24 months. Patients treated with ABC/3TC/NVP received this regimen as a switch regimen in 97% of cases. By multivariable analysis, the risk of treatment discontinuation due to VF was similar between ABC/3TC/NVP and other ARV regimens, except for TDF/FTC/ATV and ABC/3TC/ATV, which were associated with a higher risk of treatment interruption due to VF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-3.06 and HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.51-3.18, respectively). Treatment discontinuation due to ADR was lowest with the ABC/3TC/NVP regimen. Other ARV regimens were associated with a 1.80- to 3.19-fold increase in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to ADR (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons).ABC/3TC/NVP as a simplification regimen is a long-term effective regimen with lower discontinuation due to long-term toxicity compared with other standard ARV regimens.

  16. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šarboh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are different Tesla’s inventions in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and processing technology, more precisely metallurgy.

  17. An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M MacQueen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. Discussion: The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1 adherence support – sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2 self-reported psychometric measures – creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3 more objective measurement of adherence – real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion

  18. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  19. Inventions and patents: a practical tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, J Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and costly clinical testing necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, nonobviousness, and usefulness. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions of technology transfer: inventions, inventorship, and patent filing, which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  20. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  1. Knowledge transfer and university patents in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Calderón-Martínez; José García-Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that influence the ability of Mexican public universities to generate patents. Academic patents are deserving of increasing interest as channels for the transfer of knowledge from universities to firms. Design/methodology/approach A review of the international literature on the main factors that explain the production of patents was undertaken. On the basis of this information, a database for 80 Mexican universities was built and a mod...

  2. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  3. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  4. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  5. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  6. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  7. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  8. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  9. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  10. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  11. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  12. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  13. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  14. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  15. 21 CFR 314.53 - Submission of patent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of patent information. 314.53 Section... of patent information. (a) Who must submit patent information. This section applies to any applicant...)(2) of this section. (b) Patents for which information must be submitted and patents for...

  16. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  17. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  18. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-30

    MPOSITIONS3.340.233 9/1967 Leavilt................260/590 D) [75] Inventors: Fred E. Arnold, Centerville; 3.458.548 7/,969 Carlson ...... .. . ....... 260/590 D...l1969 Colt tiu 356/112 x 1,564,257 2/i971 9-rrye tl1 250,.211 1731 Inventor: Theodor E. Wlrtsa, Chelmsford, ’.116.00D 6/1474 Fiedler . 356/12 Man...1561 References Cited HETEROCYCLIC POLYMERS U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS Inventors: Fred E. Arold, Centerville. Ohio; 3,376,257 4/1968 Nakanishi el at

  19. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; D. Kushnir; I. Rafols

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  20. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  1. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  2. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  3. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL...

  4. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  5. Valuable Patents for U.S. Businesses: A Catalog of DTRC Patents Available for Licensing by the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Veazey PATENT NO: 4,553,037 DATE OF PATENT Nov. 12, 1985 TITLE: Transverse Waterjet Propulsion with Auxiliary Inlets and Impellers INVENTOR(S): John G...Lee PATENT NO: 4,398,687 DATE OF PATENT: Aug. 16, 1983 DTRC-91 /CT07 19 Valuable Patents, A Catalog TITLE: Mono-Element Combined Supercritical High

  6. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing.

  7. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  8. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating pat...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  9. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods:...

  10. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  11. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  12. 75 FR 17380 - Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... contact the various help desks for assistance (e.g., the Patents Electronic Business Center (EBC) for any assistance on electronic filings), rather than contacting the ombudsman. See Manual of Patent Examining... complaints to ensure each is handled within ten business days; (3) to provide feedback and early...

  13. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  14. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory that...... of development. This interpretation restores the credibility of Kitch's prospect theory of patent function and emphasises that the administration of the patent institution should be designed to support the prospect function of patents.......Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...

  15. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  16. The Productive Ligurian Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, E; Couvelard, X; Caldeira, R M A

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the behavior of the eddies in the open-ocean, the sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the constricted Ligurian Basin (NW Mediterranean), are unproductive but their combined effect, arranged in a rim-like fashion, contributes to the containment of a Productive Ligurian Pool (PLP). Data de- rived from MODIS satellite sensor showed persistent higher chlorophyll con- centrations in the centre of the basin, concurrent with high EKE values in its surroundings, derived from AVISO altimetry merged products. This sug- gested that this 'productive pool' is maintained by the intense (sub)mesoscale eddy activity in the rim. Numerical realistic experiments, using a Regional Ocean Model System, forced by MERCATOR and by a high-resolution COSMO- l7 atmospheric model, also showed that most of the sub-mesoscale eddies, during 2009 and 2010, are concentrated in the rim surrounding the basin, contributing to the formation of a basin-scale cyclonic gyre. We hypothesized that the interaction between eddies in the r...

  17. 企业协同专利分析平台%Enterprise collaborative platform for patents analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐河杭; 顾新建; 祁国宁; 王海军; 张玉梅

    2009-01-01

    A new patent analysis method based on enterprise collaboration was put forward to better use patent resources for enterprise innovation. A patent analysis platform prototype based on enterprises collaboration was constituted, which can support accurate and complete patent search by constituting and improving the ontology database. The enterprises are encouraged to upload their private patent information by incentive mechanism and confidential mechanism. Patent information in the platform database was analyzed. In addition, the platform takes advantage of relations between product technique classification and international patent classification(IPC) to form the product based patent technique classification database. An application in a digital television enterprise showed that associate patents were found by patents combination analysis with different enterprises, so as to achieve the patent collaboration, patent sharing and patent pool between enterprises%在研究如何更好的发挥专利资源对企业的创新作用基础上,提出了企业协同专利分析的思想和方法.构建出一个企业协同专利分析平台原型,通过本体库的构建和完善来支持更准、更全的专利信息搜索,通过激励机制和保密机制来鼓励企业上传其私有的专利信息.对平台专利数据库中的专利信息进行分析,其中平台还利用产品的技术分类和国际专利分类(IPC)的关联对应,形成比较完整的基于产品的专利技术分类库.其在数字电视行业中做应用尝试,将不同企业的专利组合进行分析,发现关联专利,从而促进企业之间的专利合作和专利资源共享,促进企业专利联盟和专利池的构建.

  18. Can drug patents be morally justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. The working of the patent system is an important determinant of access to drugs. This paper argues that drug patents are not easily justified and that the 'architecture' of the patent system should be rethought in view of its mission of benefiting society.

  19. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  20. Clean coal and patent policy in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin Popa [State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The talk explained the importance of intellectual property protection to both industry and business. Applications for patents and utility models (for inventions), trademarks and industrial designs are filed with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania; Trade secrets and how they can be kept, are discussed. The routes to follow before filing a patent application are outlined. An example is given of how to search for patents on 'clean coal' on the European Patents Office's database. The abstract of one patent is presented. This is entitled: 'Clean combustion of coal, utility of the concomitant products of the clean combustion and the product by using the concomitant products'. 23 PowerPoint slides are also available in the proceedings. 1 fig.

  1. Patent for Invention of Guilin Rubber Machinery Transla- tional Vulcanizer Awarded the Honorary Title of China Excel- lent Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wenguang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the results of the 13th China Patent Awards were publicized. The patent for invention of "translational vulcanizer" applied by Guilin Rubber Machinery Factory was appraised as China Excellent Patent.

  2. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...... containing 421 EPO-patenting firms in Denmark....

  3. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  4. Drug repurposing and the prior art patents of competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Drug repurposing (i.e., finding novel indications for established substances) has received increasing attention in industry recently. One challenge of repositioned drugs is obtaining effective patent protection, especially if the 'novel' indications have already been claimed by competitors within the same drug class. Here, I report the case of patents relating to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Patentees of later-filed patents on novel indications (even when they could not observe prior patenting of their direct competitors) filed patents for which patent examiners did not see the prior-filed patents of the competitors as relevant prior art, whereas these follower patent applications often failed because of other reasons.

  5. Synaptic vesicle pools: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Denker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades synaptic vesicles have been assigned to a variety of functional and morphological classes or pools. We have argued in the past (Rizzoli SO and Betz WJ, 2005, Synaptic vesicle pools, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 57-69 that synaptic activity in several preparations is accounted for by the function of three vesicle pools: the readily releasable pool (docked at active zones and ready to go upon stimulation, the recycling pool (scattered throughout the nerve terminals and recycling upon moderate stimulation, and finally the reserve pool (occupying most of the vesicle clusters and only recycling upon strong stimulation. We discuss here the advancements in the vesicle pool field which took place in the ensuing years, focusing on the behavior of different pools under both strong stimulation and physiological activity. Several new findings have enhanced the three-pool model, with, for example, the disparity between recycling and reserve vesicles being underlined by the observation that the former are mobile, while the latter are fixed. Finally, a number of altogether new concepts have also evolved such as the current controversy on the identity of the spontaneously recycling vesicle pool.

  6. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdeo R Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have been widely designed to increase its bioavailability and for treatment of cancers like breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so on. The common nanoformulated herbal medicines are Panax ginseng, Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum, Withania somnifera, Gymnema sylvestre, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and the like, having a profound future potential.

  7. 辨明Patent Troll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建朋

    2012-01-01

    它,究竟是凶恶的巨怪,还是可爱的精灵? 它,竟究是正当的手段,还是无赖的工具? 长久以来,patent troll便是国外学术圈、实务界探讨的焦点话题之一,如今其又转到了国内,而近来表现的越发激烈。各派对其是否应当存在、存在合法与否等等进行了持续不休的讨论与争吵,

  8. Need for improving quality of operating structures and processes for better ARV adherence for patients with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania and other African countries:an experi-ence from Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irunde H; Nsimba SED; Comoro CJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was carried out in order to determine the following objectives:(1)To determine the pro-portion of patients who state achieving or not achieving optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)in selected Care and Treatment Sites in Arusha and Dares Salaam regions in Tanzania.(2)To identify factors such as structural,cultural or disease related contributing to sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARVs). (3)To assess quality of operating structures and processes for provision of antiretroviral (ARVs)in the select-ed healthcare facilities.(4)To document suggestions and proposals for improving ART adherence among ARV users.Methods:Data from 7 studied facilities (3 public and 4 private /or faith based)includes 207 interviews from ARV users,28 staff interview staff,26 observations during consultations,8 focus group discussions,10 key informant interviews,and stock checks in 6 facilities.The study design was a cross-sectional using both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques.Quantitative data were collected by using an adherence tool check list,while qualitative data were obtained using a consultation observation checklist,semi-structured interviews,focus group discussions (FGDs)and key informant interviews.Results:There were slight varia-tions in the quality of operating structures and processes in the two studied regions.However results indicate that ARV adherence in Arusha region was comparatively similar to that of Dares Salaam.The composite adher-ence for one month in seven facilities was 90 % and only 21 % of ARV users achieved optimal adherence. Conclusion:The overall mean composite adherence rate of 90 % in the two areas surveyed is encouraging. More efforts to improve the quality and processes of operating structures in our study facilities and others in Tanzania are needed to ensure optimal adherence among the larger group (79 %)of ARV users who are cur-rently taking less than the critical 95 % of their medications.

  9. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  10. A new model for gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-02

    When the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed for patents on thousands of gene fragments in 1991, it created a furor because it was attempting to assert broad rights to sequences whose functions were unknown. The cDNA fragments NIH researchers had discovered were simply short stretches of presumably expressed genes, yet the patent the agency was seeking would give it rights both to the full genes themselves and to all their possible future uses. If NIH prevailed, researchers argued, it would potentially discourage further work on those genes. Now the head of the genome project at the Department of Energy (DOE) - NIH's partner in the program - has proposed an alternative approach to gene patenting. At a meeting last week of a congressional Office of Technology Assessment panel that is preparing a report on this issue, DOE's David Galas revealed that University of Washington genome researcher Leroy Hood is preparing to file a patent application that could serve as a model for such patents in the future. Hood's team has been sequencing the genes encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor. Mutations in the T cell receptor genes may lead to any of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. A broad patent on the genes could therefore conceivably cover not only techniques for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but also of therapies for the conditions, and indeed anything involving T cell activity. But Hood's patent application won't make such broad claims. Instead, Hood, with DOE's support, will not seek to patent the genes but will claim only the specific uses of developing the diagnostic and therapeutic tools for dealing with specific autoimmune diseases. By restricting patents just to known uses the problems of gene ownership are neatly avoided.

  11. Modeling HIV vaccines in Brazil: assessing the impact of a future HIV vaccine on reducing new infections, mortality and number of people receiving ARV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti P Fonseca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15-49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial.

  12. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio......It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re...

  13. Patenting in Europe: The Jurisdiction of the CJEU over European Patent Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minn Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will deal with EU competence over patent law, especially in the context of the TRIPS Agreement with reference to the ruling of CJEU in the Daiichi Sankyo case (CJEU case C-414/11 Daiichi Sankyo v DEMO Anonimos. The first part will explain the process of claiming patents at the national as well as the European level in order to understand the complexity of patent law, the second part will deal with the implications of jurisdiction and developments in EU patent regulations, the third part will deal with the effects of EU competence over the TRIPS patent provisions and the forth part will deal with the interpretation of substantive patent law in the light of the Daiichi Sankyo case.

  14. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  15. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Records and Files of the Patent and Trademark Office § 1.14 Patent applications preserved in confidence... published under 35 U.S.C. 122(b) are generally preserved in confidence pursuant to 35 U.S.C....

  16. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  17. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent...

  18. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... following methods: E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``Patent and Trademark Resource...

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  20. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for...

  1. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  2. 78 FR 17102 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 41 RIN 0651-AC86 Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is correcting...

  3. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  4. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  5. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC84 Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is revising the rules of practice to implement...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  7. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals...

  8. 76 FR 34062 - Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  9. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  10. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities...

  14. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  15. Patent law in dentistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  16. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  17. How do Firms Use the Information in Patent Disclosures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim

    that the patent specification should disclose sufficient information to identify the invention with respect to the prior art and therefore make the patent defensible against rival patents in court - they need not enable the making of the invention. Our research design gathers data on how firms use the information...... disclosed in patent specifications and relates this to the predictions of the different types of current theories of patent function. We intend to test and refine theory in one current patent controversy, that concerning patent information usage. [ii] [i] See Cohen, W., A. Goto, et al. (2002). "R...

  18. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State......While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... clustering reveals the existence of five patent strategy archetypes of companies patenting in economies with weak appropriability regimes....

  19. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  20. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Richard L.; Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets...

  1. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  2. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... has made the determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that human drug...

  3. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  4. Severallssues in the Practice of Design Patent Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Subject Matter Protected by the Design Patent Right For any legal relation to be viable there must be three elements; the subject,subject matter and content. What the subject matter protected by the design patent right is one of the basic issues of the design patent system in China. However,in the design patent examination, we have found that many parties and even senior patent attorneys have many misconceptions about the issue.

  5. Empirical studies on the private value of Finnish patents

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted fact that innovation is important for economic growth and that a well-designed patent system increases research and development investments. Patents are unfortunately a second best solution. While the benefits of the patent system are increased incentives to innovation, diffusion of new knowledge, and easier commercialization of patented innovations; the drawback of the patent system is the monopolies it creates. Therefore, the fundamental question that has intereste...

  6. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  7. A Patent Analysis on Realistic Media for R&D Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Hyun; Yeon, Seung-Jun

    In this paper, we use patent statistics as the recent status of R&D in international patents. The number of patents was used to compare different countries' share in the overall number of technology patents. Using the degree of patent citations, the influence and technological prowess of patents were examined. Also, implications were drawn from an analysis of patent contents for realistic media.

  8. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  9. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  10. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  11. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  12. Protecting new ideas and inventions in nanomedicine with patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj; Bawa, S R; Maebius, Stephen B; Flynn, Ted; Wei, Chiming

    2005-06-01

    New paradigms are shrinking our world. Tiny is in and patents are essential for success in nanomedicine. In fact, patents are already shaping this nascent and rapidly evolving field. For the past decade a swarm of patent applications pertaining to nanomedicine has been arriving at the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). As companies develop products and processes and begin to seek commercial applications for their inventions, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be vital to their long-term survival. As we enter the "golden era" of medicine, or nanomedicine, in the next decade with the field maturing and the promised breakthroughs accruing, patents will generate licensing revenue, provide leverage in deals and mergers, and reduce the likelihood of infringement. Because development of nanobiotechnology- and nanomedicine-related products is extremely research intensive, without the market exclusivity offered by a US patent, development of these products and their commercial viability in the marketplace will be significantly hampered. In this article, we highlight critical issues relating to patenting nanomedicine products. Effects of the "nanopatent land grab" that is underway in nanomedicine by "patent prospectors" are examined as startups and corporations compete to lock up broad patents in these critical early days. Because nanomedicine is multidisciplinary, patenting presents unique opportunities and poses numerous challenges. Although patents are being sought more actively and enforced more vigorously, the entire patent system is under greater scrutiny and strain, with the PTO continuing to struggle with evaluating nanomedicine-related patent applications.

  13. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  14. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  15. Recent survey on nanosuspension: a patent overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R; Patel, Mukesh S; Patel, Kanu R

    2015-01-01

    The major goals of designing nanosuspension of nanosize materials are increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with the wide range of applications. Nanosuspension is a unique tool for improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspension drug delivery has wide range of application like oral, injectable, transdermal, inhalation, peroral, ocular, pulmonary and topical etc. by improviing the bioavailability, reducing the dose, gastric irritation, decreasing intra subject variability and increasing adhesivness with intestinal membrane. Recently, nanosuspension has been received much interest as a way to resolve solubility and stability problem because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compare to other liposome and colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions are engaged to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate, improve the bioavaibility of drug with poor solubility and dose regimen. Application and preparation method of nanosuspension has been reported by research articles and patented in different countries. Most of the marketed nanosuspensions are in preclinical and clinical based study for its application. More than 100 patents have been published on nanosuspensions by the recent days. This patent reviews covers different methods of pharmaceutical preparation and applications in drug delivery as well as the recent marketed published or granted patent surveys. This patent review is useful in enhance the knowledge of controlled drug delivery and applications.

  16. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  17. Gene patents, patenting life and the impact of court rulings on US stem cell patents and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-03-01

    In June 2013, the US Supreme Court ruled that naturally occurring genes were unpatentable in the case Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics. Up until this decision, Myriad Genetics was the only company in the USA that could legally conduct diagnostic testing for BRCA1 and 2, genes that are linked to familial breast and ovarian cancer. The court case and rulings garnered discussion in public about patenting biological materials. This paper will describe the progression of the Myriad Genetics case, similar US rulings and biological intellectual property policies. In addition, it will discuss the impact of the case on biological patents - specifically those for human embryonic stem cells.

  18. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent “Thicket”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    and entrepreneurial exploitation of patents on early vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent was alleged to have ”overlapped” with De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how patent rights were resolved......It has been proposed that difficulties in negotiating cross-licenses under multiple, independently-owned and ”overlapping” patents may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter development of technology covered by such patents. The literature alleges these features were present in radio development...... during 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, we re-examine the legal trajectories...

  19. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  20. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use.

  1. Synthetic Biology in the Biotech Patent Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana García-llerena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intended positive effects of the current patent system in biotechnological research have been widely questioned. As part of this review, it is discussed here one of the foundations of the model. The assumption of the indispensability of patents is examined through the analysis of their expected benefits; namely, that patents are suitable to ensure access to information, access to and use of inventions and, finally, that they should promote both creativity and research. Applied to synthetic biology, in spite of newly discovered techniques and promising products, this approach reveals that this discipline also encounters similar issues. However, it also offers a new vision of intellectual property rights and their effects on research, which is based on a different conception of the commons and its relationship with private ownership of intangible assets in the knowledge economy.

  2. Patenting humans: clones, chimeras, and biological artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, William B

    2005-01-01

    The momentum of advances in biology is evident in the history of patents on life forms. As we proceed forward with greater understanding and technological control of developmental biology there will be many new and challenging dilemmas related to patenting of human parts and partial trajectories of human development. These dilemmas are already evident in the current conflict over the moral status of the early human embryo. In this essay, recent evidence from embryological studies is considered and the unbroken continuity of organismal development initiated at fertilization is asserted as clear and reasonable grounds for moral standing. Within this frame of analysis, it is proposed that through a technique of Altered Nuclear Transfer, non-organismal entities might be created from which embryonic stem cells could be morally procured. Criteria for patenting of such non-organismal entities are considered.

  3. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  4. From flood-event to climate in an alpine context (Arve valley, France): methodological issues toward the confrontation of historical documentation and geological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélo, Alain; Ployon, Estelle; Wilhelm, Bruno; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    Floods are complex multifactor events. As it can occur randomly on a given region, a given singular event does not clearly inform about climate variations. On the contrary, long-time series of well documented events, each one being replaced in its historical and geographical context, should bring valuable information. Such successions can be built-up using heterogeneous historical documentation taken from various social contexts. This is the case of small drainage basin of river Arve and its tributaries (Northern French Alps), on which this paper will focus. We used a plentiful and rich documentation which was elaborated quite exclusively to report damages in the aim of claiming tax abatement. As a consequence each text requires a hard critic to reach the necessary objectivity. The analysis of 18th century treasury archives led first to a geographical reconstruction of floods impacts and second to an unambiguous chronology of events. The contrasted morphology of river Arve drainage basin generates various types of floods, depending on geographical situations: summer flash-floods in the higher parts of valleys (Chamonix, Sixt) or torrential tributaries (Borne); autumn large floods in lower parts (Bonneville); some unusual events concern the whole basin (1733, 1778...). The constitution of long continuous series was thus possible. However, this does not allow evidencing any trend because most of the events are randomly-distributed flash-floods. In return, meteorological contextualization of each event replaces it in a larger climatic perception. Using this way (meteorological archives, comparisons with recently well-documented event) led us to corroborate connections between flood events and changing patterns. In order to go a step further, we led a pilot-study aiming at representing our data in space-time information system using concepts and tools of time geography. This study was limited to year 1930 AD which was rich in various meteorological events leading to

  5. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  6. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  7. Analyzing Patents Generated by SBIR Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Intervention Cumulative Knowledge  Creation   Leads to Economic Growth • Endogeneous growth theory  Romer (1990) – Investment in knowledge  creation , human capital...including patents rights to inventions funded by federal research money . To date there has been no systematic analysis of these laws on the propensity to...including patents rights to inventions funded by federal research money . To date there has been no systematic analysis of these laws on the propensity

  8. Recent patents relating to bird flu infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-01-01

    Bird flu or H5N1 infection is a new emerging zoonosis. With the pandemic in avian species in Asia, it is now under surveillance for a possible new public health threat to human. There are many present researches focusing on several aspects of bird flu. There are some recent patents and patent applications published within a few years. In this article, the recent patients relating to bird flu infection covering the diagnostic and treatment aspects for both avian species and human are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Understanding Patents: The Role of R&D Funding Sources and the Patent Office

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of different sources of R&D funding and patent office attributes on the patenting process. Another important contribution is modeling the effect of a random delay in the ‘pendency’ time as a stochastic process and quantifying its effect on patenting. The empirical estimation is based on four major industries – electronics, chemical and biology, transportation and aeronautics – for the time period 1976-1998. The primary results are: First, the source of R&D fund...

  10. India: Court upholds patent law denying patents for slightly modified versions of existing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Madhavi

    2007-12-01

    In August 2007, the Madras High Court struck down a petition by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Novartis to declare the anti-evergreening provision in Indian patent law invalid. Evergreening is the practice of effectively extending the patent on a drug by filing a new patent for a marginal modification to that drug, such as a change in its shape, dosing range or color. The Court's decision is critical for global access to essential medicines in the form of affordable generic drugs from India

  11. 75 FR 56059 - Patent Examiner Technical Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ..., Electronic Commerce, Agriculture, National Security, and License & Review: e-Commerce applications including... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent...

  12. The Idea of Patents vs. the Idea of University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that patents are a driving force for innovation through research and development. But the university's involvement in patenting is problematic as well. In particular, it is in tension with the idea of a university itself. If patents entail a restriction on the accessibility of the scientific knowledge that has been patented, and if the main purpose of universities is to produce and disseminate knowledge to the public, then, there is a tension: when universities patent their research innovations, they are making the scientific knowledge they produce less accessible to the public. The paper argues that university patenting contradicts the very idea of a university as an institution whose mission is fundamentally to disseminate the knowledge it produces to the public. The practice of university patenting involves an un-academic attitude thus: by inciting an attitude towards knowledge that is not consistent with the proper attitudes and goals of a university, university patenting hurts university's integrity.

  13. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  14. Patent Database : A Methodology of Information Retrieval From PDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patent document holds wealth of information in itself. A brief detail of Indian patent applicationinformation is published as eighteen month publication by Indian patent Office, in electronic gazetteweekly. To date, a proper database of Indian patents specifically for research determination has not beenavailable, making it complicated for researcher to use this data for measuring any kind of researchactivities in terms of patents in India. To facilitate this, we constructed a comprehensive patent databasewhich incorporates the information presented in the electronic gazette. This database includes informationsuch as technology class, applicant, inventor, country of origin etc., of the patent submitted. We present themethodology for the creation of this database, its basic features along with its accuracy and reliability inthis research paper. Patent based database has been developed and can be used for various innovationresearches and activities.

  15. DNA Dilemma: A Perspective on Current U.S. Patent and Trademarh Office Philosophy Concerning Life Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.; Faletra, P.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of a solid set of criteria for determining patentability of subject matter - particularly subject matter dealing with life - has recently been of increasing public concern in the United States. Alarm for patent practices related to life systems ranges from patents being granted on biochemical processes and the knowledge of these processes to the patenting of entire organisms. One of the most volatile concerns is the patenting of human genes or parts of genes since this genetic material is the basic informational molecule for all life. Current patent law, legislated in 1952, has been interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to allow broad patents of DNA, biochemical processes, and what are generally considered 'inventions' of life systems. Several issues are addressed in this paper regarding the unsound reasoning underlying both the interpretation and execution of patent law. Lapses in logic provide a gateway for businesses and individuals to take patenting to an illogical and unworkable extreme. Patent Office disorder of this magnitude is unnecessary and has great potential for harming the mission that the patent office was designed to serve. Recently disclosed patent-granting guidelines suggest the United States Patent and Trademark Office is not upholding its Constitutional responsibility of promoting the progress of science.

  16. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  17. Synaptic vesicle pools and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, AbdulRasheed A; Tsien, Richard W

    2012-08-01

    Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses, thus initiating the flow of information in neural networks. To achieve this, vesicles undergo a dynamic cycle of fusion and retrieval to maintain the structural and functional integrity of the presynaptic terminals in which they reside. Moreover, compelling evidence indicates these vesicles differ in their availability for release and mobilization in response to stimuli, prompting classification into at least three different functional pools. Ongoing studies of the molecular and cellular bases for this heterogeneity attempt to link structure to physiology and clarify how regulation of vesicle pools influences synaptic strength and presynaptic plasticity. We discuss prevailing perspectives on vesicle pools, the role they play in shaping synaptic transmission, and the open questions that challenge current understanding.

  18. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  19. Patent Disclosure and R&D Competition in Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fpammolli, F.Pammolli; Lmagazzini, L.Magazzini.; Mriccaboni, M.Riccaboni; Marossi, M.A.Rossi

    2009-01-01

    The prominent role played by patents within the pharmaceutical domain is unquestionable. In this paper we take an unusual perspective and focus on a relatively neglected implication of patents: the effect of patent-induced information disclosure (of both successes and failures) on the dynamics of R&D and market competition. The study builds upon the combination of two large datasets, linking the information about patents to firm level data on R&D projects and their outcome. Two case studies i...

  20. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Anil V. Parwani; Suryanarayana Vepa; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United State...

  1. Contribution of rainfall, snow and ice melt to the hydrological regime of the Arve upper catchment and to severe flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, Grégoire; Revuelto, Jesús; Morin, Samuel; Zin, Isabella; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Condom, Thomas; Six, Delphine; Vionnet, Vincent; Charrois, Luc; Dumont, Marie; Gottardi, Frédéric; Laarman, Olivier; Coulaud, Catherine; Esteves, Michel; Lebel, Thierry; Vincent, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In Alpine catchments, the hydrological response to meteorological events is highly influenced by the precipitation phase (liquid or solid) and by snow and ice melt. It is thus necessary to simulate accurately the snowpack evolution and its spatial distribution to perform relevant hydrological simulations. This work is focused on the upper Arve Valley (Western Alps). This 205 km2 catchment has large glaciated areas (roughly 32% of the study area) and covers a large range of elevations (1000-4500 m a.s.l.). Snow presence is significant year-round. The area is also characterized by steep terrain and strong vegetation heterogeneity. Modelling hydrological processes in such a complex catchment is therefore challenging. The detailed ISBA land surface model (including the Crocus snowpack scheme) has been applied to the study area using a topography based discretization (classifying terrain by aspect, elevation, slope and presence of glacier). The meteorological forcing used to run the simulations is the reanalysis issued from the SAFRAN model which assimilates meteorological observations from the Meteo-France networks. Conceptual reservoirs with calibrated values of emptying parameters are used to represent the underground water storage. This approach has been tested to simulate the discharge on the Arve catchment and three sub-catchments over 1990-2015. The simulations were evaluated with respect to observed water discharges for several headwaters with varying glaciated areas. They allow to quantify the relative contribution of rainfall, snow and ice melt to the hydrological regime of the basin. Additionally, we present a detailed analysis of several particular flood events. For these events, the ability of the model to correctly represent the catchment behaviour is investigated, looking particularly to the relevance of the simulated snowpack. Particularly, its spatial distribution is evaluated using MODIS snow cover maps, punctual snowpack observations and summer

  2. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... USPTO's system for electronic filing of patent correspondence. EFS-Web is accessible via the Internet on....41, 1.48, and 1.53(c)(2) can be filed electronically as well as in paper. The electronic options...

  3. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sardjono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  4. Two new patents of Baoxiniao suit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently,Baoxiniao released two patents of suit--cool suit,zero grams of weight suits. "Cool suit" is fashion design,with leisure craft production.Natural fibre blended fabric to retain cool sense of the natural fibre fabric

  5. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definitions. (1) Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of NASA. (2) Invention means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protectable under Title 35 of the United States Code. (3) Made when used in relation to any invention means the conception or...

  6. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    to Navy suppliers. F. Contact: Darryl Mexic, Esquire Patent Counsel Sughrue, Mion, Zinn , Macpeak & Seas 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC...Bovernack Auoney, Agent. or Firm- Howard P. Terry; Seymour (75) Inventor: D d H. MeMa , Carlisle, Mass. Levine [73] Assignee: Sperry Corporatloin, New York

  7. Plant biotechnological patents from the legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abdullah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which plant biotechnological patent in terms of natural product which has human intervention, different from other product and the entitlement of such a patent whether it is the inventor or biological donor s patent? In addition, the article discusses how would one determine the value added” by the company s researchers as opposed to the value contributed by the original genetic material. Meanwhile, the poor farmers and indigenous people who are the pioneers in terms of the knowledge of the plant, they are left unprivileged and deprived of their contribution and benefits. Thus, this article would highlight the significance of the contribution made by the original donor especially, in a poor developing country whose natural heritage has been taken away without any consideration, acknowledgment and how to strike a balance between the rights of an inventor and biological donor? Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Patents, Inventor, Biological Donor, Developing countries Received: 7 July 2009 / Received in revised form: 28 August 2009, Accepted: 28 August 2009, Published online: 22 September 2009

  8. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  9. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  10. Patenting Marketing Methods: A Missing Topic in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1998 landmark case that validated the patenting of business methods as intellectual property, a plethora of patents has emerged. Patents for marketing-related processes have been particularly abundant, especially when new marketing processes are tied to a technology component. A review of the marketing literature and textbooks shows an…

  11. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  12. 45 CFR 650.4 - Standard patent rights clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... special patent clause has been negotiated (see § 650.5). Patent Rights (August, 2005) (a) Definitions—(1) Invention means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protectable under... Plant Variety Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 2321 et seq.). (2) Subject invention means any invention of...

  13. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting, becau

  14. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Pursuant to the provisions of Part.... Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC AND...-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC...

  15. 14 CFR 1214.204 - Patent and data rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent and data rights. 1214.204 Section... Substantial Investment in the STS Program § 1214.204 Patent and data rights. (a) When accommodating missions... purposes rights to inventions, patents and data resulting from such missions, subject to the...

  16. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  17. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  18. 77 FR 64315 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Provisional Patent...

  19. 48 CFR 970.5227-6 - Patent indemnity-subcontracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5227-6 Patent indemnity—subcontracts. Insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts in accordance with 970.2702-3: Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  20. 77 FR 22298 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Summary: Pursuant to the provisions....S. Patent No. 7,391,877, issued 24 June 2008, entitled ``Spatial Processor for Enhanced Performance... for the patent unless a written objection is received within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  1. 45 CFR 650.5 - Special patent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special patent provisions. 650.5 Section 650.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.5 Special patent provisions. At the request of the prospective awardee or on recommendation...

  2. 36 CFR 9.18 - Surface use and patent restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface use and patent... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.18 Surface use and patent restrictions. (a) The... to any claimant who wishes to take his claim to patent in Olympic National Park, Glacier Bay...

  3. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory... an Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of part 404 of Title 37, Code of... interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent No. 8,051,475, filed on March 27, 2007 and...

  4. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  5. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions... exclusive license in any right, title and interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent... license for the invention described in this patent application will be granted unless a written...

  6. 43 CFR 6.7 - Domestic patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic patent protection. 6.7 Section 6.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.7 Domestic patent protection. (a) The Solicitor, upon determining that an invention...

  7. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  8. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  9. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  10. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  13. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest....

  14. 10 CFR 603.840 - Negotiating data and patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiating data and patent rights. 603.840 Section 603... patent rights. (a) The contracting officer must confer with program officials and assigned intellectual... that would support modification of standard patent and data terms, and should include...

  15. 48 CFR 28.105-2 - Patent infringement bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent infringement bonds... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 28.105-2 Patent infringement bonds. (a) Contracts providing for patent indemnity may require these bonds only if— (1)...

  16. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR...

  17. Mapping (USPTO) patent data using overlays to Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    2012-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and the quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology anal

  18. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  19. Taiwan's Information Security Policy Enhancement: an Analysis of Patent Indicators and Patent Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Wen; Liang-Shiuan, Jr.; Chen, Yi-Chang

    2007-12-01

    Information security policy in Taiwan stems the gap between expectation and reality. For this, the paper presents an analysis of patent indicators and patent document attempt to conclude the overview of the information security technology development. The paper also identifies the leading countries and cutting-edge areas with potential trends. Finally, several practicable and valuable strategies after this work are generalized to achieve the goals of Taiwan information security policy.

  20. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  1. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  2. A patent strategy for genomic and research tool patents: are there any differences between the USA, Europe and Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Ihnen J

    2000-12-01

    The patenting of genomics and research tools, and its effects on the development of therapeutics are attracting considerable attention. Regardless of whether one is in favor of patents for this technology, it is not specifically excluded from patenting in most countries. Accordingly, it is imperative that a suitable global patent strategy be developed and followed to maximize both intellectual property rights and returns on R&D investment.

  3. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  4. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  5. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  6. Patent Aggregation Strategy: A new strategic type%专利集中战略:一种新的战略类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓东; 孟奇勋

    2011-01-01

    It is hard for traditional patent strategy theory to explain why the emerging strategy model appears in the patent exchange market. After analyzing the offensive aggregation and defensive aggregation strategy taken by foreign patent holding companies, the author put forward the conception of patent aggregation strategy and defined it. Patent aggregation strategy is the inevitable choice of the combined action of open innovation and specialization, which shows the process in which the companies gradually recognize the value of patent. The main characteristics of its evolution are: from individual patents to patent portfolio; from a single company to a patent pool, and from patent production to patent business. Confronted both the opportunities and risks brought by patent aggregation strategy, the government has to make effective decision at the policy level in China.%传统的专利战略理论难以有效解释专利交易市场上出现的新兴战略模式.通过考察国外专利经营公司采取的进攻型和防御型专利集聚两种战略类型,本文提出了"专利集中战略"的概念框架并对其内涵予以界定.专利集中战略是开放式创新和专业化分工共同作用的必然选择,也反映出公司对专利价值认识的逐渐深化过程.其演化特质体现在:一是从单项专利到专利组合;二是从单个企业到专利联盟;三是从专利产品到专利经营.面对专利集中战略带来的机遇和风险,我国有必要在政策层面加以有效应对.

  7. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  8. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  9. An Analysis of the Patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; LI; Qing; CHEN; Bingjiang; XU; Xinxin; REN; Huasun; HUANG; Qiong; LI

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes the application data of patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis in the world and China from the perspectives of time,research field,and the geographical distribution of applicants. It also interprets the patents for invention in China from time,research field,and types of applicants. Based on the study,it shows that although the patent applications fluctuate,the general trend is rising. And the patents are mostly concentrated in plant protection,and agricultural biotechnology. The Chinese applicants of patents for invention largely work in the research institutes,and most of these patents focus on the field of plant protection,agricultural biotechnology,and agro-processing.However,the foreign applicants mainly work in companies,and most of these patents only focus on plant protection. These findings will provide a reference for formulating development policies about natural rubber industry in China.

  10. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law....... The article points out that the UPC because of this design will be biased towards technology based values and uniformity at the expense of other values and interests e.g. non-economic public interests, and values associated with diversity. The practical effects of these biases are analysed regarding cases...... involving ordre public and morality and scope of protection. The article shows that the biases will affect the law in all the areas discussed and that if unchecked they will reduce some of the “wriggling room” which the current system has provided. To maintain that room a focused effort by the UPC...

  11. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  12. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  13. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery.

  14. Patent ductus arteriosus with Eisenmenger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Sherif; Patton, David J; Balon, Yvonne; Connelly, Michael S; Alvarez, Nanette

    2013-11-01

    Herein we report a 21 year-old woman with a previously documented patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger physiology. She presented with increasing cyanosis and exercise intolerance which could be explained by a new finding of right to left shunting through an interatrial communication. She was started on Bosentan therapy aiming to reduce the pulmonary pressure with consideration for heart-lung transplantation should any further deterioration occur.

  15. A rare association with patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Warrier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent fifth aortic arch (PFAA, also known as congenital double-lumen aortic arch, is a rare developmental anomaly of the aortic arch. A 5-month-old baby who presented with congestive cardiac failure was diagnosed to have a large patent ductus arteriosus with PFAA. Although this arch anomaly had no hemodynamic relevance in this case, preoperative diagnosis prevented surprises "on table."

  16. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  17. [Infections transmitted in swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suzani, C; Hazeghi, P

    1976-01-01

    Public swimmingpools can be the source of infections due to micro-organism such as mycobacterium balnei, adeno and enteroviruses, the virus of plantar warts and molluscum contagiosum, the TRIC-Agent of swimmingpool-conjonctivitis and pathogenic fungi. The transmission of trichomonas vaginalis is considered unlikely-Water of pools, supposed to present satisfactory qualities by standard controls, was found to contain pathogenic staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective preventive measures include the continuous recording of the redox-potential of the water, limiting the number of visitors to pool design specifications, better desinfection of sanitary installations, regular maintenance of technical equipment including frequent backwashing of filters and exclusion of visitors with communicable disease.

  18. A Consensual Linear Opinion Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We propose a pooling method to aggregate expert opinions. Intuitively, it works as if the experts were continuously updating their opinions in order to accommodate the expertise of others. Each updated opinion takes the form of a linear opinion pool, where the weight that an expert assigns to a peer's opinion is inversely related to the distance between their opinions. In other words, experts are assumed to prefer opinions that are close to their own opinions. We prove that such an updating process leads to consensus, i.e., the experts all converge towards the same opinion. Further, we show that if experts are rewarded using the quadratic scoring rule, then the above mentioned assumption follows naturally. We empirically demonstrate the efficacy of our method using real-world data.

  19. On Management Crisis, Innovation and Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣莲

    2005-01-01

    There are lots of management crisises in chinese enterprises with development of china' s economy. There exists a bottle neck in the transition from middle-level to international level group for Chinese companies. While the general principles behind wise competition policy are well understood, their application in particular industries and particular cases calls for careful analytical thinking. That thinking often includes economics. Innovation competition policy can be analyzed using the same general principles as other parts of competition policy. It is important to understand innovation competition policy, because several kinds of innovation are important in the modern economy. How could such industries as software, semiconductors, and computers have been so innovative despite historically weak patent protection? We argue that if innovation is both sequential and complementary- as it certainly has been in those industries-competition can increase firms' future profits thus offsetting short-term dissipation of rents. A simple model also shows that in such a dynamic industry, patent protection may reduce overall innovation and social welfare. Standard arguments would predict that R&D intensity and productivity should have increased among patenting firms.

  20. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  1. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  2. Sustainability of common pool resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  3. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  4. Pool power control in remelting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rodney L.; Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.

    2011-12-13

    An apparatus for and method of controlling a remelting furnace comprising adjusting current supplied to an electrode based upon a predetermined pool power reference value and adjusting the electrode drive speed based upon the predetermined pool power reference value.

  5. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    The structure of the warm pool (region with temperature greater than 28 degrees C) in the equatorial Indian Ocean is examined and compared with its counterpart in the Pacific Ocean using the climatology of Levitus. Though the Pacific warm pool...

  6. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  7. International collaboration in patenting : a case study of contributions of Indian inventors

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, Bharvi

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates international collaboration of Indian inventors in patenting, using United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database from 1976-2004. The result indicates that Indian inventors had 911 patents with the inventors of 28 countries. It examines these patent documents in terms of patent assignees and their countries, type of assignees, areas of patenting, joint ownerships and key players holding these patents. It is observed that Indian inventors have contributed m...

  8. Effectiveness and tolerability of abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine (ABC/3TC/NVP in a multicenter cohort of HIV-infected ARV-experienced patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Podzamczer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Very scarce information has been published to date with the combination of ABC/3TC/NVP but it is currently being used in clinical practice in many centers in Spain. Our aim was to present the clinical experience with this regimen in a cohort of adult HIV-infected pts. Methods: Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study. Consecutive adult HIV-infected ARV-experienced pts, HLA-B*5701-negative, who started ABC/3TC/NVP between 2005–2010, with at least one follow-up visit, were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were assessed at baseline, month 1, and every 3–4 months thereafter. The primary end point was HIV-1 viral load (VL <40 c/mL at 48 weeks. Data were analyzed by intent-to-treat (ITT (non-completer=failure and on treatment (OT. Summary of results: 227 pts were included and followed up for a median of 30 (0.5–76 months. 75% male, 47 (24–83 years, 21% AIDS, 13% HCV+, baseline CD4 570 (32–1404 cells/µL and VL undetectable in 90% with a median of <1.59 (<1.59–5.1 log. Most pts were receiving NVP (63%, ABC (25% or both (4% in the previous regimen. ABC/3TC/NVP was initiated due to toxicity (42%, simplification (35% or other reasons (22% including to reduce drug cost. After 48 weeks, VL was <40 c/mL in 82% (ITT and 94% (OT, and in 94% (OT after 96 weeks. CD4 increased +63 (p<0.001 and +77 (p<0.001 cells/µL after 48 and 96 weeks, respectively. One or more drugs of the regimen were discontinued in 18% of pts during follow up: toxicity (7%, virologic failure (3%, lost to follow-up (3%, unrelated death (0.4% or other reasons (4%. No significant differences were observed in ALT, AST, or triglyceride changes during follow up. A significant increase of 7%, 10% and 14% was observed in total cholesterol, LDLc and HDLc, and a significant decrease in TC/HDL ratio (−5%, p=0.004 after 96 weeks, respectively. Conclusions: In this particular cohort of ARV-experienced pts previously receiving NVP or ABC, a

  9. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  10. Impact of Global Patent and Regulatory Reform on Patent Strategies for Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Napoleon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  I come to you this morning not as an intellectual property lawyer but as a former general counsel of biotechnology and pharmaceutical related companies, as an attorney with significant exposure to intellectual property issues and as one who has seen first-hand the importance of intellectual property in shaping commercial strategies in biotechnology. With that as a backdrop, I would like to thank you for allowing me the opportunity to share with you today thoughts that I have regarding patents and the impact of patent reform on biotechnology. It has been said that the best way to predict the future is to invent it. However, I believe that the best way to control the future is to patent it.

  11. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  12. Heat transfer enhancement and surface thermostabilization for pool boiling on porous structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik Tadeusz Michal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the article includes the description of the experimental setup, methodology of the experimental studies, the study results for pool boiling heat transfer coefficient encountered on sintered capillary porous coverings. The results of own studies presented here refer to the boiling in a large volume on copper fibrous coverings. Hysteresis type I, II and III were described. Several examples of capillary porous surface coverings applications in purposely chosen complex boiling heat transfer processes have been presented based on Wojcik and Poniewski patents.

  13. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  14. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  15. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  18. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  19. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  1. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  3. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  4. Commentary on patents: Don`t dismiss Rifkin`s damning of gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, R.

    1995-07-01

    Biotech may have less to fear from Rifkin than from its own inclination to dismiss the fact that the evolution of ethics and patent laws applying to patenting genes has been haphazard. Perhaps it is time for the biotechnology industry to get behind the establishment of an effective forum for opening much-needed dialogue. Perhaps a Senate proposal to establish a bioethics commission, which reportedly has bogged down in partisan politics, is just such a venue for the government and private sector to begin to hash out the ethical and legal dilemmas that are indisputably at the heart of the biotechnology industry, and its future success.

  5. Languages, Fees and the International Scope of Patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno;

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in patenting activity are the subject of a growing literature. Existing research contributes to a better understanding of the incentives that drive economic agents to rely on the patent system (e.g. Cohen et al., 2000; Arundel, 2001; Blind et al., 2006; Peeters and van...... Pottelsberghe, 2006; von Graevenitz et al., 2013) and on potential implications of their behaviour for the effectiveness of the patent system. Lately, a number of researchers have started to explore the design of the patent system itself, i.e. the role of fees and costs of patenting (Archontopoulos et al., 2007......; Harhoff et al., 2009; de Rassenfosse and van Pottelsberghe, 2013), the duration of examination (Thomas, 2010; Harhoff, 2011), as well as patent office governance and management (Friebel et al., 2006)....

  6. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  7. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  8. POOL development status and production experience

    CERN Document Server

    Chytracek, R; Frank, M; Girone, M; Govi, G; Moscicki, J T; Papadopoulos, I; Schmücker, H; Karr, K; Malon, D; Vaniachine, A; Tanenbaum, W; Xie, Z; Barrass, T; Cioffi, C; IT

    2005-01-01

    The pool of persistent objects for LHC (POOL) project, part of the large Hadron collider (LHC) computing grid (LCG), is now entering its third year of active development. POOL provides the baseline persistency framework for three LHC experiments. It is based on a strict component model, insulating experiment software from a variety of storage technologies. This paper gives a brief overview of the POOL architecture, its main design principles and the experience gained with integration into LHC experiment frameworks. It also presents recent developments in the POOL works areas of relational database abstraction and object storage into relational database management systems (RDBMS) systems.

  9. Patent Reform: Issues in the Biomedical and Software Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-07

    Patents, Innovation, and Access to New Pharmaceuticals , p. 852. 34 The Economics of Human Gene Patents, p. 1352. 35 For more information see CRS...Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, March 2003, available at [http://www.findarticles.com]. 28 Henry G. Grabowski, “Patents, Innovation, and Access to New ... Pharmaceuticals ,” Journal of International Economic Law, 2002, p. 851. 29 Iain Cockburn, “The Changing Structure of the Pharmaceutical Industry,” Health

  10. Intellectual Property Rights in India: Significance of Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Y, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights an overview of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) in India and their trends. Importantly, patents have played a key role in changing national and global innovation landscape.The IPR trends during 2003-13, the approved rate of designs (87.38%) and trademarks registrations (65.54%) were significantly higher than the granted patents (22.06%) in India. Though, the patents (63.26%) have generated huge revenues than the designs, trademarks and GIs over last dec...

  11. Patents on computer-related inventions in India

    OpenAIRE

    Noto La Diega, Guido

    2016-01-01

    In India, sec. 3(k) of the Patents Act 1970 clearly excludes the patentability of computer programmes per se. For many years, the regime of computer-implemented inventions has been unclear, until the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks (the Indian homologous of the Intellectual Property Office) issued its Guidelines on the examination of computer-related inventions. Notably, this gave rise the civil society’s protests; indeed, there was the fear that the government was surr...

  12. 77 FR 40345 - Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: United States Air Force, DoD..., Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Number 7,927,828, Serial No. 11/550,130, issued on... William V. Stoecker, Hernan F. Gomez, Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent...

  13. Compulsory licensing, price controls, and access to patented foreign products

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Bond; Kamal Saggi

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by existing multilateral rules regarding intellectual property, we develop a North-South model to highlight the dual roles price controls and compulsory licensing play in determining Southern access to a patented Northern product. The Northern patent-holder chooses whether and how to work its patent in the South (either via entry or voluntarily licensing) while the South determines the price control and whether to issue a compulsory license. The threat of compulsory licensing benefi...

  14. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology analysis, innovation studies and evolutionary economics, as well as economic geography. The resulting maps can also be relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management, because the US market...

  15. Preliminary study into query translation for patent retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochim, C.; Lioma, Christina; Schütze, H.

    2010-01-01

    boundaries do not hinder their accessibility. This multilingual-ity of patent collections offers opportunities for improving patent retrieval. In this work we exploit these opportunities by applying query translation to patent retrieval. We expand monolingual patent queries with their translations, using......, but not always, and without great improvement compared to standard statistical monolingual query expansion (Rocchio). The improvement is greater when the source language is English, as opposed to French or German, a finding partly due to the effect of the complex French and German morphology upon translation...

  16. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  17. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Guangyuan, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@mail.shufe.edu.cn, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@shufe.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, School of Public Economics and Administration (China); Liu, Weishu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Antai College of Economics and Management (China)

    2015-12-15

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  18. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points...... of discussion have been focused on the scope of protection (e.g. purpose-bound protection) and gene patents being subject to a specific DNA regime on patent rights. The Directive can be interpreted as favouring such a solution, but so far the European Commission has decided neither to support nor reject...

  19. The Pharmaceutical Patent Protection Impact on Indonesia Drugs Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Suryo Utomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the pharmaceutical patent protection impact on Indonesian drugs price. As patent owner, companies could set high price for their drugs. However, such condition limits the access of the poor from patented drugs. Therefore, balance between patent protection, public welfare, and compliance to TRIPs agreement must be ensured. Penelitian ini membahas dampak paten produk-produk farmasi terhadap harga obat di Indonesia. Sebagai pemegang hak paten, perusahaan farmasi dapat menetapkan harga yang tinggi. Namun, kondisi ini membatasi akses masyarakat miskin untuk memperoleh obat yang terpatenkan. Dengan demikian, harus ada keseimbangan antara perlindungan hak paten, kesejahteraan masyarakat, dan kepatuhan terhadap TRIPs.

  20. Prevailing impact trends in patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

      Patents are at the heart of science and public policy. Getting European patent policy right is a daunting task and involves listening to numerous voices. Part of this process must entail a full understanding of emerging trends that challenge the present system. The challenges are fluid and vary...... from sector to sector. This paper identifies and evaluates key recent developments in patenting which impact upon the European patent system, whichever way it looks. An analysis of these and the underlying causes means we are in a much better position to build an effective policy rearguard.    ...

  1. Must an inventor "possess" an invention to patent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Warren D; Chadwick, Robin A

    2014-09-18

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection.

  2. AUTOMATIC PATENT DOCUMFNT SUMMARIZATION FOR COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy J.C.TRAPPEY; Charles V.TRAPPEY; Chun-Yi WU

    2009-01-01

    Engineering and research teams often develop new products and technologies by referring to inventions described in patent databases. Efficient patent analysis builds R&D knowledge, reduces new product development time, increases market success, and reduces potential patent infringement. Thus, it is beneficial to automatically and systematically extract information from patent documents in order to improve knowledge sharing and collaboration among R&D team members. In this research, patents are summarized using a combined ontology based and TF-IDF concept clustering approach. The ontology captures the general knowledge and core meaning of patents in a given domain. Then, the proposed methodology extracts, clusters, and integrates the content of a patent to derive a summary and a cluster tree diagram of key terms. Patents from the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes B25C, B25D, B25F (categories for power hand tools) and B24B, C09G and H011 (categories for chemical mechanical polishing) are used as case studies to evaluate the compression ratio, retention ratio, and classification accuracy of the summarization results. The evaluation uses statistics to represent the summary generation and its compression ratio, the ontology based keyword extraction retention ratio, and the summary classification accuracy. The results show that the ontology based approach yields about the same compression ratio as previous non-ontology based research but yields on average an 11% improvement for the retention ratio and a 14% improvement for classification accuracy.

  3. 14 CFR 1274.913 - Patent rights-retention by the recipient (small business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Patent rights—retention by the recipient (small business). Patent Rights—Retention by the Recipient..., or research work the patent rights clause (Patent Rights—Retention by the Recipient (Large Business... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights-retention by the...

  4. 37 CFR 1.17 - Patent application and reexamination processing fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application and reexamination processing fees. 1.17 Section 1.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions...

  5. 37 CFR 1.18 - Patent post allowance (including issue) fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent post allowance (including issue) fees. 1.18 Section 1.18 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions...

  6. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art in patent files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of prior art in patent files. 1.501 Section 1.501 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Ex Parte Reexamination...

  7. 37 CFR 11.10 - Restrictions on practice in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions on practice in patent matters. 11.10 Section 11.10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT...

  8. 75 FR 71072 - Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) provides a basis (the Patent Application Backlog...

  9. 78 FR 2960 - Request for Comments on Preparation of Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Request for Comments on Preparation of Patent Applications AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is seeking to improve the quality of issued patents....

  10. 37 CFR 1.178 - Original patent; continuing duty of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original patent; continuing duty of applicant. 1.178 Section 1.178 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  11. Academic patenting and the professor's privilege

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissoni, Francesco; Lotz, Peter; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen;

    2009-01-01

    Siden 2000 har danske universiteter m.v. som følge af en særlig lov haft retten til de ansattes opfindelser. I artiklen undersøges på baggrund af en statistisk analyse af universitetsansattes bidrag som opfindere konsekvenserne af loven. Det påviser bl.a., at antallet af universitetsgenerede pate...... patenter ikke er forøget særligt som følge af loven, og at tredjemands ejerskab fortsat er særdeles vigtigt. Dette harmonerer med tendensen i øvrige europæiske lande....

  12. Compulsory licensing of patents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with compulsory licensing scenarios in India, provides a background of relevant provisions in the Patents Act and examines how these provisions are Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights compliant. This article further discusses the procedure followed by India in granting a compulsory license, provides an overview of compulsory license applications filed in India to date and judicial precedence regarding the same. This article also highlights how compulsory licensing is a great safeguard that balances the interests of the innovators and the public at large.

  13. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... No. 6,384,953: Micro-Dynamic Optical Device.//U.S. Patent No. 6,433,465: Energy- Harvesting Device... September 4, 2013. ADDRESSES: Written objections are to be filed with the Office of Research and Technology... Technology Applications, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, Code 72120, 53560 Hull St, Bldg...

  14. PatentMatrix: an automated tool to survey patents related to large sets of genes or proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rinaldis Emanuele

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patents associated with genes and proteins and the amount of information contained in each patent often present a real obstacle to the rapid evaluation of the novelty of findings associated to genes from an intellectual property (IP perspective. This assessment, normally carried out by expert patent professionals, can therefore become cumbersome and time consuming. Here we present PatentMatrix, a novel software tool for the automated analysis of patent sequence text entries. Methods and Results PatentMatrix is written in the Awk language and requires installation of the Derwent GENESEQ™ patent sequence database under the sequence retrieval system SRS. The software works by taking as input two files: i a list of genes or proteins with the associated GENESEQ™ patent sequence accession numbers ii a list of keywords describing the research context of interest (e.g. 'lung', 'cancer', 'therapeutics', 'diagnostics'. The GENESEQ™ database is interrogated through the SRS system and each patent entry of interest is screened for the occurrence of user-defined keywords. Moreover, the software extracts the basic information useful for a preliminary assessment of the IP coverage of each patent from the GENESEQ™ database. As output, two tab-delimited files are generated which provide the user with a detailed and an aggregated view of the results. An example is given where the IP position of five genes is evaluated in the context of 'development of antibodies for cancer treatment' Conclusion PatentMatrix allows a rapid survey of patents associated with genes or proteins in a particular area of interest as defined by keywords. It can be efficiently used to evaluate the IP-related novelty of scientific findings and to rank genes or proteins according to their IP position.

  15. Getting patent policy right: a conclusion to a special issue on the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad, the patent system really is important. Its ever-increasing use, for a variety of reasons, means there is a danger of collapse under its own weight. Those charged with steering the European patent system past the challenges it faces have a huge task. Because unchecked, challenges...... in the contributions made and continues the perennial quest for getting patent policy right in Europe; and in so doing, proposes specific sets of solutions....

  16. A Comparative Study of Linkage Indexes: Co-assignee, Reciprocal Citation, Patent Coupling and Co-patent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-chia Scarlett Lo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Four indexes including co-assignees, reciprocal citation, patent coupling and co-patent were examined in this study to reveal the meanings of the correlations generated via different citation linkages. This study includes 6,274 genetic engineering patents, and 16 primary assignees identified by Bradford model analysis as the base for correlation analysis. The results show that there are four cluster types, including technological affiliated, technological competitor correlated, commercial collaborated and technological isolated.

  17. Cooperation Treat Patent, present and future; El tratado de cooperacion en materia de patentes. Presente y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurry, F.

    2011-07-01

    In its 32 years of operation, the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), a powerful tool used by innovators to protect their developments by multi-national patent, has been a huge success. The PCT has many users, a remarkable and sustained growth for over 30 years and become the cornerstone of the international patent system. Today, the PCT provides many benefits and useful features for their users. However, even taking into account the many benefits it currently offers, this treaty is able to offer more. To achieve this goal, the patent offices of PCT Contracting States should use the Treaty as provided by its founders. (Author)

  18. An updated patent therapeutic agents targeting MMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng-gao; Li, Jin-pei; Shi, Lei-lei; Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    The traditional consensus that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has correlation with various pathological and physiological processes led to the exploitation of a vast number of natural or synthetic broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) for the prophylaxis or treatment of various MMP-related disorders, such as autoimmune, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, respiratory diseases, and malignant cancer as well. Yet the unsatisfactory preclinical and/or clinical results motivated further investigation of the physiological roles of certain MMP subtypes. Despite the intricate and complicated MMP functions in normal physiology and disease pathology, the effort of designing specific inhibitors that can selectively target certain MMP family members for individualized therapy is ongoing and remains an arduous task. Success will rely on continued insight into the biological roles of these multifaced proteases. In our previous effort, we summarized various MMPIs that have entered preclinical or clinical trials as well as the patents in regard to MMPIs (Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2010; 5(2): 109-41). In our on-going review, to illustrate the major challenges in MMP validation as druggable targets, we highlighted the physiological and pathological roles of representative MMPs, with an emphasis on description of the newly emerging MMPI-based patents, in particular, the inhibitors containing sulfonamide or sulfone motif. By analyzing the structural characteristics and selectivity profiles of these supplementary inhibitors, we hereby described their pharmaceutical application, and also expanded the strategies for potent MMPI design.

  19. An overview of recent patents on nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modh, Nirav; Mehta, Dharmik; Parejiya, Punit; Popat, Amirali; Barot, Bhavesh

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and drug development are facing serious problems with newer poorly water soluble drugs with respect to their dissolution and bioavailability. Reducing the particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredient has been an efficient and reliable method for improving the bioavailability of insoluble drugs. Nanosuspension has emerged as an efficient and promising strategy for delivery of insoluble drugs due to its unique advantages such as ease of modification, process flexibility, targeting capabilities, altered pharmacokinetic profile leading to safety and efficacy. These unique features of nanosuspension have enabled its use in various dosage forms, including specialized delivery systems such as oral, parenteral, peroral, ocular and pulmonary routes. Currently, efforts are being directed to extend their applications in site-specific drug delivery. Large numbers of products based on nanosuspension are in the market and few are under clinical trials. The commercialization potential of nanosuspension based formulation for oral route is well established and products for other routes will enter the market within short span. Among the various techniques available, only wet milling technique has been successfully used for commercial production of nanosuspension. Nanosuspension based patents have extensive potential of reaching faster in the market as compared to other nanotechnology based formulations. This review covers various aspects of techniques of preparation, route of administration and commercialization of nanosuspension with main focus on the recent patents granted in the field.

  20. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  1. The Calculation Method of the Royalty Rate of Patents in Patent Pool%专利联盟中专利许可费的计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绪松; 魏忠诚

    2007-01-01

    专利联盟中专利的组成有三种情况:完全排斥型、完全替代型和部分排斥部分替代型.由于专利联盟是开放型的体系,专利加入时间和起作用时间不同,专利之间具有异质性,于是专利联盟中价值的评估和专利许可费的计算产生了变数.为此,本文从单项专利价值的计算入手,考虑专利联盟中专利的不同类型、不同的加入时间和起作用时间等情况,提出专利联盟中专利组合价值的评估方法,在此基础上借助财务分析中内部收益率来计算专利联盟中的许可费.

  2. 77 FR 43082 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Department of Commerce patent regulations. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0095, Commerce Patent Regulations, by any...

  3. 78 FR 31551 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Department of Commerce patent regulations. A notice... Collection 9000- 0095, Commerce Patent Regulations, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  5. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  6. 78 FR 66740 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Patents AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before December 6, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following...

  7. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  8. Annotated chemical patent corpus: A gold standard for text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Akhondi (Saber); A.G. Klenner (Alexander G.); C. Tyrchan (Christian); A.K. Manchala (Anil K.); K. Boppana (Kiran); D. Lowe (Daniel); M. Zimmermann (Marc); S.A.R.P. Jagarlapudi (Sarma A. R. P.); R. Sayle (Roger); J.A. Kors (Jan); C. Muresan (Cornelia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractExploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting poin

  9. The Battle for Patent Rights in Plant Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    ”. In contrast to previous findings, however, the results show that large-volume applicants are more likely to be opposed. Because the boundaries of plant biotech patents are ill-defined, large patent portfolios do not promote cooperative behavior such as licensing or settlements. The analysis rejects...

  10. Software and patents: the law and its (ab)uses

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Patents and software live on a tense footing: on the one hand, the law doesn't draw a clear line, and on the other hand, patents on computer-implemented inventions are frequently used in ways which hamper innovation. Are there any legitimate uses? How can abuses be addressed?

  11. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    " and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...

  12. Ex-post Liability Rules in Modern Patent Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.F.M. Castro Bernieri (Rosa)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis book examines alternative ways of protecting patent rights using the law and economics framework of property and liability rules. Traditional compulsory licenses are compared with the most recent discussions on the choice between granting or denying injunctive relief for patents (ex

  13. Patent Strategy at the Age of High Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper is a summary of the lecture which the author presented at the 5th Hokuriku Workshop for Study of Scientific and Technological Information Activities on the 17th of January in 1986. The author analyzed the present situation and made some suggestions on them ; (1) the role of patent system has shifted from introduction of foreign technologies to independent technological development at the age of high technology, (2) circumstances of rapidly increasing international patent war, particularly patent conflict between U.S. and Japan concerning U.S. ITC, (3) as the service of soft aspects of economy has been closed up, the new business has come to the fore front, and the move to consider technology as a good has been activated, (4) how patent specification should be written, the way of obtaining and protecting patent successfully, (5) basic pattern of patent strategy and what the strategy should be to respond to the enterprises level, (6) present situation of patent information service, effective use of patent maps and information strategy.

  14. About "trivial" software patents: The IsNot case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    2007-01-01

    So-called "trivial" software patents undermine the patenting system and are detrimental for innovation. In this paper we use a case-based approach to get a better understanding of this phenomenon. First, we establish a baseline for studying the relation between software development and intellectual

  15. Domestic Enterprise Awarded Overseas Patents On Fiber Optical Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Beijing Aerospace Times Optical-Electronic Technology Corp. Ltd was granted a patent for a fiber optical gyroscope using a low-polarization and polarization-maintaining hybrid light path in Ukraine. After filling an ordinary patent application for the technology domestically in 2006, the company filed a Paris Convention application in Ukraine to collaborate with a Ukrainian technical center in 2007.

  16. 76 FR 55364 - Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees ACTION: Proposed collection... or after December 12, 1980. Payment of these maintenance fees is due at 3\\1/2\\, 7\\1/2\\, and 11\\1/2... maintenance fee and any applicable surcharge within a grace period of six months following each of the...

  17. 77 FR 55027 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    .... Also, despite increases in some fees, applicants who meet the new micro entity definition will pay less... right to the invention sooner, which would increase the private value of that patent. Because the..., faster dissemination of information, and certainty in patented inventions; and (3) help recover...

  18. 78 FR 4211 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ..., applicants who meet the new micro entity definition will pay less than the amount paid for small entity fees... right to the invention sooner, which increases the private value of that patent. Because the outcomes of... regarding the claimed invention and scope of patent rights for patentees, competitors, and new...

  19. Patent litigation in India continues to throw up new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Thikkavarapu, Prashant

    2016-07-01

    For several years after the reinstitution of a pharmaceutical patent regime in India, most innovator pharmaceutical companies have faced a string of high-profile defeats during litigation in India. In the last 2 years, however, the fortunes of pharmaceutical patentees have changed dramatically. Not only have Indian courts enforced pharmaceutical patents and issued injunctions restraining Indian generic companies from infringing valid patents, but they have also refused to invoke 'public interest' arguments to delay the enforcement of patents. This string of victories for pharmaceutical patents indicates a new era for the innovator industry in India. These victories for the innovator industry demonstrate the objectivity of the Indian judiciary. Even on the issue of compulsory licensing, the Patent Office, which functions as a part of the central government, has been restrained - granting only one compulsory license for a drug owned by Bayer but declining two other similar requests. Similarly, even the Indian judiciary while enforcing patents has also remained sensitive to the flexibilities in the Patents Act, such as the 'Bolar-type' provisions and compulsory licensing provisions.

  20. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  1. Competitive intelligence and patent analysis in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Nicolas; Charpiot, Brigitte; Pena, Carlos Andres; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2005-01-01

    Patents are a major source of information in drug discovery and, when properly processed and analyzed, can yield a wealth of information on competitors activities, R&D trends, emerging fields, collaborations, among others. This review discusses the current state-of-the-art in textual data analysis and exploration methods as applied to patent analysis.:

  2. 77 FR 14686 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1245 RIN 2700-AD63 Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement AGENCY... necessary to file a claim for patent or copyright infringement, and they also provide for written... INFORMATION: On July 26, 2011, the Administrator published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) for...

  3. 38 CFR 17.266 - Copyrights and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyrights and patents. 17.266 Section 17.266 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.266 Copyrights and patents. If a grant-supported program...

  4. 77 FR 38771 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR... territories, possessions and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S....

  5. 48 CFR 970.2702 - Patent related clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent related clauses. 970.2702 Section 970.2702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702...

  6. 77 FR 32642 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and...

  7. 75 FR 38543 - Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts AGENCY: Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., Bridgeville, PA 15017 on U.S. Patent No. 6,485,696 B1, entitled ``Recovery/Removal of Metallic Elements...

  8. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05-30 Section 970.3102-05-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY....3102-05-30 Patent costs....

  9. 76 FR 44504 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1245 RIN 2700-AD63 Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement AGENCY... considers necessary to file a claim for patent or copyright infringement, and they also provide for written... Act (51 U.S.C. 20113) authorizes the Administrator of NASA to settle administrative claims of...

  10. 48 CFR 2453.227 - Patents, data, and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patents, data, and copyrights. 2453.227 Section 2453.227 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.227 Patents, data, and copyrights....

  11. Patenting activities and firm performance : Does firm size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, P.; Faems, D.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas prior research has provided valuable insights into the willingness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large firms to engage in patenting, a comparison of the performance implications of patenting activities across small and large firms is still lacking. This gap is important be

  12. NIH Patent Policy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Public Health Service (PHS) may determine that it is necessary to seek patent protection on its inventions, when doing so would facilitate the commercial development of products or services that will benefit the public health, or when a patent will advance another PHS objective. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  13. Patent landscape of countermeasures against smallpox and estimation of grant attraction capability through patent landscape data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburd, Anatoly L; Kedia, Govind; Evans, Haydn W; Kaslival, Pritesh C

    2010-11-01

    The study was concerned with countermeasures against a possible smallpox outbreak. In the process of assessment 18 landscaping sectors were defined and described, the advantages and drawbacks of the corresponding countermeasures being reviewed. The data of the previously published influenza landscape were revisited. The current economic climate of deficit cutting (austerity) also puts emphasis on the optimization of capital investment. We used the materials of the landscape to define and analyze metrics of capital placement optimization. Value score was obtained by fitting patent landscape internals to the sale price of individual patents. Success score was obtained as a product of a-priori parameters that measure likelihood of emergence of a marketable product in a technological sector. Both scores were combined in a qualitative metric. Our methodology defined weight as a product of the sector size by the success score. We hypothesized - based on the material of two landscapes- that a life cycle of a technology begins in IP space with a high patent quality low volume "bud" of low weight, reaches maximum weight and then weight falls again when the technology becomes outdated. The weight and the annual dynamic of weight can serve a measure of investment risk and return. In this report we modeled investment by issue of government grants or purchase of patents by government. In the smallpox landscape the number of patents purchased by government agencies was the highest in the sectors with the highest weight and the trend was confirmed by the count of NIH grants issued in support of the technological sectors. In the influenza landscape only grant issue count was statistically meaningful and the trend was also confirmed. To better fit the grant support levels, the weight expression was optimized by using training coefficients. We propose to use value scores for evaluation of individual patent publications/company portfolios and to use weights for assessment of

  14. The new patent regime and disease priorities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Guin, Pradeep; Trivedi, Mayur

    2013-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which made product patents compulsory for countries to follow, meant that the entire market for generic drugs was out of bounds for manufacturing till the time the products went off-patent. The TRIPS has generated widespread discussions and debates around the costs and benefits of new patent regimes on countries such as India. This article analyses whether the post-WTO system was consistent with, and conducive to, improved public health in India. It is a first-of-its-kind effort in which the data on pharmaceutical patents applications were collected, collated, cleaned and classified according to IPC codes, to enable preliminary understanding of the nature and type of the applications. The patent applications that are filed in India are not found to be consistent with the disease burden of the country.

  15. Patentable subject matter: morally neutral and context free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dov

    2011-08-01

    AMP v. USPTO otherwise known as the ACLU/Myriad "gene patenting" case has famously pitted the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) against Myriad Genetics. DNA patent litigation is not novel, but this case is distinct from typical cases involving commercial rivals; heretofore neither side has an interest in the commercially suicidal attacking of the underlying concept of DNA patents. The ACLU, representing the plaintiffs, has no such qualms. And the ACLU is fighting dirty: the United States patent system is effectively moral and social-context neutral, but the ACLU has succeeded in making social and political concerns the highlight of their legal case, even reframing DNA as per our human understanding, as information, and as distinct from a simple double helical macromolecule. The relevance of the case exceeds the bounds of DNA patents, as reflected in the number of amicus briefs filed, and threatens many other industries, particularly those that rely on extracted biomaterials.

  16. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  17. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a technique to use patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps that indicate both the quantity and quality of patents granted at the city level. The resulting maps are relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management because the US market can be considered as the leading market for patenting and patent competition. Quantitative data is made available by the mapping routines for more detailed statistical analysis, and the non-parametric statistics for significance testing are specified. The new mapping approach is explored for the cases of the emerging technologies of "RNA interference" and "nanotechnology" as specific examples. Perspectives for further developments of this technique (other databases and network analysis of co-inventions) are specified.

  18. 76 FR 74700 - Revision of Patent Term Adjustment Provisions Relating to Information Disclosure Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... definition ``a communication that was issued by a patent office in a counterpart foreign or international..., Courts, Freedom of information, Inventions and patents, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements,...

  19. Coronary fistula resembling patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sgarbieri Ricardo Nilsson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl, presenting with heart failure and a continuous murmur, similar to that of a patent arterial duct, was investigated using echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization revealing a left to right shunt throught a coronary artery fistulae between the first septal branch and the right ventricular outflow tract. The patient was submitted to surgery, occluding the anomalous branch by the suturing of its orifice in the right ventricular outflow tract, under cardiopulmonary bypass. After the operation, cardiac catheterization revealed complete occlusion of the fistula without any residual shunt or compromise to the coronary circulation. In seven years of follow-up the patient is completely free of symptoms.

  20. Automated Patent Categorization and Guided Patent Search using IPC as Inspired by MeSH and PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Daniel; Tsatsaronis, George; Bundschus, Markus; Wieneke, Ulrich; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms.Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources.

  1. Sulfur cycling in two Dutch moorland pools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marnette, E.C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Due to atmospheric acid deposition, the chemistry of many moorland pools has changed, resulting in changes in their fauna and flora. Most moorland pools are sensitive to acid loading because underlying and surrounding soils are low in chemical buffering capacity. Biological processes in the sediment

  2. Liposomal drug delivery: recent patents and emerging opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Murray S; Rebstein, Patrick; Lamson, Wendy; Bally, Marcel B

    2007-01-01

    It is challenging to develop innovative, as well as commercially viable, lipid-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer because of the breadth of existing intellectual property that limits freedom-to-operate. For example, novel compositions can be described in which a new chemical entity is associated with a lipid based carrier, but if the loading method or components of the lipid compositions are proprietary then the ability to develop novel compositions will require access to the appropriate intellectual property. We believe it is useful to present a review of the patent literature describing novel liposomal drug delivery systems given by parenteral administration to humans for the treatment of serious medical conditions such as cancer. This review is intended to: (i) identify and describe novel approaches that have recently been protected by US or international patents and patent applications, and; (ii) identify founding technology in the field which is recently off-patent, thus presenting emerging opportunities for the development of new therapeutic options for patients. Issued patents, and selected patent applications, having publication dates in 2005 or 2006 were retrieved from searches of the US, European, German, Japanese, INPADOC and WIPO PCT databases. Liposomal delivery systems patented for systemic administration in the treatment of human medical conditions were reviewed in detail.

  3. Intellectual property rights and patents in perspective of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2012-01-01

    Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine.

  4. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  5. PATENTS AND RESEARCH INVESTMENTS: ASSESSING THE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budish, Eric; Roin, Benjamin N.; Williams, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    A well-developed theoretical literature — dating back at least to Nordhaus (1969) — has analyzed optimal patent policy design. We re-present the core trade-off of the Nordhaus model and highlight an empirical question which emerges from the Nordhaus framework as a key input into optimal patent policy design: namely, what is the elasticity of R&D investment with respect to the patent term? We then review the — surprisingly small — body of empirical evidence that has been developed on this question over the nearly half century since the publication of Nordhaus's book. PMID:27239058

  6. A Selection Model of Patenting Firms in Demark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1999-01-01

    on how market structure relate to innovative activity in small open economies. The paper explores the relation between patenting activity and market structure in the Danish manufacturing industries using data from a recently developed database containing accounting information on a sample of patenting...... firms in Denmark. Market structure by concentration and firm size in manufacturing industries was found to be of opposite effects on firms patent activity. Studies on the relation between industrial innovation and market structure in the Danish manufacturing industries are few. Also, since the majority...

  7. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    are closely related with rules about EU competition law, and policy initiatives regarding science and innovation. For these reasons, the policy options put forward are varied in scope and in method, and aim at tackling specific areas of concern. The policy options put forward by the Working Group...... quality aspects in regard to patentability standards and patent grant procedures; Dealing with emerging technologies; Increasing access to patented inventions; Facilitating defensive publications. The Working Group strongly urges careful consideration of these policy options, one by one and as a group...

  8. Building structure-activity insights through patent mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meihua; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Filipski, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    One gap in current patent-mining practice is the lack of tools to build SAR knowledge. Here, we report a novel technique that enabled us to derive useful SAR information from the exemplified structures of a series of patents. In our approach, exemplified chemical structures were extracted from patent documents. They were grouped into structural series based on similarity and binding mode, after which the R-group table was generated. By analyzing R-group usages over time, we were able to build insights into SAR of a structural series, even though the biological activities were not available.

  9. Impacto cultural de los proyectos de desarrollo. Parque Regional Ecoturístico Arví. Corregimiento de Santa Elena, municipio de Medellín: Propuesta de evaluación

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: se analiza la alteración de la dinámica cultural con la inclusión del proyecto de desarrollo Parque Regional Ecoturístico Arví en el corregimiento de Santa Elena – Medellín, en el marco de entendimiento del concepto de configuración cultural, a través de cuatro indicadores cualitativos relacionados con la comprensión del territorio, las redes culturales, la actitud social frente a los espacios públicos y la percepción patrimonial. Los resultados de esta tarea, fueron evaluados a la l...

  10. Design-around biotechnology patents: an analysis of US Federal Circuit decisions shows the possibility of designing around biotechnology patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of design-around for patents, we reviewed 40 no-infringement cases out of all 4,760 Federal Circuit Court of Appeals (CAFC) cases decided from 2001 to 2009. Based on this analysis, designing around a biotechnology patent first requires a thorough reading of the patent specification and prosecution history. These written descriptions offer explicit directions about claim meanings or the scope being disclaimed. By statute, claims recite and define the structure or acts of an invention, and serve as tools to determine whether or not a patent is infringed. The next procedure would include omitting a part or property from the claim, reversing the action used in the claim, or changing the claim's structure or range to prevent the new design from falling within the scope of the claim. However, cases where patent infringement was found demonstrated that changing the structure or range not recited in the claim, such as enlarging the diameter, reducing concentration or alerting the shape, still falls within the scope of the patent. Although the 40 cases analyzed in this study were not related to vaccines, the thought process can serve as a guideline for patents related to vaccine development.

  11. Characterization of the upper Arve watershed at Chamonix (French Northern Alp) from an integrated glacial-snow-hydrometeorological point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella, Zin; Delphine, Six; Thomas, Condom; Catherine, Coulaud; Michel, Esteves; Olivier, Laarman; Matthieu, Lafaysse; Thierry, Lebel; Grégoire, Lecourt; Samuel, Morin; Charles, Obled; Antoine, Rabatel; Jesus, Revuelto; Alessandra, Viani; Christian, Vincent; Vincent, Vionnet; Frederic, Gottardi

    2016-04-01

    The upper Arve watershed (205 km²) is characterized by a high elevational gradient (altitude ranges from 1000 to 4810m asl), a significant glaciated area (about 33% of the total area) and a strong contrast between the bordering Mont Blanc and Aiguilles Rouges massifs in terms of land use , surface conditions and meteorological forcing. While the rainfall regime in the valley is relatively stable during the year, the thermal regime shows strong diurnal and seasonal variability. The hydrological regime of the main stream and its tributaries is dominated by snow and glacier melt, with high flow rates in summer and low flow rates in wintertime, when snowfalls accumulate on the ground. Water transfers from a compartment to another are particularly rapid, with flash floods having lag times of about 4 to 6 hours and significant sediment transport associated with liquid flow rates. Since 2014, a project involving local communities, stackeholders and researchers and aiming at understanding the flood generation processes and their evolution with climatic and environmental changes has been started. The project aims at characterizing the catchment behaviour from an integrated glacial-snow-hydrometeorological point of view and to develop a flood forecasting system for anticipate as much as possible a possible crisis and improve its management. As a part of this project and in the continuity of existing long-term measures in the valley (particularly within the GLACIOCLIM research observing system and the operational Météo-France frameworks) a new instrumentation network has been implemented in order to observe simultaneously the different components of the water cycle (atmospheric, hydrological, snow and glaciological variables) and their spatial, temporal and altitudinal gradients. We will present the instrumental network and the measurement strategy, as well as an analysis of the data collected during the 2014 and 2015 summers, which are quite contrasted from a

  12. poolMC: Smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefelbein John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typically, pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments implies mixing mRNA from several biological-replicate samples before hybridization onto a microarray chip. Here we describe an alternative smart pooling strategy in which different samples, not necessarily biological replicates, are pooled in an information theoretic efficient way. Further, each sample is tested on multiple chips, but always in pools made up of different samples. The end goal is to exploit the compressibility of microarray data to reduce the number of chips used and increase the robustness to noise in measurements. Results A theoretical framework to perform smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments was established and the software implementation of the pooling and decoding algorithms was developed in MATLAB. A proof-of-concept smart pooled experiment was performed using validated biological samples on commercially available gene chips. Differential-expression analysis of the smart pooled data was performed and compared against the unpooled control experiment. Conclusions The theoretical developments and experimental demonstration in this paper provide a useful starting point to investigate smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments. Although the smart pooled experiment did not compare favorably with the control, the experiment highlighted important conditions for the successful implementation of smart pooling - linearity of measurements, sparsity in data, and large experiment size.

  13. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new s...

  14. Status and Trends of Patenting Scientific Developments in the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossko, T.G.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and establishment of some regularities of patenting the results of scientific developments, in particular features of patenting industrial property objects in the field of material science, are carried out. The comparative analysis of achievements of the NASU organizations in patenting scientific developments in materials science is made. The situation on patenting process in Ukraine and in the world is shown.

  15. Patents as instruments for exploring innovation dynamics: Different perspectives on "photovoltaic cells"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; F. Alkemade; G. Heimeriks

    2014-01-01

    Patents are framed in different contexts: in addition to being among the outputs of the production system of knowledge, patents can also serve as input to the economic process of innovation. Furthermore, intellectual property in patents is legally regulated, for example, in national patent offices.

  16. Trends in genetic patent applications: The commercialization of academic intellectual property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, J.G.; Burg, van J.C.; Stoop, T.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications

  17. Bibliography of US patents on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R.L.; Bergles, A.E.; Junkhan, G.H.

    1983-12-01

    Patents are an important source of information on the potential commercialization of augmented heat transfer technology. This report presents a bibliography of US patents pertinent to that technology. The total number of patents cited is 454. They are presented in three separate lists: by patent number, alphabetically by first inventor, and by augmentation technique (with secondary arrangement according to mode of heat transfer).

  18. 10 CFR 780.3 - Jurisdiction of the Patent Compensation Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jurisdiction of the Patent Compensation Board. 780.3 Section 780.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PATENT COMPENSATION BOARD REGULATIONS General Provisions § 780.3 Jurisdiction of the Patent Compensation Board. The Patent Compensation Board was established by section 157...

  19. 34 CFR 6.3 - Licensing of Government-owned patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing of Government-owned patents. 6.3 Section 6.3 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.3 Licensing of Government-owned patents. (a) Licenses to practice inventions covered by patents and...

  20. 75 FR 36294 - Correspondence With the United States Patent and Trademark Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 102 and 104 RIN 0651-AC08 Correspondence With the United States Patent and Trademark Office AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is...

  1. 77 FR 21086 - Patents External Quality Survey (formerly Customer Panel Quality Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents External Quality Survey (formerly Customer Panel Quality Survey) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and...@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 0057 Patents External Quality Survey comment'' in the subject line of...

  2. 76 FR 72372 - Request for Comments on Eliciting More Complete Patent Assignment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 3 Request for Comments on Eliciting More Complete Patent Assignment Information AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is...

  3. 77 FR 31806 - Changes to Implement Micro Entity Status for Paying Patent Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC78 Changes to Implement Micro Entity Status for Paying Patent Fees AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is...

  4. 48 CFR 627.203 - Patent indemnification of Government by contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnification of Government by contractor. 627.203 Section 627.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 627.203 Patent indemnification...

  5. 37 CFR 1.730 - Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements. 1.730 Section 1.730 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... for extension of patent term; signature requirements. (a) Any application for extension of a...

  6. Patents as instruments for exploring innovation dynamics: Geographic and technological perspectives on "photovoltaic cells"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Alkemade, F.; Heimeriks, G.; Hoekstra, R.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) of the U.S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) provide new options for an informed delineation of samples in both USPTO data and the Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PatStat) of EPO. Among the "te

  7. Killukesi presidendivalimistelt / interv. Arved Breidaks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Võrumaa Teataja küsimustele enne presidendivalimisi vastasid Vastseliina valijamees Ivar Traagel, Võru linna valijamees Tõnu Anton, Reformierakonna aseesimees Meelis Atonen, parlamendiliige Tiit Niilo, Võru linnavolikogu aseesimees Erki Saarman, Maaomavalitsuste liidu esimees Kurmet Müürsepp ja Sotsiaaldemokraatliku Erakonna esimees Ivari Padar

  8. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  9. SAFETY AND MANAGEMENT OF SWIMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study,it was investigated the situation related to the safety and management of swimming pools belongs to municipality This study was planned to determine the present situation related to the safety and management of open,half-olympic and closed swimming pools which are especially used for sports activities,to find out the deficiencies in practise and to overcome these.Our study included totally 80 open,closed,olympic, half-olympic public swimming pools(the pools that belongs to municipality,private administration and university,the colleges connected to the ministry of education, Military schools and police college.In our research,search,natural observation and meeting methods were used.In accordance with this aim the checklist questions,which were prepared for health and safety controls in swimming pools, were tested on the people by face-to-face meeting method. While the statistical evaluation of the available results were being done,frequency and percentage dispersion obtained from checklist was found.It was found that the 52 % of the training and lifeguard choise of the pools in Turkey,64 % of the emergency action equipment,71 % of the signs and signboards for the safety of the pool,75 % of the pool edge and its surroundings are not suitable for the standards and that these threaten the swimmers health importantly.Consequently,we are in the opinion that the pool staff should receive the periodical training about the first aid and using emergency situation equipment.And it is necessary that the Ministry Responsible for sports,Ministry of Interior,Ministry of Health,Ministry of Tourism be cooperate with water sports federations and the related civil society organizationsKey Words: .

  10. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Norrgård, Marcus; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    This article explores relevant laws and doctrines of patent infringement in Europe with a special emphasis on 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Considering the difficulties that patent owners might face in pursuing direct patent infringement actions in the rapidly evolving era of 3DP, we suggest...... of IP law. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing Rosa Maria Ballardini, Marcus Norrgård, and Timo Minssen Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 2015 10: 850-866......, although the internet platforms and CAD files repositories will play a major role in the development and spreading of the 3DP technology, they will likely to be at the center of major law disputes unless they carefully consider the scope of their activities (host and/or customize and/or print) in light...

  11. Transitional Measures on the Implementation of the Amended Patent Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Transitional Measures on the Implementation of the Amended Patent Law has been adopted by deliberation at the executive meeting of the State Intellectual Property Office came into effect as of October 1, 2009.

  12. Patentes Farmacêuticas e direito à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Candian Filardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a análise do instituto das patentes de segundo uso médico, não expressamente regulamentado na ordem jurídica brasileira.  Nesta tarefa, valer-se-á do marco teórico da Teoria do Direito como Integridade. Por meio da análise dos princípios morais e políticos que subjazem e legitimam a concessão do direito à patente, verifica-se a adequação das patentes de segundo uso médico. Metodologicamente, essa interpretação do sistema de atribuição de direitos à patente revela uma reconstrução crítica da relação entre incentivo à inovação e acesso a medicamentos.

  13. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  14. EPA-developed, patented technologies available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  15. OBJECTIVES AND INCENTIVES AT THE EUROPEAN PATENT OFFICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....

  16. Ethical reasons for narrowing the scope of biotech patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Patents on biotech products have a scope that goes well beyond what is covered by the most widely applied ethical justifications of intellectual property. Neither natural rights theory from Locke, nor public interest theory of IP rights justifies the wide scope of legal protection. The article takes human genes as an example, focusing on the component that is not invented but persists as unaltered gene information even in the synthetically produced complementary DNA, the cDNA. It is argued that patent on cDNA holds this information captive, or illegitimately appropriates it in limiting other researchers and inventors' opportunity to explore new functions and uses based on this non-invented information. A tighter connection between legal IP protection and the use description stated in the patent claim is suggested. By binding protection to the product's foreseeable functions and use, instead of the product itself and all future uses of it, legitimacy of biotech product patents is restored.

  17. LCG POOL development status and production experience

    CERN Document Server

    Chytracek, Radovan; Cioffi, Carmine; Düllmann, Dirk; Frank, Markus; Girone, Maria; Govi, Giacomo; Karr, Kristo; Malon, David; Moscicki, Jakub T; Papadopoulos, Ioannis M; Schmücker, H; Tanenbaum, William; Vaniachine, A; Xie Zhen

    2004-01-01

    The POOL project, as a part of the LHC Computing Grid (LCG), is now entering its third year of active development POOL provides the baseline persistency framework for three LHC experiment and is based on a strict component model, insulating experiment software from a variety of storage technology choices. This paper gives a brief overview of the POOL architecture, its main design principles and the experience gained with integration into LHC experiment frameworks. In also presents recent developments in the area of relational database abstraction and object storage into RDBMS systems.

  18. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...... to sense and model the weld pool. Central is a carefully selected optical filtering as well as an active contour-based tracking of the weld pool boundary. The system is able to extract the 2D shape of the weld pool in real time. The reported experiments show the feasibility of this approach....

  19. A Predictive Model of Technology Transfer Using Patent Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaehyun Choi; Dongsik Jang; Sunghae Jun; Sangsung Park

    2015-01-01

    The rapid pace of technological advances creates many difficulties for R&D practitioners in analyzing emerging technologies. Patent information analysis is an effective tool in this situation. Conventional patent information analysis has focused on the extraction of vacant, promising, or core technologies and the monitoring of technological trends. From a technology management perspective, the ultimate purpose of R&D is technology commercialization. The core of technology commercializ...

  20. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  1. ZTE Attains Global No.1 Spot for PCT Patent Filings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to the website of the World Intellectual Property Organization, ZTE filed for 2826 applications in 2011. The company moved up from its No. 2 spot in 2010 The statistics also show consistent growth in the number of international patents that ZTE has filed over the past five years. The number of patents ZTE filed for grew more than 50 per cent yearonyear in 2011.

  2. The Resent Development of Patent Law in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingde

    2011-01-01

    China enacted its modern patent law in March 1984, which came into effect in April 1985. Since then, the patent law was amended in July1992 in light of the first Memorandum of Understanding between China and the United States on the Protection of Intellectual Property (Article 1, Memorandum of Understanding between China and the United States on the Protection of Intellectual Property, Jan. 1992),

  3. Patentability potential of natural products for xerostomia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia is characterized as a symptom caused by hyposalivation, which can occur for reasons such as age, polypharmacy, radiation therapy, among others. Currently,few products are available for the treatment of xerostomia, which is a subject still underestimated by many health professionals. Thus, we searched patents applied and approved in Brazil on xerostomia, to verify the existing innovation involving natural products. We found 33 patents applied and approved in Brazil, many of them usi...

  4. Patenting Nanomedicines Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Eliana B

    2012-01-01

    "Patenting Nanomedicines: Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities" focuses on the fundamental aspects of Patenting Nanomedicines applied in different "Drug Delivery and Targeting Systems". The promoters of new findings in this field of research are numerous and spread worldwide; therefore, managing intellectual property portfolios, and the acquisition and exploitation of new knowledge face several contingency factors. Today, the scientific community is discussing issues of economic outcomes in the field of Nanomedicines. Major concerns include questions

  5. TRANSCATHETER CLOSURE OF PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟; 周爱卿; 余志庆; 李奋; 王荣发; 黄美蓉

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with detachable coil and Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO). Methods Transcatheter colsure of PDA was performed in 160 cases, aged 4.56±2.67 years, of whom 3 had residual shunt after surgical ligation, 2 had pulmomary stenosis (PS), 1 had coarctation of aorta (COA), 1 had right aortic arch, and 2 had atrial septal defect (ASD). Results Detachable coils (Duct Occlude pfm or Cook Inc) were successfully used in 51 patients with a smallest PDA diameter of 1.86±0.78mm. Amplatzer duct occluders were also successfully performed in other 109 with a moderate to large PDA diameter of 3.89±1.32mm, of whom 3 with PS or COA were performed balloon dilation firstly, and 2 with ASD were performed PDA occlusion firstly; 1 month to 4.8years follow-up coil or Amplatzer device closure of PDA showed that neither residual shunt nor any complication. Conclusion It is suggested that the detachable coil and Amplatzer duct occluder are simple and safe for the catheter closure from small to large sized PDA.

  6. Unusual presentation for a patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Vizza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 63-yr-old black female, with a 1-yr history of hepatitis C and ascites was referred to an expert centre with suspicion of portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN. Her poor condition made a rapid diagnosis imperative and precluded a normal diagnostic work-up. Echocardiography confirmed severe pulmonary hypertension (PH. A hepatic scintigraphy and an abdominal echo-Doppler study excluded liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed marked dilation of the right ventricle with significant hypertrophy of the free wall, a finding that is uncommon in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension or PPHTN. Right heart catheterisation demonstrated severe pre-capillary PH without response to acute vasodilator testing. Finally the patient underwent computed tomography angiography, which showed marked dilation of the pulmonary artery without thromboembolic disease and, unexpectedly, a partially calcified large patent ductus arteriosus. The correct diagnosis of the underlying cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension is essential. Patients with underlying heart defects may have an atypical presentation and be referred to expert centres with an incorrect diagnosis. A full investigation is necessary; careful examination of right ventricular anatomy can provide clues about the aetiology of PH, and it is important to exclude intra- and extracardiac shunts during haemodynamic studies.

  7. Etiology of patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, James W; Patterson, Donald F

    2003-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart disease in dogs and usually causes heart failure and death unless corrected at a young age. Previous histologic studies in a line of dogs derived from Miniature Poodles with hereditary PDA identified varying degrees of hypoplasia and asymmetry of ductus-specific smooth muscle and the presence of aortalike elastic tissue in the ductus wall sufficient to cause patency. To determine if similar structural abnormalities cause PDA in other dogs, serial-section, 3-dimensional histology of ductal architecture was studied in 8 non-Poodle purebred dogs with PDA with no immediate family history of PDA. Morphologic abnormalities were observed in 7 of 8 dogs with PDA and essentially were the same as those in dogs known to have a hereditary form of PDA. These findings suggest that apparently sporadic PDA in these breeds is caused by a genetic defect in the structure of the ductus arteriosus that is similar or identical to that in the Poodle. The relatives of dogs with PDA, particularly parents, offspring, and siblings, should be screened for evidence of PDA. Dogs with PDA should not be used for breeding, regardless of breed.

  8. Pharmacologic management of patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, V; Nahata, M C

    1989-01-01

    The incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical findings of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are reviewed, and the pharmacologic management of symptomatic PDA is discussed. Spontaneous closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) usually occurs within four days after birth in most premature and full-term infants. The incidence of PDA is related to birth weight in premature infants and has been shown to decrease with an increase in birth weight. Clinical findings are reviewed. Prophylactic treatment in the first few hours after birth may not be needed in most premature infants. Treatment should be considered only if the ductus becomes symptomatic. Medical management consists of respiratory support, fluid restriction, diuretics, digoxin, and indomethacin. Respiratory support, fluid restriction, and diuretics are used as first-line treatment of symptomatic PDA. Digoxin cannot be recommended as part of first-line therapy, since its risks seem to outweigh the benefits in preterm infants. Indomethacin should be used only if other standard measures including fluid restriction and diuretic treatment fail. The mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and drug interactions of indomethacin are discussed. Symptomatic PDA can increase morbidity and mortality, especially in very low birth weight infants. Treatment of symptomatic PDA may decrease the morbidity associated with this condition.

  9. Exploiting structural information in patent specifications for key compound prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrchan, Christian; Boström, Jonas; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Winter, Jon; Muresan, Sorel

    2012-06-25

    Patent specifications are one of many information sources needed to progress drug discovery projects. Understanding compound prior art and novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical explorations are a few areas where patent analysis is an important component. Cheminformatics methods can be used to facilitate the identification of so-called key compounds in patent specifications. Such methods, relying on structural information extracted from documents by expert curation or text mining, can complement or in some cases replace the traditional manual approach of searching for clues in the text. This paper describes and compares three different methods for the automatic prediction of key compounds in patent specifications using structural information alone. For this data set, the cluster seed analysis described by Hattori et al. (Hattori, K.; Wakabayashi, H.; Tamaki, K. Predicting key example compounds in competitors' patent applications using structural information alone. J. Chem. Inf. Model.2008, 48, 135-142) is superior in terms of prediction accuracy with 26 out of 48 drugs (54%) correctly predicted from their corresponding patents. Nevertheless, the two new methods, based on frequency of R-groups (FOG) and maximum common substructure (MCS) similarity measures, show significant advantages due to their inherent ability to visualize relevant structural features. The results of the FOG method can be enhanced by manual selection of the scaffolds used in the analysis. Finally, a successful example of applying FOG analysis for designing potent ATP-competitive AXL kinase inhibitors with improved properties is described.

  10. Genetic improvement of biofuel plants: recent progress and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T Sudhakar; Badri, Jyothi; Sastry, R Kalpana; Shrivastava, Anshul; Kishor, P B Kavi; Sujatha, M

    2013-04-01

    Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels, political uncertainties, increase in demand of energy needs and growing concerns of environmental effects, bioenergy as an alternative source of energy needs had taken centre stage globally. In this report, we review the progress made in lignocellulose, cellulose and fermentation based biofuels in addition to tree borne oil seeds. Algae as a source of feedstock for the biofuel has also been reviewed. Recent efforts in genome sequencing of biofuel crops and molecular breeding approaches have increased our understanding towards crop improvement of major feedstocks. Besides, patenting trends in bioenergy sector were assessed by patent landscape analysis. The results showed an increasing trend in published patents during the last decade which is maximum during 2011. A conceptual framework of "transgenesis in biofuels to industrial application" was developed based on the patent analytics viz., International Patent Classification (IPC) analysis and Theme Maps. A detailed claim analysis based on the conceptual framework assessed the patenting trends that provided an exhaustive dimension of the technology. The study emphasizes the current thrust in bioenergy sector by various public and private institutions to expedite the process of biofuel production.

  11. The development of synthetic biology: a patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doren, Davy; Koenigstein, Stefan; Reiss, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    In the past decades, synthetic biology has gained interest regarding research and development efforts within the biotechnology domain. However, it is unclear to what extent synthetic biology has matured already into being commercially exploitable. By means of a patent analysis, this study shows that there is an increasing trend regarding synthetic biology related patent applications. The majority of retrieved patents relates to innovations facilitating the realisation of synthetic biology through improved understanding of biological systems. In addition, there is increased activity concerning the development of synthetic biology based applications. When looking at potential application areas, the majority of synthetic biology patents seems most relevant for the medical, energy and industrial sector. Furthermore, the analysis shows that most activity has been carried out by the USA, with Japan and a number of European countries considerably trailing behind. In addition, both universities and companies are major patent applicant actor types. The results presented here form a starting point for follow-up studies concerning the identification of drivers explaining the observed patent application trends in synthetic biology.

  12. Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke: the hole story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Anthony J; Jauss, Marek

    2013-09-01

    Despite 3 recent randomized clinical trials, the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale remains unsettled. The primary results of Evaluation of the STARFlex Septal Closure System in Patients with a Stroke and/or Transient Ischemic Attack due to Presumed Paradoxical Embolism Through a Patent Foramen Ovale (CLOSURE), Percutaneous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke (PC), and Randomized Evaluation of Recurrent Stroke Comparing PFO Closure to Established Current Standard of Care Treatment (RESPECT) were the same; the intent to treat analysis for the primary end point in all 3 trials failed to demonstrate superiority of device closure compared with medical therapy. CLOSURE put the brakes on indiscriminate device closure of patent foramen ovales in patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack. RESPECT suggested, but did not prove, that highly selected patients without vascular risk factors, with a cortical infarct on baseline magnetic resonance imaging and a substantial patent foramen ovale shunt may benefit from the Amplatzer device during a multiple-year period. In the absence of definitive clinical trial results, the precise definition of which patient subgroups should be considered for patent foramen ovale device closure should be agreed to by the stakeholder societies and the Food and Drug Administration.

  13. Migraine with aura and patent foramen ovale: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchi, C; Del Sette, M

    2015-05-01

    Several observational studies report that subjects with migraine with aura have a higher prevalence of right-to left shunt, commonly due to patent foramen ovale, and that patent foramen ovale is more prevalent in subjects with migraine with aura. Although migraine without aura has been less extensively studied, it does not seem to be associated with an increased prevalence of right-to left shunt. The mechanism that underlies the possible relationship between patent foramen ovale and migraine with aura remains speculative. The proposed mechanisms are migraine-triggering vasoactive chemicals bypassing the pulmonary filter and reaching the cerebral circulation and paradoxical microembolization. However, it is unclear, at this time, if there is a causal or comorbid association between the two conditions. In some families atrial shunts show a dominant inheritance that seems to be linked to inheritance of migraine with aura. Migraine with aura is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, and patent foramen ovale is present more frequently in patients with cryptogenic stroke than in controls. At this moment, there is no convincing evidence that excess stroke risk of migraine is simply mediated by patent foramen ovale through paradoxical embolism. Several non-controlled studies suggest that closure of the foramen ovale significantly reduces attack frequency in migraine patient, but the only prospective placebo-controlled trial does not support these results. Patent foramen ovale closure, at present, is not indicated as a treatment for migraine in clinical practice.

  14. Patentes domésticas: avaliando estatísticas internacionais para localizar o caso brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque

    1999-01-01

    Domestic patents statistics are a rich source of information about the technological situation of developing countries. Nevertheless, they are scarcely used in economic debates. This paper introduces arguments for the study of domestic patents, especially for the study of domestic patents of developing countries. The statistical meaning of domestic patent statistics is discussed. The differences between domestic and USPTO patents are highlighted. Statistical exercises with a 46 countries samp...

  15. Filed and granted Indian Patents in dentistry from 2005-2009: A critical analysis and review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle; Shankargouda Patil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patent policies have proved to be extremely important for several countries to develop. India has achieved its global status since 2005; a critical analysis of the patents at IPO will help us to identify the potential, available for patents with Indian Dental Fraternity. Aim: The aim of this study is to critically analyze and review Indian Patents in the field of Dentistry from 2005-2009 for evaluation of status of Indian Patents in Dentistry. Materials and Methods: A tota...

  16. 78 FR 68422 - Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) Actions (Formerly Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... directed to the attention of Linda Horner, Acting Vice Chief Judge, Patent Trial and Appeal Board, United...-9797; or by email to linda.horner@uspto.gov . Additional information about this collection is...

  17. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

    1987-05-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  18. Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Meni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the various scoring systems used to calculate rewards of participants in Bitcoin pooled mining, explain the problems each were designed to solve and analyze their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Tehas teisel pool Kuud / Gert Kiiler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiler, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Viljandi kultuuriakadeemia teatrikunsti tudengite seitsmendast lennust kõneleva saate "Tehas teisel pool Kuud" tegemisest. Saade Eesti Televisioonis 3. juunil. Produtsent Kadi Katarina Priske, režissöör Elo Selirand

  20. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.