WorldWideScience

Sample records for arvensis agg dipsacaceae

  1. AGG Maailmameistrivõistluste eel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    12.-14. juunini toimuvad Torontos Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (AGG) maailmameistrivõistlused Toronto Ülikooli võimlemiskeskuses. Nende võistluste korraldamise raske ülesande on võtnud oma õlule Kanada eestlaste võimlemisklubid Kalev Estienne ja Ritmika vastavalt Evelyn Koobi ja Annely Riga juhtimisel

  2. Diversification of CYCLOIDEA-like genes in Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales: implications for the evolution of capitulum inflorescences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Sara E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CYCLOIDEA (CYC-like genes have been implicated in the development of capitulum inflorescences (i.e. flowering heads in Asteraceae, where many small flowers (florets are packed tightly into an inflorescence that resembles a single flower. Several rounds of duplication of CYC-like genes have occurred in Asteraceae, and this is hypothesized to be correlated with the evolution of the capitulum, which in turn has been implicated in the evolutionary success of the group. We investigated the evolution of CYC-like genes in Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales, a plant clade in which capitulum inflorescences originated independently of Asteraceae. Two main inflorescence types are present in Dipsacaceae: (1 radiate species contain two kinds of floret within the flowering head (disk and ray, and (2 discoid species contain only disk florets. To test whether a dynamic pattern of gene duplication, similar to that documented in Asteraceae, is present in Dipsacaceae, and whether these patterns are correlated with different inflorescence types, we inferred a CYC-like gene phylogeny for Dipsacaceae based on representative species from the major lineages. Results We recovered within Dipsacaceae the three major forms of CYC-like genes that have been found in most core eudicots, and identified several additional duplications within each of these clades. We found that the number of CYC-like genes in Dipsacaceae is similar to that reported for members of Asteraceae and that the same gene lineages (CYC1-like and CYC2B-like genes have duplicated in a similar fashion independently in both groups. The number of CYC-like genes recovered for radiate versus discoid species differed, with discoid species having fewer copies of CYC1-like and CYC2B-like genes. Conclusions CYC-like genes have undergone extensive duplication in Dipsacaceae, with radiate species having more copies than discoid species, suggesting a potential role for these genes in the evolution of disk and

  3. Nova variedade de Menta arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Rodrigues Lima

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available No quarto ano dos trabalhos de seleção com a menta japonêsa, foi encontrado um "seedling", o M. A. 701, que se destacou pela resistência à ferrugem e pela sua rusticidade. Os caracteres botânicos dessa variedade comercial, principalmente hábito vegetativo, coloração das fôlhas e das hastes, a tornam completa' mente distinta da variedade original. Esta distinção se confirma e acentua quando se compara a natureza dos componentes do óleo essencial da menta "Campinas" M. A. 701, descrita no presente trabalho, com a menta japonêsa comum. A maior produtividade da nova variedade comparada com a da menta japonesa comum foi desde logo também constatada pelos primeiros lavradores, a quem foram enviadas pequenas quantidades de rizomas, para plantio experimental. Foram cultivados em 1949-50 cêrca de 12 hectares; cm 1950-51, cêrca de 900 ha, e o prognóstico é que essa variedade tende a substituir totalmente a menta japonêsa anteriormente cultivada em São Paulo, devido ao seu maior valor econômico.A seedling, designated M.A.701, remarkable for its vigor and resistance to rust, was discovered during the fourth year of selection of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. subsp. haplocalix Briquet var. piperascens Holmes or forma piperascens Malinvaud. The botanical characters of the variety derived from this seedling, especially the vegetative habit and colouring of leaves and stems, make it quite different from the original variety. This difference is enhanced, when we compare the nature of the essential oil components of "Campinas" M.A.701, as described in the present paper, with that of the common Japanese mint. The higher yield of the new variety, compared with that of the common Japanese mint, was soon confirmed by the first cultivators, to whom small quantities of rhizomes were sent for experimental planting. About 12 hectars were cultivated em 1949/50 and about 900 hectars in 1950/51. It is expected that the new variety will, on account

  4. 2008 CONEXPO-CON/AGG%镜头中的CONEXPO-CON/AGG2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤彪

    2008-01-01

    @@ 于2008年3月11-15日在美国拉斯维加斯会展中心举行的CONEXPO-CON/AGG(建设机械展)和IFPE(动力传动展)圆满闭幕.CONEXPO-CON/AGG有2182家企业参展,展出净面积达21.2万平方米,较上届增长21%;IFPE有469家企业参展,展出净面积达1.2万平方米,较上届增长16%.14.46万人参观展会,其中国际观众2.8万人,占19%,中国、印度、土耳其的观众数量翻倍.

  5. Fragile X gene instability: Anchoring AGGs and linked microsatellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Nan; Yang, Weihong; Dobkin, C. [Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Interspersed AGGs within the FMR1 gene CGG repeat region may anchor the sequence and prevent slippage during replication. In order to detect the AGG position variations, we developed a method employing partial MnlI restriction analysis and analyzed X chromosomes from 187 males, including 133 normal controls (17 with 20-34 and 16 with 35-52 repeats), plus 54 fragile X premutations with 56-180 repeats. Among controls, the interspersed AGG positions were highly polymorphic, with heterozygosity of 91%. Among the control samples, 1.5% had no AGG positions, 25% had one, 71% had two, and 3% had three. Among the fragile X premutation samples, 63% had no AGG, while 37% had only one AGG. Analysis of premutation samples within fragile X families showed that variation occurred only within the 3{prime} end of the region. Thus, the instability was polar. Controls with {ge}15 pure CGG repeats were associated with the longest alleles of two nearby microsatellites, FRAXAC1 with 20-21 repeats and DXS548 with 202-206 bp and with increased microsatellite heterzygosity. The association of long pure CGG regions, as with fragile X chromosomes, with the longer and more heterozygous microsatellite alleles suggests they may be related mechanistically. Further, our results do not support a recent suggestion that the frequency of fragile X alleles may be increasing. Finally, analysis of a set of nonhuman primate samples showed that long pure CGG tracks are variable in size and are located within the 3{prime} region, which suggests that polar instability within FMR1 is evolutionarily quite old. 55 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. L’Allgemeine Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG: Lex sum, nihil humani a me alienum puto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Testa Bappenheim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. Il contesto europeo maieuta delle «4 direttive» - 3. Le «4 direttive» - 4. L’ubi consistam costituzionale tedesco - 5. Le discriminazioni vietate – 6. Fenotipi laburistici dell’AGG - 7. Fenotipi civilistici dell’AGG – 8. Le discriminazioni ammesse - 9. Il § 9, extra Ecclesiis nulla exceptio.

  7. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  8. Intraspecific variation of phyllotaxis stability in Anagallis arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative transformations of phyllotaxis in Anagallis arvensis occur typically during the generative phase of development. In the vegetative phase phyllotaxis usually does not change. An exception to this rule is one peculiar population of Anagallis arvensis, belonging to a pink-flowered form carnea, in which phyllotaxis often transforms in both the generative and vegetative phase of development. The presence of a relatively large number of vegetative transitions, virtually absent in two control red-flowered populations of form arvensis, is accompanied also by the higher frequency of generative transitions. This might be a result of a genetically determined instability of shoot apex geometry. It has been proved experimentally that changing conditions of growth affect the transition frequencies and the time lapse from the beginning of either the vegetative or generative phase to the transition (measured in plastochrons. A comparison of two types of transitions shows that divergence changes are less abrupt in vegetative transitions. The differences between the two types also pertain to the vertical spacing of leaves and to the pattern formed by leaf bases and wings on the stem surface in the transition zone.

  9. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  10. The AGG codon is translated slowly in E. coli even at very low expression levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonekamp, Fons; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented which indicate that AGG codons for arginine are translated significantly more slowly than the CGU codons for the same amino acid even when their expression level from the probe is very low. The two types of codons were inser ted (three in tandem) on a multicopy plasmid in an ar...

  11. 透过CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2008看行业发展八大现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤龙

    2008-01-01

    @@ 正值北美经济出现下滑之时,CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2008是否依然会光芒四射一度为众多业内人士所担心.但是亲临现场才知道CONEXPO-CON/AGG2008就如同一杯香浓的咖啡,需要细心品尝,领悟其中的滋味.

  12. A DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGER ORIGIN FOR THE COSMOLOGICAL RELATIVISTIC FADING SOURCE PTF11agg?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Ding, Xuan [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei, Jian-Yan, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) team recently reported the discovery of a rapidly fading optical transient source, PTF11agg. A long-lived scintillating radio counterpart was identified, but the search for a high-energy counterpart showed negative results. The PTF team speculated that PTF11agg may represent a new class of relativistic outbursts. Here we suggest that a neutron star (NS)-NS merger system with a supra-massive magnetar central engine could be a possible source to power such a transient, if our line of sight is not on the jet axis direction of the system. These systems are also top candidates for gravitational wave sources to be detected in the advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We find that the PTF11agg data could be explained well with such a model, suggesting that at least some gravitational wave bursts due to NS-NS mergers may be associated with such a bright electromagnetic counterpart without a γ-ray trigger.

  13. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  14. ANALISIS KUALITATIF KANDUNGAN KIMIA KALUS Sonchus arvensis L. HASIL PERTUMBUHAN SECARA KULTUR JARINGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katno Katno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture tecnique can be used to produce chemical compound or secondary metabolites from medicinal plant. The chemical compound of medicinal plants sometime produced locally within the callus. These compounds are generally identical with the one produced by medicinal plantgrowth in the field. Sonchus arvensis (tempuyung used as diuretic and anti-kidney stone. The flavonoid compound of Sonchus arvensis related to such activities are Apigenin 7-glucoside and Luteolin 7-glucoside. The both compounds of Sonchus arvensis are active as anti-kidney stone and diuretic by plant tissue  culture. The reseach was carried out in plants tisue culture laboratory at BPTO Tawangmangu from June to Jully 2002. The callus of Sonchus arvensis  aged of 50 days was analized with spot test and TLC methode. The result was compared to the chemical compounds from Sonchus arvensis which growth in the field. The result showed that chemical compound from  the callus and the plant growth in the field were identical.

  15. Mentha arvensis exhibit better adaptive characters in contrast to Mentha piperita when subjugated to sustained waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Timbre, Khilesh; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Waterlogging is becoming a critical threat to plants growing in areas prone to flooding. Some plants adapt various morphological and biochemical alterations which are regulated transcriptionally to cope with the situation. A comparative study of waterlogging response in two different varieties of Mentha namely Mentha piperita and Mentha arvensis was performed. M. arvensis showed better response towards waterlogging in comparison to M. piperita. M. arvensis maintained a healthy posture by utilizing its carbohydrate content; also, it showed a flourished vegetative growth under waterlogged condition. Soluble protein, chlorophyll content, relative water content, and nitric oxide scavenging activity were comparatively more salient in M. arvensis during this hypoxia treatment. Lipid peroxidation was less in M. arvensis. M. arvensis also showed vigorous outgrowth of adventitious roots to assist waterlogging tolerance. To further investigate the possible gene transcripts involved in this response, we did cDNA subtraction of waterlogging treated M. piperita and M. arvensis seedlings. cDNA subtraction has identified thirty seven novel putative Expressed Sequence Tags which were further classified functionally. Functional classification revealed that maximum percentage of proteins belonged to hypothetical proteins followed by proteins involved in biosynthesis. Some of the identified ESTs were further quantified for their induced expression in M. arvensis in comparison to M. piperita through quantitative real-time PCR.

  16. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol tolerance in Mentha arvensis L. cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajit K Shasany; Suman P S Khanuja; Sunita Dhawan; Sushil Kumar

    2000-09-01

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in Mentha arvensis. A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated genotypes and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use of this relationship as a selectable biochemical marker opens the practical applicability of large-scale in vitro screening of the germplasm, clones and breeders’ material for selection of elite genotypes.

  17. Anticandidal, antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Calendula arvensis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudunia, A-M; Marmouzi, I; Faouzi, M E A; Ramli, Y; Taoufik, J; El Madani, N; Essassi, E M; Salama, A; Khedid, K; Ansar, M; Ibrahimi, A

    2016-12-20

    Calendula arvensis (CA) is one of the important plants used in traditional medicine in Morocco, due to its interesting chemical composition. The present study aimed to determine the anticandidal, antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and the effects of extracts of CA flowers on the growth of myeloid cancer cells. Also, to characterize the chemical composition of the plant. Flowers of CA were collected based on ethnopharmacological information from the villages around the region Rabat-Khemisset, Moroccco. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by soxhlet extraction, while aqueous extracts was obtained by maceration in cold water. CA extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity using four different methods (DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, β-carotene bleaching test). Furthermore, the phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured, also the antimicrobial activity has been evaluated by the well diffusion method using several bacterial and fungal strains. Finally, extracts cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT test. Phytochemical quantification of the methanolic and aqueous extracts revealed that they were rich with flavonoid and phenolic content and were found to possess considerable antioxidant activities. MIC values of methanolic extracts were 12.5-25μg/mL. While MIC values of hexanolic extracts were between 6.25-12.5μg/mL and were bacteriostatic for all bacteria while methanolic and aqueous extracts were bactericidal. In addition, the extracts exhibited no activity on Candida species except the methanolic extract, which showed antifungal activity onCandida tropicalis 1 and Candida famata 1. The methanolic and aqueous extracts also exhibited antimyeloid cancer activity (IC50 of 31μg/mL). In our study, we conclude that the methanolic and aqueous extracts were a promising source of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  18. Determination of Solid State Solubility of the Components in the Ag-Ge Film System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Minenkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of determination of solid state solubility of the components in the system with an eutectic type of interaction (Ag-Ge by means of measuring the sample electrical resistance during thermal cycling has been shown. Film systems were formed in a vacuum by sequential condensation of components. The solubility curve of germanium in silver, obtained from the study of the samples with silver film thickness of 100 nm, is in good agreement with available literature data. The activation energy of grain-boundary diffusion has been estimated as 0,8 eV.

  19. Phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soil by Sinapis arvensis and Rapistrum rugosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghi, Abolghasem; Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan; Parsa, Mehdi; Hammami, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, public concern relating to ecological deleterious effects of heavy metals is on the rise. To evaluate the potential of Rapistrum rugosum and Sinapis arvensis in lead- contaminate phytoremediate, a pot culture experiment was conducted. The pots were filled by soil treated with different rates of leadoxide (PbO) including 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg Pb per 1 kg soil. Germinated seeds were sown. Surprisingly, with increasing concentration of Pb, dry weight of R. rugosum and S. arvensis did not decrease significantly. In both of species, the concentration of Pb was higher in roots than shoots. In general, S.arvensis was absorbed more Pb compared to R. rugosum. The results revealed high potential of R. rugosum and S. arvensis in withdrawing Pb from contaminated soil. For both species, a positive linear relation was observed between Pb concentration in soil and roots. However, linear relationship was not observed between Pb concentration in the soil and shoots. Although both species test had low ability in translocation Pb from roots to shoots but they showed high ability in uptake soil Pb by roots. Apparently, these plants are proper species for using in phytoremediation technology.

  20. Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2007-08-08

    Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

  1. Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium and copper by Convolvulus arvensis L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Peralta-Videa, J R; Montes, M; de la Rosa, G; Corral-Diaz, B

    2004-05-01

    The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites using plants presents a promising alternative to current methodologies. In this study, the potential accumulation of Convolvulus arvensis L. for Cd(II), Cr(VI), and Cu(II) was determined using an agar-based medium. The shoots of C. arvensis plants exposed to 20 mgl(-1) of these heavy metals, demonstrated capability to accumulate more than 3800 mg of Cr, 1500 mg of Cd, and 560 mg of Cu per kg of dry tissue. The outcome of this study and the field data previously reported corroborate that C. arvensis is a suitable candidate for the phytoremediation of Cd(II), Cr(VI), and Cu(II) contaminated soils. Furthermore, the concentration of Cr determined in the dry leaf tissue (2100 mgkg(-1)) indicates that C. arvensis could be considered as a potential Cr-hyperaccumulator plant species.

  2. Carex flava agg. (section Ceratocystis, Cyperaceae in Poland: taxonomy, morphological variation, and soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Więcław Helena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedges of Carex flava agg., typical of moist or wet habitats, are difficult to classify because of a lack of clear-cut morphological differences between them and the existence of numerous hybrids. This monograph presents results of research conducted in 2007-2012 in various parts of Poland. The plant material consisted of 1852 living specimens of Carex flava agg., collected from 80 localities, and dried specimens from 26 herbaria and from 7 private collections. The analysis involved 45 morphological characters (34 quantitative and 11 qualitative and 9 soil parameters. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods were used to process the data. The results confirm the taxonomic classification dividing the C. flava group into 4 species: C. flava s.s., C. lepidocarpa, C. demissa, and C. viridula. This classification is based on (i a high observed level of morphological separation of these taxa, resulting mostly from differences in generative characters, i.e. length of the utricle and its beak, and percentage ratio of beak length to total utricle length; (ii integrity of the taxa at the sites where they coexist, although some intermediate forms resulting from hybridization are also present; (iii habitat preferences of the taxa, especially the preference of C. lepidocarpa for calcareous sites and of C. demissa for slightly acidic soils. Thus in Poland the analysed taxa are morphologically well-defined and show clear ecological preferences. Continuous variation of morphological characters was observed among specimens of C. viridula, so it is not justifiable to distinguish its subspecies (sometimes classified even as separate species, described previously in literature. Consequently, the 2 subgroups of C. viridula were treated as local variants (i.e. varieties: var. viridula and var. pulchella, considering their different habitat requirements. Additionally, 5 hybrids were distinguished within C. flava agg.: C. ×alsatica [= C. demissa

  3. [Phenotypic and phytochemical differences between Mentha arvensis L. and Mentha canadiensis L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepova, O V; Voronkova, T V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Semenova, M V; Bidiukova, G F; Olekhnovich, L S

    2014-01-01

    A taxonomic study of anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical characteristics of Mentha arvensis L. and Mentha canadiensis L. using hierarchical cluster analysis has been conducted and the differences between the species studied have been revealed. The ratio between the lengths of the calyx tube and the calyx lobes, the number of secretory glands on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf, and the composition of the essen- tial oil were shown to be the most appropriate parameters for classification.

  4. Pb and Cd on growth, leaf ultrastructure and essential oil yield mint (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of medicinal plants with heavy metals as Pb and Cd can affect the growth and the essential oil production of the plants and represent a risk to those who consume as medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absorption and localization of Pb and Cd on growth, ultrastructural aspects of leaves and essential oil yield and composition of Mentha arvensis, applied on the soil with increasing concentrations (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128mg kg-1. There was a differential absorption of Pb and Cd by M. arvensis mainly concentrated in the roots. Pb was found in small amounts in the leaves while Cd largely exceeded the safety limit without symptoms of toxicity. The ultrastructural analysis revealed the metal accumulation on vesicles surrounding the mitochondria and the presence of electron dense deposits surrounding the mitochondria, nucleus and chloroplasts. Little changes caused by Pb and Cd application were not enough to affect the growth and essential oil yield and composition of M. arvensis

  5. Expression of terrain and surface geology in high-resolution helicopter-borne gravity gradient (AGG) data: examples from Great Sand Dunes National Park, Rio Grande Rift, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gravity gradient (AGG) data are rapidly becoming standard components of geophysical mapping programs, due to their advantages in cost, access, and resolution advantages over measurements of the gravity field on the ground. Unlike conventional techniques that measure the gravity field, AGG methods measure derivatives of the gravity field. This means that effects of terrain and near-surface geology are amplified in AGG data, and that proper terrain corrections are critically important for AGG data processing. However, terrain corrections require reasonable estimates of density for the rocks and sediments that make up the terrain. A recommended philosophical approach is to use the terrain and surface geology, with their strong expression in AGG data, to the interpreter’s advantage. An example of such an approach is presented here for an area with very difficult ground access and little ground gravity data. Nettleton-style profiling is used with AGG data to estimate the densities of the sand dunefield and adjacent Precambrian rocks from the area of Great Sand Dunes National Park in southern Colorado. Processing of the AGG data using the density estimate for the dunefield allows buried structures, including a hypothesized buried basement bench, to be mapped beneath the sand dunes.

  6. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  7. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies.

  8. PTF11agg AS THE FIRST EVIDENCE FOR REVERSE SHOCK EMISSION FROM A POST-MERGER MILLISECOND MAGNETAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lingjun; Dai Zigao, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-10

    Based on the stiff equations of state of neutron stars (NS) and the discovery of high-mass NSs, it is highly probable that a NS-NS merger will result in a rapidly rotating massive magnetar. The central magnetar will dissipate its rotational energy to the outflow by injecting Poynting flux, which will become lepton-dominated so that a long-lasting reverse shock (RS) develops. We calculate the emission of the RS as well as the emission of forward shock (FS) and find that, in most cases, the RS emission is stronger than FS emission. It is found that the recently discovered transient, PTF11agg, can be neatly accounted for by the RS emission powered by a millisecond magnetar. Other alternative models have been considered and cannot explain the observed light curves well. We therefore suggest that PTF11agg is the first evidence for RS emission from a post-merger millisecond magnetar.

  9. AggNet: Deep Learning From Crowds for Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Shadi; Baur, Christoph; Achilles, Felix; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    The lack of publicly available ground-truth data has been identified as the major challenge for transferring recent developments in deep learning to the biomedical imaging domain. Though crowdsourcing has enabled annotation of large scale databases for real world images, its application for biomedical purposes requires a deeper understanding and hence, more precise definition of the actual annotation task. The fact that expert tasks are being outsourced to non-expert users may lead to noisy annotations introducing disagreement between users. Despite being a valuable resource for learning annotation models from crowdsourcing, conventional machine-learning methods may have difficulties dealing with noisy annotations during training. In this manuscript, we present a new concept for learning from crowds that handle data aggregation directly as part of the learning process of the convolutional neural network (CNN) via additional crowdsourcing layer (AggNet). Besides, we present an experimental study on learning from crowds designed to answer the following questions. 1) Can deep CNN be trained with data collected from crowdsourcing? 2) How to adapt the CNN to train on multiple types of annotation datasets (ground truth and crowd-based)? 3) How does the choice of annotation and aggregation affect the accuracy? Our experimental setup involved Annot8, a self-implemented web-platform based on Crowdflower API realizing image annotation tasks for a publicly available biomedical image database. Our results give valuable insights into the functionality of deep CNN learning from crowd annotations and prove the necessity of data aggregation integration.

  10. COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT ON GC-MS ANALYSIS OF MENTHA ARVENSIS L. CORN MINT FROM THREE DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHARMA VIVEK1*, SHARMA NISHA1, SINGH HARBANS 1, SRIVASTAVA K. DEVENDRA1, PATHANIA VIJAYLATA2, SINGH BIKRAM2, GUPTA C. RAGHBIR1

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Mentha arvensis L. (Corn Mint has been done for the first time from three locations of NorthIndia. The extraction yields for the essential oils of three locations of M. arvensis were: 0.38% for sample M-1 collectedfrom Fatehpur (415m, 0.31% for sample M-2 from Dhameta (435m and 0.36% for sample MP from Patiala (250m. Theoils were analyzed by GC-MS, the components of oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectrafragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The majorconstituents reported from essential oils of M. arvensis were: L-Menthone, Menthol, Isomenthone, Eucalyptol, Piperitoneoxide, Carvone, dl-Limonene, trans-Dihydrocarvone, Germacrene-D, etc. from all three samples collected from Punjab andHimachal Pradesh of Northern India.

  11. Mosquitocidal activity of Polygala arvensis Willd against Aedes aegypti (Linn., Anopheles stephensi (Liston. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Deepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of benzene and methanol extract of Polygala arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of selected mosquitoes species were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 ppm and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the P. Arvensis leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to variousconcentrations were tested under laboratory conditions and the hatch rates were assessed 120hrs post treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of benzene and methanol extract of P. arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 h were 75.32, 88.26, 82.46, 58.21, 46.37, 42.68 and 260.48, 275.26, 251.39, 208.45, 189.82 and 130.44 ppm, respectively. It has been noticed that the higher concentrations of P. arvensis extractspossesses strong ovicidal activity at 200 ppm concentration against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, no egg hatchability was recorded. In the same way, methanol extracts showed maximum ovicidal activity followed by benzene extract against selected vector mosquitoes. In repellent activity, among two extracts tested P. arvensis methanol extract had strong repellent action against selected mosquitoes as it provided 100% protection against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus for 280min. From the results it can be concluded the P. arvensis extract was an excellent potential for controlling Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  12. Antibacterial activity of leaves and inter-nodal callus extracts of Mentha arvensis L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnsonM; WeselyEG; KavithaMS; UmaV

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the anti-bacterial efficacy of chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of inter-nodal and leaves derived calli extracts from Mentha arvensis (M. arvensis) against Salmonella typhi(S. typhi), Streptococcus pyogenes(S. pyogenes), Proteus vulgaris(P. vulgaris) and Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis). Methods: The inter-nodal and leaves segments of M. arvensis were cut into 0.5-0.7 cm in length and cultured on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, gelled with 0.7% agar and different concentration of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetie acid (2,4-D) either alone or in combinations. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by Brindha et al method. Antibacterial efficacy was performed by disc diffusion method and incubated for 24 h at 37 ℃. Results: Maximum percentage of callus formation (inter-nodal segments 84.3±0.78;leaves segments 93.8±1.27) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s basal medium supplemented with 3%sucrose and 1.5 mg/L of 2, 4-D. The ethanol extracts of leaves derived calli showed the maximum bio-efficacy than other solvents. The leaves and stem derived calli extracts on Proteus sp. showed that the plants can be used in the treatment of urinary tract infection associated with Proteus sp. Through the bacterial efficacy studies, it is confirmed that the in vitro raised calli tissue was more effective compared to in vivo tissue. Conclusions:The bio-efficacy study confirmed that the calli mediated tissues showed the maximum zone of inhibition. The present study paved a protocol to establish high potential cell lines by in vitro culture.

  13. Alternethanoxins A and B, polycyclic ethanones produced by Alternaria sonchi , potential mycoherbicides for Sonchus arvensis biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Andolfi, Anna; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Motta, Andrea

    2009-08-12

    Alternaria sonchi is a fungal pathogen isolated from Sonchus arvensis and proposed as a biocontrol agent of this noxious perennial weed. Different phytotoxic metabolites were isolated from solid culture of the fungus. Two new polycyclic ethanones, named alternethanoxins A and B, were characterized using essentially spectroscopic and chemical methods. Tested by leaf disk-puncture assay on the fungal host plant and a number of nonhost plants, alternethanoxins A and B were shown to be phytotoxic, whereas they did not possess antimicrobial activity tested at 100 microg/disk. Hence, alternethanoxins A and B have potential as nonselective natural herbicides. Some structure-activity relationship observations were also made.

  14. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nripendra Nath Biswas; Subarna Saha; Mohammed Khadem Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extract. In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing test in Swiss albino mice. All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Antibacterial activity was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cytotoxicity effects of the plant extract. Results:The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (IC50~41 µg/mL) compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (IC50~19 µg/mL). The extract also produced prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella boydii,Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the dose of 30 µg/disc. The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50 values of 40 µg/mL, and also 90% mortality (LC90) value was found to be 160 µg/mL. In analgesic test, the extract demonstrated statistically significant (P Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  15. Can Skylarks Alauda arvensis discriminate a parasite nestling? Possible case of nestling Cuckoo Cuculus canorus ejection by its host parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegemann, Arne; Voesten, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus is an obligate brood parasite and many studies have dealt with egg rejection by host species. However, evidence for ejection of Cuckoo nestlings by host parents has not been reported. Here we describe an observation of a Skylark Alauda arvensis pair that probably ej

  16. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jugulam

    Full Text Available Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18 and B. napus (2n = 38 were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH. This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  17. Shortening of the Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 AggLb protein switches its activity from auto-aggregation to biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Miljković

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AggLb is the largest (318.6 kDa aggregation-promoting protein of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 responsible for forming large cell aggregates, which causes auto-aggregation, collagen binding and pathogen exclusion in vitro. It contains an N-terminus leader peptide, followed by six successive collagen binding domains, 20 successive repeats (CnaB-like domains and an LPXTG sorting signal at the C-terminus for cell wall anchoring. Experimental information about the roles of the domains of AggLb is currently unknown. To define the domain that confers cell aggregation and the key domains for interactions of specific affinity between AggLb and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM, we constructed a series of variants of the aggLb gene and expressed them in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGKP1-20 using a lactococcal promoter. All of the variants contained a leader peptide, an inter collagen binding-CnaB domain region (used to raise an anti-AggLb antibody, an anchor domain and a different number of collagen binding and CnaB-like domains. The role of the collagen binding repeats of the N-terminus in auto-aggregation and binding to collagen and fibronectin was confirmed. Deletion of the collagen binding repeats II, III and IV resulted in a loss of the strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities whereas the biofilm formation capability was increased. The strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities of AggLb were negatively correlated to biofilm formation.

  18. Distribution of Pathogenic Genes aatA, aap, aggR, among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Their Linkage with StbA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A; Mirinargasi, M; Merikhi, N; Sharifi, S H

    2011-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) with E. coli (UPEC) is one of the most common bacterial infections among human beings. In addition to the host predisposing factors, genes are also proposed to have an important role in the occurrence of UTIs. This study investigated the distribution of three pathogenic genes including aggR, aap and aatA among UPEC infected samples and their linkage with stbA, the essential gene for maintaining of pAA plasmid. A total of 244 samples were collected from patients with UTIs through clinical laboratories located in western side of Tehran (Iran) during years 2008-2009. E. coli isolation was performed according to standard laboratory methods. DNAs were extracted from samples using Boiling method, and the presence of aap, aggR, aatA and stbA genes were investigated by PCR. No pathogenic genes (aap, aggR, aatA) were found in 104 out of 244 UPEC samples, while 14 of them were carrying stbA gene. Out of 140 UPEC samples with pathogenic genes, 94 (46.6%) were carrying aap gene, 52 (23%) aggR gene, and 80 (35.4%) aatA gene. A total of 18 samples were also carrying all pathogenic genes together. Moreover, 44 out of 144 samples were carrying stbA gene. The results obtained by this study showed that the aggR, aap and aatA pathogenic genes have different existence patterns in different E. coli strains that infect different organs. Our study also showed that these three plasmid genes in EAEC strains are able to transpose in the genome and change their level of linkage with pAA plasmid essential gene stbA. Meanwhile, this study confirmed that aggR, aap and aatA genes are not specific to only EAEC strains.

  19. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Landesmann

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb. We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  20. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted.

  1. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae against oral pathogens=Estudo in vitro do efeito antimicrobiano dos extratos hidroalcólicos de Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae contra patógenos orais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antonio Freitag

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis did not show any antibacterial effect, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was revealed. According to the micro-dilution broth assay, MIC of the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of M. arvensis on Candida albicans strains ranged between 625 and 2500 g mL-1. Results suggest that M. arvensis hydroalcoholic extract may be considered a potentially antifungal agent against C. albicans, and a possible item for human antibiotic therapy. However, further biological tests on the plant’s efficacy and side-effects are necessary before its use on humans. Testes in vitro podem ser uma ferramenta valiosa para a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de plantas medicinais. Mentha arvensis é uma das plantas medicinais brasileiras mais frequentemente utilizadas e pertence à família Lamiaceae. No presente estudo, extratos hidroalcólicos de M. arvensis foram analisados quanto à sua atividade antimicrobiana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus e Candida albicans. Três diferentes ensaios (métodos de difusão em ágar, macro e microdiluição em caldo foram utilizados para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana. Embora os extratos hidroalcólicos de M. arvensis não demonstraram qualquer efeito antibacteriano, eles apresentaram atividade antifúngica contra C. albicans. Baseado no ensaio de microdiluição em caldo, a CIM do extrato hidroalcólico das folhas de M. arvensis sobre cepas de C. albicans

  2. Bidirectional but asymmetrical sexual hybridization between Brassica carinata and Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kyle W; Razeq, Fakhria M; Sauder, Connie A; James, Tracey; Martin, Sara L

    2015-05-01

    With transgenic crop development it is important to evaluate the potential for transgenes to escape into populations of wild, weedy relatives. Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata, BBCC) is easily transformed and is being investigated for uses from biodiesel fuels to biopharmaceuticals. However, little work has been done evaluating its ability to cross with relatives such as wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis, SrSr), an abundant, cosmopolitan weedy relative. Here we conducted bidirectional crosses with Ethiopian mustard as a maternal parent in 997 crosses and paternal parent in 1,109 crosses. Hybrids were confirmed using flow cytometry and species-specific ITS molecular markers and indicate a high hybridization rate of 6.43 % between Ethiopian mustard (♀) and wild mustard (♂) and a lower, but not insignificant, hybridization rate of 0.01 % in the reverse direction. The majority of the hybrids were homoploid (BCSr) with less than 1 % of pollen production of their parents and low seed production (0.26 seeds/pollination) in crosses and backcrosses indicating a potential for advanced generation hybrids. The accession used had a significant effect on hybrid seed production with different accessions of Ethopian mustard varying in their production of hybrid offspring from 2.69 to 16.34 % and one accession of wild mustard siring almost twice as many hybrid offspring per flower as the other. One pentaploid (BBCCSr) and one hexaploid (BBCCSrSr) hybrid were produced and had higher pollen viability, though no and low seed production, respectively. As wild mustard is self-incompatible and the outcrossing rate of Ethiopian mustard has been estimated as 30 % potential for hybrid production in the wild appears to be high, though the hybridization rate found here represents a worst case scenario as it does not incorporate pre-pollination barriers. Hybridization in the wild needs to be directly evaluated as does the propensity of Ethiopian mustard to volunteer.

  3. Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary metabolites in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The secondary metabolites in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary metabolites in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the metabolites against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and absolute quantification revealed concentrations in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary metabolite patterns, concentrations of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest concentrations were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. Metabolite concentrations were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex metabolite extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active.

  4. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  5. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manikandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  6. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Hungary: a new species on Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) and new record on Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Géza

    2014-12-22

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aculus castriferrei n. sp., associated with Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this vagrant species from other rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed. Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci is a new record for the eriophyoid fauna of Hungary after it was found causing severe damage symptoms to Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae).

  7. Isolation, characterization, sequencing and crystal structure of charybdin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Charybdis maritima agg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Gessmann, Renate; Kavelaki, Kalliopi; Christofakis, Emmanuil; Petratos, Kyriacos; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F

    2006-06-01

    A novel, type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein designated charybdin was isolated from bulbs of Charybdis maritima agg. The protein, consisting of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 29 kDa, inhibited translation in rabbit reticulocytes with an IC50 of 27.2 nm. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the bulb was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequence of the protein from dissolved crystals. The complete mature protein sequence was derived by partial DNA sequencing and terminal protein sequencing, and was confirmed by high-resolution crystal structure analysis. The protein contains Val at position 79 instead of the conserved Tyr residue of the ribosome-inactivating proteins known to date. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of a natural substitution of a catalytic residue at the active site of a natural ribosome-inactivating protein. This substitution in the active site may be responsible for the relatively low in vitro translation inhibitory effect compared with other ribosome-inactivating proteins. Single crystals were grown in the cold room from PEG6000 solutions. Diffraction data collected to 1.6 A resolution were used to determine the protein structure by the molecular replacement method. The fold of the protein comprises two structural domains: an alpha + beta N-terminal domain (residues 4-190) and a mainly alpha-helical C-terminal domain (residues 191-257). The active site is located in the interface between the two domains and comprises residues Val79, Tyr117, Glu167 and Arg170.

  8. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  9. Evolutionary processes in a continental island system: molecular phylogeography of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (Ranunculaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittkau, C; Comes, H P

    2005-11-01

    Continental shelf island systems, created by rising sea levels, provide a premier setting for studying the effects of past fragmentation, dispersal, and genetic drift on taxon diversification. We used phylogeographical (nested clade) and population genetic analyses to elucidate the relative roles of these processes in the evolutionary history of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (= 'coenospecies'). We surveyed chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in 455 individuals from 47 populations (nine taxa) of the alliance throughout its core range in the Aegean Archipelago and surrounding mainland areas of Greece and Turkey. The study revealed the presence of three major lineages, with largely nonoverlapping distributions in the Western, Central, and Eastern Aegean. There is evidence supporting the idea that these major lineages evolved in situ from a widespread (pan-Aegean) ancestral stock as a result of multiple fragmentation events, possibly due to the influence of post-Messinian sea flooding, Pleistocene eustatic changes and corresponding climate fluctuations. Over-sea dispersal and founder events appear to have played a rather insignificant role in the group's history. Rather, all analytical approaches identified the alliance as an organism group with poor seed dispersal capabilities and a susceptibility to genetic drift. In particular, we inferred that the observed level of cpDNA differentiation between Kikladian island populations of Nigella degenii largely reflects population history, (viz. Holocene island fragmentation) and genetic drift in the near absence of seed flow since their time of common ancestry. Overall, our cpDNA data for the N. arvensis alliance in general, and N. degenii in particular, indicate that historical events were important in determining the phylogeographical patterns seen, and that genetic drift has historically been relatively more influential on population structure than has cytoplasmic gene flow.

  10. Pharmacological properties of Anagallis arvensis L. ("scarlet pimpernel") and Anagallis foemina Mill. ("blue pimpernel") traditionally used as wound healing remedies in Navarra (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Akerreta, Silvia;

    2011-01-01

    -inflammatory properties were measured in terms of COX-1 and -2 inhibition as well as superoxide radical scavenging capacity. RESULTS: Both species exerted antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The methanolic extract obtained from Anagallis arvensis seemed to produce the highest inhibition in Candida albicans (MIC......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: : Anagallis arvensis and Anagallis foemina are traditionally used in Navarra (Spain) for dermatological purposes regarding wound healing properties. In some cases they are also used to threat internal infections although they are known to be toxic at high doses. AIM...... OF STUDY: : Due to lack of studies, we decided to evaluate the potential of the plants as wound healing remedies measuring antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties using in vitro procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial effects were studied against four bacteria and one fungus. Anti...

  11. Chemical variability, antioxidant and antifungal activities of essential oils and hydrosol extract of Calendula arvensis L. from western Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbes, Rania; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Ilias, Faiza; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-01-21

    The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of fifty-three compounds amounting to 92.3-98.5% with yields varied of 0.09-0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7-29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2-12.5%), β-curcumene (2.1-12.5%), zingiberenol 2 (4.6-19.8%) and (E,Z)-farnesol (3.5-23.4%). The study of the chemical variability of essential oils allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential oil compositions and the harvest locations. Different concentrations of essential oil and hydrosol extract were prepared and their antioxidant activity were assessed using three methods (DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene). The results showed that hydrosol extract presented an interesting antioxidant activity. The in vitro antifungal activity of hydrosol extract produced the best antifungal inhibition against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, while, essential oil was inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. Results showed that the treatments of pear fruits with essential oil and hydrosol extract presented a very interesting protective activity on disease severity of pears caused by P. expansum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. 苣荬菜化学成分的研究%Study on Chemical Constituents of Sonchus arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雷; 姚庆强; 解砚英

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究苣荬菜(Sonchus arvensis L.)的化学成分,为阐明其有效成分打下基础.方法 采用硅胶、聚酰胺和Sephadex LH-20柱等分离,用光谱学方法鉴定化合物的结构.结果 分离得8种化合物,鉴定了其结构,分别为棕榈酸(Palmitic acid,Ⅰ)、β-谷甾醇(β-Sito sterol,Ⅱ)、胡萝卜苷(dauco sterol,Ⅲ)、槲皮素(quercetin,Ⅳ)、芹菜素-7-O- β-D-葡糖苷(apigenin-7-O- β-D-glucopyranoside,Ⅴ)、木犀草素-7-O- β-D-葡糖苷(luteolin-7-O- β-D-glucopyranoside,Ⅵ)、槲皮素-3-O- β-D-葡糖苷(quercetin-3-O- β-D-glucopyranoside Ⅶ)、芦丁(rutin,Ⅷ).结论 化合物Ⅰ、Ⅶ、Ⅷ系首次从苣荬菜中分得.

  13. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae against oral pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis did not show any antibacterial effect, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was revealed. According to the micro-dilution broth assay, MIC of the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of M. arvensis on Candida albicans strains ranged between 625 and 2500 mg mL-1. Results suggest that M. arvensis hydroalcoholic extract may be considered a potentially antifungal agent against C. albicans, and a possible item for human antibiotic therapy.  However, further biological tests on the plant’s efficacy and side-effects are necessary before its use on humans.  

  14. Soil nutritional status, not inoculum identity, primarily determines the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Knautia arvensis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubková, Pavla; Kohout, Petr; Sudová, Radka

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is among the factors contributing to plant survival in serpentine soils characterised by unfavourable physicochemical properties. However, AM fungi show a considerable functional diversity, which is further modified by host plant identity and edaphic conditions. To determine the variability among serpentine AM fungal isolates in their effects on plant growth and nutrition, a greenhouse experiment was conducted involving two serpentine and two non-serpentine populations of Knautia arvensis plants grown in their native substrates. The plants were inoculated with one of the four serpentine AM fungal isolates or with a complex AM fungal community native to the respective plant population. At harvest after 6-month cultivation, intraradical fungal development was assessed, AM fungal taxa established from native fungal communities were determined and plant growth and element uptake evaluated. AM symbiosis significantly improved the performance of all the K. arvensis populations. The extent of mycorrhizal growth promotion was mainly governed by nutritional status of the substrate, while the effect of AM fungal identity was negligible. Inoculation with the native AM fungal communities was not more efficient than inoculation with single AM fungal isolates in any plant population. Contrary to the growth effects, a certain variation among AM fungal isolates was revealed in terms of their effects on plant nutrient uptake, especially P, Mg and Ca, with none of the AM fungi being generally superior in this respect. Regardless of AM symbiosis, K. arvensis populations significantly differed in their relative nutrient accumulation ratios, clearly showing the plant's ability to adapt to nutrient deficiency/excess.

  15. Reconstructed structures of nanosized co islands on Ag/Ge(111) mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Sung-Lin; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2008-02-01

    Structural evolution of Co/Ag/Ge(111) at high temperatures was studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction. The mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3-Ag layer between the substrate Ge( 11) and Co adatoms can avoid the formation of Co-Ge compounds below 800 K. The Co atoms nucleate to form islands where mean square root of 13 x mean square root of 13 or 2 x 2 reconstructions were observed after annealing between 373 K and 737 K. The mean square root of 13 x mean square root of 13 structure with mirror symmetry relative to [-211], [11-2], and [1-21] axes was observed for 1-2 layer Co islands. Co islands with over 2 layers appear 2 x 2 structure. All reconstruction structures of the nano-sized Co islands and substrate Ag/Ge(111) mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3 surface were analyzed using the atomic hard sphere model. The bright protrusions of these reconstructions all sit in the centers of Ag or Ge trimers, which were predicted to have maximum binding energy.

  16. Quelques aspects germinatifs, rhizogéniques et écologiques chez Sinapis arvensis L. dans la région de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeldjalil, Anissa Chahrazed

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude écophysiologique a été conduite sur une espèce (Sinapis arvensis .L) très répandue dans la nature en Algérie notamment dans la wilaya de Tlemcen. Cette plante même si elle est indésirable au niveau des champs de culture, elle peut s’avérer utile dans le maintien de la biodiversité du monde végétal. Notre travail comprend successivement les résultats suivants :  La micropropagation « in vitro » entre autre, une culture rhizogénique montre une certaine croissance sur...

  17. Influence of the leaf extract of mentha arvensis linn. (Mint) on the survival of mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Baliga, M.S. [Kasturba Medical Coll., Manipal (India). Dept. of Radiobiology

    2002-02-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. Material and Methods: The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied in mice exposed to 10 Gy gamma radiation. Results: The 10 mg/kg of mint extract was found to afford best protection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors in this group at 30 days post-irradiation, and further experiments were carried out using this dose of mint extract. The mice treated with 10 mg/kg body weight mint extract or oil were exposed to 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 Gy of gamma radiation and observed for the induction of radiation-sickness and mortality up to 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract pretreatment was found to reduce the severity of symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality at all exposure doses and a significant increase in the animal survival was observed when compared with the oil + irradiation group. All of the animals that were treated with 10 mg/kg mint extract and then exposed to 7 Gy irradiation were protected against the radiation-induced mortality when compared with the concurrent oil + irradiation group, in which 20% animals died by 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract treatment protected the mice against the gastrointestinal death as well as bone marrow deaths. The DRF was found to be 1.2. The drug was non-toxic up to a dose of 1 000 mg/kg body weight, the highest drug dose that could be tested for acute toxicity. Conclusion: From our study it is clear that mint extract provides protection against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality and the optimum protective dose of 10 mg/kg is safe from the point of drug-induced toxicity. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, den radioprotektiven Effekt von Mentha arvensis (Minze

  18. A novel orf108 co-transcribed with the atpA gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica juncea carrying Moricandia arvensis cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashutosh; Kumar, Pankaj; Dinesh Kumar, V; Sharma, Prakash C; Prakash, Shyam; Bhat, Shripad R

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondrial atpA transcripts were examined in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertility restorer lines of CMS (Moricandia arvensis) Brassica juncea. Male sterile flowers had longer atpA transcripts than male fertiles. The mitochondrial atpA region of the CMS line was cloned and sequenced. The 5' and 3' ends of the atpA transcripts of the CMS and the fertility restorer lines were mapped and full-length transcripts were cloned and sequenced. A novel orf108 (open reading frame 108) co-transcribed with the atpA gene was found in the male sterile flowers. In the fertility restorer line, the transcript was cleaved within orf108 to yield monocistronic atpA transcripts.

  19. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

  20. Essential Oil Composition of Menthol Mint (Mentha arvensis and Peppermint (Mentha piperita Cultivars at Different Stages of Plant Growth from Kumaon Region of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L. and peppermint (M. piperita L. cultivars grown in Kumaon region were evaluated for essential oil content and composition at different stages of crop growth. In men­thol mint cultivars viz., ‘Kosi’, ‘Saksham’, ‘Himalaya’, and ‘Kalka’, the essential oil content was found to vary from 0.3% - 1.2%, 0.42% - 1.1%, 0.38% - 1.0% and 0.26% - 1.2%, at different days after transplanting (DAT respectively, while in cultivars ‘Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’ of peppermint, it varied from 0.28% - 0.6%, 0.19% - 0.55% and 0.17% - 0.37%, respectively at different DAT. The menthol content in all the menthol mint cultivars reached higher values at 120 and 150 DAT. In case of peppermint cultivars viz., Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’, menthol content varied from 32.92% - 39.65%, 34.29% - 42.83% and 22.56% - 32.77%, respectively during the crop growth.

  1. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner.

  2. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  3. Studies on Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Mentha arvensis Oil of Yunnan%云南薄荷精油的化学成分及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露; 谢文申

    2011-01-01

    采用GC/MS法对云南薄荷精油挥发性成分进行鉴定,检测出49个成分,鉴定了其中44个成分.薄荷精油主要化学成分为薄荷醇、薄荷酮、苧烯、1,8-桉叶素、胡椒酮、大根香叶烯D、乙酸薄荷酯等.试验研究了薄荷精油对大肠杆菌、金黄葡萄球菌、烟曲霉菌、白念珠菌的抗菌活性.结果显示精油对大肠杆菌、金黄葡萄球菌、白念珠菌有明显的抗菌活性.%The chemical constituents of the Mentha arvensis oil of Yunnan were studied by GC/MS method in this paper. 49 Constituents were isolated, 44 constituents were identified. They are menthol, menthone, limonene, 1,8-cineole, piperitone, germacrene-D and menthyl acetate, etc. The study on the antimicrobial activity of the Mentha arvensis essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans were also conducted. The results show that the oil has antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

  4. The efficacy of Mentha arvensis L. and M. piperita L. essential oils in reducing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining quality characteristics in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Guedes, Jossana Pereira; da Costa Medeiros, José Alberto; de Souza E Silva, Richard Sidney; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated the ability of the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. (MAEO) and M. piperita L. (MPEO) to induce ≥5-log reductions in counts (CFU/mL) of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Brain-Heart Infusion broth (BHIB) and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during refrigerated storage (4±0.5°C). The effects of the incorporation of these essential oils on some physicochemical and sensory parameters of juices were also evaluated. The incorporation of 5, 2.5, 1.25, or 0.625μL/mL of MAEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis after 24h of storage; but only 5μL/mL was able to cause the same reduction in counts of L.monocytogenes. The incorporation of 10μL/mL of MPEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes after 24h of storage; smaller reductions were observed in BHIB containing 5, 2.5, and 1.25μL/mL of MPEO. Similar reductions were observed when the MAEO or MPEO was incorporated at the same concentrations in mango juice. The incorporation of MAEO or MPEO at all tested concentrations in cashew, guava, and pineapple juices resulted in a ≥5-log reduction in pathogen counts within 1h. The incorporation of MAEO and MPEO (0.625 and 1.25μL/mL, respectively) in fruit juices did not induce alterations in °Brix, pH, and acidity, but negatively affected the taste, aftertaste, and overall acceptance. The use of MAEO or MPEO at low concentrations could constitute an interesting tool to achieve the required 5-log reduction of pathogenic bacteria in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple fruit juices. However, new methods combining the use of MAEO or MPEO with other technologies are necessary to reduce their negative impacts on specific sensory properties of these juices.

  5. Produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis em resposta à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Yield and quality of essential oils of Mentha arvensis in response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 20 tratamentos, constituídos pela combinação de cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe e controle e quatro doses de P (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas 65 dias após o plantio. Sem adubação fosfatada, os fungos Gigaspora margarita e Glomus clarum aumentaram em 206 e 198%, respectivamente, a produção de matéria fresca em relação ao tratamento controle. A maior produção de matéria fresca (90 g por vaso foi observada no tratamento de A. scrobiculata com 133 mg kg-1 de fósforo. Na ausência de adubação fosfatada, teores de óleos essenciais e de mentol no óleo foram menores em plantas sem inoculação, e os tratamentos com inoculação proporcionaram incrementos de até 89% nos teores de óleos e de mentol, em relação ao tratamento sem inoculação. Com o incremento da adubação fosfatada, não foram observados incrementos dos teores de óleos essenciais e mentol em razão dos FMA. As maiores produtividades de óleos essenciais e de mentol nos óleos, 0,69 g e 0,48 g por vaso, respectivamente, foram encontradas em plantas com inoculação de Acaulospora scrobiculata nas doses de P de 126 e 123 mg kg-1 de solo, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetative growth, production and composition of essential oil of Mentha arvensis L., grown in different phosphorus levels. The work was carried out under greenhouse conditions and

  6. Espaçamento para menta (Mentha arvensis L. resultados experimentais do período de 1943-44 a 1950-51 Field experiments on spacing of japanese mint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribeiro dos Santos

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o espaçamento na cultura da menta (Mentha arvensis L., foram efetuados quatro ensaios de campo, um na Estação Experimental de Pindorama e os outros na Estação Experimental de Tietê. No ensaio de Pindorama, instalado em 1943-44, e nos de Tietê, nos anos de 1943-44 e 1944-45. foram adotadas as distâncias de 50, 75 e 100 centímetros entre as fileiras. No experimento de 1950-51, de Tietê, essas distâncias foram um pouco menores: 40, 60 e 80 centímetros. Em todos os ensaios, os espaçamentos adotados entre plantas, nas fileiras, foram de 20 e de 40 centímetros. As produções registraram-se como: erva-verde, a parte vegetativa aérea, recém-ceifada; erva-murcha e óleo essencial, êste obtido por destilarão a vapor em alambique. Os resultados mostraram, de forma consistente, produções significativamente maiores nos espaçamentos mais compactos. Considerações de ordem econômica sôbre o consumo de rizomas para a plantação e necessidades de instalações de viveiro, de mão-de-obra no tratamento dos viveiros e transplante das mudas, são feitas na interpretação dos resultados experimentais.Field experiments is on spacing of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L., subsp. haplocalyx Briquet, var. piperascens Holmes or forma piperascens Malinvaud were conducted at the experiment stations of Pindorama and Tietê, during the 1943-44, 1944-45 and 1950-51 seasons. In Brazil, nowadays the leading world supplier of menthol and dementholized oil, mint is generally raised in newly cleared forest soils. In these areas planting is usual|y done at irregular spacings, due to the presence of trunk and branches of the felled trees, the distances between plants being rather wide. Yields, recorded as fresh and cured (wilted hay and oil, were significantly higher from the following spacings: 40 x 20, 50 x 20, 60 x 20 and 50 x 40 centimeters. Considerations on the amount of rhizomes and labor necessary for nurseries and transplanting were

  7. Homeopathic omeopathic drugs Arsenicum album and Sulphur affect the growth and essential oil content in mint (Mentha arvensis L. = Os medicamentos homeopáticos Sulphur e Arsenicum album afetam o crescimento e o teor de óleo essencial em menta (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moacir Bonato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Arsenicum album in growthvariables and essential oil content of mint are analyzed. Four homeopathic dinamizations (6, 12, 24 and 30CH were used for both drugs in the centesimal scale (CH=centesimal hahnemannian, besides control (water. Treatments were conducted in greenhouse andhomeopathic drugs applied weekly (250 mL vase-1 for 98 days. Plant height, root system’s dry mass, shoot’s dry mass and essential oil content were determined. Among the tested homeopathy drugs, Sulphur increased values of fresh and dry biomass more than Arsenicumalbum. Plant height increased by the two drugs and their respective dinamizations. Whereas Sulphur inhibited dry biomass production, except 6CH dinamization, it increased substantially mint plant’s essential oil content. Arsenicum album presented the same behavioras Sulphur drug, with the difference that it increased the fresh biomass in 24 and 30CH dinamizations. Results suggest that Sulphur and Arsenicum album modify plant metabolism, especially by increasing secondary metabolism as occurs with essential oil contents.Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos Sulphur e Arsenicum album em algumas variáveis de crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta (Mentha arvensis L.. Utilizaram-se, para ambos os medicamentos, quatro dinamizações homeopáticas (6, 12, 24 e 30CH na escala centesimal (CH=centesimal hahnemanniana, além do controle (água para os dois medicamentos. Os tratamentos foram conduzidos em casa-devegetação, e os medicamentos homeopáticos aplicados semanalmente (250 mL vaso-1 durante98 dias. Foram determinados: altura das plantas, massa seca do sistema radicular, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e teor de óleo essencial. Dentre as homeopatias testadas, o Sulphur proporcionou maiores valores de biomassa fresca e seca do que a homeopatiaArsenicum album. A altura das plantas foi incrementada por ambos os

  8. Effect of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum on the essential oil yield related characters and nutrient acquisition in the crops of different cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M L; Prasad, Arun; Ram, Muni; Kumar, Sushil

    2002-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomusfasciculatum on the root colonization, growth, essential oil yield and nutrient acquisition of three cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis); Kalka, Shivalik and Gomti, were studied under field conditions. The VAM inoculation significantly increased the root colonization, plant height, fresh herbage and dry matter yield. oil content and oil yield as compared to non-inoculated cultivars. The effect of VAM inoculation on the root colonization, growth and yield of mint was more pronounced with the cv Shivalik than the cvs Kalka and Gomati, indicating Shivalik as a highly mycorrhizal dependent genotype. VAM inoculation significantly increased the uptake of N, P and K by shoot tissues of mint, but most markedly increased the uptake of P. The VAM-inoculated mint plants depleted the available N, P and K in the rhizosphere soil as compared to non-inoculated control plants, however the extent of nutrient depletion was greater for P than N and K. We conclude that the VAM inoculation could significantly increase the root colonization, growth, essential oil yield and nutrient acquisition of mint for obtaining economic production under field conditions.

  9. RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) REVEALED THE HETEROKARYON OF AGARICUS ARVENSIS PRODUCED BY MATING REACTIONS%随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)在野蘑菇杂交育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春; 张丽梅

    2001-01-01

    野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis Schaeff ex.Fr.)是蘑菇属(Agaricus)又一种近年来广泛栽培的食用菌.由于它的菌丝细胞具有多核,无锁状联合,以及人们对它的繁殖模式和生活史认识的不足,给杂交育种工作造成了较多困难.运用随机扩增多态DNA遗传标记技术,结合拮抗试验和核相分析,对自育的单孢菌株之间的杂交试验进行分析研究.结果表明:两个相互亲合的同核体菌株被配对培养时,交配反应出现,并形成异核体的后代.可能野蘑菇具有双重的交配繁殖系统--同宗配合和异宗配合.在食用菌杂交育种研究中,机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)是一种非常有效和方便的检验杂合子的方法.

  10. 随机扩增多态DNA在野蘑菇交配试验分析中的应用%Random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) revealed the heterokaryon of Agaricus arvensis produced by mating reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春

    2001-01-01

    野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis Schaeff ex Fr.)是一种近年来在世界栽培的食用菌.但是直到今天,人们对它的繁殖方式和生活史的认识还非常贫乏.在本研究中作者利用随机扩增多态DNA遗传标记技术来研究自育的同核体菌株间的交配试验.结果表明:1)当两个相互亲合并自育的同核体菌株被配对培养时,交配反应可能出现并形成杂合体的后代;2)可能野蘼菇具有双重的交配繁殖方式--同宗配合和异宗配合;3)在检验人工杂交试验方面,随机扩增多态DNA是一种非常有效的方法.

  11. Variação na resistência à ferrugem e na composição do óleo essencial de dois clones de menta Variation on the rust resistance and essential oil composition of two clones of Mentha arvensis L Var piperascens Malinvaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guilherme Roberto Donalísio

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas no Centro Experimental de Campinas, entre 1973 e 1976, 450 progênies do clone Samby e 295 do clone Valinhos, ambos da espécie Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinvaud, que apresentavam alguma resistência à ferrugem causada pelo fungo Puccinia menthae Pers., bom desenvolvimento vegetativo e óleo essencial com alto teor em mentol. As progênies foram obtidas de polinização livre. As plantas que apresentavam pulegona foram eliminadas por seleção olfativa, e as restantes, inoculadas com uredosporos de P. menthae Pers. e, posteriormente, classificadas em três notas de resistência à doença. Em pleno florescimento, as plantas foram destiladas em corrente de vapor, e o óleo essencial obtido analisado em cromatógrafo de gás para avaliação quantitativa de seus componentes principais: mentol, mentona e pulegona. Destacaram-se oito progênies do clone Valinhos e catorze do Samby, respectivamente, mentol entre 75,85-85,18% e 77,12-83,74%, e pulegona entre 0,48-1,36% e 0,94-2,05% pela resistência à ferrugem. Três progênies do clone Valinhos e duas do Samby apresentaram baixos teores do mentol: 56,65, 56,94 e 60,11, e 54,26 e 64,93% respectivamente, semelhantes aos verificados nos óleos desmentolados de M. arvensis L.Seedlings froco two clones of M. arvensis L var. piperascens Malinvaud were selected by olfative test to eliminate the plants with high pulegone content in the essencial oil; the selected plants were inoculated with spore suspension of Puccinia menthae Pers., and classified in three classes of susceptibility. The blooming plants were distilled and the obtained samples of essential oil were analysed by gas chromatography to verify its menthol, menthone and pulegone contents. The data showed that the studied material presents high variability to rust resistance and menthol content in its essencial oil. Eight progenies from Valinhos clone presented high rust resistance, 75.80% to 85.18% menthol and 0.48 to

  12. Leaf anatomical variation in Cephalaria laevigata (dipsacaceae under different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a multivariate morphometric study of leaf anatomical characters in different, geographically distant populations of the taxon Cephalaria laevigata from Serbia and Romania are presented with the aim to reveal the trends of population differentiation. Analyses were performed on a cross-section of 105 leaves collected from 10 populations. In order to establish the overall morphological variation and relationships between individuals from all populations, principal component analyses and canonical discriminant analysis were performed. Clustering analyses were carried out to explore whether the observed anatomical differences are a result of adaptive responses. Regression analysis was performed to identify the level of correlation between leaf anatomical characters and basic orographic, geological and bioclimatic habitat characteristics. Unexpectedly, in most of the characters there was discrepancy between leaf anatomy and climatic conditions, and the characters did not show significant regularities in the variability of their dimension neither in the vertical profile nor in relation to geological substrate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  13. GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Oil Chemical Components of Uncultivated Mentha Arvensis L. from Shannxi%陕西野生薄荷挥发油化学成分的气相色谱-质谱分析﹡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎博; 吴芳; 刘海静; 王国海; 罗定强; 郭耀武

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the chemical components of volatile oil in uncultivated Mentha arvensis L. picked from Shannxi province by GC-MS. Methods The steam distillation method was used to extract the volatile oil,then a appropriate amount of which were taken to prepare the solution for conducting analysis by GC-MS. The chromatographic column was HP-FFAP quartz capillary column(30 m × 0. 32 mm,0. 25 μm),the temperature of the injection port was 220 ℃. The column temperature was temperature pro-gramming and the initial temperature was set at 65 ℃ and kept for 3 min,then heated up to 230 ℃ with a rate of 5 ℃ /min and kept for 5 min. The carrier gas was N2 and the flow rate was 1. 5 mL/min. The split ratio was 1 :10. The mass spectrometry con-dition:the interface temperature was 230 ℃,the ion source temperature was 220 ℃. Results Totally 67 chemical compounds in the volatile oil from 5 batches of uncultivated Mentha arvensis L. were identified by GC/MS and the main components were menthol,levo-duction carvone and terpinyl acetate. Conclusion The kinds and relative contents of chemical components in volatile oil from unculti-vated Mentha arvensis L. picked from Shannxi have large difference due to different growth environments,populations and harvest time.%目的:利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)法对采自陕西省的野生薄荷挥发油化学成分进行分析。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,取适量配制成溶液,用GC-MS进行分析。色谱柱为HP-FFAP石英毛细管柱(30 m ×0.32 mm,0.25μm),进样口温度为220℃,柱温为程序升温,初始温度为65℃,保持3 min,以5℃/min的速率升温至230℃,保持5 min,载气为N2,流速为1.5 mL/min,分流比为10:1。质谱条件,接口温度为230℃,离子源温度为220℃。结果共鉴定了5批野生薄荷挥发油中的67个化学成分,主要成分有薄荷醇、左旋香芹酮和乙酸松油酯。结论生长环境、居群

  14. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kolano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  15. Rechtsmissbrauch durch „AGG-Hopping“ / Steffen Krieger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krieger, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu otsusest, mis puudutab töökohale kandideerija staatust eesmärgiga esitada kahju hüvitamise nõudeid kui teda ei valita tööle ja sellise teguviisi käsitlemist õiguse kuritarvitamisena. Vt. ka lk. 699-700

  16. Ontogenetic changes of phyllotaxis in Anagallis arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the ontogeny of Anagallis spontaneous changes of phyllotaxis appear in a regular sequence. The initial decussate pattern is followed by spiral Fibonacci phyllotaxis, this in turn, by a trimerous pattern, and finally Lucas spiral phyllotaxis is formed. In the course of the first and most common phyllotactic transition, from the decussate to spiral Fibonacci pattern, changes in primordia arrangement occur only within a limited sector of the apex circumference. In the complementary sector, primordia emerge as if the decussate phyllotaxis continued. It is likely that similar circumferential discontinuity accounts for further transitions. The common ontogenetic sequence of patterns in Anagallis is such that, theoretically, each transition requires minimal changes in shoot apex geometry. Although the meristem in Anagallis is able to produce primordia either in whorls or spirally, the elongated shoots of this plant seem to have leaves exclusively in whorls. It appeared that in shoots with an initially spiral pattern, leaves can be clustered in pseudo-whorls due to the uneven internode elongation. Pseudowhorls are composed usually of three (Fibonacci or four (Lucas leaves of successive nodes. The number of leaves in a pseudo-whorl equals the number of leaves positioned on one revolution of the ontogenetic helix, which is different in these two spiral patterns. In shoot apices with whorled phyllotaxis, the leaf and flower primordia of a whorl are of different size. On elongated shoots, flower buds emerging in the axils of leaves of one whorl also differ in size.

  17. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orava

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  18. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, J.; Kozicki, M. N.; Yannopoulos, S. N.; Greer, A. L.

    2015-07-01

    Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent "memory" effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved "memorized" during writing and erasing cycles. The "memorized" pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction) efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  19. Evidence for an unusual transmembrane configuration of AGG3, a Class C Gγ Subunit, of Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfenstetter, Susanne; Chakravorty, David; Kula, Ryan; Urano, Daisuke; Trusov, Yuri; Sheahan, Michael B.; McCurdy, David W.; Assmann, Sarah M.; Alan M Jones; Jose R. Botella

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are crucial for the perception of external signals and subsequent signal transduction in animal and plant cells. In both model systems, the complex is comprised of one Gα, one Gβ and one Gγ subunit. However, in addition to the canonical Gγ subunits (Class A), plants also possess two unusual, plant-specific classes of Gγ subunits (Classes B and C) not yet found in animals. These include Gγ subunits lacking the C-terminal CaaX motif (Class B) which is important for mem...

  20. Translation of the FMR1 mRNA is not influenced by AGG interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Anna L.; Raske, Christopher; Tassone, Flora; Garcia-Arocena, Dolores; Hershey, John W.; Hagerman, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene contains a CGG-repeat element within its 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) which, for alleles with more than ∼40 repeats, increasingly affects both transcription (up-regulation) and translation (inhibition) of the repeat-containing RNA with increasing CGG-repeat length. Translational inhibition is thought to be due to impaired ribosomal scanning through the CGG-repeat region, which is postulated to form highly stable secondary/tertiary structure. On...

  1. Effect of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Competition and Nitrogen Levels on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Soleymani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of wild mustard plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characters, yield and yield components of canola a split-plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications was carried out in Bu-Ali Sina university of Hamedan, in 2009. 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN h-1 were assigned to main-plots and plant density of wild mustard at 5 levels (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants m-2 to the sub-plots. Results showed that the effects of wild mustard competition on yield and components of canola was significant. 32 plants m-2 of wild mustard reduced grain and biologic yield, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod and 1000seed weight about 28.7, 30, 40.9, 22.2 and 16 percent respectively. With more nitrogen application, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000seed weight and grain yield was increased. By increasing nitrogen from 100 to 250 kg ha-1, grain yield was increased more than 53 percent. Increasing density of wild mustard significantly reduced all above mentioned morphological and qualitative characters, except protein percentage. By increasing nitrogen fertilizer, plant height, number of branches per plant, pod length, oil yield and protein percentage of canola were increased significantly. Overall nevertheless negative effect of weed on canola yield, seems that the application 200 kgN/ha in addition to increasing grain yield and canola oil, had less decline in weed interference.

  2. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, Rieta; Wagenaar, Roel; Poelman, Erik H.; Kruidhof, H. Marjolein; van Loon, Joop J.A.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    * Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an ‘indirect defence’. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been r

  3. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, H.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an 'indirect defence'. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been rar

  4. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    1. Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an ‘indirect defence’. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been

  5. Ontogenetic changes in the shoot primary vasculature of Anagallis arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic changes in the primary vasculature of Anagallis shoots are strictly related to phyllotaxis. During the ontogeny of Anagallis, whorled and spiral phyllotactic patterns appear alternately in a regular sequence. The initial decussate phyllotaxis is transformed into the spiral Fibonacci, and then further into trimerous pattern. This in turn may change into the spiral Lucas phyllotaxis. Sporadically the immediate transition from the decussate to trimerous phyllotaxis takes place. The vascular system in Anagallis is always closed, despite that both whorled and spiral phyllotaxes are present. Also the number of vascular traces diverging to the leaf is constant. In the course of a single phyllotactic transition, there is an increase in the number of vascular sympodia and in the number of leaf traces present in the vascular cylinder. Usually only one single sympodium and one or two traces are added to the system. The immediate addition of two sympodia occurs only during infrequent transition from the decussate to trimerous pattern. The increase in the number of sympodia is most often simultaneous with the phyllotactic transition, however, when the trimerous pattern is transformed into the spiral Lucas, the increase is delayed, sometimes for as much as ten plastochrons. In shoots with changing phyllotaxis, a sector within the vascular cylinder can be distinguished, in which the leaf traces are arranged as if the previous phyllotactic pattern continued, whereas rearrangement of traces takes place at the same level but in the complementary sector. This is in agreement with the concept of discontinuous circumferential changes in the shoot apex being responsible for qualitative transformations of phyllotaxis.

  6. Antioxidant,antimicrobial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nripendra; Nath; Biswas; Subarna; Saha; Mohammed; khadem; Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate potential antioxidant,antimicrobial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arrensis l.,in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models.Methods:In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extract.In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid—induced writhing test in Swiss albino mice.All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.Antibacterial activilv was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram—positive and Gram—negative bacterial strains.Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cyloloxicity effects of the plant extract.Results:The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay(IC5041 μg/mL)compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid(IC5019 μg/mL).The extract also produced prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi.Salmonella paratyphi.Shigella boydii,Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the dose of 30 μg/disc.The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50,values of 40 μg/mL.and also 90%mortality(LC90) value was found to be 160 μg/mL.In analgesic test.the extract demonstrated statistically significant(P<0.01) analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing in white albino mice al both dose levels.Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvenns L.has potential antioxidant,antibacterial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  7. 3-loop Massive $O(T_F^2)$ Contributions to the DIS Operator Matrix Element $A_{gg}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablinger, J; De Freitas, A; Hasselhuhn, A; von Manteuffel, A; Round, M; Schneider, C

    2014-01-01

    Contributions to heavy flavour transition matrix elements in the variable flavour number scheme are considered at 3-loop order. In particular a calculation of the diagrams with two equal masses that contribute to the massive operator matrix element $A_{gg,Q}^{(3)}$ is performed. In the Mellin space result one finds finite nested binomial sums. In $x$-space these sums correspond to iterated integrals over an alphabet containing also square-root valued letters.

  8. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis) on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Mohebali; Mohammad Salarmoini; Neda Eskandarzade

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone) in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4) received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) andtest groups (No. 5, 6 and 7) receivedFeSO4 (1%)-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15%FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions:We concluded that up to 10%FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Determination of the torsion angles of alanine and glycine residues of model compounds of spider silk (AGG){sub 10} using solid-state NMR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Jun; Ohgo, Kosuke; Komatsu, Kohei; Kubota, Ayumi; Asakura, Tetsuo [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Biotechnology (Japan)], E-mail: asakura@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2003-02-15

    Spiders synthesize several kinds of silk fibers. In the primary structure of spider silk, one of the major ampullate (dragline, frame) silks, spidroin 1, and flagelliform silk (core fibers of adhesive spiral), there are common repeated X-Gly-Gly (X = Ala, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Glu, and Arg) sequences, which are considered to be related to the elastic character of these fibers. In this paper, two dimensional spin diffusion solid-state NMR under off magic angle spinning (OMAS), {sup 13}C chemical shift contour plots, and Rotational Echo DOuble Resonance (REDOR) were applied to determine the torsion angles of one Ala and two kinds of Gly residues in the Ala-Gly-Gly sequence of {sup 13}C=O isotope-labeled (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10}. The torsion angles were determined to be ({phi}, {psi}) = (-90 deg., 150 deg.) within an experimental error of {+-}10 deg. for each residue. This conformation is characterized as 3{sub 1} helix which is in agreement with the structure proposed from the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of poly(Ala-Gly-Gly). The 3{sub 1} helix of (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10} does not change by formic acid treatment although (Ala-Gly){sub 15} easily changes from the silk I conformation (the structure of Bombyx mori silk fibroin before spinning in the solid state) to silk II conformation (the structure of the silk fiber after spinning) by such treatment. Thus, the 3{sub 1} helix conformation of (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10} is considered very stable. Furthermore, the torsion angles of the 16th Leu residue of (Leu-Gly-Gly){sub 10} were also determined as ({phi}, {psi}) = (-90 deg., 150 deg.) and this peptide is also considered to take 3{sub 1} helix conformation.

  11. Yabani Hardal (Sinapsis arvensis L.) Tohumu ve Yağlarının Bazı Bileşim Özellikleri

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Musa; Akgül, Atilla; Bayrak, Ali

    1998-01-01

    Wild mustard seed was evaluated for moisture, crude ash, protein, oil and fiber, essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate, weight of 1000 seeds and seed size. Relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, values of peroxide, iodine saponification value and unsaponifiables were determined in the seeds oil. 95.40% allyl isothiocyanate in essential oil (%0.25) and 29.62% oleic, 24.18% linoleic, 20.65% erusic and 16.52% linolenic acids as main ones in the oil (22.52%) were identified by gas ch...

  12. Predators and predation rates of skylark Alauda arvensis and woodlark Lullula arborea nests in a semi-natural area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praus, Libor; Hegemann, Arne; Tieleman, B. Irene; Weidinger, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a major cause of breeding failure in bird species with open nests. Although many studies have investigated nest predation rates, direct identification of nest predators is sporadic, especially in (semi-)natural habitats. We quantified nest success and identified nest predators in a popu

  13. Organic C dynamics and its conservation under wheat (Triticum aesetivum) - mint (Mentha arvensis)-Sesbania rostrata cropping in sub-tropical condition of northern Indo-Gangetic plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, D D; Chand, Sukhmal; Anwar, M

    2014-03-15

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is accumulated or depleted as a result of cropping and management strategies. It plays a significant role in maintaining soil quality, plant productivity and mitigating greenhouse gas emission. We studied the long-term (20 years) influence of a wheat-mint-Sesbania cropping system on the SOC stock. Estimates of stabilization of SOC in different pools and a tentative C budget were also developed. Twenty years of cultivation caused a decrease in SOC only in control soils, which received no manure and fertilizer. However, it increased with balanced use of NPK inputs. Soil C stock decreased significantly with increased in soil depth 0-15 cm to 15-30 and 30-45 cm. About 6% (-2 to+14) of the C added in crop residues and green manure were stabilized in the soil. On an average 12%, 14%, 59%, 15% of the water stable aggregates were in the >2 mm, 2.0-0.25 mm, 0.25-0.05 mm, and <0-0.5 size fractions, respectively. Significant improvements in structural stability and nitrogen availability were detected in all the treatments compared to the control. The amount of organic C oxidizable by a modified Walkley and Black method, which involves using only half of the amount of sulphuric acid, is a more sensitive indicator of the improvement in soil quality parameters under investigation, namely SOC, and increases in mineralizable N and water stable aggregation than the standard method.

  14. Observations sur les migrations et la biometrie de l'Alouette des Champs (Alauda arvensis en automne au Pays-Basque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGNES, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    La repartición de talla de la envergadura y de las alas es bimodal, siendo los machos más grandes y el 62% de las aves capturadas, hembras. El número de migraciones parece disminuir regularmente después de varias décadas.

  15. Modelling skylarks (Alauda arvensis) to predict impacts of changes in land management and policy: development and testing of an agent-based model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Odderskær, Peter; Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard

    2013-01-01

    formal description inter-linked to the program code). Detailed and stringent tests for model performance were carried out, and standardised model description and open access to the source code were provided to open development of the skylark model to others. Over and above documenting the utility......Agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. However, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication...... of the model, this open process is essential to engender the user trust and ensure continued development of these comprehensive systems for applied purposes....

  16. 巴西技术设备和维修协会(Sobratema)在CONXEPO CON/AGG 2011期间举办新闻发布会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷雨檀

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2011年3月22日,巴西技术设备和维修协会(Sobratema)举办新闻发布会,Sobratema副主席Mario Humberto Marques先生就Sobratema、巴西工程设备市场和M&T展会等情况做了报告.

  17. Primulaceae : The Northwest European pollen flora, 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.; Leeuw van Weenen, Jeanette S. de; Oostrum, W.A.P. van

    1974-01-01

    SPECIMENS EXAMINED Anagallis arvensis L. ssp. arvensis- Germany: Biol. exc. 1965--912 (U); Ireland: Hessel, Klein and Rubers 741 (U); The Netherlands: Punt s.n., Anno 1957 (fresh material); Punt s.n., Anno 1961 (fresh material); Swart 264 (U). Anagallis arvensis L. ssp. coerulea (Gouan) Vollmer -- F

  18. Acute and Chronic Plasma Metabalomic and Liver Transcriptomic Stress Effects in a Mouse Model with Features of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-28

    Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, United States of America, 4 NIH West Coast Metabolomics Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United...in AggE mice at 24 hrs after the 5-day and 10-day stress regimens. In contrast, granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) and macrophage -derived chemo...Ctrl mice, the gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the AggE livers were more inflamed than the Ctrl livers. Additionally, well known stress

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    ), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  20. New floristic records in the Balkans: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Amaryllidaceae (38), Apiaceae (17, 18, 47, 80, 83, 84), Asclepiadaceae (85), Asteraceae (29, 31, 86-91), Brassicaceae (3, 48, 70), Campanulaceae (49, 71, 76), Cannabaceae (72), Caprifoliaceae (4), Caryophyllaceae (19, 20, 32, 33, 50-52), Chenopodiaceae (5), Cyperaceae (28, 78), Dipsacaceae (34, 53, 54), Fabaceae...

  1. 西藏被子植物新记录%New Records of Angiosperm Plants in Xizang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪书丽; 罗建

    2013-01-01

    报道了西藏被子植物3种新记录,即石竹科(Caryophyllaceae)的坚硬女娄菜(Silene firma Sieb.et Zucc.)、川续断科(Dipsacaceae)的绿花刺参(Morina chlorantha Diels)和菊科(Asteraceae)的粘毛香青[Anaphalis bulley-ana(J.F.Jeffr.)Chang].

  2. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

    2001-04-01

    Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus.

  3. Korte mededelingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1962-01-01

    Een merkwaardige vorm van Convolvulus arvensis L. Van Convolvulus arvensis werd op 27 juli 1960 te Rotterdam, aan de weg naar Schiedam, aan de rand van het spoorwegemplacement, windend om de spijlen van een daar ter plaatse aanwezig hek, een aantal exemplaren gevonden, die aan de hoofdstengels, in p

  4. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared…

  5. Direct Detection of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes by Real-Time PCR in Fecal Samples from Bats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; Pereira, Maria J; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Domínguez, Lucas; Fonseca, Carlos; Álvarez, Julio; Drexler, Jan F; Gortázar, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Guano samples from 412 Brazilian bats were screened with real-time PCR for the virulence genes (eae, est, elt, stx1, stx2, ehxA, invA, bfpA, aggR) representing five intestinal pathotypes of Escherichia coli. From 82 pooled samples, 22% contained Escherichia coli DNA, and eae, est, bfpA, aggR were detected.

  6. Brain Aggregates: An Effective In Vitro Cell Culture System Modeling Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Misol; Kalume, Franck; Pitstick, Rose; Oehler, Abby; Carlson, George; DeArmond, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases is particularly challenging because of the discrepancies in drug effects between in vitro and in vivo studies. These discrepancies occur in part because current cell culture systems used for drug screening have many limitations. First, few cell culture systems accurately model human aging or neurodegenerative diseases. Second, drug efficacy may differ between dividing and stationary cells, the latter resembling nondividing neurons in the CNS. Brain aggregates (BrnAggs) derived from embryonic day 15 gestation mouse embryos may represent neuropathogenic processes in prion disease and reflect in vivo drug efficacy. Here, we report a new method for the production of BrnAggs suitable for drug screening and suggest that BrnAggs can model additional neurological diseases such as tauopathies. We also report a functional assay with BrnAggs by measuring electrophysiological activities. Our data suggest that BrnAggs could serve as an effective in vitro cell culture system for drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Arabidopsis Heterotrimeric G-protein Regulates Cell Wall Defense and Resistance to Necrotrophic Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdalena Delcado-Cerezo; Paul Schulze-Lefert; Shauna Somerville; José Manuel Estevez; Staffan Persson; Antonio Molina; Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez; Viviana Escudero; Eva Miedes; Paula Virginia Fernández; Lucía Jordá; Camilo Hernández-Blanco; Andrea Sánchez-Vallet; Pawel Bednarek

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein controls defense responses to necrotrophic and vascular fungi.The agb1 mutant impaired in the Gβ subunit displays enhanced susceptibility to these pathogens.Gβ/AGB1 forms an obligate dimer with either one of the Arabidopsis Gγ subunits (γ1/AGG1 and γ2/AGG2).Accordingly,we now demonstrate that the agg1 agg2 double mutant is as susceptible as agb1 plants to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina.To elucidate the molecular basis of heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated resistance,we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of agb1-1 mutant and wild-type plants upon inoculation with P cucumerina.This analysis,together with metabolomic studies,demonstrated that G-protein-mediated resistance was independent of defensive pathways required for resistance to necrotrophic fungi,such as the salicylic acid,jasmonic acid,ethylene,abscisic acid,and tryptophan-derived metabolites signaling,as these pathways were not impaired in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants.Notably,many mis-regulated genes in agb1 plants were related with cell wall functions,which was also the case in agg1 agg2 mutant.Biochemical analyses and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy of cell walls from G-protein mutants revealed that the xylose content was lower in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants than in wild-type plants,and that mutant walls had similar FTIR spectratypes,which differed from that of wild-type plants.The data presented here suggest a canonical functionality of the Gβ and Gγ1/γ2 subunits in the control of Arabidopsis immune responses and the regulation of cell wall composition.

  8. An Ecological Land Survey for Fort Wainwright, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    CERATOPHORUM (Ledeb.) DC. APOCYNTJM ANDROSAEMIFOLIUM L. TARAXACUM OFFICINALE G. Weber Araceae TRIPLEUROSPERMUM INODORUM (L.) Schultz-Bip. CALLA PALUSTRIS L...Coulter & Rose) Mathias & SOLIDAGO MULTIRADIATA Aiton Constance SONCHUS ARVENSIS L. SIUM SUAVE Walter SONCHUS ASPER (L.) Hill Apocynaceae TARAXACUM

  9. A New Iridoid Glycoside from the Roots of Dipsacus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglin Yang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new iridoid glycoside, named loganic acid ethyl ester (1, together with five known compounds: chlorogenic acid (2, caffeic acid (3, loganin (4, cantleyoside (5 and syringaresinol-4′,4′′-O-bis-β-D-glucoside (6 were isolated from the roots of Dipsacus asper. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses. Lignan is isolated from Dipsacaceae species for the first time. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 had moderate neuroprotective effects against the Aβ25–35 induced cell death in PC12 cells.

  10. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  11. Recoding method that removes inhibitory sequences and improves HIV gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabadan, Raul; Krasnitz, Michael; Robins, Harlan; Witten, Daniela; Levine, Arnold

    2016-08-23

    The invention relates to inhibitory nucleotide signal sequences or "INS" sequences in the genomes of lentiviruses. In particular the invention relates to the AGG motif present in all viral genomes. The AGG motif may have an inhibitory effect on a virus, for example by reducing the levels of, or maintaining low steady-state levels of, viral RNAs in host cells, and inducing and/or maintaining in viral latency. In one aspect, the invention provides vaccines that contain, or are produced from, viral nucleic acids in which the AGG sequences have been mutated. In another aspect, the invention provides methods and compositions for affecting the function of the AGG motif, and methods for identifying other INS sequences in viral genomes.

  12. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  13. Effect of Deforming Temperature and Strain on Abnormal Grain Growth of Extruded FGH96 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experiments of isothermal forging wedge-shaped samples, Deform-3D numerical simulation software was used to confirm the strain distribution in the wedge-shaped samples. The effect of deforming temperature and strain on abnormal grain growth(AGG in extruded FGH96 superalloy was examined. It is found that when the forging speed is 0.04 mm/s,the critical AGG occurring temperature is 1100℃,and the critical strain is 2%.AGG does not occur within 1000-1070℃,but still shows the feature of ‘critical strain’,and the region with strain of 5%-10% has the largest average grain size.AGG can be avoided and the uniform fine grains can be gained when the strain is not less than 15%.

  14. Parallel Graph Transformation based on Merged Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Aouat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph transformation is one of the key concepts in graph grammar. In order to accelerate the graph transformation, the concept of parallel graph transformation has been proposed by different tools such as AGG tool. The theory of parallel graph transformation used by AGG just allows clarifying the concepts of conflict and dependency between the transformation rules. This work proposes an approach of parallel graph transformations which enables dependent transformation rules to be executed in parallel.

  15. Typical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the most prevalent pathotype among E. coli strains causing diarrhea in Mongolian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantuya, Jav; Nishi, Junichiro; Wakimoto, Naoko; Erdene, Shirchin; Nataro, James P; Sheikh, Jalaluddin; Iwashita, Mayumi; Manago, Kunihiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Yoshinaga, Masao; Miyata, Koichiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2004-01-01

    Diarrhea remains one of the main sources of morbidity and mortality in the world, and a large proportion is caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. In Mongolia, the epidemiology of diarrheagenic E. coli has not been well studied. A total of 238 E. coli strains from children with sporadic diarrhea and 278 E. coli strains from healthy children were examined by PCR for 10 virulence genes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) eae, tir, and bfpA; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) lt and st; enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) ipaH; enterohemorragic E. coli stx1 and stx2; and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) aggR and astA. EAEC strains without AggR were identified by the HEp-2 cell adherence test. The detection of EAEC, ETEC, EPEC, and EIEC was significantly associated with diarrhea. The incidence of EAEC (15.1%), defined by either a molecular or a phenotypic assay, was higher in the diarrheal group than any other category (0 to 6.0%). The incidence of AggR-positive EAEC in the diarrheal group was significantly higher than in the control group (8.0 versus 1.4%; P = 0.0004), while that of AggR-negative EAEC was not (7.1 versus 4.3%). Nineteen AggR-positive EAEC strains harbored other EAEC virulence genes-aggA, 2 (5.5%); aafA, 4 (11.1%); agg-3a, 5 (13.8%); aap, 8 (22.2%); aatA, 11 (30.5%); capU, 9 (25.0%); pet, 6 (16.6%); and set, 3 (8.3%)-and showed 15 genotypes. EAEC may be an important pathogen of sporadic diarrhea in Mongolian children. Genetic analysis showed the heterogeneity of EAEC but illustrated the importance of the AggR regulon (denoting typical EAEC) as a marker for virulent EAEC strains.

  16. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gallenmüller

    Full Text Available Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots. Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar. In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1 a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2 occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3 failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm² and (4 failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species.

  17. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species).

  18. Statistical model of magnetization reversal in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huijie; ZHU Minggang; LI Wei; ZHANG Xin

    2006-01-01

    Statistical model of magnetization reversal was used to simulate the magnetization reversal behavior in the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with double grain-size distributions due to the abnormal grain growth (AGG). The magnetic properties and mechanical properties due to the formation of AGG grains in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were tested. The results show that the magnetic properties, especially the rectangularity were severely deteriorated after the formation of the AGG grains and a step was shown on the demagnetization curve, and the occurrence of AGG mayaccount for the poor rectangularity and existence of the step on demagnetization curve according to the statistical model of magnetization reversal. The fracture toughness and bending strength are lowered because of the stress concentration in the AGG grains. The SEM images show that the formation of AGG grains is caused by the solid sintering due to the absence of RE-rich phase. Statistical model of magnetization reversal can qualitative by explain the dependence of the magnetization reversal behavior on the grain size in the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets.

  19. Gut gemeint ist nicht gleich gut gemacht! Meant Well is not the Same as Well Done!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lewalter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag von Manfred Becker lässt sich wohlmeinend als Plädoyer für einen pragmatischen Umgang mit dem AGG lesen. Er möchte Personaler/-innen zeigen, wie die Vorgaben des AGG im Rahmen eines Human Resources Diversity Managements positiv umgesetzt werden können. In weiten Teilen überzeugen die Ausführungen des Autors aber nicht. Gerade die Darstellung der Inhalte des AGG ist stark von seiner skeptischen Grundhaltung gegenüber dessen Zielsetzung geprägt. Auch wenn die Ausführungen zu konkreten Betriebs- und Personalmaßnahmen gelungener sind, stellt dieser Beitrag insgesamt kein überzeugendes und lesenswertes Werk dar.With the best intention, the work by Manfred Becker can be read as a plea for a pragmatic approach to the AGG. He wishes to show personnel how the guidelines of the AGG can be put into practice within the framework of Human Resources Diversity Management. However, the author’s work is often unconvincing. In particular, the presentation of the contents of the AGG is strongly influenced by his skeptical attitude toward its goals. Even when his approach to concrete company and personnel measures is more successful, the book is neither convincing nor a worthwhile read.

  20. Normal and shear interactions between hyaluronan-aggrecan complexes mimicking possible boundary lubricants in articular cartilage in synovial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Jasmine; Merkher, Yulia; Kampf, Nir; Collinson, Lisa; Day, Anthony J; Maroudas, Alice; Klein, Jacob

    2012-11-12

    Using a surface force balance, normal and shear interactions have been measured between two atomically smooth surfaces coated with hyaluronan (HA), and with HA/aggrecan (Agg) complexes stabilized by cartilage link protein (LP). Such HA/Agg/LP complexes are the most abundant mobile macromolecular species permeating articular cartilage in synovial joints and have been conjectured to be present as boundary lubricants at its surface. The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the extremely efficient lubrication when two cartilage surfaces slide past each other in healthy joints, and in particular to elucidate the possible role in this of the HA/Agg/LP complexes. Within the range of our parameters, our results reveal that the HA/Agg/LP macromolecular surface complexes are much better boundary lubricants than HA alone, likely because of the higher level of hydration, due to the higher charge density, of the HA/Agg/LP layers with respect to the HA alone. However, the friction coefficients (μ) associated with the mutual interactions and sliding of opposing HA/Agg/LP layers (μ ≈ 0.01 up to pressure P of ca. 12 atm, increasing sharply at higher P) suggest that such complexes by themselves cannot account for the remarkable boundary lubrication observed in mammalian joints (up to P > 50 atm).

  1. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  2. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  3. AFLP marking and polymorphism among progenies of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda Abbaker; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Bahl, Janak Raj; Darokar, Mahendra P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2011-11-01

    The level of polymorphism among twelve selected progenies of Gymnema sylvestre was investigated through AFLP markers by multiplexing PCR reactions using 64 (8x8) primer combinations. Fourteen primer combinations were selected as the most suitable combination for G. sylvestre. Analysis of the 12 progenies with these 14 primer pairs produced 1689 fragments of which 972 (57.5%) were polymorphic and 485 (28.7%) were unique to a particular genotype. The number of fragments produced by individual primer pairs was in the range of 55 to 225. Out of these, polymorphic fragments were in the range of 34 (E-ACC/M-CAC) to 157 (E-AGG/M-CAG) and unique bands observed were 8 (E-ACC / M-CAC) to 69 (E-AGG/M-CAC). Different primer combinations detected different levels of polymorphism, ranging from 33% (E-AGG/ M-CAC) to 69.8% (E-AGG/ M-CAC). From the observations, it appears that the primer combinations E-AGG/M-CAC, E-AGG/CTG, E-AGG/CAG and E-ACA/CAT were the most informative for the detection of polymorphism among the progenies compared with others, since they produced a high number of unique fragments. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.212 to 0.731. High similarity was observed between progeny S8 and S9 (73%) and high divergence between progenies S3 and S11. Among the selected progeny, S9 was found to be the most similar to the parent (63%), while genotype S11 was the most distant (36.9%).

  4. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  5. Uptake of more important mineral components by common field weeds on loess soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Malicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in winter wheat, spring barley, sugar beets and winter rape, as well as in the most common weed species infesting these crops. It was established that the percentage of mineral components in the dry matter of the majority of weeds is higher than in that of the cultivated plants. The most dangerous weed species competing with plants for the investigated nutrients were: Chenopodium album, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Sonchus arvensis and Stellaria media.

  6. Mitigating Abnormal Grain Growth for Friction Stir Welded Al-Li 2195 Spun Formed Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Russell, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Formability and abnormal grain growth (AGG) are the two major issues that have been encountered for Al alloy spun formed dome development using friction stir welded blanks. Material properties that have significant influence on the formability include forming range and strain hardening exponent. In this study, tensile tests were performed for two 2195 friction stir weld parameter sets at 400 F to study the effects of post weld anneal on the forming range and strain hardening exponent. It was found that the formability can be enhanced by applying a newly developed post weld anneal to heat treat the friction stir welded panels. This new post weld anneal leads to a higher forming range and much improved strain hardening exponent. AGG in the weld nugget is known to cause a significant reduction of ductility and fracture toughness. This study also investigated how AGG may be influenced by the heating rate to the solution heat treatment temperature. After post-weld annealing, friction stir welds were strained to 15% and 39% by compression at 400 F before they were subjected to SHT at 950 F for 1 hour. Salt bath SHT is very effective in reducing the grain size as it helps arrest the onset of AGG and promote normal recrystallization and grain growth. However, heat treating a 18 ft dome using a salt bath is not practical. Efforts are continuing at Marshall Space Flight Center to identify the welding parameters and heat treating parameters that can help mitigate the AGG in the friction stir welds.

  7. Investigation of Abnormal Grain Growth in a Friction Stir Welded and Spin-Formed Al-Li Alloy 2195 Crew Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayon, Wesley A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve manufacturing efficiency and reduce structural mass and costs in the production of launch vehicle structures, NASA is pursuing a wide-range of innovative, near-net shape manufacturing technologies. A technology that combines friction stir welding (FSW) and spin-forming has been applied to manufacture a single-piece crew module using Aluminum-Lithium (AL-Li) Alloy 2195. Plate size limitations for Al-Li alloy 2195 require that two plates be FSW together to produce a spin-forming blank of sufficient size to form the crew module. Subsequent forming of the FSW results in abnormal grain growth (AGG) within the weld region upon solution heat treatment (SHT), which detrimentally impacts strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The current study seeks to identify microstructural factors that contribute to the development of AGG. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to correlate driving forces for AGG, such as stored energy, texture, and grain size distributions, with the propensity for AGG. Additionally, developmental annealing treatments prior to SHT are examined to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of AGG by promoting continuous, or uniform, grain growth

  8. A new noise reduction method for airborne gravity gradient data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirigalatu; Ebbing, Jörg; Sebera, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Airborne gravity gradient (AGG) measurements offer an increased resolution and accuracy compared to terrestrial measurements. But interpretation and processing of AGG data are often challenging as levelling errors and survey noise affect the data, and these effects are not easily recognised in the gradient components. We adopted the classic method of upward continuation in the noise reduction using the noise level estimates by the AGG system. By iteratively projecting the survey data to a lower level and upward continuing the data back to the survey height, parts of the high-frequency signal are suppressed. The filter, which is defined by this approach, is directly dependent on the noise level of the AGG data, the maximum number of iterations and the iterative step. We demonstrate the method by applying it to both synthetic data and real AGG data over Karasjok, Norway, and compare the results to the directional filtering method. The results show that the iterative filter can effectively reduce high-frequency noise in the data.

  9. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520

  10. Implications of molecular characters for the phylogeny of the Microbotryaceae (Basidiomycota: Urediniomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberwinkler Franz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anther smuts of the basidiomycetous genus Microbotryum on Caryophyllaceae are important model organisms for many biological disciplines. Members of Microbotryum are most commonly found parasitizing the anthers of host plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, however they can also be found on the anthers of members of the Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Lentibulariaceae, and Portulacaceae. Additionally, some members of Microbotryum can be found infecting other organs of mainly Polygonaceae hosts. Based on ITS nrDNA sequences of members of almost all genera in Microbotryaceae, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of the anther smuts and their relationship to the other members of the family of plant parasites. A multiple analysis strategy was used to correct for the effects of different equally possible ITS sequence alignments on the phylogenetic outcome, which appears to have been neglected in previous studies. Results The genera of Microbotryaceae were not clearly resolved, but alignment-independent moderate bootstrap support was achieved for a clade containing the majority of the Microbotryum species. The anther parasites appeared in two different well-supported lineages whose interrelationship remained unresolved. Whereas bootstrap support values for some clades were highly vulnerable to alignment conditions, other clades were more robustly supported. The differences in support between the different alignments were much larger than between the phylogenetic optimality criteria applied (maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood. Conclusion The study confirmed, based on a larger dataset than previous work, that the anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae are monophyletic and that there exists a native North American group that diverged from the European clade before the radiation of the European species. Also a second group of anther smuts was revealed, containing parasites on Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, and Lentibulariaceae. At least the majority

  11. Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M

    2013-08-01

    In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (σa) for meat and 0.061 σa for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 σa and 0.120 σa in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 σa for meat and 0.096 σa for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 σa and 0.183 σa in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the

  12. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2014-01-01

    To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for...

  13. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulators for Use in Grounds Maintenance at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    and Eldridge, B. J. 1989. Plant growth regulators suppress established orchard sod and dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) population. Weed Technology 3...Solanium carolinense L. Dandelion - Taraxicum officinale Field Pansy - Viola rafinesquii Greene Fivefingers Cinquefoil - Potentilla canadensis L. Hop Clover...Erigeron annuus Dandelion - Taraxacum aticinale Field Bindweed - Convolvulus arvensis L. Field Pussytoes - Antennaria neglecta Foxglove Beardtongues

  14. Environmental Assessment for Railroad Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ), hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanquinalis), and some ornamental varieties of plants. This habitat that covers... Taraxacum officinale ), hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanquinalis), and some ornamental varieties of plants. Portions of the Greenway include some areas that...weedy species such as Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), Common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ), Hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanquinalis), and

  15. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    ) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still...

  16. Diurnal effects on Mentha canadensis oil yields and composition at two different harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese cornmint, also known as menthol mint, (Mentha canadensis L. syn M. arvensis var canadensis L.), is an essential oil crop cultivated in several countries in Asia and South America. The plant is currently the only commercially viable source for natural menthol due to the high concentration of...

  17. Cytotaxonomic studies in the genus Mentha in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweneel, W.J.

    1968-01-01

    1) 148 Dutch mints were assembled, partly from botanical gardens and partly from 12 sources throughout the country, and were cytologically investigated. 2) New chromosome numbers were found for M. arvensis (2n=24) and for M.x dumetorum (2n=72), and fourteen counts were in agreement with the literatu

  18. Drug: D04410 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 7149 Lamiaceae (mint family) Mentha arvensis aerial part Major component: l-Menthol [...04410 Mentha water (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) D04410 Mentha water PubChem: 17398097 ...

  19. Drug: D06461 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e as: E00048 Therapeutic category: 7149 Lamiaceae (mint family) Mentha arvensis aerial part oil Major compon...ts 7149 Others D06461 Mentha oil (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) D06461 Mentha oil CAS: 68917-18-0 PubChem: 47208117 ...

  20. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  1. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I: Records Search. Sunnyvale Air Force Station, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), 3-27 bristly ox tongue (Picris echioides), and sweet fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1981...glaucus), common barley (Hordeum vulgare ), and common foxtail (Hordeum hystrix). Introduced forbe common onsite are black mustard (Brassica nigra

  2. Increasing weed flora in Danish beet, pea and winter barley fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Stryhn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    only a few species declined in one crop without increasing in other crops (e.g. Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski; Sinapis arvensis L). Our data indicate that continuously increasing productivity (increasing yields) seems to be possible simultaneously with enhancing the frequency of the wild flora...

  3. Final Natural Resource Actions Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-22

    spurge (Euphorbia esula) • Musk thistle (Carduus nutans) • Perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis) • Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) • Wavyleaf...Future Actions Relevant to Cumulative Impacts..........................................................................2-7 2.6 Identification of...following noxious weeds were identified during the survey: • Absinth wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) • Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) SECTION 1.0

  4. Observations on north-west European limestone grassland communities. V, b. An experimental approach to the study of species diversity and above-ground biomass in chalk grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    In plots B1, 2, and 4 in 1978 only a single species once covered over 12.5% of the surface: Leontodon hispidus. A few species covered sometimes about 5-10%, like Briza media, Triselum flavescens, Lotus corniculatus, Leontodon hispidus, and Knautia arvensis. In the course of the study the occasional

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for New Golf Driving Range at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    include plains cottonwood, Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), Virginia Environmental Assessment New Golf Driving Range Affected Environment...Chenopodium album Lamb’s quarter Chondrosum gracile Blue grama Convolvulus arvensis Bindweed Cynoglossum officinale Hound’s tongue Elaeagnus ... angustifolia Russian olive Lygodesmia juncea Skeleton Plant Opuntia mercerize Prickly pear Pathenocissus quinquifolia Virginia creeper Plantago major

  6. Furlough Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  7. Fruiting phenology of some weed species in sowing of chosen cultivar plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the percentage shares of the phases of fruiting and diaspore shedding of some weed species during fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean harvest are presented. The results of the study were gathered in the years 2000-2003 on river alluvial soil made from light loam. The experimental scheme included mechanical and chemical control of the cultivated plants. On weed-free objects treated with herbicides, the following herbicides were used: fodder beet - Buracyl 80 WP (lenacyl 80% in dose 1 kg.ha-1; spring wheat - Chwastox Turbo 340 SL (MCPA + dicamba in dose 2l.ha-1; faba-bean - Afalon (linuron 50% in dose 1,5 kg.ha-1. Phenological observations were carried out at 10-day intervals beginning from the day of sowing the cultivated plant. It was proven that weeds had the most favourable conditions of fruiting and seed shedding in fodder beet and faba bean. Fruiting and shedding of most weed species were limited by herbicides, as well as cold years. The following weed species: fodder beet without herbicides - Lamium amplexicaule, Chenopodium polyspermum, Anagallis arvensis i Echinochloa crus-galli; fodder beet with herbicides - Convolvulus arvensis, Lamium purpureum i Echinochloa crus-galli; spring wheat without herbicides - Capsella bursa-pastoris i Fallopia convolvulus; spring wheat with herbicides - Avena fatua; faba been without herbicides - Galium aparine, Anagallis arvensis i Convolvulus arvensis; faba been with herbicides - Galium aparine, shed diaspores in the greatest degree.

  8. Temporal and host-related variation in frequencies of genes that enable Phyllotreta nemorum to utilize a novel host plant, Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, J.K.; Jong, de P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an intermediate specialist feeding on a small number of plants within the family Brassicaceae. The most commonly used host plant is Sinapis arvensis L., whereas the species is found more rarely on Cardaria draba (L.) Desv., Barb

  9. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  10. Rubus Iconography: Antiquity to the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubus images from late Antiquity to the Renaissance are described and assessed for botanical and horticultural information. The earliest surviving European blackberry (R. fruticosus L. sp. agg.) image is found on folio 83 in the Juliana Anicia Codex (Codex Vindobonensis) of 512 CE which contains cop...

  11. Effects of selective serotonin antagonism on central neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonergic and dopaminergic mediation of aggression has been evidenced in numerous studies. However, these studies have met with varying and sometimes conflicting results. Here we test the hypothesis that hens with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness exhibit distinctly different agg...

  12. Effect of Calcination on the Sintering of Gel-Derived, Zirconia-Toughened Alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter, den Peter; Winnubst, Louis; Leuwerink, Theo H.P.; Burggraaf, Anthonie J.

    1994-01-01

    The densification behavior of ZrO2 (+ 3 mol% Y2O3)/85 wt% Al2O3 powder compacts, prepared by the hydrolysis of metal chlorides, can be characterized by a transition- and an α-alumina densification stage. The sintering behavior is strongly determined by the densification of the transition alumina agg

  13. The distribution of Montia fontana L. (Portulacaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Sotek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Montia fontana L. in Poland is described, based on accessible data. Maps showing the distribution of M. fontana agg., subsp. amporitana, subsp. chondrosperma are presented, as well as lists of localities with brief descriptions of taxonomic characteristics of the subspecies and their habitats.

  14. What phylogeny and gene genealogy analyses reveal about homoplasy in citrus microsatellite alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-five microsatellite alleles from three Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci (cAGG9, CCT01 and GT03) of various Citrus, Fortunella or Poncirus accessions were cloned and sequenced to determine their mode of evolution. This data was used to assess sequence variation by calculating the average numb...

  15. Identification and Characterization of a Gene Cluster Mediating Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli Aggregative Adherence Fimbria I Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    adherent E. coli ( DAEC ). respectively. The LA ties to other known fimbrial biogenesis systems of pathogenic pattern is typified by the formation of...agg gene cluster is configured similarly to 60 to 80% of DAEC strains share relatedness with F1845 the determinants of members of the Dr adhesin

  16. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  17. Analysis of FMR1 (CGG)(n) alleles and DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotypes in three European circumpolar populations: traces of genetic relationship with Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L A; Vuust, J; Nystad, M; Evseeva, I; Van Ghelue, M; Tranebjaerg, L

    2001-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by expansion of a (CGG)(n) repeat located in the FMR1 gene. The molecular factors involved in the mutation process from stable (CGG)(n) alleles towards unstable alleles are largely unknown, although family transmission studies and population studies have suggested that loss of AGG interruptions in the (CGG)(n) repeat is essential. We have analysed the AGG interspersion pattern of the FMR1 (CGG)(n) repeat and the haplotype distribution of closely located microsatellite markers DXS548 and FRAXAC1, in three circumarctic populations: Norwegians, Nenets and Saami. The data confirm the conservation, reported in all human populations studied so far, of an AGG interruption for each 9-10 CGG and support the stabilising effect of AGG interruptions. The data also indicate the existence of chromosomes of Asian origin in the Saami and Nenets population, thereby confirming a genetic relationship between Northern Europe and Asia. DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotype frequencies were compared between 24 Norwegian fragile X males and 119 normal males. Significant linkage disequilibrium were found between the fragile X mutation and haplotype 6-4 and between normal (CGG)(n) alleles and haplotype 7-3.

  18. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelli, Michael A.; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Parker, Stuart G.; Connolly, Martin J.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sayers, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease agg

  19. A supergene determines highly divergent male reproductive morphs in the ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küpper, C.; Stocks, M.; Risse, J.E.; dos Remedios, N.; Farrell, L.; McRae, S.B.; Morgan, T.C.; Karlionova, N.; Pinchuk, P.; Verkuil, Y.I.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piersma, T.; Zeng, K.; Slate, J.; Blaxter, M.; Lank, D.B.; Burke, T.

    2016-01-01

    Three strikingly different alternative male mating morphs (aggressive 'independents', semicooperative 'satellites' and female-mimic 'faeders') coexist as a balanced polymorphism in the ruff, Philomachus pugnax, a lek-breeding wading bird1, 2, 3. Major differences in body size, ornamentation, and agg

  20. Priming effect and pre-exposure aggression in Siamese fighting fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Dabelsteen, Torben

    Interactions and communication between individuals occur in a complex social environment in which senders and receivers are able to adjust their behaviour according to the context. Watching fights between others acts on a bystander’s motivation to engage in a fight and may make it behave more agg...

  1. Ag on Ge(111): 2D x-ray structure analysis of the #sq root#3 x #sq root#3 superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dornisch, D.; Moritz, W.; Schulz, H.;

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the Ag/Ge(111) square-root 3 x square-root 3 superstructure by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. In our structural analysis we find striking similarities to the geometry of Au on Si(111). The Ag atoms form trimer clusters with an Ag-Ag distance of 2.94 +/- 0.04 angstrom...

  2. Dicty_cDB: VSC814 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available regate formation (smlA) gene, complete cds. 664 0.0 2 X94341 |X94341.1 D.discoideum...omology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N U48706 |U48706.1 Dictyostelium discoideum small agg

  3. Accumulation and effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles to sediment-dwelling invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Forbes, Valery E; Gilliland, Douglas;

    2015-01-01

    are in high demand. Here, we examine the effects of exposure to sediment mixed with either aqueous Ag (administered as AgNO3) or Ag NPs (13 nm, citrate-capped) at a nominal exposure concentration of 100 μg Ag/g dry weight sediment on four benthic invertebrates: two clones of the gastropod Potamopyrgus...

  4. The Dysregulation Profile in middle childhood and adolescence across reporters: factor structure, measurement invariance, and links with self-harm and suicidal ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.F. Deutz (Marike); S.B. Geeraert (Sanne Barbara); A.L. Van Baar (Anneloes); M. Deković (Maja); P.J. Prinzie (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRecently, a phenotype of severe dysregulation, the Dysregulation Profile (DP), has been identified. DP consists of elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed (AD), Aggressive Behavior (AGG) and Attention Problems (AP) scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF)

  5. The Dysregulation Profile in middle childhood and adolescence across reporters: factor structure, measurement invariance, and links with self-harm and suicidal ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, Marike; Geeraerts, Sanne; van Baar, Anneloes; Dekovic, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a phenotype of severe dysregulation, the Dysregulation Profile (DP), has been identified. DP consists of elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed (AD), Aggressive Behavior (AGG) and Attention Problems (AP) scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF), or Youth S

  6. A new insight into fragile X syndrome among Basque population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagarikano, Olga; Gil, Alberto; Télez, Mercedes; Ortega, Begoña; Flores, Piedad; Veiga, Isabel; Peixoto, Ana; Criado, Begoña; Arrieta, Isabel

    2004-07-30

    The expansion of a trinucleotide repeat [CGG]n located in the FMR1 X-linked gene is the main cause of fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation. We have analyzed the factors known, to date, to influence the instability of the repeat in 158 normal X chromosomes from the Spanish Basque population. These factors included length of the repeat, AGG interspersion pattern, length of uninterrupted CGG and DXS548-FRAXAC1 markers associated haplotype. Previous investigations on Basques showed an absence of this disorder among mentally retarded individuals that was likely due to a low prevalence of large CGG alleles and the presence of AGG interruptions on them. The present report suggests that, although the frequency of large alleles is low and they do maintain AGG interruptions, different mutational pathways that might lead to fragile X syndrome could be occurring among Basques. These pathways mainly include alleles with internal sequences 9 + 9 + n and 9 + 12 + 9 that show fragile X associated haplotypes. Besides, the lack of the most proximal AGG interruption, proposed recently as a novel factor involved in CGG repeat instability, was highly identified among alleles with long pure CGG tracts, which showed an internal sequence n + 9. The data suggest that, despite the lower incidence of large alleles, the prevalence of potentially unstable alleles among Basques is similar to that of other Caucasian populations and that these alleles could become fragile X chromosomes.

  7. 基于Choquet积分-OWA的自适应神经模糊推理系统及其应用%Choquet Integral-OWA Based Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴园园; 贾利民

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the defects of consequent part expression in ANFIS (adaptive neural fuzzy inference system) model and several shortcomings in FIS (fuzzy inference system), this paper presents a Choquet integral-OWA (outlook web access) based FIS, known as AggFIS. This model has advantages in consequent part of fuzzy rule, universal expression of fuzzy inference operator and importance factor of each input and each rule, aiming at establish fuzzy inference system that can fully reflect the essence of fuzzy logic and human thinking patterns. If AggFIS is combined with a feed forward-type neural network according to the basic principles of fuzzy neural network, the Choquet integral-OWA based adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (Agg-ANFIS) is obtained, which is applied to the evaluation of traffic level of service. Experimental results show that Agg-ANFIS is a universal approximates because of its nonlinear mapping capability by training and can be used in, analysis and prediction of complex systems modelling.%针对已有的自适应神经模糊推理系统(ANFIS)在模糊规则后件表达上的缺陷和常见的模糊推理系统存在的主要问题,提出基于Choquet积分OWA的模糊推理系统(AggFIS),在模糊规则的后件表达、模糊算子的普适性和输入及规则的权重等方面有很大优势,它试图建立能够充分体现模糊逻辑本质和人类思维模式的模糊推理系统.根据模糊神经网的基本原理将AggFIS与前馈神经网络相结合,得到基于Choquet积分-OWA的自适应神经模糊推理系统(Agg-ANFIS),并将该模型应用于交通服务水平评价问题.实验结果证明,基于Choquet积分OWA的自适应神经模糊推理系统具有很好的非线性映射功能,它的本质是一类通用逼近器,为解决复杂系统的建模、分析及预测问题提供了有效的途径.

  8. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients with age of the dairy calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Erickson, P S; Quigley, J D; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less-aggressive programs; however, postweaning growth may be reduced. Limited research suggests that less than optimal digestion of the postweaned diet due to large amounts of MR with reduced dry feed intake preweaning may contribute to growth impairment postweaning. Current research was conducted to compare growth and postweaning digestion in 3-d-old male Holstein calves fed various MR programs. The MR programs were a conventional [CON; 0.44 kg of dry matter (DM) 21% crude protein (CP), 21% fat powder fed for 42d], moderate (MOD; 0.66 kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 42d), and aggressive program (AGG; up to 0.87 kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 49d). All calves were fed a 20% CP textured starter and water ad libitum for 56d. The trial used 96 calves (initially 41 ± 1.9 kg of body weight) received 5 wk apart in 2 groups of 48 calves. During d 51 to 56, fecal samples were collected from 5 calves per treatment randomly selected from calves in the first group. Selected nutrients and acid-insoluble ash (used as an internal flow marker) were analyzed in the starter and feces to estimate digestibility. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with starting time of each group of calves as a block. Repeated measure analysis was performed on overall (0 to 56d) data. Means were separated with a protected least significant difference test. Pen was the experimental unit. Calves fed CON had the least average daily gain [CON=0.35, MOD=0.51, and AGG=0.55 kg/d; standard error of the mean (SEM)=0.018], feed efficiency (CON=0.35, MOD=0.49, and AGG=0.48 gain/feed, SEM=0.016), and change in hip width (CON=3.3, MOD=4.1, and AGG=4.1cm, SEM=0.20) compared with calves fed other programs. Calves fed AGG had the greatest change in BCS and least starter intake compared with calves fed the other programs. Digestibility of organic matter was 79, 78, and 68% and neutral

  9. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  10. Sequence analysis of the fragile X trinucleotide repeat: Correlations with stability and haplotype and implications for the origin of fragile X alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, K.; Tester, D.J.; Kruckeberg, K.E.; Thibodeau, S.N. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X (FX) syndrome is associated with amplification of a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the gene FMR-1. To address mechanism of instability and concern related to overlap between sizes of normal stable alleles and FX unstable alleles, we have sequenced 165 alleles to analyze patterns of AGG interruptions within the CGG repeat, and have typed the (CA)n at DXS548 for 204 chromosomes. Overall, our data is consistent with the idea that the length of uninterrupted CGG repeats determines instability. For 17 stably transmitted alleles with total repeat lengths between 33 and 51, the longest stretch of uninterrupted CGGs was 41. In contrast, for 13 premutation alleles, the shortest stretch of uninterrupted CGGs was 48, suggesting a threshold for expansion between 41 and 48 pure CGGs. For expansion from a premutation to a full mutation, the threshold appears to be {ge}70 uninterrupted repeats. Interestingly, an AGG was detected in some carriers of a full mutation. Comparison of the number of {open_quote}shadow bands{close_quote} in PCR products from similar size alleles with different AGG interruption patterns supports replication slippage as a potential mechanism, i.e. replication slippage occurs more readily as the length of pure repeat increases. Alleles with high total repeat lengths but up to 3 AGGs may be relatively protected against expansion, whereas smaller alleles with pure CGG sequence could be at higher risk for instability. Comparison of sequence data and DXS548 (CA)n data revealed specific sequence trends for each of the DXS548 alleles, explaining the previously reported haplotype association with FX. Incorporating these observations into models for the origin of FX alleles, we consider replication slippage, unequal crossover within the CGG repeat region, recombination between FMR-1 and DXS548, and loss of AGGs by A to C transversion.

  11. Construct measurement quality improves predictive accuracy in violence risk assessment: an illustration using the personality assessment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Melissa C; Douglas, Kevin S; Winter, Elizabeth A; Edens, John F

    2013-01-01

    Much of the risk assessment literature has focused on the predictive validity of risk assessment tools. However, these tools often comprise a list of risk factors that are themselves complex constructs, and focusing on the quality of measurement of individual risk factors may improve the predictive validity of the tools. The present study illustrates this concern using the Antisocial Features and Aggression scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991). In a sample of 1,545 prison inmates and offenders undergoing treatment for substance abuse (85% male), we evaluated (a) the factorial validity of the ANT and AGG scales, (b) the utility of original ANT and AGG scales and newly derived ANT and AGG scales for predicting antisocial outcomes (recidivism and institutional infractions), and (c) whether items with a stronger relationship to the underlying constructs (higher factor loadings) were in turn more strongly related to antisocial outcomes. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) indicated that ANT and AGG items were not structured optimally in these data in terms of correspondence to the subscale structure identified in the PAI manual. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on a random split-half of the sample to derive optimized alternative factor structures, and cross-validated in the second split-half using CFA. Four-factor models emerged for both the ANT and AGG scales, and, as predicted, the size of item factor loadings was associated with the strength with which items were associated with institutional infractions and community recidivism. This suggests that the quality by which a construct is measured is associated with its predictive strength. Implications for risk assessment are discussed.

  12. Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weed species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997 a study of spatial distribution of most important weeds in apple orchard herbicide strips was performed. This study was continued in 1998, once the trees were cut down. As the time progressed, Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn., Chenopodium album L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Atriplex patulum L. showed an increase in their occurrence. An opposite tendency was found with Erigeron canadensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Taraxacum fficinale Web. Some species grew in patches (Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenopodium album L., Atriplex patulum L., while the others appeared sporadically throughout the orchard. In 1998, the decrease of occurrence of Epilobium Haussk. was observed. Simultaneously, this was coupled with an increase of occurrence of Taraxacum officinale Web., Erigeron caanadensis L. and Chenopodium album L. The predominating species in 1998 was Cerastium vulgatum L., followed by Lolium perenne L., Poa annua L. and Bromus mollis L.

  13. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  14. Newly recorded invasive plants in Guangxi%广西新记录入侵植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦春强; 赵志国; 丁莉; 潘玉梅

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of invasive plant, Mimosa diplotricha C. ,Veronica arvensis L. and Bidens fron-dosa L. were reported as new records of Guangxi. Description and illustrations were provided. The voucher specimens were kept in Plant Herbarium, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences (IBK).%报道了广西3种新记录入侵植物,它们分别是巴西含羞草(Mimosa diplotricha C.)、直立婆婆纳(Veronica arvensis L.)和大狼把草(Bidens frondosa L.),并提供了这3种植物的特征描述和形态图.凭证标本存放于广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所标本馆(IBK).

  15. FLORA ARGENTINA: NOVEDADES EN PRIMULACEAE Argentinian flora: novelties in Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tressens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., especie no mencionada previamente para la Argentina,
    es citada, descripta e ilustrada. Se señala por primera vez A. arvensis L., ampliamente
    extendida en la Argentina, para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones. Se incluye una clave
    para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Anagallis presentes en el país
    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., species not previously mentioned for Argentina is
    recorded, described and illustrated. A. arvensis L., largely widespread in Argentina, is reported
    for the first time from Corrientes and Misiones provinces. A key for the identification of the four
    species of Anagallis present in the country is also included

  16. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwirianis N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai, solanum torvum (terung pipit, pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas, moringa oleifera (kacang kelor, dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan, cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, mentha arvensis (pudina, ocimum sp. (selasih, cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi, eugenia polyantha (serai kayu, Barringtonia scortechinii, (Putat, musa sp. (pisang, talinum paniculatum (akar som and phyllanthus acidus (cermai. Moringa oleifera leaf and dryobalanops oblongifolia fruit were found contain positive reactions of alkaloids. All the samples studied also show high content of saponin except in bark and seed of parkia speciosa and stem of phyllanthus acidus. Meanwhile, results of the phytochemical screening on saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoids showed that cosmos caudatus, ocimum sp., mentha arvensis, barringtonia scortechinii and moringa oleifera were the active compounds present in the leaves of the plant.

  17. Influence of nitrogen rate on the efficacy of herbicides with different modes of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Swanton, C. J.; Kudsk, Per Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    -methyl. An increased susceptibility at high nitrogen rate was also observed for Anagallis arvensis, but in contrast to T. inodorum, growth of unsprayed A. arvensis was unaffected by nitrogen rate. Growth of unsprayed Chenopodium album was also promoted by nitrogen supply. However, no influence of nitrogen rate...... affected herbicide efficacy for some but not all combinations of weed species and herbicide. Decreased herbicide efficacy was only observed at very low nitrogen rates. The results suggest that the effect of nitrogen rates on herbicide efficacy will be marginal in intensive farming systems with high......Outdoor pot experiments and field experiments were conducted to examine the influence of nitrogen rate on herbicide efficacy. Growth of unsprayed Tripleurospermum inodorum increased with increasing nitrogen rate in pot experiments; increasing nitrogen also increased the susceptibility to tribenuron...

  18. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of six wild Mentha species (Lamiaceae) from northeast of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Benabdallah; Chaabane Rahmoune; Mahieddine Boumendjel; Oumayma Aissi; Chokri Messaoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content and the in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of six wild Mentha species which are Mentha aquatica, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia and Mentha villosa. Methods: The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenols content while flavonoids were estimated according to the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. To evaluate tannins content, vanilli...

  19. Terrestrial and Aquatic Biological Inventory Meredosia, Illinois; Meredosia; Willow Creek; and Coon Run Drainage and Levee District, Scott and Morgan Counties, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In Block 20, It different from Report) Unlimited OIL SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse...undoubtably missed due to the timing of the survey. In addition, the lack of key taxonomic characteristics such as flowers and fruit made the...Solidago sp. (Goldenrod) 1,5-0 Erigeron sp. (Da..sy fleabane) 5-C Ambrosia sp. (Ragweed) 1-0 Xanthium sp. (Cocklebur) 1,5-C Sonchus arvensis (Field

  20. Some Quality Traits of Different Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BASBAG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.

  1. Spectroscopic Study of Elements in Various Therapeutic Plants and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed with the aim to find out the concentrations of essential and non essential heavy metals such as Nickel, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead in selected therapeutic plant samples and soil. Methods: Plant samples like Malva parviflora, Polygonum aviculare, Anagallis arvensis, Solanum nigrum, Coronopus didymus, Aerva tomentosa, Alternanthera pungens and Cenchrus ciliaris were collected from District Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Dry method was adapted to digest the plant material and then heavy metals were investigated by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: Results showed that highest concentration of zinc was found in Polygonum aviculare 80.13 mg/kg followed by Anagallis arvensis 66.14 mg/kg. Similarly maximum amount of iron was recorded in Anagallis arvensis, 75.35 mg/kg followed by Cenchrus ciliaris 53.10 mg/kg. The copper concentration was found beyond the permissible limit in all therapeutic plants. Conclusion: The metals content in soil was higher as compared to the plant samples. The concentration of metals in each plant was also significantly different which may be due to the metals uptake rate of plants from the soil or metabolism of the plant.

  2. Some Quality Traits of Different Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BASBAG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of six edible wild plants (Sonchus spp.) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dao-Zong; Yu, Xin-Fen; Zhu, Zhuo-Ying; Zou, Zhuang-Dan

    2011-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six Sonchus wild vegetables (Sonchus oleraceus L., Sonchus arvensis L., Sonchus asper (L.) Hill., Sonchus uliginosus M.B., Sonchus brachyotus DC. and Sonchus lingianus Shih) in China were investigated. The results revealed that S. arvensis extract and S. oleraceus extract contained the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid, respectively. Among the methanol extracts of six Sonchus species, S. arvensis extract exhibited the highest radical (DPPH and ABTS+ scavenging power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory power. It also exhibited the highest reducing power at 500 µg mL⁻¹ by A (700) = 0.80. The results of antibacterial test indicated that the S. oleraceus extract showed higher activity than the other five Sonchus wild vegetables extracts, both in Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and in a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus). These results indicate that Sonchus wild food plants might be applicable in natural medicine and healthy food.

  4. Diversité des communautés de mauvaises herbes des cultures annuelles de Côte-d'Or (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessaint F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of weed communities of annual crops in Cote-d'Or, France. Weed flora of annual crops in Cote-d'Or, France, were characterized in three successive growing seasons by measuring species frequencies and abundance over 245 fields. A total of 210 species in 143 genera were recorded representing a total of 43 families with Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae and Caryophyllaceae predominating. More than half of the species occurred in less than 5/ of the sampled plots (fields x years and only 9 species (namely Galium aparine L., Polygonum aviculare L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Loeve, Alopecurus myosuroides Hudson, Stellaria media (L. Vill., Convolvulus arvensis L., Sinapis arvensis L., Veronica persica Poiret and Anagallis arvensis L. occurred in more than 50/ of the plots. The maximum plot density was greater than 20 plants per square metre for more than one third of the species. Meanwhile, the plots where the density exceeded 20 plants per square metre, were rare and represented, for the most abundant species (A. myosuroides, less than 16/ of the plots. The total number of weed species per plots varied from 4 to 65 with a median species number of 20. In most of the plots, the weed community was mainly composed of species having a small density (less than one plant per square metre and was dominated by only one or two species in half of the plots.

  5. Discovery of a Cosmological, Relativistic Outburst via its Rapidly Fading Optical Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Cenko, S Bradley; Horesh, Assaf; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B; Carpenter, John; Frail, Dale A; Nugent, Peter E; Perley, Daniel A; Gruber, D; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Groot, Paul J; Hallinan, G; Ofek, Eran O; Rau, Arne; MacLeod, Chelsea L; Miller, Adam A; Bloom, Joshua S; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Morgan, Adam N; Polishook, David; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Sesar, Branimir; Shen, Ken J; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Sternberg, Assaf

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) of the transient source PTF11agg, which is distinguished by three primary characteristics: (1) bright, rapidly fading optical transient emission; (2) a faint, blue quiescent optical counterpart; and (3) an associated year-long, scintillating radio transient. We argue that these observed properties are inconsistent with any known class of Galactic transients, and instead suggest a cosmological origin. The detection of incoherent radio emission at such distances implies a large emitting region, from which we infer the presence of relativistic ejecta. The observed properties are all consistent with the population of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), marking the first time such an outburst has been discovered in the distant universe independent of a high-energy trigger. We searched for possible high-energy counterparts to PTF11agg, but found no evidence for associated prompt emission. We therefore consider three possible scenarios to account for ...

  6. Cache-Based Aggregate Query Shipping: An Efficient Scheme of Distributed OLAP Query Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Ming Liao; Guo-Shun Pei

    2008-01-01

    Our study introduces a novel distributed query plan refinement phase in an enhanced architecture of distributed query processing engine (DQPE). Query plan refinement generates potentially efficient distributed query plan by reusable aggregate query shipping (RAQS) approach. The approach improves response time at the cost of pre-processing time. If theoverheads could not be compensated by query results reusage, RAQS is no more favorable. Therefore a global cost estimation model is employed to get proper operators: RR_Agg, R_Agg, or R_Scan. For the purpose of reusing results of queries with aggregate function in distributed query processing, a multi-level hybrid view caching (HVC) scheme is introduced. The scheme retains the advantages of partial match and aggregate query results caching. By our solution, evaluations with distributed TPC-H queries show significant improvement on average response time.

  7. Development and validation of SSR markers for Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernando Missio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of developing new SSR markers for Coffea arabica, two enriched genomic libraries withprobes (GT15 and (AGG10 were constructed. A total of 835 clones were sequenced and 756 presented good quality sequences.Redundant sequences were observed for 113 clones (14.94%. SSRs were found in 287 clones (38%. An estimated size of417.5Kb of the C. arabica genome was sampled, with an average of one SSR per 1.46Kb. Dinucleotide repeats were morefrequent than trinucleotides. Four repeat sequences, (AG/CTn, (AC/GTn, (AAG/CTTn, and (AGG/CCTn represented 61.1%of the total observed. A total of 96 SSR primers were designed and tested by PCR for two C. arabica genotypes. Ninety new SSRmarkers were validated for further genetic studies of C. arabica.

  8. Some new operations on Zt x Z2,2-cocyclic Hadamard matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Victor; Guemes, Maria Belen

    2011-01-01

    Following the ideas of [AGG11] about Zt x Z2,2-cocyclic Hadamard matrices, we introduce the notion of diagram, which visually represents any set of coboundaries. Diagrams are a very useful tool for the description and the study of paths and intersections, as described in [AGG11]. Then, we will study four different operations on Zt x Z2,2-cocyclic matrices. These operations will be defined on the set of coboundaries defining the matrix, preserve the Hadamard character of the cocyclic matrices, and allow us to obtain new Hadamard matrices from old ones. We split the set of Hadamard matrices into disjoint orbits, define representatives for them and take advantage of this fact to compute them in an easier way than the usual purely exhaustive way.

  9. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    University of Denmark and the second largest ready-mix manufacturer in Denmark, 4K-Beton A/S. The aim is to identify the flow characteristic of SCC and the effect of concrete properties, casting technique, reinforcement configuration, and form geometry. A wall form of dimensions l = 3m, w = 0.3m, h =1m has....... Monitoring equipment has been produced and tested and is valuable as documentary evidence of the flow in combination with visual observations. In one experiment reinforcement gap sizes of 1.5 and 3⋅Dmax,agg have been applied and blocking occurred at 1.5⋅Dmax,agg. Pumping from the bottom corner at casting...... rate of 10 m/h resulted in hydrostatic pressure. Continuously shearing across the surface seems to have a positive effect on the surface quality (no blowholes)....

  10. Effect of milk replacer feeding rate and functional fatty acids on dairy calf performance and digestion of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Suarez-Mena, F X; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-08-01

    Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3d old (43±1.5kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66kg of dry matter (DM) for 49d. The AGG rate was fed for 4d at 0.66kg of DM, 4d at 0.96kg of DM, then 34d at 1.31kg of DM, followed by 0.66kg of DM for the last 7d. Calves were completely weaned at 49d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved

  11. Investigation into the Influence of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Friction Stir Welded AA6061 Al-Alloy Plates with Different Temper Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    İpekoğlu, Güven; Erim, Seçil; Çam, Gürel

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir butt-joined AA6061 Al-alloy plates both in O and T6-temper conditions was investigated by detailed microstructural investigations and microhardness measurements, in combination with transverse tensile testing. It was determined that the PWHT might result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) in the weld zone particularly in the joints produced in O-temper condition depending on the weld parameters used during friction stir welding. The PWHT generally led to an improvement in the mechanical properties even if AGG took place. Thus, the post-weld heat-treated joints exhibited mechanical properties much higher than those of respective as-welded plates and comparable to those of the respective base plates.

  12. 平菇汁对野蘑菇生长的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 陈有君; 李国光; 李春玲; 李立民

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus arvensis has well nutritional and medicinal value, but because of its slow growth, rapid aging, low yield, its practical application is still limied. Now with the literature material, it finds that there is some unknown components in Pleurotus ostreatus juice on Agaricus arvensis mycelium growth has a significant role, designed to identify and determine the substance, and its optimum growth concentration. This experiment is to analyze the same volume Pleurotus ostreatus juice respectively in water, ethanol, acetone, in dialysis bag whose MWCO is 8 000~14 000, by DNS method of reducing sugars, biuret method for measuring protein, acidic dye colorimetry measured alkaloids, phenol-sulfuric acid method of measuring total sugar measuring ammonia, formaldehyde method for the determination of means, and the hypha growth diameter, combining with the development situation, get the observed phenomenon: components have more protein joined medium in where Agaricus arvensis hypha growth is rapid, components have more alkaloid joined medium in where Agaricus arvensis hypha growth is slow, alkaloid joined medium part of the Agaricus arvensis hypha growth is slow, so come to the conclusion:there are classes of protein substances play a promoting effect on Agaricus arvensis mycelium growth, alkaloids substances inhibiting Agaricus arvensis hypha growth role.%野蘑菇具有很高的营养和药用价值,但人工培养时生长缓慢、老化快、产量低,使得在菌剂等实际生产应用方面受到限制。结合有关文献资料,发现平菇汁中有不知名组分对野蘑菇菌丝生长有显著的促进作用,旨在找出并确定这种物质及其最适生长浓度。分别以水、乙醇、丙酮为透析液, MWCO为8000~14000的透析袋透析等体积蘑菇汁, DNS法测还原糖、双缩脲法测蛋白质、酸性染料比色法测生物碱、苯酚-硫酸法测总糖、甲醛法测氨为测定手段,菌丝直径为测量指标。蛋白质

  13. Nuclear and plastid haplotypes suggest rapid diploid and polyploid speciation in the N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium complex (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yan-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species complexes or aggregates consist of a set of closely related species often of different ploidy levels, whose relationships are difficult to reconstruct. The N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium aggregate exhibits complex morphological and genetic variation and a broad ecological amplitude. To understand its evolutionary history, we study sequence variation at two nuclear genes and three plastid loci across the natural distribution of this species complex and compare the patterns of such variations to the species tree inferred earlier from AFLP data. Results Among the diploid species of A. millefolium agg., gene trees of the two nuclear loci, ncpGS and SBP, and the combined plastid fragments are incongruent with each other and with the AFLP tree likely due to incomplete lineage sorting or secondary introgression. In spite of the large distributional range, no isolation by distance is found. Furthermore, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the ncpGS gene. An analysis using a probabilistic model for population demographic history indicates large ancestral effective population sizes and short intervals between speciation events. Such a scenario explains the incongruence of the gene trees and species tree we observe. The relationships are particularly complex in the polyploid members of A. millefolium agg. Conclusions The present study indicates that the diploid members of A. millefolium agg. share a large part of their molecular genetic variation. The findings of little lineage sorting and lack of isolation by distance is likely due to short intervals between speciation events and close proximity of ancestral populations. While previous AFLP data provide species trees congruent with earlier morphological classification and phylogeographic considerations, the present sequence data are not suited to recover the relationships of diploid species in A. millefolium agg. For the polyploid taxa many hybrid links and

  14. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin With Current Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    flexibility in aptamer detection systems can be added by attaching redox molecules, such as ferrocene or methylene blue , to the 3’ end of the DNA...synthesized and purchased from Integrated DNA Technologies Inc. with HPLC purification and the following sequence: 5’-SH-AGA GAG GAA CGA CGG TGG TGG AGG...AGA TCG TTC C-3’. Ferrocene terminated riboflavin aptamers were purchased from Friz BioChem (Germany) and HPLC purification with the following sequence

  15. Cloning and expression of a novel lactococcal aggregation factor from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGKP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojic Milan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation may play a main role in the adhesion of bacteria to the gastrointestinal epithelium and their colonization ability, as well as in probiotic effects through co-aggregation with intestinal pathogens and their subsequent removal. The aggregation phenomenon in lactococci is directly associated with the sex factor and lactose plasmid co-integration event or duplication of the cell wall spanning (CWS domain of PrtP proteinase. Results Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGKP1 was isolated from artisanal semi-hard homemade cheese and selected due to its strong auto-aggregation phenotype. Subsequently, non-aggregating derivative (Agg- of BGKP1, designated as BGKP1-20, was isolated, too. Comparative analysis of cell surface proteins of BGKP1 and derivative BGKP1-20 revealed a protein of approximately 200 kDa only in the parental strain BGKP1. The gene involved in aggregation (aggL was mapped on plasmid pKP1 (16.2 kb, cloned and expressed in homologous and heterologous lactococci and enterococci. This novel lactococcal aggregation protein was shown to be sufficient for cell aggregation in all tested hosts. In addition to the aggL gene, six more ORFs involved in replication (repB and repX, restriction and modification (hsdS, transposition (tnp and possible interaction with mucin (mbpL were also located on plasmid pKP1. Conclusion AggL is a new protein belonging to the collagen-binding superfamily of proteins and is sufficient for cell aggregation in lactococci.

  16. Prion Disease Induces Alzheimer Disease-Like Neuropathologic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousseyn, Thomas; Bajsarowicz, Krystyna; Sánchez, Henry; Gheyara, Ania; Oehler, Abby; Geschwind, Michael; DeArmond, Bernadette; DeArmond, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the brains of 266 patients with prion diseases (PrionD) and found that 46 (17%) had Alzheimer disease (AD)-like changes. To explore potential mechanistic links between PrionD and AD, we exposed human brain aggregates (Hu BrnAggs) to brain homogenate from a patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and found that the neurons in the Hu BrnAggs produced many β-amyloid (β42) inclusions, whereas uninfected, control-exposed Hu BrnAggs did not. Western blots of 20-pooled CJD-infected BrnAggs verified higher Aβ42 levels than controls. We next examined the CA1 region of the hippocampus from 14 patients with PrionD and found that 5 patients had low levels of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc), many Aβ42 intraneuronal inclusions, low APOE-4, and no significant nerve cell loss. Seven patients had high levels of PrPSc, low Aβ42, high APOE-4 and 40% nerve cell loss, suggesting that APOE-4 and PrPSc together cause neuron loss in PrionD. There were also increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (Hτ) and Hτ-positive neuropil threads and neuron bodies in both PrionD and AD groups. The brains of 6 age-matched control patients without dementia did not contain Aβ42 deposits; however, there were rare Hτ-positive threads in 5 controls and 2 controls had a few Hτ-positive nerve cell bodies. We conclude that PrionD may trigger biochemical changes similar to AD and suggest that PrionD are diseases of PrPSc, Aβ42, APOE-4 and abnormal tau. PMID:26226132

  17. International Symposium On the Ecological Effects of Arctic Airborne Contaminants, held in Reykjavik, Iceland on October 4 - 8, 1993. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-08

    Ontario. Concentra- tions have forced Health and Welfare Canada to close all commercial and native subsistence fisheries on this lake, jeopardizing...10 j/g/g range). Polar bears have levels of PCBs similar to those in cetaceans (1-10 Ag/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are...Devices, Health and Welfare Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario KIA ICI, Canada The major part of radioactive contamination carried into the

  18. Co-detection of virulent Escherichia coli genes in surface water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thando; Le Roux, Marcellous; Khan, Wesaal; Khan, Sehaam

    2015-01-01

    McNemar's test and the Pearson Chi-square were used to assess the co-detection and observed frequency, respectively, for potentially virulent E. coli genes in river water. Conventional multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays confirmed the presence of the aggR gene (69%), ipaH gene (23%) and the stx gene (15%) carried by Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Enterohermorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), respectively, in river water samples collected from the Berg River (Paarl, South Africa). Only the aggR gene was present in 23% of samples collected from the Plankenburg River system (Stellenbosch, South Africa). In a comparative study, real-time multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of aggR (EAEC) in 69%, stx (EHEC) in 15%, ipaH (EIEC) in 31% and eae (EPEC) in 8% of the river water samples collected from the Berg River. In the Plankenburg River, aggR (EAEC) was detected in 46% of the samples, while eae (EPEC) was present in 15% of the water samples analyzed using real-time multiplex PCR in the Plankenburg River. Pearson Chi-square showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the conventional and real-time multiplex PCRs for the detection of virulent E. coli genes in water samples. However, the McNemar's test showed some variation in the co-detection of virulent E. coli genes, for example, there was no statistical difference in the misclassification of the discordant results for stx versus ipaH, which implies that the ipaH gene was frequently detected with the stx gene. This study thus highlights the presence of virulent E. coli genes in river water and while early detection is crucial, quantitative microbial risk analysis has to be performed to identify and estimate the risk to human health.

  19. Co-detection of virulent Escherichia coli genes in surface water sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thando Ndlovu

    Full Text Available McNemar's test and the Pearson Chi-square were used to assess the co-detection and observed frequency, respectively, for potentially virulent E. coli genes in river water. Conventional multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assays confirmed the presence of the aggR gene (69%, ipaH gene (23% and the stx gene (15% carried by Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and Enterohermorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, respectively, in river water samples collected from the Berg River (Paarl, South Africa. Only the aggR gene was present in 23% of samples collected from the Plankenburg River system (Stellenbosch, South Africa. In a comparative study, real-time multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of aggR (EAEC in 69%, stx (EHEC in 15%, ipaH (EIEC in 31% and eae (EPEC in 8% of the river water samples collected from the Berg River. In the Plankenburg River, aggR (EAEC was detected in 46% of the samples, while eae (EPEC was present in 15% of the water samples analyzed using real-time multiplex PCR in the Plankenburg River. Pearson Chi-square showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05 between the conventional and real-time multiplex PCRs for the detection of virulent E. coli genes in water samples. However, the McNemar's test showed some variation in the co-detection of virulent E. coli genes, for example, there was no statistical difference in the misclassification of the discordant results for stx versus ipaH, which implies that the ipaH gene was frequently detected with the stx gene. This study thus highlights the presence of virulent E. coli genes in river water and while early detection is crucial, quantitative microbial risk analysis has to be performed to identify and estimate the risk to human health.

  20. Detection of virulence-associated genes characteristic of intestinal Escherichia coli pathotypes, including the enterohemorrhagic/enteroaggregative O104:H4, in bovines from Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; Geue, Lutz; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Barth, Stefanie; Bárcena, Carmen; Hamm, Katharina; Porrero, M Concepción; Valverde, Aránzazu; Cantón, Rafael; Menge, Christian; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2015-08-01

    Cattle are reservoirs of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, their role in the epidemiology of other pathogenic E. coli remains undefined. A new set of quantitative real-time PCR assays for the direct detection and quantification of nine virulence-associated genes (VAGs) characteristic of the most important human E. coli pathotypes and four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 , fliCH4 , rbfO157 , fliCH7 ) that can be used as a surveillance tool for detection of pathogenic strains was developed. A total of 970 cattle fecal samples were collected in slaughterhouses in Germany and Spain, pooled into 134 samples and analyzed with this tool. stx1, eae and invA were more prevalent in Spanish samples whereas bfpA, stx2, ehxA, elt, est and the rbfO157 /fliCH7 combination were observed in similar proportions in both countries. Genes characteristic of the hybrid O104:H4 strain of the 2011 German outbreak (stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 ) were simultaneously detected in six fecal pools from one German abattoir located near the outbreak epicenter. Although no isolate harboring the full stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 combination was cultured, sequencing of the aggR positive PCR products revealed 100% homology to the aggR from the outbreak strain. Concomitant detection by this direct approach of VAGs from a novel human pathogenic E. coli strain in cattle samples implies that the E. coli gene pool in these animals can be implicated in de novo formation of such highly-virulent strains. The application of this set of qPCRs in surveillance studies could be an efficient early-warning tool for the emergence of zoonotic E. coli in livestock.

  1. Functional analysis of High-Throughput data for dynamic modeling in eukaryotic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Flöttmann, Max

    2013-01-01

    Das Verhalten Biologischer Systeme wird durch eine Vielzahl regulatorischer Prozesse beeinflusst, die sich auf verschiedenen Ebenen abspielen. Die Forschung an diesen Regulationen hat stark von den großen Mengen von Hochdurchsatzdaten profitiert, die in den letzten Jahren verfügbar wurden. Um diese Daten zu interpretieren und neue Erkenntnisse aus ihnen zu gewinnen, hat sich die mathematische Modellierung als hilfreich erwiesen. Allerdings müssen die Daten vor der Integration in Modelle agg...

  2. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Human Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.

  3. The Influence of Multiple Host Contacts on the Acquisition and Transmission of Dengue-2 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    live through the extrinsic incubation period. Therefore, Iap is an estimate of the daily number of infective ft. agg3=i generated from a single human...interrupted attempts to blood food on an active host. Such interruptions could include interruption of probing. Conversely, there is reason to believe that AS...induces life long immunity in humans. In areas where dengue viruses are prevalent, dengue fever is usually a childhood disease and most of the adult

  4. Prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its virulence-related genes in a case-control study among children from north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ila Fernanda Nunes; Boisen, Nadia; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Havt, Alexandre; de Carvalho, Eunice Bobo; Soares, Alberto Melo; Lima, Noélia Leal; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Nataro, James P; Guerrant, Richard Littleton; Lima, Aldo Ângelo Moreira

    2013-05-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important agent that causes endemic and epidemic diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. Several EAEC virulence-related genes (VRGs) have been described but their role in the clinical outcome of infection is not completely defined. This study investigated the prevalence of EAEC and potential associations of its VRGs with risk of or protection from diarrhoeal diseases in children from urban communities in north-eastern Brazil. The case-control study included 166 children, who had their stools evaluated for the EAEC diagnostic genes (aaiC and aatA) using PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by multiplex PCR and identified 18 VRGs. EAEC was found in the same proportion in both groups (41%). The plasmid-borne gene encoding a hexosyltransferase homologue (capU) was the most frequently detected (89.6%), followed by dispersin protein (aap, 58.2%) and EAEC HilA homologue (eilA, 57.8%). The AAF/III fimbrial subunit (agg3A) gene was observed at lower frequency (1.5%). Plasmid-encoded toxin (pet) or AAF/II fimbrial subunit (aafA) was associated significantly with disease. AAF/IV fimbrial subunit (agg4A) or hypothetical plasmid-encoded haemolysin (orf61) was detected significantly more in controls than in children with diarrhoea. In addition, one set of genes in combination, aaiC and agg3/4C but lacking agg4A and orf61, was associated with diarrhoea cases; and another one, orf61 in the absence of pet and aafA, was correlated with control children. These data confirm a high prevalence, endemicity and heterogeneity of EAEC strains in the developing urban areas of north-eastern Brazil. Statistical correlation between cases and controls was seen with either isolated or combined sets of genes, suggesting that the pathophysiology of EAEC infection involves a complex and dynamic modulation of several VRGs.

  5. Prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its virulence-related genes in a case–control study among children from north-eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisen, Nadia; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Havt, Alexandre; de Carvalho, Eunice Bobo; Soares, Alberto Melo; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Nataro, James P.; Guerrant, Richard Littleton

    2013-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important agent that causes endemic and epidemic diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. Several EAEC virulence-related genes (VRGs) have been described but their role in the clinical outcome of infection is not completely defined. This study investigated the prevalence of EAEC and potential associations of its VRGs with risk of or protection from diarrhoeal diseases in children from urban communities in north-eastern Brazil. The case–control study included 166 children, who had their stools evaluated for the EAEC diagnostic genes (aaiC and aatA) using PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by multiplex PCR and identified 18 VRGs. EAEC was found in the same proportion in both groups (41 %). The plasmid-borne gene encoding a hexosyltransferase homologue (capU) was the most frequently detected (89.6 %), followed by dispersin protein (aap, 58.2 %) and EAEC HilA homologue (eilA, 57.8 %). The AAF/III fimbrial subunit (agg3A) gene was observed at lower frequency (1.5 %). Plasmid-encoded toxin (pet) or AAF/II fimbrial subunit (aafA) was associated significantly with disease. AAF/IV fimbrial subunit (agg4A) or hypothetical plasmid-encoded haemolysin (orf61) was detected significantly more in controls than in children with diarrhoea. In addition, one set of genes in combination, aaiC and agg3/4C but lacking agg4A and orf61, was associated with diarrhoea cases; and another one, orf61 in the absence of pet and aafA, was correlated with control children. These data confirm a high prevalence, endemicity and heterogeneity of EAEC strains in the developing urban areas of north-eastern Brazil. Statistical correlation between cases and controls was seen with either isolated or combined sets of genes, suggesting that the pathophysiology of EAEC infection involves a complex and dynamic modulation of several VRGs. PMID:23429698

  6. Human CD40L gene maps between DXS144E and DXS300 in Xq26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilia, G.; Porta, G.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    PCR primers for the 3{prime} end of the CD40L gene, were used to screen the YACs in the Xq26 contig. The primers were 5{prime} ACA GTC TCA CCT TGC AGG CTG and 5{prime} CTC TCT GGA TGT CTG CAT CAG. PCR amplification was for 35 cycles at 95{degree}C for 30 s, 55{degree}C for 45 s, and 72{degree}C for 45 s.

  7. Organic-inorganic materials containing nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate for baromembrane separation

    OpenAIRE

    Dzyazko, Yuliya S; Rozhdestvenskaya, Ludmila M; Zmievskii, Yu G; Vilenskii, Alexander I; Myronchuk, Valerii G; Kornienko, Ludmila V; Vasilyuk, Sergey V; Tsyba, Nikolay N

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by stepwise modification of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) track membrane with nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate. The modifier was inserted inside pores of the polymer, a size of which is 0.33 μm. Inner active layer was formed by this manner. Evolution of morphology and functional properties of the membranes were investigated using methods of porosimetry, potentiometry and electron microscopy. The nanoparticles (4 to 10 nm) were found to form agg...

  8. Analysis and Modeling of Traffic in Modern Data Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, G.; Vandalore, B.; Jain, R.

    1998-01-01

    In performance analysis and design of communication netword modeling data traffic is important. With introduction of new applications, the characteristics of the data traffic changes. We present a brief review the different models of data traffic and how they have evolved. We present results of data traffic analysis and simulated traffic, which demonstrates that the packet train model fits the traffic at source destination level and long-memory (self-similar) model fits the traffic at the agg...

  9. Comparative evaluation of slide agglutination and Widal tube agglutination test in detecting enteric fever among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Jahan; Razia Khatoon; Amrita,; Sudhir Mehrotra; Swatantra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is a major public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although, isolation of causative organism from blood is the standard laboratory method, but due to frequent use of self-medication by patients, and its long turnaround time, it is seldom used, and enteric fever is usually diagnosed by using serological methods. Widal tube agglutination test is the standard serological test used, which is now a days replaced by slide agg...

  10. Adherence and virulence genes of Escherichia colifrom children diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Benevides-Matos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with endemic forms of childhood diarrhoea is Escherichia coli. Studies of epidemiological characteristics of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli in diarrhoeal disease are required, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was evaluate the presence and significance of adherent Escherichia coli from diarrhoeal disease in children. The prevalence of LA, AA, and DA adherence patterns were determined in HEp-2 cells, the presence of virulence genes and the presence of the O serogroups in samples obtained from 470 children with acute diarrhoea and 407 controls in Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. E. coli isolates were identified by PCR specific for groups of adherent E. coli. Out of 1,156 isolates obtained, 128 (11.0% were positive for eae genes corresponding to EPEC, however only 38 (29.6% of these amplified bfpAgene. EAEC were isolated from 164 (14.1% samples; of those 41(25%, 32 (19% and 16 (9.7% amplified eagg, aggA or aafA genes, respectively and aggA was significantly associated with diarrhoea (P = 0.00006. DAEC identified by their adhesion pattern and there were few isolates. In conclusion, EAEC was the main cause of diarrhoea in children, especially when the aggA gene was present, followed by EPEC and with a negligible presence of DAEC.

  11. Adherence and virulence genes of Escherichia coli from children diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides-Matos, Najla; Pieri, Fabio A; Penatti, Marilene; Orlandi, Patrícia P

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with endemic forms of childhood diarrhoea is Escherichia coli . Studies of epidemiological characteristics of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli in diarrhoeal disease are required, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was evaluate the presence and significance of adherent Escherichia coli from diarrhoeal disease in children. The prevalence of LA, AA, and DA adherence patterns were determined in HEp-2 cells, the presence of virulence genes and the presence of the O serogroups in samples obtained from 470 children with acute diarrhoea and 407 controls in Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. E. coli isolates were identified by PCR specific for groups of adherent E. coli . Out of 1,156 isolates obtained, 128 (11.0%) were positive for eae genes corresponding to EPEC, however only 38 (29.6%) of these amplified bfpA gene . EAEC were isolated from 164 (14.1%) samples; of those 41(25%), 32 (19%) and 16 (9.7%) amplified eagg , aggA or aafA genes, respectively and aggA was significantly associated with diarrhoea ( P = 0.00006). DAEC identified by their adhesion pattern and there were few isolates. In conclusion, EAEC was the main cause of diarrhoea in children, especially when the aggA gene was present, followed by EPEC and with a negligible presence of DAEC.

  12. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains may carry virulence properties of diarrhoeagenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Cecilia M; Salvador, Fábia A; Falsetti, Ivan N; Vieira, Mônica A M; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Machado, Antônia M O; Elias, Waldir P; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2008-04-01

    To analyze whether Escherichia coli strains that cause urinary tract infections (UPEC) share virulence characteristics with the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes and to recognize their genetic diversity, 225 UPEC strains were examined for the presence of various properties of DEC and UPEC (type of interaction with HeLa cells, serogroups and presence of 30 virulence genes). No correlation between adherence patterns and serogroups was observed. Forty-five serogroups were found, but 64% of the strains belonged to one of the 12 serogroups (O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O14, O15, O18, O21, O25, O75, and O175) and carried UPEC virulence genes (pap, hly, aer, sfa, cnf). The DEC genes found were: aap, aatA, aggC, agg3C, aggR, astA, eae, ehly, iha, irp2, lpfA(O113), pet, pic, pilS, and shf. Sixteen strains presented aggregative adherence and/or the aatA sequence, which are characteristics of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), one of the DEC pathotypes. In summary, certain UPEC strains may carry DEC virulence properties, mostly associated to the EAEC pathotype. This finding raises the possibility that at least some faecal EAEC strains might represent potential uropathogens. Alternatively, certain UPEC strains may have acquired EAEC properties, becoming a potential cause of diarrhoea.

  13. Adherence and virulence genes of Escherichia coli from children diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides-Matos, Najla; Pieri, Fabio A.; Penatti, Marilene; Orlandi, Patrícia P.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with endemic forms of childhood diarrhoea is Escherichia coli . Studies of epidemiological characteristics of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli in diarrhoeal disease are required, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was evaluate the presence and significance of adherent Escherichia coli from diarrhoeal disease in children. The prevalence of LA, AA, and DA adherence patterns were determined in HEp-2 cells, the presence of virulence genes and the presence of the O serogroups in samples obtained from 470 children with acute diarrhoea and 407 controls in Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. E. coli isolates were identified by PCR specific for groups of adherent E. coli . Out of 1,156 isolates obtained, 128 (11.0%) were positive for eae genes corresponding to EPEC, however only 38 (29.6%) of these amplified bfpA gene . EAEC were isolated from 164 (14.1%) samples; of those 41(25%), 32 (19%) and 16 (9.7%) amplified eagg , aggA or aafA genes, respectively and aggA was significantly associated with diarrhoea ( P = 0.00006). DAEC identified by their adhesion pattern and there were few isolates. In conclusion, EAEC was the main cause of diarrhoea in children, especially when the aggA gene was present, followed by EPEC and with a negligible presence of DAEC. PMID:26221098

  14. The shf gene of a Shigella flexneri homologue on the virulent plasmid pAA2 of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042 is required for firm biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Rika; Nishi, Junichiro; Imuta, Naoko; Tokuda, Koichi; Manago, Kunihiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2008-05-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an increasingly important cause of diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries, and is characterized by strong biofilm formation on the intestinal mucosa. Sequencing of the virulent plasmid pAA2 of the prototype EAEC 042 revealed a cluster of three open reading frames (ORFs; shf, capU, and virK) ca. 93% identical to a similar cluster located in Shigella flexneri. The function of the first ORF Shf protein is not known, but the closest well-characterized homologue is the IcaB protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis, which plays a crucial role in exopolysaccharide modification in bacterial biofilm formation. To investigate the role of this cluster in the virulence of EAEC, we mutated three genes at this locus. All the mutants maintained the aggregative phenotype in the liquid phase. However, the insertional mutant of shf formed a less abundant biofilm in a microtiter plate assay than did the wild type, while the capU mutant and the virK mutant did not. The complementation of the shf mutant with this cluster restored the thick biofilm similar to that of the wild type. The shf transcriptional level decreased in the transcriptional regulator aggR mutant and was restored when the mutant was complemented with aggR. These results suggest that the shf gene is required for the firm biofilm formation of EAEC 042, and transcription of the shf gene is dependent on AggR.

  15. Fragile X founder effects and new mutations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, N.; Smits, B.; Curley, D. [New York State Inst. for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-12

    The apparent associations between fragile X mutations and nearby microsatellites may reflect both founder effects and microsatellite instability. To gain further insight into their relative contributions, we typed a sample of 56 unrelated control and 37 fragile X chromosomes from an eastern Finnish population for FMR1 CGG repeat lengths, AGG interspersion patterns, DXS548, FRAXAC1, FRAXE and a new polymorphic locus, Alu-L. In the controls, the most common FMR1 allele was 30 repeats with a range of 20 to 47 and a calculated heterozygosity of 88%. A strong founder effect was observed for locus DXS548 with 95% of fragile X chromosomes having the 21 CA repeat (196 bp) allele compared to 17% of controls, while none of the fragile X but 69% of controls had the 20 repeat allele. Analysis of the combined loci DXS548-FRAXAC1-FRAXE showed three founder haplotypes. Haplotype 21-19-16 was found on 27 (75%) of fragile X chromosomes but on none of controls. Three (8.4%) fragile X chromosomes had haplotypes 21-19-15, 21-19-20, and 21-19-25 differing from the common fragile X haplotype only in FRAXE. These could have arisen by recombination or from mutations of FRAXE. A second haplotype 21-18-17 was found in four (11.1%) fragile X chromosomes but only one (1.9%) control. This may represent a more recent founder mutation. A third haplotype 25-21-15, seen in two fragile X chromosomes (5.6%) and one (1.9%) control, was even less common and thus may represent an even more recent mutation or admixture of immigrant types. Analysis of the AGG interspersions within the FMR1 CGG repeat showed that 7/8 premutation chromosomes lacked an AGG whereas all controls had at least one AGG. This supports the hypothesis that the mutation of AGG to CGG leads to repeat instability and mutational expansion. 43 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. The automation of routine light transmission platelet aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, A S; Kobayashi, K; Lane, P J; Mackie, I J; Machin, S J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The investigation of platelet function by aggregometry requires specialist equipment and is labour intensive. We have developed an automated platelet aggregation method on a routine coagulation analyser. Methods We used a CS-2000i (Sysmex) with prototype software to perform aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), using the following agonists: ADP (0.5–10 μm), epinephrine (0.5–10 μm), collagen (0.5–10 mg/μL), ristocetin (0.75–1.25 mg/mL) and arachidonic acid (0.12–1.0 mm). Platelet agonists were from Hyphen Biomed, and an AggRAM aggregometer (Helena Biosciences) was used as the reference instrument. Results CS-2000i reaction cuvette stirrer speed was found to influence reaction sensitivity and was optimized to 800 rpm. There were no clinically significant changes in aggregation response when the PRP platelet count was 150–480 x 109/L, but below this there were changes in the maximum amplitude (MA) and slope (rate). Dose response with each of the agonists was comparable between CS-2000i and an AggRAM aggregometer and normal subjects receiving antiplatelet drugs. Aggregation imprecision was similar on both the CS-2000i and AggRAM systems, with a cv for 2–5 μm ADP MA and slope varying between 3–12%. Conclusion Our preliminary studies indicated that optimal sensitivity using the CS-2000i was obtained with a reaction cuvette stirrer speed of 800 rpm and a PRP platelet count of 200–300 x 109/L; aggregation with a PRP count <100 x 109/L showed poor sensitivity. Imprecision and detection of antiplatelet drug effects was similar between the CS-2000i and AggRAM. These data demonstrate that CS-2000i is comparable to a stand-alone aggregometer, although CS-2000i has the advantages of walk-away technology and also required a smaller sample volume than the AggRAM (44% less). PMID:24237750

  17. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  18. Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiewicz Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park was studied in between the years 2012 and 2013. One hundred phytosociological Braun-Blanquet releves were taken, documenting the occurrence of 152 species of vascular plants that represented 29 botanic families. Analysis of the contributions of geographic-historical groups revealed the dominance of the native species, apophytes (87 species, making 57.2%, over anthropophytes (65 species, 42.8%. The number of short-lived species was twice greater (103 species, 67.8% than the perennial ones (49 species, 32.2%. As regards the lifeforms, the therophytes were dominant (96 species, 63.2% over hemicryptophytes (44 species, 28.9% and geophytes (12 species, 7.9%. Among the species of segetal flora in the area studied, 23 valuable species classified to different categories of protection, were identified. The presence of Consolida regalis, Centaurea cyanus and Bromus secalinus, belonging to threatened species in other regions of Poland, was abundant. Also the species: Anthemis tinctoria, Echium vulgare and Anchusa officinalis were met with high frequency. The species: Agrostemma githago, Papaver argemone and Papaver dubium were represented by single plants, which can suggest their dying out. In the Park area, expansive species, threatening the biodiversity, such as Myosotis arvensis, Viola arvensis, Galeopsis tetraehit, Stellaria media, Artemisia vulgaris, Galinsoga parviflora, Elymus repens, Capsella bursa pastoris, Erodium cicutarium, Chamomilla recutita, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum persicaria, Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. pallidum and Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. lapathifolium, were commonly seen in the crop land.

  19. Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

    1993-04-01

    Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species.

  20. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  1. Effect of liming on yield and quality of peppermint and Sachalin mint in fine sand soil of Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Aflatuni, Abbas; Uusitalo, Jouko; Ek, Sari; Hohtola, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Soil acidity commonly limits plant production in the fine sand soil of Northern Finland, which often has a low pH (5.5-6.5) and contains low levels of Ca and Mg. The effect of five liming (10% Mg and 19% Ca) levels, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 tons ha -1 , on the herb and essential oil yield and menthol and menthone content of two mint species (peppermint, Mentha x piperita, a variety of Black Mitcham and Sachalin mint, Mentha arvensis var. sacchalinensis) cultivated in fine sand soil in Northern Fin...

  2. Efectos alelopáticos de extractos acuosos de arvenses sobre la germinación de trigo duro y Lolium rigidum

    OpenAIRE

    López Sariego, María del Carmen; Urbano Fuentes-Guerra, José María; López Martínez, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Se han analizado los efectos alelopáticos de extractos acuosos de varias plantas sobre trigo duro (Triticum durum Desf.) y Lolium rigidum Gaud., y la germinación conjunta de las semillas de ambas especies. Los resultados han mostrado que varios extractos estimularon el desarrollo radicular y del hipocótilo, siendo el efecto proporcional a la concentración del extracto, destacando Urtica sp., Chenopodium murale, Sinapis arvensis y Diplotaxis virgata, mientras que Matricaria chamomilla inhibió ...

  3. Dominant species of dicot-weeds and weed biodiversity in spring barley in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaga, I; Mintale, Z; Smirnova, O

    2010-01-01

    The composition of weed species in spring barley and weed biodiversity was evaluated in experiments in different growing seasons and with different previous crops. The aim of the experiments was to evaluate the composition of weed species in spring barley during a four year period in weather conditions of different growing seasons and with different previous crop as well as to assess the biodiversity in the experiments where the different groups of herbicides were applied. Over years and previous crops, the dicotyledonous weed community was dominated by Chenopodium album, followed by Viola arvensis. The herbicides from different groups had significant influences on the biodiversity of weeds.

  4. Study on Basidiospore Germination and Hyphal Cytology of Horse Mushroom%野蘑菇担孢子萌发和菌丝细胞学观察研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春; 余杨; 李林玉; 郝瑞芳

    2004-01-01

    野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis Schaeff ex Fr.)是欧洲近年来驯化成功的新食用菌种类,应用光学和电子显微镜对野蘑菇的担孢子、担孢子的萌发过程和单孢菌丝的细胞学特征进行了观察研究,为其物种生物学研究积累资料.

  5. Efeito de solo previamente cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. PEREIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito do solo pré-cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface cv. Simpson. A pesquisa foi realizada na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, em bandejas mantidas em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e onze tratamentos: solo pré-cultivado com hortelã-comum (Mentha x villosa, hortelã-brava (Mentha arvensis, hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita, Mentha spp., capim-citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus, capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão de folha larga (Ocimum basilicum, manjericão de folha roxa (Ocimum gratissimun, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris, sálvia (Salvia officinalis e solo da mesma área sem cultivo prévio de planta aromática (controle. Aos 30 dias após o semeio, foram avaliadas: índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, taxa de sobrevivência (TS, número de folhas (NF, comprimento da raiz principal (CRP e da parte aérea (CPA, massa fresca da raiz (MFR e da parte aérea (MFPA e massa seca da raiz (MSR e da parte aérea (MSPA. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa em relação ao IVE, sendo que o tratamento com C. citratus afetou negativamente a emergência das plântulas. O tratamento com M. arvensis apresentou uma TS de apenas 16% das plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. O NF foi menor no tratamento com M. arvensis, diferentemente de todos os demais, exceto S. officinalis. A MRF e MFF foram estimuladas pelo tratamento com T. vulgaris sendo superior a todos os outros tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que houve efeito negativo de M. arvensis e positivo de T. vulgaris no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface.

  6. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  7. A guide to generalized additive models in crop science using SAS and R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Liew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear models and generalized linear models are well known and are used extensively in crop science. Generalized additive models (GAMs are less well known. GAMs extend generalized linear models through inclusion of smoothing functions of explanatory variables, e.g., spline functions, allowing the curves to bend to better describe the observed data. This article provides an introduction to GAMs in the context of crop science experiments. This is exemplified using a dataset consisting of four populations of perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis L., originating from two regions, for which emergence of shoots over time was compared.

  8. Studies on the species, density, frequency and sociability of sunflower weeds in Erzurum

    OpenAIRE

    ZENGİN, Hüseyin

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the species, density, frequency and sociability of weeds in sunflower in Pasinler and Köprüköy districts of Erzurum in 1990 and 1995. In the study, 85 different weed species belonging to 27 families were identified with a density of 65.57 weeds per square meter on average. The number of species recorded in Pasinler and Köprüköy was 67 and 60 with a density of 63.35 and 67.78 weeds per meter square respectively. Sinapis arvensis was a predom...

  9. Radiation induced useful mutants of Japanese mint (Mentha arvesis L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kak, S.N.; Kaul, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    With a view to inducing mutations, dormant suckers of Mentha arvensis var. piperascens were exposed to X- and gamma rays. Individual clones raised from these treatments were screened for morphological and biochemical traits. Clones with apparent mutations in the first vegetative generation were propagated through second generation and those breeding true for the mutated character were isolated. In this way several mutants were isolated, some of which were found to be novel with respect to the quality of oil, besides those economically useful. The study shows that induced mutations could be very useful in the breeding of vegetatively propagated plants.

  10. Etude phytochimique ,activités antioxydanteset antimicrobiennes des extraits de cinq plantes médicinale et analyses de leur huilles essentielles

    OpenAIRE

    SELADJI, MERYEM

    2015-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la découverte de nouvelles molécules actives à partir des sources naturelles, de l’Ouest d’Algérie, nous nous sommes intéressés dans ce travail à l’étude des métabolites secondaires (phénols totaux, flavonoïdes, tanins, et huiles essentielles) ainsi qu’à l’évaluation des activités antioxydantes et antimicrobiennes des extraits de cinq espèces végétales Nepeta nepetella, Mentha rotundifolia, Moricandia arvensis, Atriplex canescens et Schinus molle. Les teneurs en poly...

  11. Solid solubility of germanium in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Hamed [Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Weber, Ludger, E-mail: ludger.weber@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-09-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvus line in the binary Ag-Ge system has been assessed based on measurements of electrical resistivity and specific gravity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two measurement techniques yield close agreement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The data found in this contribution indicate lower solid solubility than in previous assessments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Redlich-Kister parameters have been evaluated to describe the solvus line. - Abstract: The solid solubility of germanium in silver has been measured in the temperature range of 520 K to 913 K via measurements of density and of electrical conductivity of two near-eutectic Ag-Ge alloys. The atomic fraction of germanium in solid solution varied between 0.014 and 0.089 over the mentioned range of temperature and an extrapolated maximum solubility of 0.093 at the eutectic temperature of 924 K is found. For samples with spheroidized Ge-particles before the equilibrium heat treatments at low temperature for 24 or 48 h, thermodynamic equilibrium was supposedly not achieved at temperatures below 723 K. Much longer heat treatments (tens of days) on the significantly finer as-cast microstructure allowed to reach equilibrium probably down to 600 K. Independently of whether thermodynamic equilibrium was reached or not the electrical conductivity and the density measurements yielded good agreement typically within a few tenth of percent of atomic Ge-concentration in solid solution in {alpha}-Ag for a given temperature. The results are close to, yet consistently slightly lower than, the values given by Owen and Rowland on which the current assessment of the solvus in the Ag-Ge binary is based. More recent results by Filipponi and co-workers are clearly not in agreement with the data presented here.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen protects mandibular condylar chondrocytes from interleukin-1β-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Wu, Gaoyi; Sun, Qi; Dong, Yabing; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis is mainly responsible for the development and progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) generally serves an agent that induces chondrocyte apoptosis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment increases proteoglycan synthesis in vivo. We explore the protective effect of HBO on IL-1β-induced mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis in rats and the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from the TMJ of 3-4-week old Sprague-Dawley rats. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to determine cell viability. The phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3 kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated AKT (p-Akt), type II collagen (COL2), and aggrecan (AGG) content was detected by immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and western blotting. The expression of Pi3k, Akt, Col2 and Agg mRNA was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results: HBO inhibited the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by IL-1β (10 ng/mL) in the mandibular condylar chondrocytes. HBO also decreased the IL-1β activity that decreased p-PI3K and p-AKT levels, and increased COL2 and AGG expression, with the net effect of suppressing extracellular matrix degradation. Conclusions: These data suggest that HBO may protect mandibular condylar chondrocytes against IL-1β-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and that it may promote the expression of mandibular condylar chondrocyte extracellular matrix through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27904712

  13. Ribosome can resume the translation in both +1 or -1 frames after encountering an AGA cluster in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainé, Sébastien; Thouard, Anne; Komar, Anton A; Rossignol, Jean-Michel

    2008-04-15

    In Escherichia coli the rare codons AGG, AGA and CGA are reported to have a detrimental effect on protein synthesis, especially during the expression of heterologous proteins. In the present work, we have studied the impact of successive clusters of these rare codons on the accuracy of mRNA translation in E. coli. For this purpose, we have analyzed the expression of an mRNA which contains in its 3' region a triplet and a tandem of AGA codons. This mRNA is derived from the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) preC gene. Both in eukaryotic cells and in eukaryotic cell-free translation system, this mRNA, directs the synthesis of a single 25 kDa protein. However, in a conventional E. coli strain BL 21 (DE3), transformed with a plasmid expressing this protein the synthesis of four polypeptides ranging from 30 to 21.5 kDa can be observed. Using different approaches, notably expression of i) precore mutated proteins or ii) chimeric proteins containing HA- and Myc-tags downstream of the AGA clusters (respectively in the -1 or +1 frame), we have found that when the ribosome encounters the AGA clusters, it can then resume the translation in both +1 and -1 frames. This result is in agreement with the model proposed recently by Baranov et al. (Baranov, P.V., Gesteland, R.F., Atkins, J.F., 2004. P-site tRNA is a crucial initiator of ribosomal frameshifting. RNA 10, 221-230), thus confirming that AGA/AGG codons can serve as sites for -1 frameshifting events. Only +1 frameshifting was suggested previously to occur at the AGA/AGG clusters.

  14. Research on efficiency and cross-platform of graphics rendering engine%图形绘制引擎的效率和跨平台研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦文峰; 王凯; 吴亚非; 窦长旭

    2016-01-01

    分析 AGG、GDI/GDI+、QT这3类图形绘制引擎的效率和跨平台能力,对 AGG和应用程序的结合方案做出优化,对 GDI/GDI+、QT的基础绘制性能进行摸底测试;在此基础上,提出自主图形绘制引擎的设计思路,在支持 QT 的操作系统中,基于QT建立自主图形绘制引擎,在不支持QT的嵌入式操作系统中,基于AGG建立自主图形绘制引擎。对自主图形绘制引擎进行设计开发,并将此成功应用到大型平台项目中。%The efficiency of graphics rendering engines including AGG,GDI/GDI+ and QT was analyzed,the framework in-tegrating AGG and the application was optimized,the base drawing performance of GDI/GDI+ and QT was calculated and tes ted.On this basis,the ways to develop self-control graphics rendering engine was put forward,in the operating systems which supported QT,self-control graphics rendering engine was established based on QT,in the embedded operating systems which did not support QT,self-control graphics rendering engine was established based on AGG.The self-control graphics rendering en-gine was designed and developed,and successfully applied to the large platform proj ect.

  15. A single sequence context cannot satisfy all non-AUG initiator codons in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that ALA1 (encoding alanyl-tRNA synthetase) and GRS1 (encoding glycyl-tRNA synthetase) respectively use ACG and TTG as their alternative translation initiator codons. To explore if any other non-ATG triplets can act as initiator codons in yeast, ALA1 was used as a reporter for screening. Results We show herein that except for AAG and AGG, all triplets that differ from ATG by a single nucleotide were able to serve as initi...

  16. Search for direct CP-violation in $K^{\\pm}\\to \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, Nicola; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, Donald C; Falaleev, V; Fidecaro, Maria; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Kubischta, Werner; Norton, A; Maier, A; Patel, M; Peters, A; Balev, S; Frabetti, P L; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Marinova, E; Molokanova, N A; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Rubin, P; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Wahl, H; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Celeghini, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Renk, B; Wache, M; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Coward, D; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Shieh, M; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Wood, M D; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Raggi, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Cerri, C; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Di Lella, Luigi; Doble, Niels T; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, Sergio; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Michetti, A; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Bloch-Devaux, B; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Ziolkowski, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Marchetto, F; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G

    2006-01-01

    A search for direct CP-violation in K+- --> pi+-pi0pi0 decays based on 47.14 million events has been performed by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. The asymmetry in the Dalitz plot linear slopes A_g=(g^+ - g^-)/(g^+ + g^-) is measured to be A_g=(1.8 +- 2.6).10^{-4}. The design of the experiment and the method of analysis provide good control of instrumental charge asymmetries in this measurement. The precision of the result is limited by statistics and is almost one order of magnitude better than that of previous measurements by other experiments.

  17. ACHIEVING LIPID TARGETS IN ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES--THE SANDS STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Fleg, Jerome L.; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Wm. James

    2010-01-01

    Background Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months. Objective To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs). Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations. Results On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD. Conclusion Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non

  18. The O(αs3TF2) contributions to the gluonic operator matrix element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; De Freitas, A.; Hasselhuhn, A.; von Manteuffel, A.; Round, M.; Schneider, C.

    2014-08-01

    The O(αs3TF2CF(CA)) contributions to the transition matrix element Agg,Q relevant for the variable flavor number scheme at 3-loop order are calculated. The corresponding graphs contain two massive fermion lines of equal mass leading to terms given by inverse binomially weighted sums beyond the usual harmonic sums. In x-space two root-valued letters contribute in the iterated integrals in addition to those forming the harmonic polylogarithms. We outline technical details needed in the calculation of graphs of this type, which are as well of importance in the case of two different internal massive lines.

  19. Research on the influence of joint injuries on gene expressions of articular cartilage proteases%关节损伤对软骨蛋白酶基因表达影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建利; 崔威

    2016-01-01

    目的本研究旨在探索膝关节损伤后特定的透明软骨退化酶,如基质金属蛋白酶( MMP )、蛋白聚糖酶( Agg )的基因表达是否增加。方法试验纳入138例因关节组织如半月板、前交叉韧带( anterior cruciate ligament,ACL )、透明软骨损伤而行膝关节镜检查的患者,男57例,女81例,平均年龄38.8岁。检查前采集全血样本,检查时采集滑膜样本。利用 RT-PCR 和分光光度法处理样本。结果患者中,有56例 ACL损伤,65例内侧半月板损伤,5例外侧半月板损伤,软骨损伤者根据 Outerbridge 标准进行分级。实验室检测显示,ACL 撕裂和基因表达( MMP1、MMP2、MMP8、MMP9、MMP13、MMP14、Agg1、Agg2、IL1、TNFα和TIMP2,除外血浆 TIPM1)显著相关:ACL 患者滑膜中基因表达水平较非 ACL 患者滑膜中的对应基因表达水平显著上调:MMP10.920±0.068 vs 0.794±0.061,MMP21.075±0.053 vs 0.668±0.035,MMP80.951±0.047 vs 0.766±0.045,MMP91.354±0.032 vs 0.947±0.042,MMP131.148±0.058 vs 0.991±0.058,MMP141.379±0.049 vs 0.777±0.036,Agg11.309±0.071 vs 0.647±0.034,Agg21.043±0.072 vs 0.684±0.069,IL11.320±0.054 vs 0.857±0.049,TNFα1.101±0.050 vs 0.802±0.039,TIMP11.197±0.060 vs 1.035±0.071,TIMP21.110±0.048 vs 0.861±0.048( P 值均<0.05)。除 TIMP1外(1.092±0.053 vs 1.081±0.033,P=0.32),ACL 患者血液中基因表达水平较非 ACL 患者血液中的对应基因表达水平显著上调:MMP11.163±0.030 vs 0.948±0.049,MMP20.918±0.056 vs 0.827±0.049,MMP81.172±0.029 vs 0.783±0.034,MMP91.304±0.059 vs 0.94±0.04,MMP131.155±0.060 vs 0.824±0.043,MMP141.095±0.058 vs 0.759±0.033,Agg11.270±0.077 vs 0.676±0.038,Agg21.244±0.037 vs 0.871±0.037,IL11.128±0.056 vs 0.912±0.045,TNFα1.018±0.076 vs 0.724±0.047,TIMP11.092±0.053 vs 1.081±0.033,TIMP20.906±0.056 vs 0.875±0.049( P 值均<0.05)。所有基因在血浆和滑

  20. Measurement of the Floor Tilt in Experimental Determination of the Gravitational Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴书朝; 黄玉; 范淑华; 罗俊

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a device with an impact structure for measuring the floor tilt has been built in our laboratory.The mechanical construction and the capacitive transducer of the device are introduced. Experimental results indicate that the floor tilt is about 16μrad in our cavity laboratory, and the uncertainty AG/G caused by such tilt is less than 0.54 parts per million (ppm), so the floor tilt can be reasonably neglected in the experimental determination of the gravitational constant G with the total uncertainty of about 10ppm.

  1. Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z

    2012-10-15

    Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to sperm agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Although the mechanism of agglutination was not determined, the cAMP- protein kinase A signaling pathway was not involved.

  2. COST REDUCTION STUDIES OF DECORATIVE LAMINATES

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; Jain, R.K.; Anuj Maheshwari; Harjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Barrier paper, which is made of bleached absorbent kraft pulp, is a significant layer of decorative laminates, since it controls the see-through of brown color of saturating kraft paper and its opacifying effect usually is achieved by a heavy loading of TiO2. The TiO2, due to its very small particle size, passes between the cellulosic fibers and drains into the white water. To overcome this problem, papermakers try to use various retention aids for improving overall retention of TiO2, but agg...

  3. Termodinámica de Sistemas Metálicos (II. Extensión y Refinamiento de Los Modelos Energéticos de Pares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valderrama N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan k>s posibles refinamientos de los modelos de pares aplicados a soluciones metálicas liquidas. Como una extensión de los mismos se discute el tratamiento estadístico de Takeuchi y se presenta su aplicación a los sistemas Ag-Ge, Ag-Sn, Cu-ln y Cd-Cu. Cd-Sb, St>- Zn, El comportamiento de mini- estructuras en estos sistemas es también bien presentado y discutido.

  4. ALLGEMEINES GLEICHBEHANDLUNGSGESETZ – APROXIMACIÓN A LA NUEVA REGULACIÓN GENERAL DE PROHIBICIÓN DE TRATAMIENTO DESIGUAL EN EL DERECHO ALEMÁN, EN ESPECIAL, SU ALCANCE EN EL ÁMBITO CIVIL

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Pujalte, Carmen María Cerdá

    2008-01-01

    En agosto de 2006 entró en vigor en Alemania la Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG) o ley general de tratamiento igualitario. Es innegable el carácter novedoso de esta ley, que positiviza, por primera vez en Alemania, en una normativa general el principio de no discriminación en el ámbito de las relaciones jurídico privadas. La repercusión práctica de la misma es así mismo indudable, dado el alcance general y amplio contenido de la misma. La ley alemana tiene en realidad un alcance muy ...

  5. Structural, topographical and electrical properties of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN60) ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. Gokul; Mathivanan, V.; Kumar, G. Ramesh; Yathavan, S.; Mohan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Tungsten bronze type cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN - Sr0.6B0.4Nb2O6) ceramics were synthesized by solid state process. Cerium was used as dopant to improve its electrical properties. Influence of Ce+ ions on the photoluminescence properties was investigated in detail. The grain size topographical behavior of SBN powders and their associated abnormal grain growth (AGG) were completely analyzed through SEM studies. Finally dielectric, measurement discusses about the broad phase transition observed due to cerium dopant The results were discussed in detail.

  6. Homogeneous products of conjugacy classes

    OpenAIRE

    Adan-Bante, Edith

    2006-01-01

    Let $G$ be a finite group and $a\\in G$. Let $a^G=\\{g^{-1}ag\\mid g\\in G\\}$ be the conjugacy class of $a$ in $G$. Assume that $a^G$ and $b^G$ are conjugacy classes of $G$ with the property that ${\\bf C}_G(a)={\\bf C}_G(b)$. Then $a^G b^G$ is a conjugacy class if and only if $[a,G]=[b,G]=[ab,G]$ and $[ab,G]$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.

  7. Ocorrência de Frankliniella schultzei (trybom (thysanoptera: thripidae em plantas daninhas Ocurrence of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thysanoptera:Thripidae at weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. A. Lima

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se levantamentos de plantas daninhas, no Campus da UNESP em Jaboticabal/SP, com o objetivo de identificar espécies de plantas daninhas hospedeiras do tripes Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. As plantas foram coletadas semanalmente utilizando-se o método de ensacamento. A separação dos tripes foi feita mediante emprego do funil de Berlese. Entre as 43 espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas nas áreas amostradas, 19 são hospedeiras do tripes. Rabanete (Raphanus sativus L., nabiça (R. raphanistrum L. e mostarda (Sinapsis arvensis L. foram as que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de F. schultzei, 45, 27 e 17% do total de fêmeas coletadas respectivamente.A monitoring of weeds was carried out on the UNESP Campus in Jaboticabal, SP, with the objective of indentifying host weed species of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. The plants were collected weekly and transported to the laboratory inside paper bags. The Berlese funnel method was used to separate the insects from the plants. Thrips were found in 19 of the 43 weed species studied: Raphanus sativus L., R. raphanistrum L., and Sinapsis arvensis L. presented the highest percentage of thrips, consisting of 45, 27, and 17% respectively of the total females that were collected.

  8. Nueva contribución al conocimiento de los macromicetos de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, D.F., México New contribution to the knowledge of the macromycetes of the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal of San Ángel, D.F., Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Herrera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se citan 8 especies de macromicetos recolectados en el área poniente de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, D.F., México, de las cuales 5 son lignícolas y 3 humícolas, Se desarrollan a la sombra y entre hojarasca de plantas superiores. Entre los agaricales la familia Agaricaceae es la mejor representada. Se citan por primera vez en la micobiota del Pedregal de San Ángel: Gymnopus confluens, Agrocybe pediades, Agaricus arvensis y A. silvaticus, Setchelliogaster rheophyllus y Coprinus truncorumse citan por primera vez para México.Eight species of macromycetes were collected from the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal de San Angel D.F. Mexico. Five of them are lignicolous, and 3 are humicolous developing under the shade of trees and among the litter of vascular plants. In the Agaricales the family Agaricaceae is the best represented. Gymnopus confluens, Agrocybe pediades, Agaricus arvensis and A. silvaticus, are first records in the mycobiota of the Pedregal de San Ángel. Setchelliogaster rheophyllus and Coprinus truncorum first records for Mexico are presented in this paper.

  9. Assessment of mint (Mentha spp. species for large-scale production of plantlets by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Teixeira Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Mentha produce essential oils which are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study evaluates the potential for in vitro propagation and estimates mass production of plantlets of Mentha species. Nine species (M. piperita, M. suaveolens, M. canadensis, M. longiflora, M. aquatica, M. arvensis, Mentha x gracilis, M. gracilis and M. spicata were propagated with five successive 30-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 µM and BAP (4.4 µM. Shoots were rooted in MS with IBA, IAA or NAA (0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 2.5 or 5.0 µM. The rooted plantlets were finally acclimatized in a greenhouse. Studied species increased in multiplication rates between 4.2 and 9.0-fold per month. M. piperita, M. longiflora, M. arvensis, M. x gracilis and M. gracilis showed the greatest potential for plantlet production since the estimated production varied between 6,000 and 27,000 plantlets after five 30-days subcultures. The addition of auxin to the medium did not influence root induction. However, IAA at a concentration of 5 µM provided the best results for root length and fresh weight, with averages 11.1 cm and 0.16 g, respectively. Survival of plantlets reached 100% during the greenhouse acclimatization process.

  10. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of six wild Mentha species (Lamiaceae) from northeast of Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amina Benabdallah; Chaabane Rahmoune; Mahieddine Boumendjel; Oumayma Aissi; Chokri Messaoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content and the in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of six wild Mentha species which are Mentha aquatica, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotun-difolia and Mentha villosa. Methods: The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenols content while flavonoids were estimated according to the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. To evaluate tannins content, vanillin and HCl were added to methanolic extracts. The antioxidant potential was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating and the inhibition ofβ-carotene bleaching assays. Results: The methanol extracts of Algerian mints were rich in phenolic compounds and exhibited powerful antioxidant activity ranging from 7.5μg/mL to 44.66μg/mL, which varied significantly among species. Mentha aquatica stood out with efficient antioxidant ability which was correlated to the high total phenolics content, followed by Mentha arvensis and Mentha piperita with very close values, comparing to Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia and Mentha villosa with lowest values. Conclusions: These results show that methanolic extracts of Mentha species from Algeria have a great potential of polyphenols which can be used as a natural food pre-servative and antioxidant source.

  11. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic hybridization is different from Polima CMS.The origin of the cytoplasm and potential use of this hovel CMS in oilseed rape breeding were discussed.Key wotds:Oilseed rape,Protoplast fusion,Cytoplasmic male sterility,Sinapis arvensis

  12. Some Weeds Community Percent in Response to Pumice Application on Soil under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Zarehaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A factorial experiment (using RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2014 at the University of Tabriz-Iran, in order to determine the effects of pumice application (P1, P2, P3 and P4: control, 30, 60 and 90 tons per ha on soil and water stress (I1, I2 and I3: 100%, 70% and 50% water requirement calculated from class A pan, respectively on dominante weeds community percent. Results showed that community percent of weed species changed as a result of water stress and pumice application on soil. Distributions of Chenopodium album and Malva sylvestris were sensitive to water stress but, Amaranthus retroflexus and Solanum nigrum were neutral to water stress. In contrast, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cardaria draba, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium irio, Xanthium strumarium, Convolvulus arvensis and Salsola rigida distribution were resistant to water stress. Community percent of Chenopodium album as sensitive species to water stress and Salsola rigida as resistance species to water stress positively affected by pumice application especially under water stress condition. Amaranthus retroflexus, Xanthium strumarium and Convolvulus arvensis were positively affected by pumice application under well and limited water supply conditions. In contrast, Cardaria draba, Sisymbrium irio and Solanum nigrum negatively affected by pumice under water stress and it had positive effect on community of these species under well watering conditions. Thus, application of pumice and water stress are two factors which change weed community precent.

  13. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  14. Factors determining the diurnal dynamics of blooming of chosen plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to synthesize the determinants which may influence the diurnal rhythm of blooming. Additionally, I tried to explore and bring together topics that concern blooming and have always been considered separately because of their origin in different disciplines. The following species were included: Hydrangea arborescens L. subsp. discolor (Raf., H. paniculata Sieb., Viburnum opulus L., Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L., Adonis vernalis L., Aster saggitifolius Willd., Taraxacum officinale L. Chelidonium majus L. The taxons were observed in Lublin (51008' - 51018' N and 21027' - 21041' E in the years 2001-2007. The blooming of species was determined at least for two vegetation seasons. During observations all flowers developed in one-hour intervals were counted. The diurnal dynamics of blooming differs among species and is modified by different endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous determinants of diurnal dynamics of blooming are morphological diversity of flowers (fertility or sterility within species or heterostyly. The different pattern of blooming succour different mechanisms which prevent self-pollination (Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L.. The abiotic factors, such as day length and temperature during the vegetation season, influence the change in the process of diurnal dynamics of blooming (e. g. Taraxacum officinale, Chelidonium majus.

  15. Essential oil composition of sixteen elite cultivars of Mentha from western Himalayan region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistilled essential oils of 16 cultivars of Mentha, viz. M. arvensis L., M. spicata L. and M. citrata Ehrh., were analysed and compared by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven constituents representing 92.8-99.8% of the total essential oil composition were identified. Monoterpenoids (88.1-98.6% are the major constituents of the essential oils. The major constituents of the oils in 9 cultivars of M. arvensis are menthol (73.7-85.8%, menthone (1.5-11.0%, menthyl acetate (0.5-5.3%, isomenthone (2.1-3.9%, limonene (1.2-3.3% and neomenthol (1.9-2.5%. Carvone (51.3-65.1%, limonene (15.1-25.2%, -pinene (1.3-3.2% and 1,8-cineole (≤0.1-3.6% are the major constituents in 5 cultivars of M. spicata, while in one cultivar (Ganga of M. spicata the major constituents are piperitenone oxide (76.7%, α-terpineol (4.9% and limonene (4.7%. Linalool (59.7%, linalyl acetate (18.4%, nerol (2.0%, trans-p-menth-1-en-2-ol (1.8%, a-terpineol (1.5% and limonene (1.1% are the major constituents of M. citrata.

  16. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin.

  17. Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cupressus arizonica Greene essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amri; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Hamrouni, Lamia; Hanana, Mohsen; Jamoussi, Bassem; Gargouri, Samia; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, and female cones of Cupressus arizonica Greene, grown in Tunisia, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 62 compounds were identified, 62 in the leaf oil, 19 in the cone oil, and 24 in the stem oil. The cone and stem oils were mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (96.6 and 85.2%, resp.). In the leaf oil, the total sesquiterpene fraction constituted 36.1% and that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 33.8% of the total oil composition. The three oils were evaluated for their in vitro herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of the four weed species Sinapis arvensis L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Trifolium campestre Schreb., and Phalaris canariensis L. At the highest doses tested (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml), the leaf essential oil inhibited either totally or almost completely the seed germination and the shoot and root growth of S. arvensis and T. campestre. The oils were also tested for their antifungal activity; however, their effects on the fungal growth were statistically not significant.

  18. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Cebrián, S; Davenport, M; Elefteriadis, C; Englhauser, J; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Hoffmeister, G; Joux, J N; Königsmann, K C; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lasseur, C; Lippitsch, A; Lutz, G; Morales, J; Papaevangelou, T; Rodríguez, A; Strüder, L; Vogel, J; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  19. Small Variations in the Composition and Properties of Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Rharbi; Huang; Winnik

    2000-10-01

    Two samples of Triton X-100 (TX100) were compared. The "old sample," manufactured by Rohm and Haas, has a mean degree of ethoxylation of 10.1. The "new sample," manufactured by Union Carbide, has a mean degree of ethoxylation of 9.6. The cmc values near room temperature (23 degrees C, old sample; 24.6 degrees C, new sample), as determined from surface tension measurements, are similar. Dynamic light scattering measurements on the new sample gave hydrodynamic radii at different temperatures in reasonable accord with those reported a number of years ago. In contrast, time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) experiments using a pyrene-labeled triglyceride as a probe gave aggregation numbers N(agg) near room temperature that were similar to those determined previously by light scattering; however, the N(agg) of the new sample was larger, and the difference was outside of experimental error to one standard deviation. More troubling was that the TRFQ experiment failed to give meaningful results on solutions exposed to air, as in the case of the older TX100 sample. To get useful data by TRFQ measurements, one had to first remove oxygen from the solution. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. 星形细胞瘤FHIT基因杂合性丢失的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运杰; 崔连旭; 郑伟; 范舒旻

    2002-01-01

    @@ 一、材料与方法 1.取材:星形细胞瘤新鲜手术标本45例,均采用同体外周静脉血作对照.标本来源于中国医科大学附属第一医院. 2.PCR扩增:FHIT基因的3个微卫星多态标记引物由上海Sangon生物工程公司合成.分别为:D3S1234(5-CCT GTG AGA CAA AGC AAGAC-3,5-GAC ATT AGG CAC AGG GCTAA-3,99~121bp)、D3S1300(5-AGCTCACATTCTAGTCAGCCT-3,5-GCC AAT TCC CCA GATG-3,217~241bp)、D3S4103(5-TTC TAC TGC AAT CCA GCC TGG-3,5-CTT GGG ATG AAT TAT AAA CCT-3,165~185bp)

  1. Looking into the genome of Thermosynechococcus elongatus (thermophilic cyanobacteria) with codon selection and usage perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Rai, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Genome analysis of thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 revealed factors ruling choices of codons in this organism. Multiple parameters like Nc, GC3s, RSCU, Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), optimal and rare codons, codon-pair context and amino acid usage were analysed and compositional constraint was identified as major factor. Wide range of Nc values for the same GC3 content suggested the role of translational selection. Mutational bias is suggested at synonymous position. Among optimal codons for translation, most were GC-ending. Seven codons (AGA, AGG, AUA, UAA, UAG, UCA and UGA) were found to have least occurrence in the entire genome and except stop codons all were A-ending (exception AGG). Most widely used codon-pair in the genome are G-ending or C-ending and A-ending or U-ending codons make pair with G-ending or C-ending codons. Amino acids which are largely distributed in T. elongatus tend to use G-ending or C-ending codons most frequently. Findings showed cumulative role of translational selection, translational accuracy and gene expression levels with mutational bias as key player in codon selection pattern of this organism.

  2. Natural ageing process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various exposure scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming

    2016-11-01

    Natural ageing process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different exposure scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6–15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After ageing treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the ageing treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products.

  3. Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Proteins and Age Reset in Yeast Are Regulated by Vac17-Dependent Vacuolar Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Malmgren Hill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Age can be reset during mitosis in both yeast and stem cells to generate a young daughter cell from an aged and deteriorated one. This phenomenon requires asymmetry-generating genes (AGGs that govern the asymmetrical inheritance of aggregated proteins. Using a genome-wide imaging screen to identify AGGs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a previously unknown role for endocytosis, vacuole fusion, and the myosin-dependent adaptor protein Vac17 in asymmetrical inheritance of misfolded proteins. Overproduction of Vac17 increases deposition of aggregates into cytoprotective vacuole-associated sites, counteracts age-related breakdown of endocytosis and vacuole integrity, and extends replicative lifespan. The link between damage asymmetry and vesicle trafficking can be explained by a direct interaction between aggregates and vesicles. We also show that the protein disaggregase Hsp104 interacts physically with endocytic vesicle-associated proteins, such as the dynamin-like protein, Vps1, which was also shown to be required for Vac17-dependent sequestration of protein aggregates. These data demonstrate that two physiognomies of aging—reduced endocytosis and protein aggregation—are interconnected and regulated by Vac17.

  4. The reaction of [Fe(pic)3] with hydrogen peroxide: a UV-visible and EPR spectroscopic study (Hpic = picolinic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sneh L; Bhattacharyya, Pravat

    2005-08-21

    The Gif family of catalysts, based on an iron salt and O2 or H2O2 in pyridine, allows the oxygenation of cyclic saturated hydrocarbons to ketones and alcohols under mild conditions. The reaction between [Fe(pic)3] and hydrogen peroxide in pyridine under GoAgg(III)(Fe(III)/Hpic catalyst) conditions was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry. Reactions were monitored at 430 and 520 nm over periods ranging from a few minutes to several hours at 20 degrees C. A number of kinetically stable intermediates were detected, and their relevance to the processes involved in the assembly of the active GoAgg(III) catalyst was determined by measuring the kinetics in the presence and absence of cyclohexane. EPR measurements at 110 K using hydrogen peroxide and t-BuOOH as oxidants were used to further probe these intermediates. Our results indicate that in wet pyridine [Fe(pic)3] undergoes reversible dissociation of one picolinate ligand, establishing an equilibrium with [Fe(pic)2(py)(OH)]. Addition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide rapidly generates the high-spin complex [Fe(pic)2(py)(eta1-OOH)] from the labilised hydroxy species. Subsequently the hydroperoxy species undergoes homolysis of the Fe-O bond, generating HOO. and [Fe(pic)2(py)2], the active oxygenation catalyst.

  5. Molecular Markers for Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr45 in Wheat Based on AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Na; YANG Wen-xiang; YAN Hong-fei; LIU Da-qun; CHU Dong; MENG Qing-fang; ZHANG Ting

    2006-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was carried out in Thatcher, near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying different genes conferring resistance against wheat leaf rust, and TcLr45×Thatcher F2 progenies were used to develop markers for Lr45 gene. Sixty AFLP primer combinations were screened and most of them provided clear amplification products, 31 primer combinations displayed polymorphism of TcLr45 in 23 NILs. Two AFLP markers closely linked to the gene Lr45 were acquired: P-AGG/M-GAG261 bp, which was found closely linked to the Lr45 locus at a distance of 0.6 cM on one side, and P-ACA/M-GGT105 bp, which was found at a distance of 1.3 cM on the other side. The specific bands were cloned and subsequently sequenced. The 261-bp fragment produced by P-AGG/M-GAG showed 86% similarity with the sequence of Vulgare Hort Ⅰ gene; the 105-bp fragment produced by P-ACA/M-GGT showed 96% similarity with the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase gene of the Triticum monococcum. Both included an open reading frame (ORF).

  6. Al-Ti Particulate Composite: Processing and Studies on Particle Twinning, Microstructure, and Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder; Bauri, Ranjit; Kauffmann, Alexander; Freudenberger, Jens

    2016-08-01

    The present investigation shows that alternate to the ceramic particles, hard metallic particles can be used as reinforcement in an aluminum matrix to achieve a good strength-ductility combination in a composite. Titanium particles were incorporated into aluminum by friction stir processing (FSP) to process an Al-Ti particulate composite. FSP led to uniform distribution of the particles in the stir zone without any particle-matrix reaction, thereby retaining the particles in their elemental state. Fracture and twinning of the Ti particles with different frequency of occurrence on the advancing and retreating sides of the stir zone was observed. Twinning of the particles was studied by focused ion beam-assisted transmission electron microscopy. The processed Al-Ti composite exhibited a significant improvement in strength and also retained appreciable amount of ductility. The thermal stability of the fine-grained structure against abnormal grain growth (AGG) was improved by the Ti particles. The AGG in the Al-Ti composite occurred at 713 K (440 °C) compared to 673 K (400 °C) in the unreinforced aluminum processed under the same conditions. On the other hand, the particle-matrix reaction occurred only at 823 K (550 °C), and hence the Ti particles were thermally more stable compared to the matrix grain structure.

  7. Enteroaggregative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 in Belgium and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. De Rauw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O104:H4 occurred in Germany. This exceptionally virulent strain combined virulence factors of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC and STEC. After the outbreak only a few sporadic cases of infection with this rare serotype were reported, most of which were related to travel to the Middle East or North Africa. Here we describe two cases of enteroaggregative STEC (Agg-STEC O104:H4 infection that occurred in Belgium in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In both cases travel in a Mediterranean country preceded the infection. The first strain was isolated from the stool of a 42-year-old woman presenting bloody diarrhoea, who had travelled to Tunisia the week before. The second case involves a 14-year-old girl who, upon her return from Turkey to Belgium, suffered from an episode of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Extended typing of the isolates with pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the strains were closely related, though not exactly the same as the 2011 outbreak strain. This report supports the previously made hypothesis that Agg-STEC has a human reservoir and might be imported by travellers coming from an area where the pathogen is endemic. Furthermore, it emphasizes the concern that these bacteria may cause future outbreaks as evenly virulent O104:H4 isolates seem to be widespread.

  8. Screening of catalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity of metal-doped graphene by density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin, E-mail: chenxin830107@pku.edu.cn; Chen, Shuangjing; Wang, Jinyu

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • The screened M-G structures are very thermodynamically stable, and the stability is even higher than that of the corresponding bulk metal surfaces. • The binding energies of ORR intermediates suggest that they are not linear dependence, which are different form the cases found on some metal-based catalysts. • The Au-, Co-, and Ag-G structures could be used as the ORR catalysts. - Abstract: Graphene doping is a promising direction for developing effective oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts. In this paper, we computationally investigated the ORR performance of 10 kinds of metal-doped graphene (M-G) catalysts, namely, Al-, Si-, Mn-, Fe-, Co-, Ni-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Au-G. The results shown that the binding energies of the metal atoms incorporated into the graphene vacancy are higher than their bulk cohesive energies, indicating the formed M-G catalysts are even more stable than the corresponding bulk metal surfaces, and thus avoid the metals dissolution in the reaction environment. We demonstrated that the linear relation among the binding energies of the ORR intermediates that found on metal-based materials does not hold for the M-G catalysts, therefore a single binding energy of intermediate alone is not sufficient to evaluate the ORR activity of an arbitrary catalyst. By analysis of the detailed ORR processes, we predicted that the Au-, Co-, and Ag-G materials can be used as the ORR catalysts.

  9. Testing the predictive validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in relation to inmate misconduct and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Davidson, Megan

    2016-08-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) has been widely employed in correctional settings as a screening tool to assess inmates' risk for committing various types of institutional misconduct. Evaluations have generally found the PAI scales Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and the Violence Potential Index (VPI) to be modestly related to institutional misbehavior, thus supporting its construct validity. The current study provides the most comprehensive examination of the predictive and incremental validity of the PAI and its subscales among a large sample of imprisoned offenders to date. In particular, the size of the sample (n = 15,546) and follow-up period (mean time at risk of 2.2 years) allowed for the disaggregation of institutional misconduct by levels of seriousness and separate examinations by conviction offense and criminal history variables. The 3 scales most strongly related to general rule infractions were ANT, AGG, and the VPI. After controlling for age at intake, violent conviction history, prior violent arrests, and time at risk, the PAI scales were shown to add incremental validity to the classification of 4 types of disciplinary infractions ranging from 2 to 4 percentage points. The study also explored the relationship of the PAI's response bias scales to institutional misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Self-aggregation of ionic liquid 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] in aqueous media: A conductometric, volumetric and spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem21@gmail.com; Pillania, Ankita

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Self-aggregation behaviour of [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] has been studied using various techniques. • Thermodynamic parameters showing aggregation is an entropy-driven process. • Volumetric analysis indicates aggregation is influenced by solute–solvent interactions. • {sup 1}H NMR revealed formation of loosely bound aggregates in the system. - Abstract: Aggregation behaviour of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] in aqueous media has been studied by electrical conductivity, density and speed of sound measurements across temperature range (288.15–308.15) K. The critical aggregation concentration (cac), the standard Gibb’s free energy of aggregation, ΔG°{sub agg}, adiabatic compressibility, β{sub S} and changes in the adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation, Δβ{sub S,agg} for the IL in aqueous solution have been derived from the experimental data. Further to get the deeper insights into the aggregation process spectroscopic study using {sup 1}H NMR measurements have been carried out. The aggregation behaviour observed from conductance and volumetric approaches has been found to be in good agreement with each other. NMR study revealed the formation of loosely bound ion associates as aggregates in the system upon aggregation.

  11. pic gene of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, David; Contreras, Carmen A; Mosquito, Susan; Ruíz, Joaquim; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute and persistent diarrhea among children, HIV-infected patients, and travelers to developing countries. We have searched for 18 genes-encoding virulence factors associated with aggregative adherence, dispersion, biofilm, toxins, serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) and siderophores, analyzed in 172 well-characterized EAEC strains (aggR(+)) isolated from stool samples of 97 children with diarrhea and 75 healthy controls from a passive surveillance diarrhea cohort study in Peru. Eighty-one different genetic profiles were identified, 37 were found only associated with diarrhea and 25 with control samples. The most frequent genetic profile was aggC(+)aatA(+)aap(+)shf(+)fyuA(+), present in 19 strains, including diarrhea and controls. The profile set1A(+)set1B(+)pic(+) was associated with diarrhea (P pic was associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and with prolonged diarrhea (diarrhea ≥ 7 days) (P < 0.05). In summary, this is the first report on the prevalence of a large set of EAEC virulence genes and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children. More studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of each virulence factor.

  12. Determination of Ampicillin Resistant Enterococci (ARE Isolated From Canine and Feline Rectal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran CELIK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci species, which are normal inhabitants of the gut flora of healthy animals and human, began to be recognized as an important pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine due to the acquired resistance profiles. The aim of the study is to examine the diversity of ampicillin resistance enterococci (ARE species in cats and dogs, their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and to determine some of the virulence related genes; ace, gelE, efaA, agg and esp. For this purpose, rectal swabs from companion animals were collected and processed for ampicillin resistant enterococci isolation. One hundred fifty seven swab samples (86 canine and 71 feline were examined. ARE were isolated from 18 canine and 18 feline samples. All isolates identified as E. faecium by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by disk diffusion method. The isolates were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline (100%, followed by rifampicin and erythromycin (97%, streptomycin (92%, gentamicin (81%, ciprofloxacin (61%, nitrofurantoin (19%. Only two of E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin and one to chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥4 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. Virulence genes ace, agg and esp were not detected in any of the tested isolates. The efaA and gelE genes detection rates were, 13.8% and 11.1% respectively. The ARE isolation rate among pet animals was 22.9%. Screening of antimicrobial resistant enterococci among companion animals would be useful to detect any emerging antimicrobial resistance problem related with public health.

  13. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to

  14. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  15. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  16. Potential of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles as Nanocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Cellulose by Cellulase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipinchandra K. Salunke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs as a result of their excellent optical and electronic properties are promising catalytic materials for various applications. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach for enhanced degradation of cellulose using biosynthesized AgNPs in an enzyme catalyzed reaction of cellulose hydrolysis by cellulase. AgNPs were synthesized through reduction of silver nitrate by extracts of five medicinal plants (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz, Epimedium koreanum Nakai, Artemisia messer-schmidtiana Besser, and Magnolia kobus. An increase of around twofold in reducing sugar formation confirmed the catalytic activity of AgNPs as nanocatalyst. The present study suggests that immobilization of the enzyme onto the surface of the AgNPs can be useful strategy for enhanced degradation of cellulose, which can be utilized for diverse industrial applications.

  17. Vegetation of the Landfill Supíkovice (Olomouc Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimalová Šárka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of floristic and vegetation analyses of the landfill Supíkovice. Ruderal, segetal and meadow vegetation units were recorded in June 2015. The most interesting findings were threatened weed species growing in decontamination patches on loamy and nutrient-poor soils in the central part of the landfill. Dianthus armeria (C4a and Filago arvensis (C3 are listed in the national Red List of the Czech Republic. Moreover, these taxa were evaluated in the same category of rarity on the regional level. Apart from the above mentioned, Centaurea cyanus (C4a and Papaver dubium (C4a, registered only in the regional Red List of vascular plants of the Moravian-Silesian Region (see methods, were found. Besides threatened species, relatively small populations of invasive taxa as Erigeron annuus, Impatiens parviflora or Reynoutria sp., were also recorded on the landfill Supíkovice.

  18. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a micropropagação dos genótipos de M. arvensis. A concentração de 4,4 µM de AIA promoveu um maior número de brotos e folhas por explante do genótipo MA701-02, em relação aos demais genótipos. A utilização de 4,4 µM AIA e 9,3 µM CIN + 8,9 µM BAP + 2,2 µM AIA proporcionou maior acúmulo de massa seca no genótipo MA701-02, e no MA701-04 foi a concentração de 8,9 µM BAP + 5,4 µM ANA. O substrato pó de coco + 1 g L-1 de calcário + 12 g L-1 de Biosafra® (3-12-6 pode ser indicado para a aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas dos genótipos de hortelã japonesa avaliados. A micropropagação não alterou o teor de óleo essencial e foram identificados 17 constituintes químicos, perfazendo um total de 92 a 99%.Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. is an aromatic species originated from South China and its essential oil is rich in menthol, which is used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for micropropagation and acclimatization of japanese mint genotypes and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils from micropropagated and not micropropagated plants. Nodal segments are the most indicated for micropropagation of the M. arvensis genotypes. The concentration of 4.4 µM of IAA promoved higher number of shoots and leaves per explant of the MA701-02 genotype when compared with the others. The use of 4,4 µM of IAA and 9,3 µM of KIN + 8,9 µM of BAP + 2

  19. Flora in abandoned fields and adjacent crop fields on rendzina soils in the Zamość region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic inventory of segetal flora was carried out in abandoned fields and adjacent crop fields on rendzina soils in the Zamość region in the year 2010. This study found a total of 130 weed species belonging to 30 botanical families. The following families were represented most frequently: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Brassicaceae. In the segetal flora, apophytes are dominant (55% of the total flora, with the highest number of meadow and xerothermic grassland species among them. Archeophytes (38% predominate in the group of anthropophytes. The species characterized by the highest constancy classes and reaching the highest cover indices posed the greatest threat to crops in the study area. The following weeds are most frequently found in fallow fields: Consolida regalis, Cichorium intybus, and Sinapis arvensis, while Papaver rhoeas is the greatest threat to cereal crops grown on rendzina soils.

  20. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents.

  1. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) potential in nine Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2012-02-01

    Mentha species are used in every day life in various food items. These species produce valuable secondary metabolites that scavenge toxic free radicals. Toxic free radicals can cause different diseases in the human body. In the present study free radical scavenging potential (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity) in nine Mentha species were investigated to evaluate and explore new potential sources for natural antioxidants. The activity was performed after different time intervals with incubation period of 30 minutes. The methanolic extracts revealed that significantly higher activity (82%) was observed in Mentha suaveolens, followed by Mentha longifolia (79%), Mentha officinalis (76%) and Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana (75%), respectively. Significantly same activity was observed in Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata. Lower activity was observed in Mentha citrata (64%). The present study revealed that these species can be used as natural antioxidants.

  2. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus arvensis and F. verticillioides from C. album were highly pathogenic to wheat seedlings and apathogenic to maize seedlings. Isolates of F. venenatum were very pathogenic to wheat and maize being the first report about pathogenicity of this species. This experiment proves that weeds and plant debris can serve as alternate hosts and source of inoculum of plant pathogens.

  3. The segetal flora of the Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia U. Warcholińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a state and general characteristic of segetal flora of Central Poland is given. The segetal flora of the researched area consists 587 taxa. 127 (21,6% of them are on the list of threatened segetal plants. The studied flora was characterized by a high percentage of short-living plants (341 species - 58,1 %. Species of nature origin (apophytes constitute the dominant group (341 species - 58,1 %. Species of the archaeophytes group were frequently recorded (143 species - 24,4%. The most threatened species in the area of Central Poland are: Vaccaria hispanica (CR, Adonis flammea (CR, Coringia orientalis (CR, Thymelaea passerina (CR, Lythrum hyssopifolia (CR, Bupleurum rotundifolium (CR, Kickxia elatine (CR, Isolepis setacea (CR, Bromus arvensis (CR, Lolium temulentum (CR, L. remotum (CR.

  4. Effects of pre-germination chilling on subsequent growth and flowering of the plants%低温处理种子对植物生长和开花习性影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊江文; M.Fenner

    2003-01-01

    本试验在对15种植物进行了低温处理种子对植物生长和开花习性的观测研究后发现,Bromus sterilis,Capsella bursa-pastoris和Myosotis arvensis 3种植物的种子经低温处理后,其开花(小穗形成)时间提前,数量增加,枝条长度增加.同时,还讨论了在全球气候变暖的条件下,植物产生的这种现象可能对该种群的繁殖和演替带来的重大影响.

  5. UAV Based Imaging for Crop, Weed and Disease Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose

    the physiological status of the vegetation. UAV imagery may be divided into three steps (1) spectral characterization of the targets of interest, (2) flight and image acquisition and (3) image processing and interpretation. The overall aims of this study were to improve knowledge in all three steps associated...... arvensis L.) and to investigate the possibilities of spectral based discrimination of the species. (2) To perform image based classification of crop-weed in sugar beet crops and health status in orange tree orchards and (3) to describe crop cover heterogeneity from images acquired with UAV. This thesis...... spectroradiometer and raised the feasibility of discriminating the two types of plants with a reasonably high success rate using multispectral images centered on four to six narrow bands. Moreover, UAV remote sensing arises as a potential tool for HLB virus monitoring in citrus trees, although further work...

  6. Allelopatic potential of weeds under the minimalization of soil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Mazirov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of water-dispersible phenol substances in rhizosphere both of annual and perennial species of weeds (Cirsium arvense, Sonchus arvensis increases under soil treatment minimalization. The higher content of phenol substances of researched weeds is defined in rhizosphere of Common Couch (Agropyrum repens. The absence of intensive anthropogenic treatment of plowing layer which accumulates the significant mass of weed’s roots in the cause of much more higher allelopathic potential of some species’ of weeds. The high level of saturation by weeds in agrophytocoenosis under non-tillage soil treatment is defines the competitiveness between certain sepsis’ of weeds, especially, at the beginning of the vegetation. In this case, increasing the secretion of phenol substances is one of the physiological screenings of such competitiveness.

  7. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  8. Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanom, H; Azizah, A; Dzulkifly, M

    1999-12-01

    The effect of oven drying at 50ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 9 hour, 70ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. The medicinal plants selected were leaves of Apium graveolens (saderi), Averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), Centella asiatica (pegaga), Mentha arvensis (pudina), Psidium guajava (jambu batu), Sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), Solanum nigrum (terung meranti) and Polygonum minus (kesum ). Results revealed that both type and conditions of the drying treatments affected retention of all phytochemicals analysed. Herbal preparation developed using oven drying was found to have inferior phytochemicals content compared to that obtained by freeze dryer. Nevertheless, the herbal preparation developed using all treatments still retain appreciable amount of phytochemicals studied, especially carotenoids, ascorbic acid, niacin and riboflavin and thus have potential for commercial purposes.

  9. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  10. Changes in dicot-weeds species composition in spring barley in Latvia during the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaga, I

    2012-01-01

    Dicot weed populations were assessed in spring barley trials carried out in four three-years periods at 5-year intervals: 1990-1992, 1995-1997; 2001-2003 and 2006-2008. The overall aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in dicot-weed infestations in spring barley in fields of one region (Riga) of Latvia in sod-podzolic loamy sand soil. The results of the trials showed that Galeopsis spp, Stellaoria media, Viola orvensis and Chenopodium album were among the most frequent weed species in the periods of 1990-1992 and 1995-1997. The occurrence of C. album and V. arvensis increased during the periods of 2001-2003 and 2006-2008.

  11. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  12. Forest structure and plant diversity in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, L. F.; Bravo, F.; Zaldivar, P.; Pando, V.

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between forest structure and plant diversity in Mediterranean Maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Range (Spain) was studied. Forty eight stands were sampled. In each, a circular plot (15 m radius) and a transect (25*1 m{sup 2}) were established to estimate stand variables and record presence and abundance of vascular species respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), simple correlations and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between plant diversity and forest structure. Correlation between diversity measurements and stand variables is very weak, but significant correlations were found when evaluating each set of variables separately. Presence and cover of some species (for instance, Veronica arvensis L. or Micropyrum tenellum (L.) Link) is correlated with stand variables; however, determination coefficients found in step-by-step regression are not significant. (Author) 34 refs.

  13. Allopolyploidy in Fragariinae (Rosaceae): comparing four DNA sequence regions, with comments on classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Magnus; Töpel, Mats; Eriksen, Bente; Nylander, Johan A A; Eriksson, Torsten

    2009-05-01

    Potential events of allopolyploidy may be indicated by incongruences between separate phylogenies based on plastid and nuclear gene sequences. We sequenced two plastid regions and two nuclear ribosomal regions for 34 ingroup taxa in Fragariinae (Rosaceae), and six outgroup taxa. We found five well supported incongruences that might indicate allopolyploidy events. The incongruences involved Aphanes arvensis, Potentilla miyabei, Potentilla cuneata, Fragaria vesca/moschata, and the Drymocallis clade. We evaluated the strength of conflict and conclude that allopolyploidy may be hypothesised in the four first cases. Phylogenies were estimated using Bayesian inference and analyses were evaluated using convergence diagnostics. Taxonomic implications are discussed for genera such as Alchemilla, Sibbaldianthe, Chamaerhodos, Drymocallis and Fragaria, and for the monospecific Sibbaldiopsis and Potaninia that are nested inside other genera. Two orphan Potentilla species, P. miyabei and P. cuneata are placed in Fragariinae. However, due to unresolved topological incongruences they are not reclassified in any genus.

  14. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and

  15. Screening the antiangiogenic activity of medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlif, Malek; Afifi, Fatma; Muhtaseb, Ruba; Al-Khatib, Sondos; Abaza, Ismail; Naffa, Randa

    2012-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, invasion, and metastasis of most solid tumors and has become a valuable pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study was performed to assess the antiangiogenic activity of 31 medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan. The antiangiogenic activity was assessed using the rat aortic ring assay. Out of 31 extracts, 15 extracts showed more than 50 % inhibition of the blood vessels outgrowth from the primary tissue explants (p = 0.000). Three of these 15 extracts showed a potential cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblast cells. Four extracts shared antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Eight extracts demonstrated selective antiangiogenic activity. This is the first report demonstrating the potential antiangiogenic activity of Artemisia judaica, Aloysia citriodora, Salvia egyptiaca, and Calendula arvensis. Some extracts with antiangiogenic activity exhibited selectivity against the endothelial cells proliferation, demonstrating a direct inhibitory activity against the key step in tumor angiogenesis.

  16. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  17. Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

    2012-11-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  18. Chemical Control of Curled Dock (Rumex crispus L. and Other Weeds in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex crispus L. is an invasive species widespread in our country and in particular in the region of North Bulgaria. It is characterized by high biological and ecological plasticity. Owing to its great reproductive potential, the weed has been assigned to the list of economically most important weeds in the country. With the purpose of studying the possibility of chemical weed control in noncropped areas with heavy natural background infestation with R. crispus L. and other dicotyledonous weeds, two field trials were carried out. A ready-to-use herbicide mixture 2,4-D 140.2 g/l-1 + Triclopyr 144 g/l-1, trade product Genoxon 3X (X0050, was tested at two doses of active ingredient, 3552 and 2842 ml/ha-1. It was found that: (1 population density of Rumex crispus L. can be successfully reduced by treatment at the stage of early stem formation; herbicideefficacy with 3552 and 2882 ml/ha-1 doses on the 21st day after treatment was 100% and 90.5%, respectively, at the end of vegetation 94.4 and 85.7%, respectively; (2 herbicidal efficacy was lower when R. crispus L. was treated at the 5 - 6 leaf stage, being 100 – 94.1%and 80 – 76.5% respectively for the indicated doses and time of recording; (3 at the studied doses the herbicide controlled both annual dicotyledonous weeds (Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L. and perennial dicotyledonous ones (Cirsiumarvense L., Sonchus arvensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Carduus acanthoides L., but it was not toxic to monocotyledonous weeds.

  19. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000-2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption.

  20. Chromium and heavy metals diffusion in soil and plants in S. Croce-Castelfranco central Italy; Indagine sulla diffusione del cromo e di altri metalli pesanti nel terreno e nelle piante della zona di Santa Croce-Castelfranco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strati, S. [Florence (Italy). CNR, Ist. Patologia Alberi Forestali; Paoletti, E.; Barbolani, E. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Scienza Suolo Nutrizione Pianta

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence of heavy metals in a tannery-polluted area, with special reference to: 1) the interaction between the amount in the upper layer of the soil (15 cm) and the concentration in the plants; 2) the distribution of heavy metals in roots, stems and leaves of the sampled plants (Populus spp. and Convolvolus arvensis). As the main tanning agent contents chromium, our attention was focused on this element, even if Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd were also investigated. The results show: the absence of a high grade pollution by heavy metals in soils and plants, a positive correlation between chromium concentration and pH in soil; a higher concentration of heavy metals in the roots, with the exception of Mn, which is present in the same contents in leaves and roots; a higher values of lead in the plants sampled near the areas with the heaviest vehicular traffic. The possible use of Convolvolus arvensis as a purifier of contaminated soils was discussed. [Italiano] I metalli pesanti sono ubiquitari in tracce nei suoli e nella vegetazione, ma sono andati progressivamente diffondendosi durante l`era industriale (Freedman e Hutchinson, 1981). Pur potendo seguire numerose vie di diffusione nell`ambiente, il metallo presente nei terreni puo` essere assorbito dall`apparato radicale e trasportato nelle parti aeree delle pinte (Zoetti, 1985). Il presente studio si propone di fornire un quadro conoscitivo sul contenuto dei metalli pesanti (in particolare il cromo, principale costituente dei tannici sintetici) nella zona di S. Croce e Castelfranco (nota anche come vallata del comprensorio del cuoio) e sull`interazione tra quantita` presente nel terreno e quantita` rilevata nelle piante soprastanti ripartita tra radici, foglie e rami.

  1. Agility training in young elite soccer players: promising results compared to change of direction drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissi, M; Chtara, M; Owen, A; Bragazzi, NL; Moalla, W; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different training programmes – change of direction (COD) vs. agility (AG) – on straight sprint (SS), COD and AG test performances in young elite soccer players. Thirty-two soccer players (age: 14.5±0.9 years; height: 171.2±5.1 cm; body mass: 56.4±7.1 kg, body fat: 10.3±2.3%) participated in a short-term (6 weeks) training study. Players were randomly assigned to two experimental groups – training with change of direction drills (COD-G, n=11) or using agility training (AG-G, n= 11) – and to a control group (CON-G, n=10). All players completed the following tests before and after training: straight sprint (15m SS), 15 m agility run with (15m-AR-B) and without a ball (15m-AR), 5-0-5 agility test, reactive agility test (RAT), and RAT test with ball (RAT-B). A significant group effect was observed for all tests (p<0.001; η2=large). In 15m SS, COD-G and AG-G improved significantly (2.21; ES=0.57 and 2.18%; ES=0.89 respectively) more than CON-G (0.59%; ES=0.14). In the 15m-AR and 5-0-5 agility test, COD-G improved significantly more (5.41%; ES=1.15 and 3.41; ES=0.55 respectively) than AG-G (3.65%; ES=1.05 and 2.24; ES=0.35 respectively) and CON-G (1.62%; ES=0.96 and 0.97; ES=0.19 respectively). Improvements in RAT and RAT-B were larger (9.37%; ES=2.28 and 7.73%; ES=2.99 respectively) in RAT-G than the other groups. In conclusion, agility performance amongst young elite soccer could be improved using COD training. Nevertheless, including a conditioning programme for agility may allow a high level of athletic performance to be achieved. PMID:28090138

  2. [The new microbiological hazards in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciezyńska, Halina; Maćkiw, Elzbieta; Maka, Łukasz; Pawłowska, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the new microbiological hazards in food. For protecting human health, nowadays food safety authorities face with many challenges, that years ago were largely unheard. In 2011 verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 has been isolated in Germany. Strain came from fenugreek sprouts originated from Egypt. It was characterized by unique features such as presence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli genes (aatA, aggR, aap, aggA, aggC) and resistance to most antibiotics. In Poland only three cases of disease caused by O104:H4 strain have been reported. Another emergence pathogen in Poland is Yersinia enterocolitica 08, biotype 1B. It is the most pathogenic bioserotype recently isolated in the USA only. Food-borne is commonly associated with raw or undercooked pork. The source of Yersinia spp. may be also milk and water. The presence ofbotulinum neurotoxins in food is not new, but still an important issue because of their high toxicity to human. Botulinum neurotoxins are high-molecular thermolabile proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii. Based on their antigenic properties, botulin neurotoxins are divided into seven types A-G, however only types A, B, E and F are toxic to humans and some animals. Increasing risk associated with food results from antimicrobial resistance eg. extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae. Until recently strains ESBL+ were isolated in hospitals, however during last years they have been isolated from healthy humans, animals and food of animal origin. Increasingly common microbiological hazard in food is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although prevalence of this pathogen in food is not high, the thread comes from difficulties of treating of infections caused by MRSA. The occurrence of food-borne in humans may also be associated with presence of viruses in food and water. The carrier

  3. Characteristics of differently stabilised soil organic carbon fractions in relation to long-term fertilisation in Brown Earth of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangru; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Pei, Jiubo; Xiao, Jing; Xie, Hongtu; Wang, Jingkuan

    2016-12-01

    Long-term use of artificial fertiliser has a significant impact on soil organic carbon (SOC). We used physical-chemical fractionation methods to assess the impact of long-term (26years) fertilisation in a maize cropping system developed on Brown Earth in Northeast China. Plot treatments consisted of control (CK); nitrogen (N) fertiliser (N2); low-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and phosphorus (P) fertiliser (M1N1P1); medium-level organic manure combined with inorganic N fertiliser (M2N2); and high-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and P fertiliser (M4N2P1). Our objectives were to (1) determine the contents of and variations in the SOC fractions; (2) explore the relationship between total SOC and its fractions. In treatments involving organic manure (M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1), total SOC and physically protected microaggregate (μagg) and μagg occluded particulate organic carbon (iPOC) contents increased by 9.9-58.9%, 1.3-34.7%, 29.5-127.9% relative to control, respectively. But there no significant differences (P>0.05) were detected for the chemically, physically-chemically, and physically-biochemically protected fractions among the M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1 treatments. Regression analysis revealed that there was a linear positive correlation between SOC and the unprotected coarse particulate organic carbon (cPOC), physically protected μagg, and iPOC fractions (Pfractions responded negatively to SOC content. The highest rate of C accumulation among the SOC fractions occurred in the cPOC fraction, which accounted for as much as 32% of C accumulation as total SOC increased, suggesting that cPOC may be the most sensitive fraction to fertiliser application. We found that treatments had no effect on C levels in H-μsilt and NH-μsilt, indicating that the microaggregated silt C-fractions may have reached a steady state in terms of C saturation in the Brown Earth of Northeast China.

  4. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  5. Screening of plants from diversified natural grasslands for their potential to combine high digestibility, and low methane and ammonia production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheboeuf, D; Coudert, L; Bergeault, R; Lalière, G; Niderkorn, V

    2014-11-01

    A total of 156 plant species from 35 botanical families collected from diversified grasslands in the French Massif Central were screened in vitro for their potential to combine high nutritive value for ruminants and a reduced impact on the environment. The vegetative part of plants were analyzed for their chemical composition and incubated in a batch system containing buffered rumen fluid at 39°C for 24 h. The gas production and composition were recorded, and the fermentation end-product concentrations in the incubation medium and the in vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) were determined. The results were expressed relative to perennial ryegrass (PRG) values used as a reference. We observed that no relationship between methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) was evidenced for 12 plants, the fermentation of these plants producing significantly less CH4 for a similar level of VFA production. In all, 13 plants showed 50% less CH4 production per unit of organic matter truly digested (OMTD) than PRG. Among these plants, two reduced CH4 by more than 80% and four species had an IVTOMD higher than 80%. The underlying modes of action seem to be different among plants: some result in an accumulation of H2 in the fermentation gas, but others do not. In terms of nitrogen (N) use efficiency, the fermentation of 37 plants halved the ratio between ammonia (N-NH3) and plant N content compared with PRG, of which six showed a complete absence of N-NH3 in the medium. Among these plants, four maintained the IVTDMO at values not significantly different from PRG (P>0.05). Considering the multi-criteria selection, 16 plants showed simultaneously a reduction of more than 80% in N-NH3 production and 30% in CH4 emission per unit of OMTD compared with PRG, including three with an IVTOMD higher than 80%. Overall, the botanical families that reduced simultaneously CH4 and N-NH3 most efficiently were the Rosaceae, Onagraceae, Polygonaceae and Dipsacaceae. The Onagraceae also

  6. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo(z)ena (S)ER(A); Vitězslav STRA(NA)K; Michal (S)ER(Y); Milan TICH(Y); Petr (S)PATENKA

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  7. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Será, Bozena; Stranák, Vitezslav; Serý, Michal; Tichý, Milan; Spatenka, Petr

    2008-08-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  8. 何谓肠出血性大肠杆菌O104:H4及防治%What is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 and how to prevent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任成山; 赵晓晏

    2011-01-01

    @@ 所谓肠出血性大肠杆菌O104:H4(enterohemorrhagic E.coli,O104:H4),是由德国分离的一种新菌珠O104:H4型大肠杆菌,含有志贺毒素2(vtx2a)的基因,没有(enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli,EHEC)溶血素、志贺毒素1、肠致病性大肠埃希菌(enteropathogenic Escherichia coli)基因毒力岛基因;但含有肠集聚性粘附大肠杆菌(enteroaggragtive Escherichia coli)(第5类致泻性大肠杆菌)毒力质粒上的3个基因:aatA、aggR、aap[1].

  9. Flavonoids, cinnamic acids and coumarins from the different tissues and medicinal preparations of Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C A; Goldstone, F; Greenham, J

    1996-05-01

    Three flavonoid glycosides: luteolin 7-glucoside and two luteolin 7-diglucosides were isolated from dandelion flowers and leaves together with free luteolin and chrysoeriol in the flower tissue. The hydroxycinnamic acids, chicoric acid, monocaffeyltartaric acid and chlorogenic acid were found throughout the plant and the coumarins, cichoriin and aesculin were identified in the leaf extracts. This represents the first report of free chrysoeriol (luteolin 3'-methyl ether) in Taraxacum officinale agg. An earlier provisional identification of chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid, cichoriin and aesculin in a phenolic survey of the tribe Cichorieae is confirmed. Chicoric acid and the related monocaffeyltartaric acid were found to be the major phenolic constituents in flowers, roots, leaves and involucral bracts and also in the medicinal preparations tested.

  10. Identifying modular flows on multilayer networks reveals highly overlapping organization in social systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex; Rosvall, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Unveiling the community structure of networks is a powerful methodology to comprehend interconnected systems across the social and natural sciences. To identify different types of functional modules in interaction data aggregated in a single network layer, researchers have developed many powerful methods. For example, flow-based methods have proven useful for identifying modular dynamics in weighted and directed networks that capture constraints on flow in the systems they represent. However, many networked systems consist of agents or components that exhibit multiple layers of interactions. Inevitably, representing this intricate network of networks as a single aggregated network leads to information loss and may obscure the actual organization. Here we propose a method based on compression of network flows that can identify modular flows in non-aggregated multilayer networks. Our numerical experiments on synthetic networks show that the method can accurately identify modules that cannot be identified in agg...

  11. Osteogenesis imperfecta Type I caused by a novel mutation in the start codon of the COL1A1 gene in a Korean family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Yoon; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ki, Chang-Seok; Chang, Mi Sun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Han, Heon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by susceptibility to bone fractures ranging in severity from perinatal death to a subtle increase in fracture frequency. We report the case of a patient who appeared healthy at birth and did not experience any fractures until 12 months of age. We observed blue sclera, frequent fractures without commensurate trauma, nearly normal stature, the absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, no bony deformity, and no limitation of mobility in the patient--all characteristics suggestive of OI Type I. The patient's mother also had blue sclera and a history of frequent fracture episodes until the age of 15 years. A novel COL1A1 missense mutation (c.2T>G) disrupting the start codon of the gene (ATG to AGG (Met1Arg)) was found in the patient and his mother.

  12. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  13. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarski, Stephanie A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Rohrer, Gregory S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  14. Towards automated software model checking using graph transformation systems and Bogor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid RAFE; Adel T.RAHMANI

    2009-01-01

    Graph transformation systems have become a general formal modeling language to describe many models in software development process. Behavioral modeling of dynamic systems and model-to-model transformations are only a few examples in which graphs have been used to software development. But even the perfect graph transformation system must be equipped with automated analysis capabilities to let users understand whether such a formal specification fulfills their requirements. In this paper,we present a new solution to verify graph transformation systems using the Bogor model checker. The attributed graph grammars (AGG)-Iike graph transformation systems are translated to Bandera intermediate representation (BIR), the input language of Bogor,and Bogor verifies the model against some interesting properties defined by combining linear temporal logic (LTL) and special-purpose graph rules. Experimental results are encouraging, showing that in most cases oar solution improves existing approaches in terms of both performance and expressiveness.

  15. NOTE-Polymorphic information content of SSR markers for Coffea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernando Missio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-three coffee SSR primers from enriched genomic library with (GT15 and (AGG10 repeats were analyzedin 24 coffee tree accessions. Twenty-two primers were polymorphic among accessions; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to13, with the mean number of 5.1 alleles per primer. PIC values ranged from 0.08 to 0.79. The highest mean PIC values werefound for C. canephora (0.46, and the lowest values for C. arabica (0.22 and triploids (0.22 accessions. The polymorphicSSR markers used in this study were useful for genetic fingerprinting in the coffee tree, especially in the C. canephora and theleaf rust resistant arabica cultivars.

  16. AcEST: DK962121 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0013_A07 656 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0013_A0...7. 5' end sequence. DK962121 CL2880Contig1 Show DK962121 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0013_A07 Library TST39 Length ...656 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0013_A07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK962121...es. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK962121|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01...LPASKPHKSNLHHHDDIWNEEATFALLQAWGSKY 218 +++AG+ P ID G + +AGG+GL K S L + TF L WG Sbjct: 231 SNAAGIFYPFIDSGVKLI

  17. Supply Chain adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mathias Thim; Bernon, Mike

    2016-01-01

    management within SMEs and to further develop frameworks, models and mechanisms that will lead to higher adoption of supply chain capabilities within the SME community. Practical Impact: While this research was exploratory in nature, due to the importance of the SME sector on economic development......Purpose: The importance of having a competitive supply chain strategy is not to be underestimated (Underwood & Agg 2012; Aronow et al. 2014). Despite the importance of creating strong supply chain capabilities, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) find it difficult to implement supply chain...... management (Vaaland & Heide 2007). The aim of this research was to explore supply chain adoption in SMEs. The research was based upon investigating the extent to which supply chain management is adopted by SMEs, and what factors support companies in achieving consistency between supply chain capabilities...

  18. On nilpotent groups and conjugacy classes

    OpenAIRE

    Adan-Bante, Edith

    2005-01-01

    Let $G$ be a nilpotent group and $a\\in G$. Let $a^G=\\{g^{-1}ag\\mid g\\in G\\}$ be the conjugacy class of $a$ in $G$. Assume that $a^G$ and $b^G$ are conjugacy classes of $G$ with the property that $|a^G|=|b^G|=p$, where $p$ is an odd prime number. Set $a^G b^G=\\{xy\\mid x\\in a^G, y\\in b^G\\}$. Then either $a^G b^G=(ab)^G$ or $a^G b^G$ is the union of at least $\\frac{p+1}{2}$ distinct conjugacy classes. As an application of the previous result, given any nilpotent group $G$ and any conjugacy class...

  19. Molecular epidemiology of a household outbreak of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Poland due to secondary transmission of STEC O104:H4 from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Szych, Jolanta; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wołkowicz, Tomasz; Chróst, Anna; Leszczyńska, Beata; Kuźma, Elżbieta; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2012-04-01

    We characterized two STEC O104 : H4 clinical isolates collected in Poland from a 7-year-old boy with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and his nanny. This household outbreak began on 29 May 2011. Because of its time-frame, the outbreak was assumed to be part of the international STEC O104 : H4 outbreak that arose in Germany in May 2011. The two Polish isolates were Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (stx2 lpf) with enteroaggregative E. coli pathotype (aggR aap aggA), thereby sharing the unique virulence properties of the epidemic STEC O104 : H4 strain from the international outbreak. The Polish isolates were multi-drug resistant and carried bla(TEM), strA, strB, tetA, sul1 and sul2 markers together with the bla(CTX-M-15) gene for CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase. PFGE patterns and plasmid profiles of the Polish isolates and the epidemic STEC O104 : H4 strain corresponded closely. This finding suggested an epidemiological link between the Polish STEC O104 : H4 isolates and the international outbreak. Retrospective serological investigations proved person-to-person transmission of the epidemic STEC O104 : H4 strain from a father who had visited Dortmund, Germany, to his 7-year-old son in Giżycko, Poland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of household transmission of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli in Poland.

  20. Cloning, characterization, and properties of seven triplet repeat DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, K; Kang, S; Larson, J E; Wells, R D

    1996-07-12

    Several neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are caused by genetically unstable triplet repeat sequences (CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, or AAG.CTT) in or near the responsible genes. We implemented novel cloning strategies with chemically synthesized oligonucleotides to clone seven of the triplet repeat sequences (GTA.TAC, GAT.ATC, GTT.AAC, CAC.GTG, AGG.CCT, TCG.CGA, and AAG.CTT), and the adjoining paper (Ohshima, K., Kang, S., Larson, J. E., and Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16784-16791) describes studies on TTA.TAA. This approach in conjunction with in vivo expansion studies in Escherichia coli enabled the preparation of at least 81 plasmids containing the repeat sequences with lengths of approximately 16 up to 158 triplets in both orientations with varying extents of polymorphisms. The inserts were characterized by DNA sequencing as well as DNA polymerase pausings, two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, and chemical probe analyses to evaluate the capacity to adopt negative supercoil induced non-B DNA conformations. AAG.CTT and AGG.CCT form intramolecular triplexes, and the other five repeat sequences do not form any previously characterized non-B structures. However, long tracts of TCG.CGA showed strong inhibition of DNA synthesis at specific loci in the repeats as seen in the cases of CTG.CAG and CGG.CCG (Kang, S., Ohshima, K., Shimizu, M., Amirhaeri, S., and Wells, R. D.(1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27014-27021). This work along with other studies (Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 2875-2878) on CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, and TTA.TAA makes available long inserts of all 10 triplet repeat sequences for a variety of physical, molecular biological, genetic, and medical investigations. A model to explain the reduction in mRNA abundance in Friedreich's ataxia based on intermolecular triplex formation is proposed.

  1. Specificity of the ModA11, ModA12 and ModD1 epigenetic regulator N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases of Neisseria meningitidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Kate L.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; Tan, Aimee; Scott, Adeana L.; Kumar, Ritesh; Power, Peter M.; Chen, Li-Tzu; Wu, Hsing-Ju; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Luyten, Yvette A.; Morgan, Richard D.; Roberts, Richard J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A.; Korlach, Jonas; Rao, Desirazu N.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Phase variation (random ON/OFF switching) of gene expression is a common feature of host-adapted pathogenic bacteria. Phase variably expressed N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases (Mod) alter global methylation patterns resulting in changes in gene expression. These systems constitute phase variable regulons called phasevarions. Neisseria meningitidis phasevarions regulate genes including virulence factors and vaccine candidates, and alter phenotypes including antibiotic resistance. The target site recognized by these Type III N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases is not known. Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis was used to identify the recognition site for three key N. meningitidis methyltransferases: ModA11 (exemplified by M.NmeMC58I) (5′-CGYm6AG-3′), ModA12 (exemplified by M.Nme77I, M.Nme18I and M.Nme579II) (5′-ACm6ACC-3′) and ModD1 (exemplified by M.Nme579I) (5′-CCm6AGC-3′). Restriction inhibition assays and mutagenesis confirmed the SMRT methylome analysis. The ModA11 site is complex and atypical and is dependent on the type of pyrimidine at the central position, in combination with the bases flanking the core recognition sequence 5′-CGYm6AG-3′. The observed efficiency of methylation in the modA11 strain (MC58) genome ranged from 4.6% at 5′-GCGCm6AGG-3′ sites, to 100% at 5′-ACGTm6AGG-3′ sites. Analysis of the distribution of modified sites in the respective genomes shows many cases of association with intergenic regions of genes with altered expression due to phasevarion switching. PMID:25845594

  2. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trulove, Paul C. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Foley, Matthew P. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  3. Cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m) chromosomes of Triticum monococcum and the A chromosomes of Triticum aestivum using microsatellite DNA repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Mária; Mikó, Péter; Farkas, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Molnár, István

    2017-02-01

    The cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m)- and A-genome chromosomes facilitates the selection of wheat-Triticum monococcum introgression lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the commonly used DNA probes Afa family, 18S rDNA and pSc119.2 showed that the more complex hybridisation pattern obtained in T. monococcum relative to bread wheat made it possible to differentiate the A(m) and A chromosomes within homoeologous groups 1, 4 and 5. In order to provide additional chromosomal landmarks to discriminate the A(m) and A chromosomes, the microsatellite repeats (GAA)n, (CAG)n, (CAC)n, (AAC)n, (AGG)n and (ACT)n were tested as FISH probes. These showed that T. monococcum chromosomes have fewer, generally weaker, simple sequence repeat (SSR) signals than the A-genome chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. A differential hybridisation pattern was observed on 6A(m) and 6A chromosomes with all the SSR probes tested except for the (ACT)n probe. The 2A(m) and 2A chromosomes were differentiated by the signals given by the (GAA)n, (CAG)n and (AAC)n repeats, while only (GAA)n discriminated the chromosomes 3A(m) and 3A. Chromosomes 7A(m) and 7A could be differentiated by the lack of (GAA)n and (AGG)n signals on 7A. As potential landmarks for identifying the A(m) chromosomes, SSR repeats will facilitate the introgression of T. monococcum chromatin into wheat.

  4. Codon 972 polymorphism in the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene, obesity, and risk of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigal, R.J.; Doria, A.; Warram, J.H.; Krolewski, A.S. [Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Because of the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 in insulin action, the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene is a candidate gene for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Modest associations between NIDDM and a GGG-AGG single base substitution (corresponding to a glycine-arginine amino acid substitution) in codon 972 of the gene have been found, but none reached statistical significance. To examine further how large a proportion of NIDDM cases could be caused by the mutation, we performed a stratified analysis combining the results from the 6 earlier studies and those from our panel of 192 unrelated NIDDM subjects and 104 healthy controls. In addition, we looked for a possibility that the codon 972 mutation plays a role only in the presence of certain conditions. Genomic DNA samples obtained from NIDDM cases and healthy controls were genotyped using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol modified for genomic DNA. The GGG{r_arrow}AGG substitution was found in 5.7% of the diabetic subjects (11 of 192) and 6.9% of the controls (7 of 104). The difference between groups was not statistically significant, and it was not different from the results of other studies. The Mantel-Haenszel summary odds ratio across all studies was 1.49 (P < 0.05; 95% confidence intervals, 1.01-2.2). This summary odds ratio is consistent with a small proportion of NIDDM cases ({approximately}3%) being caused by the mutation. Exploratory subgroup analyses on our panel suggested a clustering of NIDDM, the codon 972 mutation, and overweight, raising the hypothesis that the mutation may predispose to NIDDM only in the presence of excess body weight. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Platelet reactivity after administration of third generation P2Y12-antagonists does not depend on body weight in contrast to clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Christoph B; Schnabel, Katharina; Weber, Susanne; Zhou, Qian; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Diehl, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    The current standard of antiplatelet therapy for patients with myocardial infarction (MI) includes the P2Y12-receptor antagonist clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor. While it has been shown that platelet reactivity after clopidogrel administration depends on factors such as body weight, it is not known if these factors have an effect on the activity of prasugrel or ticagrelor. Thus, this study aimed to analyse factors associated with high residual platelet reactivity after administration of third generation P2Y12-antagonists compared to clopidogrel. In a single centre registry the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor was investigated by aggregometry in patients after MI. To assess the overall capacity of platelet aggregation whole blood was induced with thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP; 32 µM). To specifically quantify the effect of P2Y12-antagonists, blood was stimulated with 6.4 µM adenosine diphophosphate (ADP). Relative ADP induced aggregation (r-ADP-agg) was defined as the ADP-TRAP-ratio to reflect an individual degree of P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition. Platelet function of 238 patients was analysed [clopidogrel (n = 58), prasugrel (n = 65), ticagrelor (n = 115)]. It was found that the r-ADP-agg correlated significantly with body weight in patients after clopidogrel administration (r = 0.423; p clopidogrel, platelet reactivity after administration of prasugrel or ticagrelor does not depend on body weight in patients after MI. Hence, our mechanistic data support the results of large clinical trials indicating that patients with high body weight do not need to be treated with increased doses of third generation P2Y12-antagonists to achieve sufficient platelet inhibition (registry for patients after myocardial infarction treated with antiplatelet agents; DRKS00003146).

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) Isolates from Japan Reveals Emergence of CTX-M-14-Producing EAEC O25:H4 Clones Related to Sequence Type 131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imuta, Naoko; Ooka, Tadasuke; Seto, Kazuko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kojyo, Tsuyoshi; Iguchi, Atsushi; Tokuda, Koichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Yoshiie, Kiyotaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Nishi, Junichiro

    2016-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute or persistent diarrhea. The aggR gene is widely used as a marker for typical EAEC. The heterogeneity of EAEC is well known; however, there are few reports on the phylogenetic relationships of EAEC. Recently, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing EAEC strains have been reported worldwide. To characterize EAEC strains in Japan, we investigated the population structure of EAEC. A total of 167 aggR-positive strains isolated from stool specimens from diarrheal patients in Kagoshima (139 strains) and Osaka (28 strains), Japan, between 1992 and 2010 were examined for the prevalence of EAEC virulence markers, the blaCTX-M gene, and the capacity to form biofilms. Multilocus sequence typing was also conducted. EAEC strains were widely distributed across four major E. coli phylogroups. Strains of O111:H21/clonal group 40 (CG40) (30 strains), O126:H27/CG200 (13 strains), and O86a:H27/CG3570 (11 strains) in phylogroup B1 are the historical EAEC clones in Japan, and they exhibited strong biofilm formation. Twenty-nine strains of EAEC O25:H4/CG131 were identified in phylogroup B2, 79% of which produced CTX-M-14. This clone has emerged since 2003. The clone harbored plasmid-encoded EAEC virulence genes but not chromosomal virulence genes and had lower biofilm-forming capacity than historical EAEC strains. This clone most likely emerged from a pandemic uropathogenic O25:H4/sequence type 131 clone by acquiring an EAEC virulence plasmid from canonical EAEC. Surveillance of the horizontal transfer of both virulence and ESBL genes among E. coli strains is important for preventing a worldwide increase in antimicrobial drug resistance.

  7. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling Fang

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR. Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG. Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B or in Australia (e.g., AG-G. The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

  8. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbetti, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

  9. Evaluation of the MeltPro TB/STR assay for rapid detection of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and comprehensive detection of drug-resistance is essential for the control of tuberculosis, which has facilitated the development of molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistant mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We hereby assessed the analytical and clinical performance of an assay for streptomycin-resistant mutations. MeltPro TB/STR is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test designed to detect 15 streptomycin-resistant mutations in rpsL 43, rpsL 88, rrs 513, rrs 514, rrs 517, and rrs 905-908 of M. tuberculosis. Analytical studies showed that the accuracy was 100%, the limit of detection was 50-500 bacilli per reaction, the reproducibility in the form of Tm variation was within 1.0 °C, and we could detect 20% STR resistance in mixed bacterial samples. The cross-platform study demonstrated that the assay could be performed on six models of real-time PCR instruments. A multicenter clinical study was conducted using 1056 clinical isolates, which were collected from three geographically different healthcare units, including 709 STR-susceptible and 347 STR-resistant isolates characterized on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium by traditional drug susceptibility testing. The results showed that the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/STR was 88.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Sequencing analysis confirmed the accuracy of the mutation types. Among all the 8 mutation types detected, rpsL K43R (AAG → AGG), rpsL K88R (AAG → AGG) and rrs 514 A → C accounted for more than 90%. We concluded that MeltPro TB/STR represents a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of STR resistance in clinical isolates.

  10. Site-specific integration of bacteriophage VWB genome into Streptomyces venezuelae and construction of a VWB-based integrative vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mellaert, L; Mei, L; Lammertyn, E; Schacht, S; Anné, J

    1998-12-01

    The temperate bacteriophage VWB integrates into the chromosome of Streptomyces venezuelae ETH14630 via site-specific integration. Following recombination of the VWB attP region with the chromosomal attB sequence, the host-phage junctions attL and attR are formed. Nucleotide sequence analysis of attP, attB, attL and attR revealed a 45 bp common core sequence. In attB this 45 bp sequence consists of the 3' end of a putative tRNA Arg(AGG) gene with a 3'-terminal CCA sequence which is typical for prokaryotic tRNAs. Phage DNA integration restores the putative tRNA Arg(AGG) gene in attL. However, following recombination the CCA sequence is missing as is the case for most Streptomyces tRNA genes described so far. Adjacent to VWB attP, an ORF encoding a 427 aa protein was detected. The C-terminal region of this protein shows high similarity to the conserved C-terminal domain of site-specific recombinases belonging to the integrase family. To prove the functionality of this putative integrase gene (int), an integrative vector pKT02 was constructed. This vector consists of a 2.3 kb HindIII-SphI restriction fragment of VWB DNA containing attP and int cloned in a non-replicative Escherichia coli vector carrying a thiostrepton-resistance (tsr) gene. Integration of pKT02 was obtained after transformation of Streptomyces venezuelae ETH14630 and Streptomyces lividans TK24 protoplasts. This vector will thus be useful for a number of additional Streptomyces species in which a suitable tRNA gene can be functional as integration site.

  11. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  12. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  13. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  14. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh, E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  15. Avaliação sazonal do rendimento de óleo essencial em espécies de menta Seasonal evaluation of essential oil yield of mint species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Deschamps

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Mentha compreende diversas espécies de interesse econômico por causa da produção de óleos essenciais. Recentemente, foram introduzidos no Brasil novos materiais genéticos para avaliação da adaptação em relação ao potencial de rendimento e composição do óleo essencial. No presente trabalho, foram comparadas essas características em cultivares das espécies Mentha x piperita L. (cv. Grapefruit Mint e cv. Persian Mint Field, M. suaveolens Ehrh. (cv. Hillarys Sweet Lemon Mint, M. spicata L. (cv. Mentol Mint, M. aquatica L. (cv. Common Mint e M. arvensis L. (cv. Banana Mint, durante o verão e inverno em Curitiba (PR. O rendimento médio das cultivares no verão foi aproximadamente o dobro do rendimento observado no inverno. Duas cultivares de Mentha x piperita L. (cv. Persina Mint Field e cv. Grapefruit Mint apresentaram maior rendimento de óleo essencial no verão e inverno, sendo que as demais não diferiram entre si. A análise da composição do óleo essencial indicou grande variação nessas cultivares, sendo observada a presença de linalol, como constituinte majoritário na cv. Grapefruit Mint e a-felandren-8-ol e cis-ocimeno na cv. Persian Mint Field.The genus Mentha includes many species of economic interest due the essential oil production. Recently new genetic materials were introduced in Brazil to evaluate the adaptation related to essential oil yield and composition. In the present work, these characteristics were compared in six cultivars of the species Mentha x piperita L. (cv. Grapefruit Mint e cv. Persian Mint Field, M. suaveolens Ehrh (cv. Hillarys Sweet Lemon Mint, M. spicata L. (cv. Mentol Mint, M. aquatica L. (cv. Common Mint and M. arvensis L. (cv. Banana Mint during summer and winter in Curitiba (PR. The average of essential oil yield obtained from samples collected during the summer was approximately two fold the observed during the winter. Two cultivars of Mentha piperita (cv. Persian Mint Field

  16. Efecto de la dosis de glifosato sobre la biomasa de malezas de barbecho al estado vegetativo y reproductivo Glyphosate dose effect on weed biomass at the vegetative and reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puricelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los experimentos se condujeron en el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias ubicado en Zavalla (Argentina durante 2005 y 2006. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la eficacia de glifosato aplicado al estado vegetativo y reproductivo de Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis y Trifolium repens. El diseño del experimento fue completamente al azar con un arreglo factorial: año, especies, estado reproductivo y vegetativo y dosis de glifosato 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X siendo X la dosis recomendada 1200 g i.a. ha-1. Se estableció la relación entre la dosis de glifosato y el control de la biomasa de las malezas a través de curvas de dosis respuesta con un modelo log-logístico. Se comparó el grado de tolerancia por medio de la DL50. En ambos estados de las malezas, la mayor DL50 obtenida para I. diffusa indica que de las especies estudiadas ésta es la más tolerante a glifosato. El número de especies tolerantes al glifosato es menor al estado vegetativo que al reproductivo.Experiments were conducted at the University of Rosario Experimental Farm, Zavalla in 2005 and 2006 to study the effect of glyphosate on the control of Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis and Trifolium repens at the vegetative and reproductive stage. The experiments were established in a complete randomized design with the following factorial arrangement of treatments: year, species, vegetative and reproductive growth stages and glyphosate 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X being 1X the recommended dose (1,200 g a.i. ha-1. The relationship between glyphosate dose and weed biomass control was established with a log-logistic model. The degree of tolerance was compared by LD50. In both stages, the higher LD50 was obtained for I. diffusa indicating that this is the species most tolerant to glyphosate among those studied. The number of

  17. Produção de biomassa e teor de óleo essencial em função da idade e época de colheita em plantas de hortelã-japonesa = Biomass yield and essential oil content in function of the age and harvest period of mint plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Chagas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da época e da idade da planta na colheita na produção de biomassa seca e no teor percentual do óleo essencial e o tempo de armazenamento das plantas de Mentha arvensis L. Foram instalados dois experimentos. No primeiro, foi avaliado o efeito de três idades na colheita, 80, 100 e 120 dias após o transplantio, e três idades na segunda colheita, 60, 75 e 90 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. No segundo experimento, foram avaliadas três épocas de colheita: início de janeiro, final de março einício de junho. O material colhido foi seco em estufa a 37ºC, calculada a biomassa seca da parte aérea, extraído o óleo essencial em aparelho de Clevenger modificado e calculado o seu teor percentual. O teor percentual de óleo essencial e a biomassa seca da parte aérea variaram conforme a idade da primeira colheita da planta. A idade da planta na primeira colheita influenciou o teor de óleo essencial e a biomassa seca da parte aérea, em resposta às idades das plantas na segunda colheita. A época de colheita em que se obteve o maior teor de óleo essencial foi no início do mês de junho.This present work aimed to evaluate the effect of period and age the plants on harvest, dry biomass production, essential oil percentage content and storage period of mint (Mentha arvensis L. plants. Two experiments were set: the first evaluated the effect of three harvest ages (80, 100 and 120 days after transplanting, and three ages at the second harvest (60, 75 and 90 days. A randomized blocks design was used, with four replications in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme. In the second experiment, three harvest periods were evaluated – early January, late March and early June. The harvested material was dried at 37°C, the dry biomass of the aerial parts was calculated, the essential oil was extracted in a modified Clevenger instrument and its

  18. Effect of the disruption of three cytoskeleton components on chondrocyte metabolism in rabbit knee cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Wangping; Wei Lei; Cao Xiaoming; Guo Heng; Wang Lei; Hao Yongzhuang; Wei Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Background Chondrocytes' phenotype and biosynthesis of matrix are dependent on having an intact cytoskeletal structure.Microfilaments,microtubules,and intermediate filaments are three important components of the cytoskeletal structure of chondrocytes.The aims of this study were to determine and compare the effects of the disruption of these three cytoskeletal elements on the apoptosis and matrix synthesis by rabbit knee chondrocytes in vitro.Methods Chondrocytes were isolated from full-thickness knee cartilage of two-month-old rabbits using enzymatic methods (n=24).The isolated cells were stabilized for three days and then exposed to low,medium,and high doses of chemical agents that disrupt the three principal cytoskeletal elements of interest:colchicine for microtubules,acrylamide for intermediate filaments,and cytochalasin D for actin microfilaments.A group of control cells were treated with carrier.Early apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin-FITC binding assay by flow cytometry on days 1 and 2 after exposure to the disrupting chemical agents.The components and distribution of the cytoskeleton within the cells were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) with immunofluorescence staining on day 3.The mRNA levels of aggrecan (AGG) and type Ⅱ collagen (Col-2) and their levels in culture medium were analyzed using real-time PCR and enzymelinked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA) on days 3,6,and 9.Results In the initial drug-dose-response study,there was no significant difference in the vitality of cells treated with 0.1 μmol/L colchicine,2.5 mmol/L acrylamide,and 10 μg/L cytochalasin D for two days when compared with the control group of cells.The concentrations of colchicine and acrylamide treatment selected above significantly decreased the number of viable cells over the nine-day culture and disrupted significantly more cell nuclei.Real-time PCR and ELISA results showed that the mRNA levels and medium concentrations of AGG and Col-2 were

  19. Fluid Inclusions of Calcite and Sources of Ore-forming Fluids in the Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) District, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Runsheng; LIU Congqiang; HUANG Zhilong; MA Deyun; LI Yuan; HU Bin; MA Gengsheng; LEI Li

    2004-01-01

    The Huize Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge) district is a typical representative of the well-known medium-to large-sized carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge) deposits, occurring in the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn Ore-forming Zone.Generally, fluid inclusions within calcite, one of the major gangue minerals, are dominated by two kinds of small (1-10μm) inclusions including pure-liquid and liquid. The inclusions exist in concentrated groups along the crystal planes of the calcite. The ore-forming fluids containing Pb and Zn, which belong to the Na+-K+-Ca2+-C1--F--SO42- type, are characterized by temperatures of 164-221 ℃, medium salinity in 5-10.8 wt% NaCl, and medium pressure at 410xl0s to 661 x 10s Pa. The contents of Na+-K+ and Cl--F-, and ratios of Na+/K+-Cl-/F- in fluid inclusions present good linearity. The ratios of Na+/K+ (4.66-6.71) and C1-/F- (1 8.21-31.04) in the fluid inclusions of calcite are relatively high, while those of Na+/K+ (0.29-5.69) and Cl-/F- (5.00-26.0) in the inclusions of sphalerite and pyrite are relatively low. The ratio of Na+/K+increases in accord with those of C1-/F, which indicates that ore-forming fluid of deep source participates in the mineralization. The waters of fluid inclusions have δD values from -43.5‰ to -55.4‰ of calcite. The δ18Ov-sMow values of the ore-forming fluids, calculated values, range from 17.09‰ to 18.56‰ of calcite and 17.80‰ to 23.14‰ for dolomite.δ13 Cv-PDB values range from -1.94‰ to -3.31‰ for calcite and -3.35‰ to 0.85‰ for the ore-bearing dolomite. These data better demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were mainly derived from metamorphic water and magmatic hot fluid, in relation to the metamorphism of the Kunyang Group in the basement and magmatic hydrothermalism. The deposit itself might have resulted from ascending cycles of ore-forming fluid, enriched in Pb and Zn. The Huize Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge)deposits related to carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb sulphides.

  20. Prevalence of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Patients with Diarrhea and a Subpopulation of Healthy Volunteers in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; García-Castillo, María; Cantón, Rafael; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor virulence genes (VGs) without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est, elt and bfpA) typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)] in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzx O104 and fliCH4, rfb O157, and fliCH7) was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA [typically associated with Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) and (EPEC), invA (EIEC), and the rfb O157+fliCH7 (STEC)] combination were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzx O104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p = 0.014) more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC) and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels.

  1. Headgroup effects on the Krafft temperatures and self-assembly of ω-hydroxy and ω-carboxy hexadecyl quaternary ammonium bromide bolaform amphiphiles: micelles versus molecular clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Simon J; Sriskantha, Bruntha C; Bagshaw, Stephen A; Bruce, Ian J

    2012-02-01

    Eight bolaform amphiphiles were synthesised and characterised; 4 α,ω-hydroxy-alkane trialkyl (and pyridyl) ammonium bromides and 4 α,ω-carboxy-alkane trialkyl (and pyridyl) ammonium bromides where the alkyl groups were methyl, ethyl and propyl. Four of these represented new compounds. Overall the Krafft temperatures (T(K)) of the eight amphiphiles were high, with 6 of the eight possessing T(K)s greater than 45 °C. Thus most of the amphiphiles could only expect to find applications at raised temperatures limiting their potential utility. However in addition to the previously reported α,ω-hydroxy-hexadecyl triethylammonium bromide (2b) with a T(K) of 19.1 °C, another amphiphile, α,ω-carboxy-hexadecyl tripropylammonium bromide (2c) has been identified with a T(K) near ambient temperatures (T(K) of 22.1 °C). This provides an acid functional ammonium bolaform amphiphile that micellises at ambient temperatures to complement the hydroxyl derivative. A correlation between T(K) and the product of the enthalpies and T(m)s of the compounds was observed for 7 of the eight compounds. No correlation between the amphiphile critical micelle concentrations (cmc) and T(K)s was observed confirming previous reports that T(K) values are predominantly determined by crystalline stability rather than solubility. Considerable differences were observed between the various amphiphile T(K)s at different pHs but no clear trend was apparent for the various compounds (despite the degree to which the compounds' carboxylic acid and hydroxyl functionalities were likely to be ionised). The cmcs for the amphiphiles were an order of magnitude larger than those for analogous mono-ammonium amphiphiles with little difference in between the hydroxyl- and carboxy-functionalised compounds. The aggregation numbers (N(agg)) obtained for all compounds were very low (N(agg)bolaforms were in the range 1.0-1.4 nm whereas those for the carboxy-compounds were in the range 2.1-2.4 nm. These results

  2. The enigmatic mitochondrial genome of Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia reveals insights into selection of an efficient tRNA system and supports monophyly of Ambulacraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hemichordata comprises solitary-living Enteropneusta and colonial-living Pterobranchia, sharing morphological features with both Chordata and Echinodermata. Despite their key role for understanding deuterostome evolution, hemichordate phylogeny is controversial and only few molecular data are available for phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, mitochondrial sequences are completely lacking for pterobranchs. Therefore, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the pterobranch Rhabdopleura compacta to elucidate deuterostome evolution. Thereby, we also gained important insights in mitochondrial tRNA evolution. Results The mitochondrial DNA of Rhabdopleura compacta corresponds in size and gene content to typical mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, but shows the strongest known strand-specific mutational bias in the nucleotide composition among deuterostomes with a very GT-rich main-coding strand. The order of the protein-coding genes in R. compacta is similar to that of the deuterostome ground pattern. However, the protein-coding genes have been highly affected by a strand-specific mutational pressure showing unusual codon frequency and amino acid composition. This composition caused extremely long branches in phylogenetic analyses. The unusual codon frequency points to a selection pressure on the tRNA translation system to codon-anticodon sequences of highest versatility instead of showing adaptations in anticodon sequences to the most frequent codons. Furthermore, an assignment of the codon AGG to Lysine has been detected in the mitochondrial genome of R. compacta, which is otherwise observed only in the mitogenomes of some arthropods. The genomes of these arthropods do not have such a strong strand-specific bias as found in R. compacta but possess an identical mutation in the anticodon sequence of the tRNALys. Conclusion A strong reversed asymmetrical mutational constraint in the mitochondrial genome of

  3. Marcadores fAFLP na caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro selecionados como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro fAFLP markers to characterize three mume genotypes selected as rootstocks for peach tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Wickert

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética existente em três genótipos de umezeiro (Clone 05, cv. Rigitano e Clone 15 e identificar marcadores moleculares fAFLP (fluorescent Amplified Fragment Lenght Polymorphism passíveis de serem utilizados na discriminação dos três genótipos de umezeiro selecionados como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro. Foram utilizadas 24 diferentes combinações de primers seletivos fAFLP que geraram 648 marcas, das quais 272 foram diferenciadoras dos três genótipos entre si. As marcas diferenciadoras permitiram o agrupamento dos clones de umezeiro de acordo com sua similaridade através do Método da Distância e algorítmo Neighbour Joining. As mesmas marcas foram utilizadas para calcular a distância genética entre os clones. Com o uso de marcadores fAFLP foi possível discriminar os três genótipos de umezeiro entre si, destacando-se as combinações Fam ACT/CAT, Joe AGG/CTT e Ned AGC/CAA, que permitiram a diferenciação individual de cada um dos clones. A maior distância genética foi encontrada entre a cv. Rigitano e o Clone 15. Os marcadores fAFLP revelaram maior proximidade genética entre o Clone 05 e a cv. Rigitano.The objective of this work was the identification of fAFLP markers to be used in molecular characterization of three mume genotypes selected as rootstocks for peach tree. Twenty-four different fAFLP primer combinations were used and allowed the recognition of 648 markers, comprising 272 markers which were able to discriminate the three clones one from the other. These markers were used to calculate the groupment of the clones according to their similarities with the distance method and neighbour joining algorithm. The same markers were also used to calculate the genetic distance among the clones. The fAFLP markers were efficient to identify the clones, mainly by the combinations of selective primers Fam ACT/CAT, Joe AGG/CTT and Ned AGC/CAA. fAFLP markers allowed the

  4. Prevalence of Escherichia coli virulence genes in patients with diarrhea and a subpopulation of healthy volunteers in Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eCabal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor VGs without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular.The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est and elt typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes (EHEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC and EIEC in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 and fliCH4, rbfO157 and fliCH7 was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA (typically associated with STEC and EPEC, invA (EIEC and the rbfO157+fliCH7 (STEC and/or STEC/EAEC combination were significantly (p<0.02 higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzxO104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p=0.014 more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels.

  5. Mucosa-associated but not luminal Escherichia coli is augmented in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Helton Luis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is believed to participate in the etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD and possibly of ulcerative colitis (UC, due at least in part to the observed rise in the number of these bacteria in the gut microbiota of CD and UC patients. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood whether this quantitative variation occurs equally throughout the mucosal and luminal spaces of the gut. To assess this question, stools and mucosa biopsies from distinct intestinal sites were cultured aiming at determining their E. coli concentration. The cultures were additionally screened for the presence of some virulence genes of pathogenic E. coli. Results Analyses of clinical materials from 14 controls (38 biopsies and 14 stools samples, 11 CD (25 biopsies and 11 stools samples and 7 UC patients (18 biopsies and 7 stools samples indicated no significant variation in the number of E. coli present in stools, but a rise of at least one log10 CFU/mg in biopsies from the ileum of CD patients and the sigmoid and rectum of CD and UC patients. The cultures were screened for the presence of E. coli attaching and effacing (eae, invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH, aggregative adherence transcriptional activator (aggR, Shiga cytotoxins (stx, and heat labile enterotoxin (elt and the following serine proteases autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE genes: plasmid encoded toxin (pet, secreted autotransporter toxin (sat, Shigella extracellular protein (sepA, protein involved in intestinal colonization (pic and Shigella IgA-like protease homolog (sigA. Six of the 10 genes screened were detected in the total of samples investigated: aggR, eae, pet, sat, sepA and sigA. No difference in the prevalence of any of these markers was observed in cultures from different clinical materials or groups of patients. Methods Bacterial quantitation was carried out following cultures of diluted samples suspensions in MacConkey agar, Wilkins Chalgren agar for anaerobes

  6. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Red Clay Green Roof Vegetation Blocks for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for restoration of ecological systems in buildings, porous vegetation red clay green roof blocks were designed for performance evaluation. Blast furnace slag (BFS; fine aggregates (agg., coarse aggregates, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fiber (hydrophilic fiber, and red clay (ecofriendly additive material were applied to the construction of the porous vegetation red clay green roof blocks. A decrease in cement use is one way of reducing carbon emissions. To increase the water retentivity and the efficiency of roof vegetation blocks, blast furnace slag aggregates with excellent water absorptivity and polyvinyl alcohol fiber with a water absorption rate above 20% were added. In particular, the addition of polyvinyl alcohol fiber prevents performance reduction of the green roof vegetation blocks during freezing and melting in winter. Compressive strength, void ratio, and unit-mass tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the roof vegetation blocks. After their application to roof vegetation, the effect of water purification was evaluated. According to the experimental results, the mix that satisfies the target performance of green roof vegetation blocks (compression strength above 8 MPa, void ratio above 20%, unit mass 2.0 kg/cm3 or below is: cement = 128.95 kg/m3, BFS = 96.75 kg/m3, red clay = 96.75 kg/m3, water = 81.50 kg/m3, BFS agg. = 1450 kg/m3, PVA fiber = 1.26 kg/m3. The green roof vegetation blocks were designed using the mix that satisfied the target performance. To find the amount of attainable water due to rainfall, a rainfall meter was installed after application of the roof vegetation to measure daily rainfall and calculate the amount of attainable water. The results show that, for 1 mm of rainfall, it is possible to attain about 0.53 L of water per 1 m2. In addition, the water quality of effluents after application of roof vegetation was analyzed, and the results satisfied Class 4 of the River-life Environmental

  7. Structural organization of cetyltrimethylammonium sulfate in aqueous solution: The effect of Na2SO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Eloi; Brazolin, Marcelo Rodrigo Savério; Naal, Rose Mary Zumstein Georgetto; Del Lama, Maria Perpétua Freire de Morais; Lopes, Josias R; Loh, Watson; Vasilescu, Marilena

    2006-07-15

    We used dynamic light scattering (DLS), steady-state fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ), tensiometry, conductimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the self-assembly of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium sulfate (CTAS) in aqueous solution, which has SO(2-)4 as divalent counterion. We obtained the critical micelle concentration (cmc), aggregation number (N(agg)), area per monomer (a0), hydrodynamic radius (R(H)), and degree of counterion dissociation (alpha) of CTAS micelles in the absence and presence of up to 1 M Na2SO4 and at temperatures of 25 and 40 degrees C. Between 0.01 and 0.3 M salt the hydrodynamic radius of CTAS micelle R(H) approximately 16 A is roughly independent on Na2SO4 concentration; below and above this concentration range R(H) increases steeply with the salt concentration, indicating micelle structure transition, from spherical to rod-like structures. R(H) increases only slightly as temperature increases from 25 to 40 degrees C, and the cmc decreases initially very steeply with Na2SO4 concentration up to about 10 mM, and thereafter it is constant. The area per surfactant at the water/air interface, a0, initially increases steeply with Na2SO4 concentration, and then decreases above ca. 10 mM. Conductimetry gives alpha = 0.18 for the degree of counterion dissociation, and N(agg) obtained by fluorescence methods increases with surfactant concentration but it is roughly independent of up to 80 mM salt. The ITC data yield cmc of 0.22 mM in water, and the calculated enthalpy change of micelle formation, Delta H(mic) = 3.8 kJ mol(-1), Gibbs free energy of micellization of surfactant molecules, Delta G(mic) = -38.0 kJ mol(-1) and entropy TDelta S(mic) = 41.7 kJ mol(-1) indicate that the formation of CTAS micelles is entropy-driven.

  8. Influence of fluorides upon vegetation. Preliminary tests in gardon uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, A.; Clausmann,, P.

    1919-01-01

    Pulverized birchwood charcoal extracted with hot acids and washed in boiling water gave a soil medium containing 1.87 mg F per kg. The soil was composed of purified charcoal, 1000 g; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as a jelly, 120 g; CaCO/sub 3/, 730 g (F = 0.002), humus, 27.3 g; very fertile garden soil, 66.0 (F = 0.007); CaHPO/sub 4/, 24 g; KNO/sub 3/, 34 g; (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/, 30 g; NaCl, 3.0 g; MgCO/sub 3/, 68 g; MnCl/sub 2/, 0.80 g, ZnCO/sub 3/, 0.07; SiO/sub 2/ as jelly, 17.0; FeSO/sub 4/, 180.0; NaAsO/sub 4/, 1.4 g. This entire mixture contained 11 mg F per kg. Plants were grown in three four-liter pots, A, B, C. The pots contained the above mixture, one with charcoal, another with KF. Pot C contained good garden soil for control. The effects of F were estimated by measuring the height of the plant and when the seed was produced, the weight of the seed. Fluorine exerted a favorable influence upon Gressin alenois, cabbage; Spergula arvensis, Escholtzia California, spinach, yellow day-lilly, viperine, Oignon communis and hemp. An unfavorable influence was observed with dwarf peas and sweet peas.

  9. The palynomorphological characteristics of Anthemis in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANXHELA DAUTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anthemis L. is the second largest genus of the tribe Anthemideae of Asteraceae family. It comprises about 210 species, distributed widely in Europe, south-west Asia, north and north-east Africa and extending into extreme southern Arabia and tropical east Africa. The plants of genus Anthemis are annual and perennial herbs with beautiful and attractive flowers. The article includes the palynomorphological study of the main members of genus Anthemis in Albania. In this article submitted comparative features of the species: Anthemis altissima , Anthemis carpatica, Anthemis chia, Anthemis orientalis, Anthemis tomentosa, Anthemis triumfetti, Anthemis arvensis and Anthemis tinctoria. The material for the study was obtained in National Herbarium in Tirana. For the study of palynomorphological features are analyzed 31 pollen grains from each species. The treatment of material is made with acetolysis method and basic fuchsine. The fixing of pollen grains is made with glycerin gelatin. The study and photos of pollen grains are realized with light microscope with 1000x power. The pollen grains of plants above are spheroidal or oblate spheroidal, three furrows three pores. The exine appears thick and has two-layers. The sculpture of exine is echinate. The work is part of the palynological study of general members in Asteraceae family in our country.

  10. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  11. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  12. Influence of tillage system on the weed infestation in a long-term field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Germany reduced tillage (without ploughing increased to nearly 40% of arable land. Without using a plough weed infestation generally rises. Simultaneously the use of herbicides increases. In a long-term field trial in Dahnsdorf (federal state of Brandenburg, Germany the impact of reduced tillage on weed occurrence and herbicide use is investigated. The use of glyphosate for seedbed preparation is not always necessary, e.g. in the crop year 2010 glyphosate was not used. The use depends on the rate of weed emergence and the precedent crop. For canola the situation is different, volunteer cereal plants had to be controlled by a graminicide in 6 out of 7 years. In the first years weed emergence is determined by the former crop rotation (cash cropping with 67% cereals vs. forage cropping with 50% cereals and the herbicide strategy. Round about after four years the influence of the reduced tillage appears in case of the dicotyledonous weeds. Emergence of these weeds is promoted by the reduced tillage especially in combination with slightly reduced herbicide amounts (strategy IPS. The species of the dicotyledonous weeds are mainly (about 70% Viola arvensis, Veronica spp., Stellaria media, Matricaria spp. and Centaurea cyanus. For Apera spica-venti the emergence is mainly based on the weather conditions and the germinative terms in autumn.

  13. Time-invariant differences between plant individuals in interactions with arthropods correlate with intraspecific variation in plant phenology, morphology and floral scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppler, Jonas; Höfers, Maren K; Wiesmann, Lisa; Junker, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    The basic units of ecological and evolutionary processes are individuals. Network studies aiming to infer mechanisms from complex systems, however, usually focus on interactions between species, not individuals. Accordingly, the structure and underlying mechanisms of individual-based interaction networks remain largely unknown. In a common garden, we recorded all interactions on flowers and leaves of 97 Sinapis arvensis individuals from seedling stage to fruit set and related interindividual differences in interactions to the plant individuals' phenotypes. The plant individuals significantly differed in their quantitative and qualitative interactions with arthropods on flowers and leaves. These differences remained stable over the entire season and thus were time-invariant. Variation in interacting arthropod communities could be explained by a pronounced intraspecific variability in flowering phenology, morphology and flower scent, and translated into variation in reproductive success. Interestingly, plant individuals with a similar composition of flower visitors were also visited by a similar assemblage of interaction partners at leaves. Our results show that the nonuniformity of plant species has pronounced effects in community ecology, potentially with implications for the persistence of communities and populations, and their ability to withstand environmental fluctuations.

  14. Dark/Light Modulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Plants from Different Photosynthetic Categories 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George

    1984-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO3− and Mg2+ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C3); P. maximum (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C3/C4); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C3); P. miliaceum (C4 NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C4 NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C3/C4); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C3 species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO2 and Mg2+ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  15. Dark/Light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J C; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+) concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C(3)); P. maximum (C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C(3)/C(4)); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C(3)); P. miliaceum (C(4) NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C(4) NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C(3)/C(4)); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C(3) species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO(2) and Mg(2+) activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light.

  16. The genus Biuterina Fuhrmann, 1902 (Cestoda, Paruterinidae) in the Old World: redescriptions of three species from Palaearctic Passeriformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Bray, Rodney A; Gibson, David I

    2004-01-01

    The syntypes of Biuterina passerina Fuhrmann, 1908 from Alauda arvensis and Galerida cristata (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) from an unknown locality are redescribed. B. fuhrmanni Schmelz, 1941 is redescribed on the basis of its syntypes from Emberiza aureola from China; its type-material contains, in addition to a scolex and pre-gravid and gravid fragments of Biuterina, fragments of mature proglottides from a dilepidid cestode, which were erroneously used in the original description. Specimens, which correspond morphologically to B. clerci Spasskii, 1946, from Miliaria calandra, E. citrinella and E. cirlus from Bulgaria and from E. citrinella from the Czech Republic, are studied. The synonymy of B. clerci with B. passerina is rejected; however, it is recognised as a synonym of B. fuhrmanni. Available data suggest that B. passerina is a specific parasite of birds of the family Alaudidae, while B. fuhrmanni is specific to the Emberizidae. B. collurionis Matevosyan, 1950 is considered a species inquirenda, pending confirmation of apparent differences from B. passerina and B. fuhrmanni based on further material. Biuterina cordifera Murai & Sulgostowska, 1983 is redescribed on the basis of specimens, previously identified by Rysavý (1965) as B. triangula (Krabbe, 1869), from Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Muscicapidae, Sylviinae) in the Czech Republic (new geographical record) and from Erithacus megarhynchos (Muscicapidae, Turdinae) in Bulgaria (new host and geographical records).

  17. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M; Gols, Rieta

    2016-08-03

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature.

  18. Eriophyid-myte (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae as moontlike beheeragente van ongewenste uitheemse plante in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Craemer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyid-myte kom waarskynlik op die meeste hoër plante voor en is oor die algemeen baie gasheerspesifiek. Sommiges is skadelik genoeg om oorweeg te word vir biologiese beheerprogramme teen ongewenste plante. Algemene belangstelling in die gebruik van eriophyids vir onkruidbeheer het onlangs ontstaan en vyf spesies is reeds, meestal suksesvol, gebruik vir onkruidbeheer in ander lande. Eriophyid-myte is nog nie as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika benut nie. Sewentien spesies wat simptome veroorsaak wat moontlik nuttig kan wees vir die beheer van 12 plantspesies, wat as onkruide in Suid-Afrika beskou word, word gelys en bespreek. Die onkruide is: Acacia saligna (Port Jackson, Acroptilon repens (Russiese dissel, Cardaria draba (peperbos cardaria, Chromolaena odorata (paraffienbos. Convolvulus arvensis (akkerwinde, Cuscuta epithymum (dodder, Hypericum perforatum (St. Janskruid, Lantana camara (lantana, Melia azedarach (sering, Opuntia inermis (doringturksvy, Solanum elaeagnifolium (satansbos, S. mauritianum (luisboom en Spartium junceum (Spaanse besem. Sommige van hierdie eriophyid-spesies kan moontlik suksesvol as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika gebruik word en derhalwe is verdere navorsing in hierdie verband geregverdig.

  19. 薄荷栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 黄静兰; 丘亮伟

    2010-01-01

    @@ 薄荷(Mentha arvensis)为唇形科(Labiatae)薄荷属(Mentha)多年生宿根性草本植物.是一种有特种经济价值的芳香植物,茎叶可提取薄荷油、薄荷脑、薄荷素等香料,供医药、食品、化工、化妆品等工业用.中医学上以全草入药,性凉,气味温辛,无毒,归肺、肝、心经,具有疏散风热、清利头目、利咽喉的功效,治疗感冒发热、头痛、咽喉肿痛、偏头痛等症.其嫩茎叶凉拌食用,可清热解毒,味道清凉爽口,深受到人们的青睐,是一种开发前景很好的特色蔬菜.

  20. Formulation Design and Development of a Unani Transdermal Patch for Antiemetic Therapy and Its Pharmaceutical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) is one of the novel routes for systemic delivery of drugs through intact skin. A transdermal patch (TP) is a medicated patch that is placed on skin for delivery of medication through skin into the blood stream. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a Unani transdermal patch that could be used for antiemetic therapy. The incorporation of Unani ingredients, namely, Khardal (Brassica nigra), Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale), Podina (Mentha arvensis), and Sirka (Vinegar) were envisaged. The TP was prepared by solvent evaporation technique and was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics and other physicochemical properties, such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, drug content, and tolerability and acceptability of patch. The in vitro permeation study of the patch was carried out through Franz diffusion cell using egg shell membrane as barrier membrane. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as dissolution medium and the temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. The in vitro permeation study of the prepared TP indicated a time dependent increase in drug release throughout the study. The percentage of cumulative drug release was found to be 77.38% in 24 hours. The study shows a new approach to work in Unani pharmaceutics. PMID:27403377

  1. Seed Detection and Discrimination by Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Are Associated with Olfactory Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sharavari S; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Spence, John R; Willenborg, Christian J

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species.

  2. PEMANFAATAN SERESAH DAUN BAMBU (Dendrocalamus asper SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PENGENDALI GULMA YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth in the early stages of crop establishment, can decrease final crop yield. Phytochemical compounds from bamboo’s (Dendrocalamus sasper leaves known as flavonoids, phenolic and coumarin that inhibit the growth and development of weeds. The objective of this study was to utilizing bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide for sustainable agricultural system. Weedy area used for observation of the effectiveness solution of bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide is 1 m², first area for solution of bamboo’s leaves litter 10%, the second area for solution of bamboo’s leaves litter 5% and third plot only distilled water as a control treatment. Weeds SDR observations was done before spraying and 7 days after spraying bamboo’s leaves litter. The selected plot is a plot with diverse species of weeds. Observations SDR weeds to determine the level of effectiveness of a solution of bamboo’s leaf litter, was conducted used quadrant plots Weed species that dominated on our plot are Mikania micrantha, Eleusine indica, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon stolon, Cynodon dactylon, Axonopus compressus dan Sanchus arvensis. Solution of bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide are only capable controlled bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, both at a dose of 5 % and 10 %. For other species, solution of bamboo’s leaves litter did not work at

  3. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  4. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  5. Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts Prepared from Selected Medicinal Herbs in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Jun; Song, Ji-Hye; Shon, Myung-Soo; Kim, Hae Ok; Kwon, O Jun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246.2 μg/mL and 166.2 μg/mL, respectively, followed by ARE (186.6 μg/mL), CZE (198.6 μg/mL), MAE (337.1 μg/mL), PFE (415.3 μg/mL), LSE (548.2 μg/mL), and GJE (626.3 μg/mL). In non-toxic concentration ranges, CZE had a strong inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 adipogenes (84.5%) than those of the other extracts. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE is largely limited in the early stage of adipogenesis, and we revealed that the inhibitory role of CZE in adipogenesis is required for the activation of Wnt signaling. Our results provide scientific evidence that the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE can be applied as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutri-cosmetics for obesity prevention. PMID:27752499

  6. A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh A. M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

  7. Weed infestation of a cereal-legume mixture depending on its concentration and position in a crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out in the period 2000-2006 at the Experimental Station in Tomaszkowo belonging to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Its aim was to compare weed infestation of a mixture of spring barley and field pea grown in a four crop rotation with different crop selection and sequence. Each year during tillering of spring barley and before the harvest of the mixture, weed species composition and density were evaluated, while additionally weed biomass was also estimated before the harvest. These results were used to determine species constancy, Simpson’s dominance index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices as well as the community similarity index based on floristic richness, numbers and biomass of particular weed species. The cropping frequency and the position of the mixture in the crop rotation did not differentiate the species composition and total biomass of weed communities in the cereal-legume mixture crops. The crop rotation in which the mixture constituted 50% and was grown after itself had a reducing effect on weed numbers. Growing field pea in the 4-year crop rotation promoted weed infestation of the mixture and the dominance of weed communities. Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus repens, Polygonum convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis were constant components of the agrophytocenoses. The weed communities were more similar in terms of their floristic composition than in terms of weed density and air-dry weight of weeds.

  8. The Arable Weeds of Plešivica Hills (NW Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Dujmović Purgar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The arable weeds (segetal flora were explored on Plešivica hills (NW Croatia during vegetational seasons 2002 and 2003 at 10 locations. The common methods of plant recording, collecting and identification were applied in the research of the arable weeds. Th e nomenclature of plants was according to Tutin et al. (1964-1980, 1993. The total of 107 taxa of arable weeds that classified to 32 families was noted. The most represented families were Poaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Therophytes were dominant in the fields that were the subject of this research. Most of the species were the cosmopolites and the Euroasian origin. 78 weed species were noted in dense crop fi elds (wheat, barley. Some of them (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rausch., Cirsium arvense (L.Scop., Galium aparine L., Papaver rhoeas L., Stellaria media(L.Vill. and Veronica persica Poir. are the most harmful weeds of dense crops. 62 weeds were noted in maize fields. Some of them were typically row crop weeds, as for instance: Amaranthus retrofl exus L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L., Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. PB., Polygonum lapathifolium L. and Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. Very invasive species Abutilon theophrasti Med. was found on the row crop fields. Very dangerous aeroallergenic species Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was dispersed in many of the researched fields.

  9. Changes in weed infestation of spring barley depending on variable pluvio-thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Krawczyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze segetal weeds present in spring barley against the background of changes in pluvio-thermal conditions observed over the last 20 years (1993–2012 at the Field Experimental Station of the Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute in Winna Góra, Poland. Based on the mean value of the Sielianinov hydrothermal coefficient for the three months of spring vegetation, i.e., April, May, and June, three classes of pluvio-thermal conditions (very dry, moderately dry, humid were distinguished. The phytosociological stability of weed species analyzed during the study period was assessed and the Shannon–Wiener index of species diversity in the communities and the Simpson dominance index were calculated for segetal weeds present in spring barley. In the 20-year period analyzed, Chenopodium album and Viola arvensis exhibited the highest phytosociological stability and the highest abundance in the spring barley crop. Over the years analyzed, the dry spring vegetation periods were characterized by significant precipitation deficiency between late April and mid-June. In the years with favorable meteorological conditions, the weed species diversity measured by the Shannon–Wiener diversity index was higher than in the years with precipitation deficiency. In the very dry years, the species dominance index in the spring vegetation period was higher than in the wet years. The yield loss caused by weed infestation in the very dry years was higher by 6% as compared to moderately dry and wet years.

  10. Characteristics of Vegetation Succession on Salinized Abandoned Fields in Lower Reaches of Shiyang River%石羊河下游盐渍化弃耕地植被演替特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治元; 李昌龙; 王多泽; 郭树江

    2010-01-01

    以石羊河下游不同年代盐渍化弃耕地自然群落为对象,利用重要值、物种多样性理论研究植被演替的特征.结果显示,石羊河下游盐渍化弃耕地植被演替一般经历一年生田间杂草、多年生荒漠草本和荒漠灌木三个阶段.群落演替规律:藜(Chenopodium album)+田旋花(Convolvulus arvensis)群落(1~2年)→骆驼蒿(Peganum nigellastrum)+骆驼蓬(Peganum harmala)群落(3~10年)→苏枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)+黄毛头(Kalidium cuspidatum var.sinicum)群落(10~40年)→黄毛头群落(顶级群落).研究表明,随着群落演替时间的增加,物种丰富度呈下降趋势,而物种多样性呈先下降后上升,最后略有下降并趋于稳定,群落结构趋于简单.

  11. The segetal flora of the Bug river geomorphological territories in Podlasie region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Skrzyczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on segetal flora of the „Podlaski Przełom Bugu'' Landscape Park were carried out between 1994 and 1998 on the area of 110 localities situated in 16 communes. The list of segetal flora of the area under study and its differentiation as to occurrence frequency, origin of species, persistence of species and biological spectrum is presented in the paper. The segetal flora of the ,,Podlaski Przełom Bugu'' Landscape Park is composed of 346 taxa belonging to 39 families and 193 genera. The dominant group are species occurring very rare, rare and fairly rare. In analyzed flora apophytes prevail (65,3 % over antropophytes (34,7 % and annual and biennial species (56,4 % over perennial species (43,6 %. As to biological spectrum of the studied flora - 52,5 % of total number of species are terophytes, 52,3 % hemicryptophytes and 11,0 % geophytes. 39 species threatened extinction in Poland were found in agrocenosis of "Podlaski Przełom Bugu'' Landscape Park. Some of them occur frequently or commonly in the studied area, others are rare in cultivation and most frequently occur in adjacent natural communities. Among segetal flora of the studied mesoregion 7 species are actually endangered extinction: Valerianella dentata, Melampyrum arvense, Polycnemum arvense, Herniaria hirsuta, Camelina sativa, Stachys annua, Spergula arvensis subsp. maxima.

  12. Phytochrome intermediates and action spectra for light perception by dry seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, M R; Frankland, B

    1984-03-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that far-red irradiation of dry Lactuca sativa L. seeds results in inhibition of subsequent germination. Although red has no effect on dry seeds, a red irradiation following a farred irradiation reverses the effect of far-red. This phenomenon is most noticeable in seeds with artificially raised levels of phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. Qualitatively similar results have been found for the seeds of Plantago major L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Bromus sterilis L. Action spectra studies on Plantago seeds show that the action peaks for promotion and inhibition of germination of hydrated seeds are at 660 and 730 nanometers, respectively. The action spectrum for inhibition of subsequent germination following irradiation of dry seeds is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that for hydrated seeds, with an action peak at 730 nanometers, indicating absorption by phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. However, the action spectrum for the reversal of this far-red effect on dry seeds has a broad peak at 680 nanometers and subsidiary peaks at 650 and 600 nanometers. It is proposed that this effect is due to light absorption by the phytochrome intermediate complex meta-Fa, and that the action spectrum reflects the in vivo absorption properties of this intermediate.

  13. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W H Gera Hol

    Full Text Available Plant-soil feedback (PSF and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  14. Murcha do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum no Brasil: agente causal, círculo de plantas hospedeiras e transmissão via semente Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum wilt in Brazil: causal agent, host range and seed transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é uma hortaliça da família Lamiaceae, utilizada na culinária ou como matéria prima para a indústria de fármacos e óleos essenciais. Amostras de plantas de manjericão apresentando sintomas de murcha, seca de hastes e podridão de colo foram coletadas na área rural de Brazlândia (DF durante a estação chuvosa de 2005. Outras duas amostras foram coletadas em plantas cultivadas em campo aberto e casas de vegetação na região de Ponte Alta (DF. Isolados de um fungo, identificado como Fusarium oxysporum, foram obtidos em todas as amostras. Testes de patogenicidade foram conduzidos com mudas das cultivares O. basilicum 'Dark Opal' e 'Italian Large Leaf', e de acessos das espécies O. americanum L. (manjericão de folha miúda, O. campechianum Mill. (alfavaca, Origanum manjorana L. (manjerona, Origanum vulgare L. (orégano, Mentha arvensis L. (menta, Coleus blumei Benth. (tapete, Leonorus sibiricus L. (rubim e Leonotis nepetaefolia (L. W.T. Aiton (cordão-de-frade. Todos os isolados fúngicos mostraram-se altamente virulentos sobre as duas cultivares de manjericão. Em O. campechianum e O. americanum os isolados causaram apenas suave escurecimento vascular e leve redução de crescimento, sendo avirulentos sobre acessos das espécies O. manjorana, O. vulgare, M. arvensis, C. blumei, L. sibiricus e L. nepetaefolia. Este conjunto de dados indicou que o agente causal da doença é o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici, constituindo-se no primeiro registro formal deste patógeno no Brasil. Os lotes de sementes utilizados nas áreas de ocorrência da doença foram submetidos a um teste de sanidade visando verificar a presença do patógeno. O fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici foi detectado em quatro dos seis lotes e os isolados obtidos das sementes contaminadas mostraram similar sintomatologia e um idêntico perfil de virulência aos verificados em campo e casa de vegetação, sugerindo que as sementes

  15. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption.

  16. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  17. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. III. Black, alluvial and rendzina soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jędruszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora growing stubble-fields area is determined by soil features. Weeds found in cereal stubble-fields on black soils formed from sands and loams, medium and haevy alluvial soils as well as brown and chernozem rendzina soils are presented in the paper. The 273 phytosociological records were worked out. They were collected from 87 stands situated in 76 localities of Kielce region. The results showed that species number and species composition were dependent on the soils (black. alluvial, rendzina. The existance of 118 (medium alluvial soil to 140 (brown rendzina soil weed species, including 73 common for all of the soils considered, was found there. Relatively high per cent (29-35 of them belonged to perennial weeds. From 22 (brown rendzina soil to 35 (heavy alluvial soil of species reached high constancy degrees (V-III. Stellaria media, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Agropyron repens and Cirsium arvense predominated on the all of the soil examined. Among the weed flora registered, 25 species, recorded only on rendzina soils, were distinguishable for that soils.

  18. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION AND CUTTING ON FLORISTIC AND PHYTOCENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FACIES (Arrenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Stjepanović

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1993-1997 investigations were conducted on natural low marshy grassland of facies Arrhenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum located 60 km west of Osijek and 7 km south of the river Drava. Variants of nitrogen fertilization, NPK fertilizers and non-fertilized were comprised in the investigation. Presence of 121 plant species of which 22 grass and grass-like species, 12 legumes and 87 other plant species was determined. On the average of five years grassland fertilization affected changes in density value of all plant groups. The highest grass density was found out with the variant fertilized with N120P12K120 and the highest legumes density appeared to be on non-fertilized variant. In 1997 Centaurea jacea, Cerastium holosteoides and Myosotis arvensis dissapeared from plant density of other species due to fertilization and mowing effect. Grasses Alopercurus pratensis and Poa pratensis var. angustifolia as well as leguminoses Trfolim pratense and Lathyrus pratensis are especially characterized by good fodder and density value.

  19. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudey, J S; Tittle, F L; Spencer, M S

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to beta-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form beta-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  20. A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to β-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form β-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

  1. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  2. The clinical differentiation of nervous and muscular locomotor disorders of sheep in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, C A

    1995-06-01

    Many of the nervous and muscular locomotor disorders that affect sheep throughout Australia are commonly referred to as "staggers" syndromes. The range of clinical signs displayed by sheep suffering these disorders is sufficiently diverse to enable each syndrome to be graded into one of 5 progressive clinical groups. The first group, the limb paresis syndromes, includes the primary myopathies associated with the ingestion of Ixiolaena brevicompta, Malva parviflora, and Trachymene ochracea, as well as selenium and Vitamin E disorders, Paroo virus staggers, congenital progressive muscular dystrophy, humpy back, hypocalcaemic muscle weakness, Tribulus terrestris staggers and tetanus. The second group is characterised by limb paresis with knuckling of the fetlocks, and includes the plant-associated toxicities of Romulea rosea, Stachys arvensis, Trachyandra divaricata, and Tribulus micrococcus, together with haloxon toxicity, enzootic ataxia (copper deficiency), and the probably genetic disorders of segmental axonopathy, neuroaxonal dystrophy, and degenerative thoracic myelopathy. Other locomotor disorders that fit more loosely into this group are listerial myelitis (post-dipping staggers), vitamin A deficiency, cervico-thoracic vertebral subluxation Stypandra glauca toxicity, Ipomoea spp toxicity, ivermectin toxicity, and botulism. The third group, the falling syndromes, includes the probably genetic disorders of thalamic cerebellar neuropathy, cerebellar abiotrophy, and globoid cell leucodystrophy, together with Swainsona spp toxicity. The fourth group, the falling syndromes, includes the plant associated toxicities of phalaris staggers, perennial rye grass staggers and nervous ergotism (Claviceps paspali).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  4. Dietary omega-3 PUFA and health: stearidonic acid-containing seed oils as effective and sustainable alternatives to traditional marine oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surette, Marc E

    2013-05-01

    The daily consumption of dietary omega-3 PUFA is recommended by governmental agencies in several countries and by a number of health organizations. The molecular mechanisms by which these dietary PUFA affect health involve the enrichment of cellular membranes with long-chain 20- and 22-carbon omega-3 PUFA that impacts tissues by altering membrane protein functions, cell signaling, and gene expression profiles. These changes are recognized to have health benefits in humans, especially relating to cardiovascular outcomes. Cellular membrane enrichment and health benefits are associated with the consumption of long-chain omega-3 PUFA found in marine oils, but are not generally linked with the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid, the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA found in plant seed oils. However, the supply of omega-3 PUFA from marine sources is limited and may not be sustainable. New plant-derived sources of omega-3 PUFA like stearidonic acid-soy oil from genetically modified soybeans and Ahiflower oil from Buglossoides arvensis seeds that are enriched in the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA stearidonic acid are being developed and show promise to become effective as well as sustainable sources of omega-3 PUFA. An example of changes in tissue lipid profiles associated with the consumption of Ahiflower oil is presented in a mouse feeding study.

  5. Investigation on Weed Species in Alfalfa Field in Qingdao%青岛苜蓿田杂草种类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 田净净; 刘志英; 孙娟; 朱华敏; 杨国锋

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on weeds in artificial alfalfa field in Qingdao Animal Husbandry Technology Demonstration Garden was made from the end of March to the end of September in 2012.Twenty-one kinds of weed species (belonging to 12 families) were found.Among them,weeds belonging to Brassicaceae,Convolvulaceae,Asteraceae,Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae were severely harmful.Descuminia Sophia (L.)webb.Ex Prantl,Cirsium setosum (Wild.) MB.and Convolvulus arvensis L.were dominant species in winter-spring.Gramineae weeds,such as Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.,Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.,and Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.were dominant species in summer-autumn.%2012年自3月底苜蓿返青开始至9月底,对青岛畜牧科技示范园牧草试验基地的苜蓿田杂草调查发现:苜蓿田杂草种类有12科21种,其中十字花科、旋花科、菊科、禾本科和藜科的杂草危害较大;冬春季杂草优势种为麦蒿、刺菜和田旋花;夏秋季杂草优势种为马唐、狗尾草、稗草等禾本科植物和葎草.

  6. Linarin Inhibits the Acetylcholinesterase Activity In-vitro and Ex-vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Linarin is a flavone glycoside in the plants Flos chrysanthemi indici, Buddleja officinalis, Cirsium setosum, Mentha arvensis and Buddleja davidii, and has been reported to possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. In this paper, linarin was investigated for its AChE inhibitory potential both in-vitro and ex-vivo. Ellman's colorimetric method was used for the determination of AChE inhibitory activity in mouse brain. In-vitro assays revealed that linarin inhibited AChE activity with an IC50 of 3.801 ± 1.149 μM. Ex-vivo study showed that the AChE activity was significantly reduced in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice treated intraperitoneally with various doses of linarin (35, 70 and 140 mg/Kg). The inhibition effects produced by high dose of linarin were the same as that obtained after huperzine A treatment (0.5 mg/Kg). Molecular docking study revealed that both 4'-methoxyl group and 7-O-sugar moiety of linarin played important roles in ligand-receptor binding and thus they are mainly responsible for AChE inhibitory activity. In view of its potent AChE inhibitory activity, linarin may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some diseases associated with AChE, such as glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, gastric motility and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Leaf damage induces twining in a climbing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A

    2005-08-01

    Successful climbing by vines not only prevents shading by neighbouring vegetation, but also may place the vines beyond ground herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that herbivory might enhance climbing in a vine species, and that such induced climbing should be greater in the shade. We assessed field herbivory in climbing and prostrate ramets of the twining vine Convolvulus arvensis. We evaluated plant climbing after mechanical damage in a glasshouse under both sun and shade conditions, and determined whether control and damaged plants differed in growth rate or photosynthetic capacity. Plants experienced greater herbivory when growing prostrate than when climbing onto companion plants, in both an open habitat and a shaded understorey. Experimental plants increased their twining rate on a stake after suffering leaf damage, in both high- and low-light conditions, and this induced climbing was not coupled to an increase in growth rate. Increased photosynthesis was associated with enhanced twining rate only in the shade. Herbivory may be an ecological factor promoting the evolution of a climbing habit in plants.

  8. Effect of Pakistani medicinal plants on IgE/antigen- and ionophore-induced mucosal mast cells degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Tomoe, Yashiro; Usmanghani, Khan; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Cumulative evidence has now demonstrated the stimulation of mucosal mast cells by both allergic and non-allergic triggers and their inhibition as a potential therapeutic target in many diseases like food allergy and ulcerative colitis. Hence, we screened medicinal plants from Pakistan against antigen- and ionophore-induced degranulation of mucosal mast cells. Aqueous ethanol extracts were screened. IgE/antigen- and A23187-induced degranulation of mucosal-type murine bone marrow derived mast cells (mBMMCs) were screening assays and β-hexosaminidase released from degranulated mBMMCs was measured. Real time-polymerase chain reaction was employed to examine the expression of TNF-α and IL-4 mRNA. Acetoxychavicol acetate, was examined by degranulation assays and real time-PCR. Among the ten plants screened against IgE/antigen stimulated degranulation, five plants; Alpinia galangal, Mentha arvensis, Myrtus communis, Polygonum bistorta and Syzygium aromaticum demonstrated significant (pgalangal showed significant (pgalangal exhibited significant (pgalangal revealed significant suppression at 10 μg/ml against A23187-stimulated degranulation. Acetoxychavicol acetate demonstrated significant (pgalangal and acetoxychavicol acetate suppressed the IgE/antigen- and A23187-enhanced mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-4, in mBMMCs. Our findings revealed the suppressive effect of Alpinia galangal and acetoxychavicol acetate on degranulation of mBMMCs by allergic and non-allergic stimuli, which can be utilized for future drug development against food allergy or ulcerative colitis.

  9. Formulation Design and Development of a Unani Transdermal Patch for Antiemetic Therapy and Its Pharmaceutical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nauman Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS is one of the novel routes for systemic delivery of drugs through intact skin. A transdermal patch (TP is a medicated patch that is placed on skin for delivery of medication through skin into the blood stream. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a Unani transdermal patch that could be used for antiemetic therapy. The incorporation of Unani ingredients, namely, Khardal (Brassica nigra, Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale, Podina (Mentha arvensis, and Sirka (Vinegar were envisaged. The TP was prepared by solvent evaporation technique and was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics and other physicochemical properties, such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, drug content, and tolerability and acceptability of patch. The in vitro permeation study of the patch was carried out through Franz diffusion cell using egg shell membrane as barrier membrane. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as dissolution medium and the temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. The in vitro permeation study of the prepared TP indicated a time dependent increase in drug release throughout the study. The percentage of cumulative drug release was found to be 77.38% in 24 hours. The study shows a new approach to work in Unani pharmaceutics.

  10. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vitex negundo completely inhibited the growth of test bacteria. Furthermore MIC & MBC values of C. ambrosioides oil were least for Erw. herbicola (0.25 & 2.0 μl/ml and Ps. putida (0.12 & 1.0 μl/ml respectively than other 7 oils as well as Agromycin and Streptomycin drugs used in current study. GC and GC-MS analysis of Chenopodium oil revealed presence of 125 major and minor compounds, out of them, 14 compounds were recognized. The findings concluded that Chenopodium oil may be regarded as safe antibacterial agent for the management of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables.

  11. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Z Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth. On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.

  12. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms.

  13. Dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, J.C.V.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from light-exposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C/sub 3/); P. maximum (C/sub 4/ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C/sub 3/); P. miliaceum (C/sub 4/ NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C/sub 4/ NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C/sub 3/ species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. 16 references, 2 tables.

  14. Substituted N-Phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides, Their Synthesis and Evaluation as Herbicides and Abiotic Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kráľová

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The condensation of substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid chlorides with ring-substituted anilines yielded five substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid amides. Thesynthesis, and analytical, lipophilicity and biological data of the newly synthesizedcompounds are presented in this paper. The photosynthesis inhibition, antialgal activityand the effect of a series of pyrazine derivatives as abiotic elicitors on the accumulation offlavonoids in a callus culture of Ononis arvensis (L. were investigated. The most activeinhibitor of the oxygen evolution rate in spinach chloroplasts was 6-chloro-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (3-iodo-4-methylphenyl-amide (2, IC50 = 51.0 μmol·L-1. The highestreduction of chlorophyll content in Chlorella vulgaris was found for 5-tert-butyl-N-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (3, IC50 = 44.0 μmol·L-1. The maximalflavonoid production (about 900% was reached after a twelve-hour elicitation processwith 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (3-iodo-4-methylphenyl-amide (2.

  15. Causes and Consequences of Partial Migration in a Passerine Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Arne; Marra, Peter P; Tieleman, B Irene

    2015-10-01

    Many animal species have populations in which some individuals migrate and others remain on the breeding grounds. This phenomenon is called partial migration. Despite substantial theoretical work, empirical data on causes and consequences of partial migration remain scarce, mainly because of difficulties associated with tracking individuals over large spatial scales. We used stable hydrogen isotopes in claw material to determine whether skylarks Alauda arvensis from a single breeding population in the Netherlands had migrated or remained resident in the previous winter and investigated whether there were causes or consequences of either strategy. Age and sex had no influence on the propensity to migrate, but larger individuals were more likely to be residents. The wintering strategy was not fixed within individuals. Up to 45% of individuals measured in multiple years switched strategies. Reproductive parameters were not related to the wintering strategy, but individuals that wintered locally experienced lower future return rates, and this was directly correlated with two independent measures of immune function. Our results suggest that partial migration in skylarks is based neither on genetic dimorphism nor on an age- and sex-dependent condition. Instead, the wintering strategy is related to structural size and immune function. These new insights on causes and consequences of partial migration advance our understanding of the ecology, evolution, and coexistence of different life-history strategies.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  17. The park-view effect: Residential development is higher at the boundaries of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Mattia; Ronchi, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Land-use changes in the surrounding of protected areas might compromise their conservation efficacy, and thus the potential attractive effect that protected areas may exert on urban development is particularly concerning. We investigated whether the proximity to protected areas in a region (Lombardy, Italy) with a high density of urban areas and parks may increase the likelihood of residential development. The main change around protected areas was the loss of open areas (mostly due to development processes at the expense of arable land), which was higher in proximity of parks. Changes in residential discontinuous development were significantly and negatively related to proximity to parks, whereas changes in productive developments were unrelated to park proximity. The higher likelihood of residential development in proximity to parks is likely due to the attraction exerted by parks. The severe loss of open areas and increase of residential development around parks heavily impacted on habitat availability for a declining bird species (Alauda arvensis). Conservation policies considering also what happens around protected areas are urgently needed.

  18. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  19. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe.

  20. Northward invading non-native vascular plant species in and adjacent to Wood Buffalo National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, R.W.; Wein, G.; Bahret, S.; Cody, W.J. (Alberta University, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Canadian Circumpolar Institute)

    A survey of the non-native vascular plant species in Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada's largest forested National Park, documented their presence and abundance in key locations. Most of the fifty-four species (nine new records) were found in disturbed sites including roadsides, settlements, farms, areas of altered hydrological regimes, recent bums, and intensive bison grazing. Species that have increased most in geographic area and abundance in recent years include [ital Agropyron repens], [ital Bromus inermis], [ital Chenopodium album], [ital Melilotus spp.], [ital Trifolium spp.], [ital Plantago major], [ital Achillea millefolium], [ital Crepis tectorum] and [ital Sonchus arvensis]. An additional 20 species, now common in the Peace River and Fort Vermilion areas, have the potential to invade the Park if plant communities are subjected to additional stress as northern climates are modified by the greenhouse effect and as other human-caused activities disturb the vegetation. It is recommended that permanent plots be located in key locations and monitored for species invasion and changing abundances as input to management plans.

  1. Identification of EST-SSRs and molecular diversity analysis in Mentha piperita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birendra Kumar; Umesh Kumar; Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2015-01-01

    EST sequences of Mentha piperita available in the public domain (NCBI) were exploited to develop SSR markers. A total of 1316 ESTs were assembled into 155 contigs and 653 singletons and of these, 110 sequences were found to contain 130 SSRs, with a frequency of 1 SSR/3.4 kb. Dinucleotide repeat SSRs were most frequent (72.3%) with the AG/CT (43.8%) repeat motif followed by AT/AT (16.2%). Primers were successfully designed for 68 SSR-containing sequences (62.0%). The 68 primers amplified 13 accessions of M. piperita and 54 produced clear amplicons of the expected size. Of these 54, 33 (61%) were found to be polymorphic among M. piperita accessions, showing from 2 to 4 alleles with an average of 2.33 alleles/SSR, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value varied between 0.13 and 0.51 (average 0.25). All the amplified SSRs showed transferability among four different species of Mentha, with a highest in Mentha arvensis (87.0%) and minimum in Mentha citrata (37.0%). The newly developed SSRs markers were found to be useful for diversity analysis, as they successfully differentiated among species and accessions of Mentha.

  2. Identification of EST–SSRs and molecular diversity analysis in Mentha piperita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birendra; Kumar; Umesh; Kumar; Hemant; Kumar; Yadav

    2015-01-01

    EST sequences of Mentha piperita available in the public domain(NCBI) were exploited to develop SSR markers. A total of 1316 ESTs were assembled into 155 contigs and 653 singletons and of these, 110 sequences were found to contain 130 SSRs, with a frequency of1 SSR/3.4 kb. Dinucleotide repeat SSRs were most frequent(72.3%) with the AG/CT(43.8%)repeat motif followed by AT/AT(16.2%). Primers were successfully designed for 68SSR-containing sequences(62.0%). The 68 primers amplified 13 accessions of M. piperita and 54 produced clear amplicons of the expected size. Of these 54, 33(61%) were found to be polymorphic among M. piperita accessions, showing from 2 to 4 alleles with an average of2.33 alleles/SSR, and the polymorphic information content(PIC) value varied between 0.13 and 0.51(average 0.25). All the amplified SSRs showed transferability among four different species of Mentha, with a highest in Mentha arvensis(87.0%) and minimum in Mentha citrata(37.0%). The newly developed SSRs markers were found to be useful for diversity analysis, as they successfully differentiated among species and accessions of Mentha.

  3. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  4. The exploitation of micromorphological parameters for identification in the section / Mentha Využitie mikromorfologických parametrov pri identifikácii v sekcii Mentha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fialová S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifikacia druhov v rode Mentha L. je obzvlašť naročna. Je to sposobene ľahkym križenim podporenym gynodioeciou, ktora je ďalej skomplikovana polymorfizmom, pestovanim, polyploiditou a vegetativnym rozmnožovanim, čo vysvetľuje genetickopopulačne a mikroevolučne pozadie premenlivosti v rode Mentha. V tejto praci sme študovali využitie mikromorfologickych a fytochemickych parametrov pri identifikacii a charakterizacii vybranych druhov rodu Mentha. Na spodnej pokožke listov 20 populacii Mentha sme stanovili veľkosť a počet „žliazok typu Lamiaceae“. Silicu sme analyzovali pomocou GC MS. Identifikovali a charakterizovali sme populacie druhov M. × piperita, M. spicata, M. spicata subsp. condensata, M. spicata var. crispa, M. spicata var. citrata, M. × gentilis, M. aquatic, M. arvensis a M. longifolia. Sledovanie veľkosti a počtu „žliazok typu Lamiaceae prispievaju k charakterizacii niektorych druhov Mentha (najma M. longifolia a M. × piperita.

  5. Radiosensitivity on the components of essential oil in the genus Mentha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Seiroku (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1992-10-01

    The effects of seed irradiation using X-rays (20KR) on the components of the essential oil in the adult plant were investigated using Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinvaud (2n=96). 1. X-ray irradiation produced almost no effect on the dry matter weight and content of essential oil at any stage of growth. 2. Using X-ray irradiation, the level of free menthol was increased, and ester menthol and menthone were decreased. This seemed to suggest that menthol was synthesized by the reduction of the menthone. 3. The content of free menthol was found to increase linearly toward leaves of the upper level, while the content of menthone was found to gradually decrease and, finally, to disappear in leaves at fifth level of leaves. 4. No difference was found in the ratios of contents of inorganic component between the first and second harvest seasons. There was also no difference in the content of total nitrogen at any location of leaves, except when an increased concentration of nitrogen at the seventh level of leaves was found. (author).

  6. Isomenthone protects human dermal fibroblasts from TNF-α-induced death possibly by preventing activation of JNK and p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Byun, Sangyo; Kim, Seungbeom; Kim, Moohan; Park, Deokhoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2012-10-01

    Cell death evoked by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is regulated by the TNF-α receptor-associated death domain containing protein, which interacts with and activates apoptotic proteases triggering cell death. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, induce the apoptotic program and are indispensible early elements in stress-induced apoptosis that control the release of cytochrome c. Isomenthone is a constituent of the essential oil of Mentha arvensis L. and is used as a fragrance and flavor in the cosmetic, drug, and food industries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isomenthone against TNF-α-induced cell death and its mechanism in human dermal fibroblasts. To understand the cytoprotective role of isomenthone, MTT and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays for cell viability and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis for the mechanistic study were performed. We found that isomenthone inhibited the TNF-α-mediated reduction in cell viability and inhibited the increase in apoptosis under a serum-free condition. Isomenthone also blocked the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways and downstream apoptotic events. These results indicate that isomenthone has the potential to protect fibroblasts against TNF-α-induced cell death under a serum-deprived condition by blocking activation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways and downstream apoptotic events.

  7. Identification of EST–SSRs and molecular diversity analysis in Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available EST sequences of Mentha piperita available in the public domain (NCBI were exploited to develop SSR markers. A total of 1316 ESTs were assembled into 155 contigs and 653 singletons and of these, 110 sequences were found to contain 130 SSRs, with a frequency of 1 SSR/3.4 kb. Dinucleotide repeat SSRs were most frequent (72.3% with the AG/CT (43.8% repeat motif followed by AT/AT (16.2%. Primers were successfully designed for 68 SSR-containing sequences (62.0%. The 68 primers amplified 13 accessions of M. piperita and 54 produced clear amplicons of the expected size. Of these 54, 33 (61% were found to be polymorphic among M. piperita accessions, showing from 2 to 4 alleles with an average of 2.33 alleles/SSR, and the polymorphic information content (PIC value varied between 0.13 and 0.51 (average 0.25. All the amplified SSRs showed transferability among four different species of Mentha, with a highest in Mentha arvensis (87.0% and minimum in Mentha citrata (37.0%. The newly developed SSRs markers were found to be useful for diversity analysis, as they successfully differentiated among species and accessions of Mentha.

  8. 甘草素在翘嘴鳜细菌性败血症疫苗中的佐剂效果%Adjuvant Effect of Glycyrrhizine in Vaccines against Bacterial Septicemia in Mandarinfish, Siniperca chuatsi Basilewsky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌福; 陈晓辉; 楠田理一

    2000-01-01

    The effect of glycyrrhizine (Gly) from licorice(Glycyrrhiza glabra ) as a adjuvant in vaccines against bacterial septicemia in mandarinfish(Sinipe rca chuatsi Basilewsky) was studied. Mandarinfish were vaccinated with formalin k ill ed cells (FKC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Aeromonas hydrophila by injec tion method with or without Gly. The results showed that the phagocytic activity of leucocytes and relative percent survival (RPS) after challenge with live bacteri a in vaccinated groups with Gly were significantly higher than that in groups wi thout Gly, but after vaccination no significant differences were detected in agg lutinating antibody titers and complement activity between vaccinated groups wit h Gly and without Gly.%从甘草中提取的甘草素(Gly)添加在翘嘴鳜细菌性败血症的2种疫苗,即福尔马林灭活嗜水气单胞菌(FKC)和菌体脂多糖(LPS)中,经添加Gly的疫苗接种后,受免翘嘴鳜头肾中白细胞的吞噬活性和经活菌攻毒后的免疫保护率显著高于未添加Gly疫苗的免疫组(t 测验,P0.05).

  9. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K; Coutens, A; Lykke, J M; Müller, H S P; van Dishoeck, E F; Calcutt, H; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, "Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)" of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The survey covers the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) with additional targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. More than 10,000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary. Glycolaldehyde, its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid, and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the ISM. The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center, these two species...

  10. AFLP and SCAR markers associated with the sex in Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Li; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2013-08-01

    Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Greville, an important marine alga, has great economic and nutritional value. However, during the nonreproductive period, it is difficult to distinguish the sporophyte, male gametophyte, and female gametophyte from each other by appearance. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a multilocus marker technique, which was used in this study to identify markers associated with G. lemaneiformis sex type. By applying 80 primer combinations in the screening process, three fragments were found that were specific to male or female forms of the alga. A 173 bp band and an 89 bp band were found in the sporophyte and the male gametophyte by using primer E-AGG/M-CGT. E-ACC/M-CGG was used to amplify a 118 bp specific fragment in the sporophyte and the female gametophyte. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed and showed the expected bands at the corresponding stages. This suggested that the SCAR markers that had been developed were successful. The joint use of the three primer pairs allowed us to characterize sex and the G. lemaneiformis developmental phase in the nondescript stages. Rapid gender testing is expected to improve cross-breeding experiments and other genetic research in this economically important seaweed.

  11. Abortive translation caused by peptidyl-tRNA drop-off at NGG codons in the early coding region of mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I; Isaksson, Leif A

    2005-01-01

    -type or the mutant strain. The inhibitory effect on the pth mutant strain by NGG codons at location +5 was suppressed by overexpression of the Pth enzyme from a plasmid. However, the overexpression of cognate tRNAs for AGG or GGG did not rescue from the growth inhibition associated with these codons early...... growth of a normal strain, but growth of a strain with a defective peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) enzyme is inhibited. The same codons, if placed at position +7, did not give this effect. Other codons, such as CGU and AGA, at location +2 to +5, did not give any growth inhibition of either the wild...... in the induced model gene. The data suggest that the NGG codons trigger peptidyl-tRNA drop-off if located at early coding positions in mRNA, thereby strongly reducing gene expression. This does not happen if these codons are located further down in the mRNA at position +7, or later....

  12. Aggregation behavior modulation of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide by organic solvents in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Huiyong; Wu, Changzeng

    2011-05-05

    Material preparation in ionic liquids and environmental pollution control by ionic liquids are often closely dependent on the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in solution. In the present work, conductivity, fluorescence probe, and dynamic light scattering techniques have been used to study the effect of organic solvents on the aggregation behavior of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. It was shown that the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), the ionization degree of the aggregates (α), and the standard Gibbs energy of aggregation (ΔG(m)°) of the ionic liquid increase, while its aggregation number (N(agg)) and aggregates' size decrease with increasing concentration of organic additives in water. These results have been discussed from the favorable interactions of alkyl chain of the ionic liquid with the mixed solvents. It is suggested that the solvophobic parameter, characterized quantitatively by Gibbs energy of transfer of hydrocarbon from gas into a given solvent, can be used to account for the effect of organic additives on the formation and growth of the ionic liquid aggregates in water. Aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous organic solutions can be modulated simply by the solvophobic parameters of hydrocarbon in the mixed solvents.

  13. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egeblad

    Full Text Available To identify interactions a nucleoside analog library (NAL consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay. The method was validated with deoxycytidine kinase; eight interactions known from the literature were detected and five additional interactions were revealed after the addition of ATP, the second substrate. The NAL screening gave relatively few significant hits, supporting a low rate of "off target effects." However, unexpected ligands were identified for two catabolic enzymes guanine deaminase (GDA and uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1. An acyclic guanosine prodrug analog, valaciclovir, was shown to stabilize GDA to the same degree as the natural substrate, guanine, with a ΔT(agg around 7°C. Aciclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were also identified as ligands for GDA. The crystal structure of GDA with valaciclovir bound in the active site was determined, revealing the binding of the long unbranched chain of valaciclovir in the active site of the enzyme. Several ligands were identified for UPP1: vidarabine, an antiviral nucleoside analog, as well as trifluridine, idoxuridine, floxuridine, zidovudine, telbivudine, fluorouracil and thioguanine caused concentration-dependent stabilization of UPP1. A kinetic study of UPP1 with vidarabine revealed that vidarabine was a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the natural substrate uridine. The unexpected ligands identified for UPP1 and GDA imply further metabolic consequences for these nucleoside analogs, which could also serve as a starting point for future drug design.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis TP53 mutation analysis reflects a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; de Almeida Pereira, Thiago; Gonçalves, Patrícia Lofego; Jarske, Robson Dettmann; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Louro, Iuri Drumond

    2013-08-01

    The close relationship between aflatoxins and 249ser TP53 gene mutation (AGG to AGT, Arg to Ser) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes this mutation an indirect indicator of dietary contamination with this toxin. We have examined the prevalence of codon 249 TP53 mutation in 41 HCC and 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases diagnosed at the HUCAM University Hospital in Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. DNA was extracted from paraffin sections and from plasma. The mutation was detected by DNA amplification, followed by restriction endonuclease digestion and confirmed by direct sequencing. DNA restriction showed 249ser mutation in 16 HCC and 13 liver cirrhosis, but sequencing confirmed mutations in only 6 HCC and 1 liver cirrhosis. In addition, sequencing revealed 4 patients with mutations at codon 250 (250ser and 250leu) in HCC cases. The prevalence of TP53 mutation was 10/41 (24.3%) in HCC and 1/74 (1.4%) in liver cirrhosis. No relationship between the presence of mutations and the etiology of HCC was observed. TP53 exon 7 mutations, which are related to aflatoxins exposure, were found at 14.6% (249ser), 7.3% (250leu) and 2.4% (250ser) in 41 cases of HCC and 1.4% in 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases, suggesting a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

  15. Probing the Birth of Post-merger Millisecond Magnetars by X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L J; Liu, L D; Wu, X F

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a stable magnetar could be formed from the coalescence of double neutron stars. In previous papers, we investigated the signature of formation of stable millisecond magnetars in radio and optical/ultraviolet bands by assuming that the central rapidly rotating magnetar deposits its rotational energy in the form of a relativistic leptonized wind. We found that the optical transient PTF11agg could be the first evidence for the formation of post-merger millisecond magnetars. To enhance the probability of finding more evidence for the post-merger magnetar formation, it is better to extend the observational channel to other photon energy bands. In this paper we propose to search the signature of post-merger magnetar formation in X-ray and especially gamma-ray bands. We calculate the SSC emission of the reverse shock powered by post-merger millisecond magnetars. We find that the SSC component peaks at $1\\,{\\rm GeV}$ in the spectral energy distribution and extends to $\\gtrsim 10\\,{\\rm T...

  16. Detection of Glucose with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy by Using Oligonucleotide Functionalized Gold Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Yan, Honglian; Ling, Liansheng

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the detection of glucose was established with atomic absorption spectroscopy by using the label of gold nanoparticle (AuNP). Silver-coated glass assembled with oligonucleotide 5'-SH-T12-AGA CAA GAG AGG-3' (Oligo 1) was acted as separation probe, oligonucleotide 5'-CAA CAG AGA ACG-T12-SH-3' modified gold nanoparticle (AuNP-Oligo 2) was acted as signal-reporting probe. Oligonucleotide 5'-CGT TCT CTG TTG CCT CTC TTG TCT-3' (Oligo 3) could hybridize with Oligo 1 on the surface of silver-coated glass and AuNP-Oligo 2, and free AuNP-Oligo 2 could be removed by rinsing with buffer. Hence the concentration of Oligo 3 was transformed into the concentration of gold element. In addition, Oligo 3 could be cleaved into DNA fragments by glucose, glucose oxidase and Fe(2+)-EDTA through Fenton reaction. Thereby the concentration of glucose could be transformed to the absorbance of gold element. Under the optimum conditions, the integrated absorbance decreased proportionally to the concentration of glucose over the range from 50.0 μM to 1.0 mM with a detection limit of 40.0 μM. Moreover, satisfactory result was obtained when the assay was used to determinate glucose in human serum.

  17. A novel single-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Miyuki; Otomo, Yoshimitsu; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul

    2013-03-01

    Escherichia coli that causes diarrhea in humans is referred to as diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC), and has been categorized into the following 5 groups: shigatoxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In this study, we developed a novel one-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the rapid detection of 10 pathogenic genes (stx1, stx2, eae, bfpA, invE, aggR, esth, estp, elt, and astA) of DEC. Five categorized strains were used as positive controls for DEC harboring each pathogenic gene, and 828 DEC-like strains, isolated from diarrheal stool samples and assumed to be DEC on the basis of serotyping, were used in the mPCR-based detection of the pathogenic genes. To demonstrate the utility of mPCR, the 828 strains were subjected to our optimized protocol, and the results obtained were compared with those obtained by monoplex PCR. The results showed agreement for all strains. Using mPCR, we also detected 65 DEC and 41 astA-positive E. coli, and 7 of these DEC strains were "O antigen untypable" (OUT). This novel mPCR protocol allowed for rapid, convenient, and economical pathogenicity-based identification of the DEC.

  18. Microsatellite marker analysis of nucleotide acid sequences in quail%鹌鹑核酸序列中的微卫星标记分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白俊艳; 赵淑娟; 庞有志

    2010-01-01

    在已公布的鹌鹑核酸序列和EST序列总计635条序列的1~6核苷酸重复SSR的分布中,共发现120条SSR,检出率为18.9%.二核苷酸重复基元的SSR占40.0%,三核苷酸重复基元的SSR占35.8%,五核苷酸重复基元和四核苷酸重复基元的SSR分别占14.2%和10.0%,没有发现六核苷酸重复基元的SSR.组成这些SSR的主要基序有AT/TA、CA/GT、GA/CT、CAG/GTC、AGG/TCC、TAA/AAT、GGC/CGG、GAC/CTG、CGA/GCT、GCA/CGT、GAG/CTC、ACC/CCA、TCTT、TTTG、TCCA、ATGAT/ATCAT、TCCCT、TTCCC.SSR的重复次数都在5以上,由此可以推测利用鹌鹑核苷酸序列和EST序列中的SSR序列将有可能开发一批有价值的SSR分子标记供各种研究所用.

  19. Development of Genetic Testing for Fragile X Syndrome and Associated Disorders, and Estimates of the Prevalence of FMR1 Expansion Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Macpherson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of a trinucleotide (CGG expansion as the chief mechanism of mutation in Fragile X syndrome in 1991 heralded a new chapter in molecular diagnostic genetics and generated a new perspective on mutational mechanisms in human genetic disease, which rapidly became a central paradigm (“dynamic mutation” as more and more of the common hereditary neurodevelopmental disorders were ascribed to this novel class of mutation. The progressive expansion of a CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene from “premutation” to “full mutation” provided an explanation for the “Sherman paradox,” just as similar expansion mechanisms in other genes explained the phenomenon of “anticipation” in their pathogenesis. Later, FMR1 premutations were unexpectedly found associated with two other distinct phenotypes: primary ovarian insufficiency and tremor-ataxia syndrome. This review will provide a historical perspective on procedures for testing and reporting of Fragile X syndrome and associated disorders, and the population genetics of FMR1 expansions, including estimates of prevalence and the influence of AGG interspersions on the rate and probability of expansion.

  20. Molecular Correlates and Recent Advancements in the Diagnosis and Screening of FMR1-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhu-Shree Rajan-Babu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Molecular diagnostic testing of FXS and related disorders (fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS relies on a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Southern blot (SB for the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 CGG-repeat expansion and methylation analyses. Recent advancements in PCR-based technologies have enabled the characterization of the complete spectrum of CGG-repeat mutation, with or without methylation assessment, and, as a result, have reduced our reliance on the labor- and time-intensive SB, which is the gold standard FXS diagnostic test. The newer and more robust triplet-primed PCR or TP-PCR assays allow the mapping of AGG interruptions and enable the predictive analysis of the risks of unstable CGG expansion during mother-to-child transmission. In this review, we have summarized the correlation between several molecular elements, including CGG-repeat size, methylation, mosaicism and skewed X-chromosome inactivation, and the extent of clinical involvement in patients with FMR1-related disorders, and reviewed key developments in PCR-based methodologies for the molecular diagnosis of FXS, FXTAS and FXPOI, and large-scale (CGGn expansion screening in newborns, women of reproductive age and high-risk populations.

  1. Genetic structure of Pilosocereus gounellei (Cactaceae) as revealed by AFLP marker to guide proposals for improvement and restoration of degraded areas in Caatinga biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, E R; Strioto, D K; Meirelles, A C S; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2015-12-15

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to evaluate DNA polymorphism in Pilosocereus gounellei with the aim of differentiating samples grown in different Brazilian semiarid regions. Seven primer pairs were used to amplify 703 AFLP markers, of which 700 (99.21%) markers were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic markers ranged from 95.3% for the primer combination E-AAG/M-CTT to 100% for E-ACC/M-CAT, E-ACC/M-CAA, E-AGC/M-CAG, E-ACT/M-CTA, and E-AGG/M-CTG. The largest number of informative markers (126) was detected using the primer combination E-AAC/M-CTA. Polymorphism of the amplified DNA fragments ranged from 72.55% (in sample from Piauí State) to 82.79% (in samples from Rio Grande Norte State), with an average of 75.39%. Despite the high genetic diversity of AFLP markers in xiquexique, analysis using the STRUCTURE software identified relatively homogeneous clusters of xiquexique from the same location, indicating a differentiation at the molecular level, among the plant samples from different regions of the Caatinga biome. The AFLP methodology identified genetically homogeneous and contrasting plants, as well as plants from different regions with common DNA markers. Seeds from such plants can be used for further propagation of plants for establishment of biodiversity conservation units and restoration of degraded areas of the Caatinga biome.

  2. Analysis of genetic variations in the RGS9 gene and antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Ying-Jay; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Bai, Ya-Mei; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Mo, Geng-Han; Lai, I-Ching

    2009-03-05

    Some patients treated chronically with antipsychotics develop tardive dyskinesia (TD), an abnormal involuntary movement disorder. Typical antipsychotics block D(2) dopamine receptors (D(2)DR) and produce D(2)DR supersensitivity. On contrary, regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) can enhance the signal termination of G-protein-coupled D(2)DR. Besides, after prolonged inhibition of dopaminergic transmission, dopaminergic agonists induced severe dyskinesia only in RGS9 knock-out mice but not in normal mice. Therefore, variety in the human RGS9 gene may be related to susceptibility to TD. In this study, schizophrenic inpatients receiving long-term antipsychotic treatment were assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale twice over a 3-month interval. Only patients in whom abnormal involuntary movements were absent (non-TD group) and those who showed persistent TD (TD group) were enrolled. There were 407 patients in the study sample (TD = 252; non-TD = 155) and seven single nucleus polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RGS9 gene were genotyped for each subject. Genotype and allelic distributions of SNPs did not differ between the TD and non-TD groups in this study, with the exception that a weak trend of allelic association was seen with rs4790953 (P = 0.0399). In the haplotype analysis, a significant association of the AGG haplotype (rs8077696-rs8070231-rs2292593) of the RGS9 gene was found (permutation P = 0.007), and this is worthy of replication and further study.

  3. Plasmid profilling and similarities in identities of probable microbes isolated from crude oil contaminated agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid analysis of bacteria isolated from agricultural soil experimentally contaminated with crude oil was carried out and the resultant bands’ depicting the different molecular sizes of the plasmid DNA molecules per isolate was obtained. There was no visible band observed for Klebsiella indicating that the organism lack plasmid DNA that confers degradative ability to it, possibly the gene could be borne on the chromosomal DNA which enabled its persistence in the polluted soil. Molecular characterization was undertaken to confirm the identities of the possible microorganisms that may be present in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the DNA extracted and amplified in a PCR using EcoRI and EcoRV restriction enzymes for cutting the DNA of the bacterial cells indicated no visible band for cuts made with EcoRV restriction enzyme showing that the enzyme is not specific for bacterial DNA of isolates in the samples, hence there was no amplification. By contrast though, visible bands of amplicons were observed using EcoRI restriction enzymes. The resultant visible bands of microbial profile obtained using the universal RAPD primer with nucleotide sequence of 5’—CTC AAA GCA TCT AGG TCC A---3’ showed that only Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus mycoides had visible bands at identical position on the gel indicating that both species possibly had identical sequence or genes of negligible differences coding for degradation of hydrocarbons as shown by similar values in molecular weight and positions in the gel electrophoresis field.

  4. Identification of a new DRB3*02 allelic variant (DRB3*0209) by high-resolution sequence-based typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, A; Pera, C; Longo, A; Delfino, L; Ferrara, G B

    2000-07-01

    The HLA-DRB3/B4/B5 sequence-based typing method developed in this study in combination with PCR-SSP, enabled us to identify a new DRB3*02 allele, that was named as DRB3*0209 (GenBank accession number AF148518). This name has been officially assigned by the WHO Nomenclature Committee in May 1999. The new allele differs from DRB3*0207 by one substitution in codon 51 from AGG to ACG and another in codon 60 from TAC to TCC, resulting in aminoacid changes from Arg-->Thr (codon 51) and from Tyr-->Ser (codon 60). The DRB3*0209 allele was discovered in two related North Italian families. The fact that it was present in an hemizygous situation in three members of the paternal family and in one member of the secondary related family enabled us to isolate and sequence the new DRB3 allele without cloning, to identify its association with the DRB1 locus, and to generate an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed cell line, now present in our ECBR (European Collection for Biomedical Research) Cell Line Bank.

  5. Influence of graphite content on sliding wear characteristics of CNTs-Ag-G electrical contact materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; FENG Yi; LI Shu; LIN Shen

    2009-01-01

    CNTs-Ag-G electrical contact composite material was prepared by means of powder metallurgical method. The influence of the graphite content on sliding wear characteristics of electrical contact levels was examined. In experiments, CNTs content was retained as 1% (mass fraction), and graphite was added at content levels of 8%, 10%, 13%, 15% and 18%, respectively. The results indicate that with the increase of graphite content, the contact resistance of electrical contacts is enhanced to a certain level then remains constant. Friction coefficient decreases gradually with the increase of graphite content. Wear mass loss decreases to the minimum value then increases. With the small content of graphite, the adhesive wear is hindered, which leads to the decrease of wear mass loss, while excessive graphite brings much more worn debris, resulting in the increase of mass loss. It is concluded that wear mass loss reaches the minimum value when the graphite mass fraction is about 13%. Compared with conventional Ag-G contact material, the wear mass loss of CNTs-Ag-G composite is much less due to the obvious increase of hardness and electrical conductivity, decline of friction surface temperature and inhibition of adhesive wear between composites and slip rings.

  6. Towards an automated tool to evaluate the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density on quarkonium, D and B meson production in proton-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberg, Jean-Philippe; Shao, Hua-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    We propose a simple and model-independent procedure to account for the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density as encoded in nuclear collinear PDF sets on two-to-two partonic hard processes in proton-nucleus collisions. This applies to a good approximation to quarkonium, D and B meson production, generically referred to H. Our procedure consists in parametrising the square of the parton scattering amplitude, A_{gg → HX} and constraining it from the proton-proton data. Doing so, we have been able to compute the corresponding nuclear modification factors for J/ψ , Υ and D^0 as a function of y and P_T at √{s_NN}=5 and 8 TeV in the kinematics of the various LHC experiments in a model independent way. It is of course justified since the most important ingredient in such evaluations is the probability of each kinematical configuration. Our computations for D mesons can also be extended to B meson production. To further illustrate the potentiality of the tool, we provide - for the first time - predictions for the nuclear modification factor for η _c production in pPb collisions at the LHC.

  7. Microsatellite loci isolation from river buffalo using enriched partial genomic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of buffalo in agriculture, especially in developing countries, begs for genetic resources to evaluate and improve traits important to local and regional economies. Brazil presents the largest water buffalo populations in the New World, with 1.1 million heads including swamp and river types. To design rational breeding strategies for optimum utilization and conservation of available genetic variability in the Brazilian buffalo’s population, it is essential to understand their genetic architecture and relationship among various breeds. This depends, in part, on the knowledge of their genetic structure based on molecular markers like microsatellites. In the present study, we developed six enriched partial genomic libraries for river buffalo using selective hybridization methods. Genomic DNA was hybridized with six different arrays of repeat motif, 5’ biotinylated - (CA15, (CT15, (AGG8, (GAAA8, (GATA8, (AAAAC8 – and bound to streptavidin coated beads. The cloning process generated a total of 1920 recombinant clones. Up to date, 487 were directly sequenced for the presence of repeats, from which 13 have been positive for presence of repeats as follows: 9 for di-nucleotide repeats, 3 for tri-nucleotide repeats and 1 for tetra-nucleotide repeat. PCR primer pairs for the isolated microsatellites are under construction to determine optimum annealing temperature. These microsatellites will be useful for studies involving phylogenetic relationships, genome mapping and genetic diversity analysis within buffalo populations worldwide.

  8. Effects of PEG size on structure, function and stability of PEGylated BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesner, Bitten; Fee, Conan J; Westh, Peter; Nielsen, Anders D

    2011-10-01

    The effects of PEGylation on the structural, thermal and functional stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using BSA and 6 linear mono-PEGylated BSA compounds. The secondary and tertiary structure of BSA measured by circular dichroism (CD) was independent of PEGylation. In contrast, the thermal stability of BSA was affected by PEGylation. The apparent unfolding temperature T(max) measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) decreased with PEGylation, whereas the temperature of aggregation, T(agg), measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) increased with PEGylation. The unfolding temperature and the temperature of aggregation were both independent of the molecular weight of the PEG chain. Possible functional changes of BSA after PEGylation were measured by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), where the binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to BSA and PEGylated BSA was analysed. At 25°C, two distinct classes of binding sites (high affinity and low affinity) for BSA and one class of binding site (low affinity) for PEGylated BSA were identified. The binding isotherm was modelled assuming independence and thermodynamic equivalence of the sites within each class. From the present biophysical characterisation, it is concluded that after PEGylation BSA appears to be unaffected structurally (secondary and tertiary structure), slightly destabilised thermally (unfolding temperature), stabilised kinetically (temperature of aggregation) and has an altered functionality (binding profile). These biophysical characteristics are all independent of the molecular weight of the attached polymer chain.

  9. Analysis of tandem repeats in the genome of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Jie; GAO Huan

    2005-01-01

    Through random sequencing, we found a total of 884000 base-pairs (bp) of random genomic sequences in the genome of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis). Using bio-soft Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF) software, 2159 tandem repeats were found, in which there were 1714 microsatellites and 445 minisatellites, accounting for 79.4% and 20.6% of repeat sequences, respectively. The cumulative length of repeat sequences was found to be 116685 bp, accounting for 13.2% of the total DNA sequence; the cumulative length of microsatellites occupied 9.78% of the total DNA sequence, and that of minisatellites occupied 3.42%. In decreasing order, the 20 most abundant repeat sequence classes were as follows: AT (557), AC (471), AG (274), AAT (92), A (56), AAG (28), ATC (27), ATAG (27), AGG (18), ACT (15), C (11), AAC (11), ACAT (11), CAGA (10), AGAA (9), AGGG (7), CAAA (7), CGCA (6), ATAA (6), AGAGAA (6). Dinucleotide repeats, not only in the aspect of the number, but also in cumulative length, were the preponderant repeat type. There were few classes and low copy numbers of repeat units of the pentanucleotide repeat type, which included only three classes: AGAGA, GAGGC and AAAGA. The classes and copy numbers of heptanucleotide, eleven-nucleotide and thirteen-nucleotide primer-number-composed repeats were distinctly less than that of repeat types beside them.

  10. Molecular detection of virulence factors among food and clinical Enterococcus faecalis strains in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A W; Pereira, R I; Oliveira, D V; Martins, P D; d'Azevedo, P A; Van der Sand, S; Frazzon, J; Frazzon, A P G

    2014-01-01

    The present report aimed to perform a molecular epidemiological survey by investigating the presence of virulence factors in E. faecalis isolated from different human clinical (n = 57) and food samples (n = 55) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, collected from 2006 to 2009. In addition, the ability to form biofilm in vitro on polystyrene and the β-haemolytic and gelatinase activities were determined. Clinical strains presented a higher prevalence of aggregation substance (agg), enterococcal surface protein (esp) and cytolysin (cylA) genes when compared with food isolates. The esp gene was found only in clinical strains. On the other hand, the gelatinase (gelE) and adherence factor (ace) genes had similar prevalence among the strains, showing the widespread occurrence of these virulence factors among food and clinical E. faecalis strains in South Brazil. More than three virulence factor genes were detected in 77.2% and 18.2% of clinical and food strains, respectively. Gelatinase and β-haemolysin activities were not associated with the presence of gelE and cylA genes. The ability to produce biofilm was detected in 100% of clinical and 94.6% of food isolates, and clinical strains were more able to form biofilm than the food isolates (Student's t-test, p detected in clinical strains.

  11. Optical Property Characterization of Novel Graphene-X (X=Ag, Au and Cu Nanoparticle Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Ranjan Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation reports new results on optical properties of graphene-metal nanocomposites. These composites were prepared by a solution-based chemical approach. Graphene has been prepared by thermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO at 90°C by hydrazine hydrate in an ammoniacal medium. This ammoniacal solution acts as a solvent as well as a basic medium where agglomeration of graphene can be prevented. This graphene solution has further been used for functionalization with Ag, Au, and Cu nanoparticles (NPs. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM to reveal the nature and type of interaction of metal nanoparticles with graphene. The results indicate distinct shift of graphene bands both in Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies due to the presence of the metal nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopic analysis indicates blue shift of D and G bands in Raman spectra of graphene due to the presence of metal nanoparticles except for the G band of Cu-G, which undergoes red shift, reflecting the charge transfer interaction between graphene sheets and metal nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis also indicates blue shift of graphene absorption peak in the hybrids. The plasmon peak position undergoes blue shift in Ag-G, whereas red shift is observed in Au-G and Cu-G.

  12. Rapid Detection of the GSTM3 A/B Polymorphism Using Real-time PCR with TaqMan(®) Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Treviño, Denisse A; Moreno-Treviño, María G; Salinas-Santander, Mauricio; Wohn, Luisa; Herrera-González, Sarahí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Rojas, O Carolina; León-Cachón, Rafael B R

    2016-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of phase II detoxification enzymes, which catalyze the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with carcinogens, among other xenobiotics. The GSTM3 gene is part of the GSTs gene family, and its polymorphism A/B has been associated with risk and protective effects of several cancers. This genetic variant is a deletion of 3 bp (AGG) in intron 6. Previous association studies have performed genotyping using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In this study, we took advantage of the TaqMan(®) probes features and developed a reliable, faster, more simple and economic method to identify the 3-bp deletion. Our allelic discrimination method was able to distinguish between homozygous A/A, heterozygous A/B and homozygous B/B samples, as shown by TaqMan(®) based real-time PCR. Results were validated by Sanger Sequencing. In conclusion, we developed a specific and rapid method to detect the 3-bp deletion from the GSTM3 A/B polymorphism.

  13. Virulence, bacterocin genes and antibacterial susceptibility in Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water wells for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carlos; Lobos, Olga

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect genes for virulence and bacteriocins in addition to studying the antimicrobial susceptibility of 78 strains of E. faecalis isolated from water wells for human consumption. The virulence and bacteriocin genes of 78 E. faecalis were amplified by PCR and visualized in agarose gels. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined through diffusion agar tests and the MIC through microdilution. It was observed that the major percentage of virulence genes in the E. faecalis strains corresponds to aggA (93.5%). The bacteriocin gene entA (64.1%) is the most frequently detected. The studied strains exhibited different virulence and bacteriocin genes, and an important antibacterial resistance. The most common resistant phenotype (n = 14) corresponds to tetracycline and chloramphenicol and the less frequent (n = 2) to ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Eight different genetic profiles were observed for virulence y bacteriocin genes. It was determined a statistical association between the bacterial resistance and some of the genetic profiles detected.

  14. Complexation behavior of gelatin with amphiphilic drug imipramine hydrochloride as studied by conductimetry, surface tensiometry and circular dichroism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Sajid; Anjum, Kahkashan; Khan, Javed M; Khan, Rizwan H; Kabir-ud-Din

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report our studies carried out on the interaction between IMP and gelatin in aqueous medium at 25°C using conductimetry, surface tensiometry and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Both surface tensiometry and conductimetry results indicate that the drug interacts with the gelatin in a surfactant-like manner, i.e., both critical aggregation (cac) and polymer saturation points (psp) were observed. The interaction starts with the formation of a highly surface-active complex as revealed by the lowering of surface tension on the addition of drug to the macromolecule. The decrease in cac on increasing gelatin concentration is an indication of the strong interaction between gelatin and IMP. However, at low concentration of gelatin the interaction was not much strong as exposed by surface tension study, i.e., the cac was not very clear (as with higher gelatin concentrations). As usual, the psp increased on increasing the gelatin concentration and was always higher than the critical micelle concentration of the drug in pure aqueous medium. Using CD measurements the influence of IMP on the secondary structure of gelatin in aqueous solutions was also investigated. CD studies (performed at very low drug concentrations) illustrated that the random coil content of gelatin increases with increasing drug concentration. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IMP] plots.

  15. A comparative study of interaction of ibuprofen with biocompatible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iqrar A; Anjum, Kahkashan; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Kabir-ud Din

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we are reporting the interaction of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBF) with various biocompatible polymers. Being amphiphilic, the drug interacts with the polymers similar to the interaction of surfactants and polymers. Therefore, we have considered the polymer-amphiphile interaction approach using conductimetry. The polymers of different charges (cationic, anionic, and nonionic) have been taken for the study. It was found that the critical aggregation concentration (cac) decreases on increasing the polymer concentrations of cationic as well as nonionic polymers whereas it increases for anionic polymers. The results imply that anionic IBF interacts with cationic and nonionic polymers more strongly as compared to the anionic polymers. A possible anionic-anionic repulsion is responsible for the weak interaction of IBF with anionic polymers. On the other side, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) increases for all polymers which is a usual indication of the interaction between amphiphiles and polymers. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were also computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IBF] isotherms.

  16. Prevalence of virulence genes associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from domestically harvested rainwater during low- and high-rainfall periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, P H; van Deventer, A; De Kwaadsteniet, M; Ndlovu, T; Khan, S; Cloete, T E; Khan, W

    2014-03-01

    The possible health risks associated with the consumption of harvested rainwater remains one of the major obstacles hampering its large-scale implementation in water limited countries such as South Africa. Rainwater tank samples collected on eight occasions during the low- and high-rainfall periods (March to August 2012) in Kleinmond, South Africa, were monitored for the presence of virulence genes associated with Escherichia coli. The identity of presumptive E. coli isolates in rainwater samples collected from 10 domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) tanks throughout the sampling period was confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific primers were also used to routinely screen for the virulent genes, aggR, stx, eae, and ipaH found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli, respectively, in the rainwater samples. Of the 92 E. coli strains isolated from the rainwater using culture based techniques, 6% were presumptively positively identified as E. coli O157:H7 using 16S rRNA. Furthermore, virulent pathogenic E. coli genes were detected in 3% (EPEC and EHEC) and 16% (EAEC) of the 80 rainwater samples collected during the sampling period from the 10 DRWH tanks. This study thus contributes valuable information to the limited data available regarding the ongoing prevalence of virulent pathotypes of E. coli in harvested rainwater during a longitudinal study in a high-population-density, periurban setting.

  17. Towards an automated tool to evaluate the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density on quarkonium, D and B meson production in proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and model-independent procedure to account for the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density as encoded in nuclear collinear PDF sets on two-to-two partonic hard processes in proton-nucleus collisions. This applies to a good approximation to quarkonium, D and B meson production, generically referred to H. Our procedure consists in parametrising the square of the parton scattering amplitude, A_{gg -> H X} and constraining it from the proton-proton data. Doing so, we have been able to compute the corresponding nuclear modification factors for J/psi, Upsilon and D^0 as a function of y and P_T at sqrt(s_NN)=5 and 8 TeV in the kinematics of the various LHC experiments in a model independent way. It is of course justified since the most important ingredient in such evaluations is the probability of each kinematical configuration. Our computations for D mesons can also be extended to B meson production. To further illustrate the potentiality of the tool, we provide --for the first t...

  18. Highly differentiated populations of the freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata suggest limited dispersal and opportunities for allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Katharine M; Chepurnov, Victor A; Sluiman, Hans J; Thomas, Sindu J; Spears, Bryan M; Mann, David G

    2009-08-01

    The diversities and distributions of diatoms are much more complex than was ever imagined. To understand the underlying mechanisms, research must focus on evolutionary processes occurring at a population level and employ sufficiently informative molecular markers. Using ten microsatellites and ITS rDNA sequence data, we investigated the genetic structure of populations of the benthic freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata (until 2004 a cryptic entity within the S. pupula agg. species complex). This is the first time that microsatellites have been used to investigate the genetic structure of any freshwater or benthic microalga. Using an integrated approach (morphology, DNA barcoding and specificity of the microsatellite primers), we verified the identity of 70 S. capitata isolates obtained from lakes in the UK, Belgium and Australia. Standardized F'(ST) values were very high (>0.4) and in Bayesian analyses, isolates clustered according to their country of origin, with limited evidence of admixture. However, selected isolates from all countries were sexually compatible, a result consistent with limited ITS divergence. Considering the apparent absence of desiccation-resistant resting stages in most diatoms, we conclude that such levels of differentiation are likely to be a consequence of limited dispersal. With restricted dispersal, previously unacknowledged opportunities for allopatric speciation exist, which may help to explain the huge extant diversity of diatoms.

  19. Nanopolymers Delivery of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Plasmid to Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical application of viral vectors for gene therapy is limited for biosafety consideration. In this study, to promote articular cartilage repair, poly (lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA nanopolymers were used as non-viral vectors to transfect rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with the pDC316-BMP4-EGFP plasmid. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency in vitro were acceptable measuring by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. After transfection, Chondrogenic markers (mRNA of Col2a1, Sox9, Bmp4, and Agg of experimental cells (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers were increased more than those of control cells (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid alone. In vivo study, twelve rabbits (24 knees with large full thickness articular cartilage defects were randomly divided into the experimental group (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers and the control group (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid. The experimental group showed better regeneration than the control group 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Hyaline-like cartilage formed at week 12 in the experimental group, indicating the local delivery of BMP-4 plasmid to MSCs by PLGA nanopolymers improved articular cartilage repair significantly. PLGA nanopolymers could be a promising and effective non-viral vector for gene therapy in cartilage repair.

  20. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.; (UMM)

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  1. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S; Lodge, Timothy P

    2009-10-22

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R(h), and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R(c), the equivalent hard sphere radius, R(hs), and an estimate of the aggregation number, N(agg). In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  2. Enterobacteria identification and detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in a Port Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Frota Macatrão Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Port Complex of Maranhão (PCM is the second largest port complex in Brazil, receiving ships with large volumes of ballast water. To evaluate the microbiological quality of its waters, physicochemical parameters (pH and salinity, the number of coliforms (thermotolerants and totals, and the presence of enterobacterias and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains were analyzed. In order to identify the presence of E. coli virulence genes target regions of the stx, elt, est, aggR, CVD432, ipaH and eae nucleotide sequences were studied. The presence of totals and thermotolerants coliforms were positive. Analyzing the salinity parameter, a significant increase in total coliforms was observed during the rainy season. We identified the species Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella ozaenae, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae and Edwardsiella tarda. Out of the 51 E. coli isolated, two were positive for the elt gene and one was positive for the CVD432 sequence, features of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains, respectively. This study reveals that the PCM is contaminated by enterobacteria and diarrheagenic E.coli thus providing evidence regarding the risk of these bacteria being carried by ships to other countries, and draws attention to the input of fecal bacteria brought by ships in the port waters of Maranhão.

  3. Towards an automated tool to evaluate the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density on quarkonium, D and B meson production in proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We propose a simple and model-independent procedure to account for the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density as encoded in nuclear collinear PDF sets on two-to-two partonic hard processes in proton-nucleus collisions. This applies to a good approximation to quarkonium, D and B meson production, generically referred to H. Our procedure consists in parametrising the square of the parton scattering amplitude, A_{gg -> H X} and constraining it from the proton-proton data. Doing so, we have been able to compute the corresponding nuclear modification factors for J/psi, Upsilon and D^0 as a function of y and P_T at sqrt(s_NN)=5 and 8 TeV in the kinematics of the various LHC experiments in a model independent way. It is of course justified since the most important ingredient in such evaluations is the probability of each kinematical configuration. Our computations for D mesons can also be extended to B meson production. To further illustrate the potentiality of the tool, we provide --for the first t...

  4. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNAs in Hordeum bogdanii and H. brevisubulatum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Dou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular karyotypes of H. bogdanii Wilensky, 1918 (2n = 14, and H. brevisubulatum Link, 1844 ssp. brevisubulatum (2n = 28, were characterized by physical mapping of several repetitive sequences. A total of 18 repeats, including all possible di- or trinucleotide SSR (simple sequence repeat motifs and satellite DNAs, such as pAs1, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and pSc119.2, were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on root-tip metaphase chromosomes. Except for the SSR motifs AG, AT and GC, all the repeats we examined produced detectable hybridization signals on chromosomes of both species. A detailed molecular karyotype of the I genome of H. bogdanii is described for the first time, and each repetitive sequence is physically mapped. A high degree of chromosome variation, including aneuploidy and structural changes, was observed in H. brevisubulatum. Although the distribution of repeats in the chromosomes of H. brevisubulatum is different from that of H. bogdanii, similar patterns between the two species imply that the autopolyploid origin of H. brevisubulatum is from a Hordeum species with an I genome. A comparison of the I genome and the other Hordeum genomes, H, Xa and Xu, shows that colocalization of motifs AAC, ACT and CAT and colocalization of motifs AAG and AGG are characteristic of the I genome. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary significance of repeats in the genome during genome differentiation.

  5. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O100:H⁻: stx2e in drinking water contaminated by waste water in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Taru; Pitkänen, Tarja; Antikainen, Jenni; Mölsä, Elina; Miettinen, Ilkka; Haukka, Kaisa; Vaara, Martti; Siitonen, Anja

    2011-04-01

    In November 2007, 450 m(3) of treated wastewater leaked into the drinking water distribution system contaminating the drinking water of over 10,000 inhabitants of Nokia, Southern Finland. Nearly 1,000 people visited the health centre because of gastroenteritis during the following 5 weeks. A wide range of enteric pathogens was found in the patients. The authors used the 16-plex PCR to investigate whether the five major diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (EPEC, ETEC, STEC, EIEC or EAEC) were present in the contaminated drinking water and in the patients' stool samples. The contaminated drinking water was positive for genes characteristic of various E. coli pathotypes: pic, invE, hlyA, ent, escV, eae, aggR, stx(2) , estIa and astA. These genes, except stx(2), hlyA and invE, were also detected in the stool samples of the patients linked to this outbreak. A sorbitol positive, streptomycin resistant STEC strain was isolated from the drinking water, and belonged to the serotype O100:H(-), produced Stx2 toxin (titre 1:8 by reversed-passive latex agglutination method), and carried the genes stx(2e), estIa and irp2.

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Sorbus porrigentiformis and cross-amplification in S. aria and S. rupicola (Rosaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Rosalía; Karrman-Bailey, Freja; Cowan, Robyn S.; Fay, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Southwestern Britain is an emblematic hotspot of polyploid diversity of whitebeams (Sorbus aria agg.; Rosaceae) with ca. 30 polyploid endemic species. The tetraploid S. porrigentiformis is postulated as one of the parents of most of these endemics, along with the sexual diploid S. aria s. str. and the tetraploid S. rupicola. Methods and Results: We isolated 16 nuclear microsatellite loci from S. porrigentiformis and characterized them on 45 trees representing the three putative parental species. Eleven loci were polymorphic, and eight of them exhibited species-specific alleles. Allele numbers ranged from one to 11, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.40 to 1.00. The intraspecific levels of variation were very low, in agreement with the facultative apomictic reproduction hypothesized for this species. Conclusions: The species-specific alleles will be useful for tracing the origin of the narrowly distributed Sorbus taxa. In addition, the assessment of diversity levels will help design a conservation strategy for the polyploid complex. PMID:28224061

  7. Sacrificial Silver Nanoparticles: Reducing GeI2 To Form Hollow Germanium Nanoparticles by Electroless Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bradley M; Chan, Eric K; Zhang, Xinming; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; van Benthem, Klaus; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2016-05-24

    Herein we report the electroless deposition of Ge onto sacrificial Ag nanoparticle (NP) templates to form hollow Ge NPs. The formation of AgI is a necessary component for this reaction. Through a systematic study of surface passivating ligands, we determined that tri-n-octylphosphine is necessary to facilitate the formation of hollow Ge NPs by acting as a transport agent for GeI2 and the oxidized Ag(+) cation (i.e., AgI product). Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging of incomplete reactions revealed Ag/Ge core/shell NPs; in contrast, completed reactions displayed hollow Ge NPs with pinholes which is consistent with the known method for dissolution of the nanotemplate. Characterization of the hollow Ge NPs was performed by transmission electron microscopy, ADF-STEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The galvanic replacement reaction of Ag with GeI2 offers a versatile method for controlling the structure of Ge nanomaterials.

  8. FUNCIONALIDADE DOS GRUPOS DE PESQUISA DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO/GESTÃO/ GERÊNCIA DE ENFERMAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de ese estudio es entender los modos de organización y funcionamiento de los Grupos de Investigación (GI de Administración/Gestión/Gerencia (AGG de Enfermería, con catastro en el Consejo Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica – (CNPq. Se utilizó la referencia metodológica de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos, realizándose 12 entrevistas con líderes de grupos de investigación, distribuidos en 2 grupos de muestra. El funcionamiento del grupo es visto como el modo estructural de las actividades de los grupos de investigación, las contribuciones teórico-metodológicas más usadas, las vivencias en el ambiente de la investigación, las relaciones intergrupales, las actitudes del líder del G I, las dificultades enfrentadas, así como las estrategias de supervivencia que garantizan la longevidad y productividad del GI. El funcionamiento de los grupos de investigación es el reflejo del calificar, legitimar, aumentar y congregar potencias para la productividad en líneas de investigación y liderazgo de los investigadores en esa área.

  9. Novel electroless copper deposition on carbon fibers with environmentally friendly processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-08-15

    A novel electroless deposition (ELD) of copper (Cu) on carbon fibers (CFs) with environmentally friendly processes, silver (Ag) aerosol activation and subsequent nonformaldehyde Cu ELD, was developed. Spark-generated Ag aerosol nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm in mode diameter) were deposited (48.4 microg Ag/g CF in activation intensity) onto the surfaces of CFs. After annealing (at 220 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere), the catalytically activated CFs were placed into a solution for Cu ELD (at 82 degrees C). Homogeneous Cu coating (approximately 5.1 nm/min) on CFs was achieved with 90 min of deposition and the corresponding mass deposition rate and Cu grain size for 30-90 min of deposition had ranges of 0.25-1.14 mg Cu/g CF-min and 14.8-37.2 nm, respectively. The porosity of CFs decreased by depositing the Cu for 30-90 min, and the specific surface area and pore volume of CFs decreased from 1536 to 1399 m(2)/g and from 0.65 to 0.57 cm(3)/g, respectively.

  10. The hot core towards the intermediate mass protostar NGC7129 FIRS 2: Chemical similarities with Orion KL

    CERN Document Server

    Fuente, A; Caselli, P; McCoey, C; Johnstone, D; Fich, M; van Kempen, T; Palau, Aina; Yildiz, U A; Tercero, B; López, A

    2014-01-01

    NGC 7129 FIRS 2 (hereafter FIRS 2) is an intermediate-mass (2 to 8 Msun) protostar located at a distance of 1250 pc. High spatial resolution observations are required to resolve the hot core at its center. We present a molecular survey from 218200 MHz to 221800 MHz carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. These observations were complemented with a long integration single-dish spectrum taken with the IRAM 30m telescope. We used a Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) single temperature code to model the whole dataset. The interferometric spectrum is crowded with a total of ~300 lines from which a few dozens remain unidentified yet. The spectrum has been modeled with a total of 20 species and their isomers, isotopologues and deuterated compounds. Complex molecules like methyl formate (CH3OCHO), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), acetone (CH3COCH3), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) and the aGg' conformer of ethylene glycol (aGg'-(CH2OH)_2) are among the detected sp...

  11. Ação antioxidante de chás e condimentos de grande consumo no Brasil Antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene M. de Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantes são compostos que atuam inibindo e/ou diminuindo os efeitos desencadeados pelos radicais livres e compostos oxidantes. Os chás são bebidas populares e fontes significativas de compostos fenólicos, sendo considerados importantes integrantes das dietas devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antioxidante de uma variedade de chás e condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil. Os chás analisados foram das plantas: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia sinensis (L O. Kuntze (fermentado, Camelia sinensis (não-fermentado, Lippia alba N.E. Brown,Mentha arvensis L., e Pyrus malus L. Os condimentos analisados foram: Eugenia aromatica Baill, Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume, Laurus nobilis L. e Origanum vulgare L. O método utilizado para avaliar a ação antioxidante foi o da atividade seqüestradora de radicais livres DPPH em solução metanólica. Todas as amostras analisadas demonstraram atividade em suas diferentes concentrações. Camelia sinensis (não-fermentada foi a mais ativa com CI50= 0,14 mg/mL, cujos principais compostos antioxidantes são epigalocatequinas. Os condimentos mais ativos foram Cinnamonum zeylanicum (CI50 = 0,37 mg/mL, Eugenia aromatica Baill (CI50 = 0,46 mg/mL e Laurus nobilis (CI50 = 0,76 mg/mL, cujo principal antioxidante relatado foi o eugenol.Antioxidants are compounds that remove free-radicals or minimize their availability to generate oxidative stress. Teas are popular beverages providing a significant source of phenolic compounds, important components of the human diet due to their antioxidant properties. The present work had the objective of evaluate the antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil. The analysed teas were from the plants: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia

  12. Óleos essenciais no controle pós-colheita de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em mamão Essential oils on postharvest control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in papaya fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Carnelossi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os subprodutos de plantas medicinais têm sido estudados como uma alternativa para o controle de doenças de plantas visando amenizar e/ou reduzir o uso abusivo de agrotóxicos, principalmente em condições pós-colheita. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro e in vivo, o controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose do mamão em pós-colheita, por óleos essenciais (OEs de Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Mentha arvensis e Artemisia dracunculus. Para inibição do crescimento micelial in vitro, os OEs foram incorporados ao BDA (Batata-dextrose-ágar tendo-se observado a inibição total ou parcial do crescimento micelial e da esporulação deste fitopatógeno, dependendo do óleo essencial utilizado. No ensaio in vivo utilizaram-se os OEs de C. citratus (1% e E. citriodora (1%. A inoculação com o fitopatógeno foi concomitante e 24 h após os tratamentos alternativos, que foram: óleos essenciais de C. citratus e de E. citriodora (1% e biomassa cítrica (150 mL 100 L-1 (Ecolife®. Os parâmetros avaliados foram severidade da doença, redução da massa, diâmetro, comprimento final dos frutos, pH e a concentração de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix. Pode-se observar que, no controle da doença, os frutos tratados e imediatamente inoculados com o fitopatógenos apresentaram maior AACPD (Área Abaixo da Curva do Progresso da Doença. Porém, frutos tratados e inoculados 24 h após os tratamentos apresentaram maior controle da doença, confirmando o potencial dos óleos essenciais testados no presente trabalho.The products from medicinal plants have been studied as an alternative in the control of plant diseases in order to mitigate and / or reduce pesticide abuse mainly in postharvest. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causative agent of papaya anthracnose, in postharvest using essential oils (EOs of

  13. Crescimento e composição mineral da menta em resposta à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada Growth and mineral composition of mint in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone M Freitas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA no crescimento e composição mineral de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, num fatorial 5x4, sendo cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (controle, Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita e Acaulospora scrobiculata e quatro doses de P (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas na fase de floração, aos 65 dias após o plantio. Verificou-se que, na ausência de P, os fungos Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita apresentaram maiores percentagens de colonização micorrízica nas raízes e proporcionaram aumentos de 330 e 334% na matéria seca foliar, de 143 e 123% no conteúdo de N, de 224 e 124% no conteúdo de P e de 139 e 142% no conteúdo de K, respectivamente. Os FMA não influenciaram os conteúdos de Ca, Mg, S, Fe e Zn na matéria seca foliar. As doses de P entre 122 e 165 mg kg-1 de solo proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca. Nessas doses, o conteúdo de Mn foi menor quando as plantas foram inoculadas com Glomus clarum, Gigaspora margarita e Glomus etunicatum. A dependência micorrízica da menta variou de acordo com a espécie de fungo e a dose de P utilizada, sendo maior com os fungos Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, na ausência de P.The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated on the growth and mineral composition of Mentha arvensis L., grown under different phosphorus levels. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a factorial scheme 5x4, with five microbiological treatments (control without AMF, Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita and Acaulospora scrobiculata and four P levels (0; 50; 100 and 200 mg kg-1. A randomized block design was used, with four replications. The plants were harvested at flowering, 65 days

  14. Antifungal activity and ultrastructural alterations in Pseudocercospora griseola treated with essential oils Atividade antifúngica e alterações ultraestruturais em Pseudocercospora griseola tratado com óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mauricio Ágredo Hoyos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocercospora griseola, the etiologic agent of angular leaf spot of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, is an important disease in all bean-producing regions worldwide and may cause extremely high yield losses. The control of this disease is made more difficult by the pathogen's genetic variability and the inefficiency of fungicides. In this study, of 26 essential oils tested at different concentrations, 25 demonstrated efficiency in affecting the germination of strains 63-31 and 63-63 of the pathogen, reaching inhibition levels of between 80% and 100%. Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon martinii inhibited conidia germination at all concentrations; Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum sp., Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Cordia verbenacea, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon nardus, at 0.1 and 0.5%; and Zingiber officinale, Mentha arvensis, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Pimpinella anisum, Ocimum selloi, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Laurus nobilis, Citrus sinensis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus, at 0.5%. The main constituents identified were cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum sp.; eugenol in E. caryophyllata; trans-β-farnesene in M. recutita; pulegone in C. verbenacea; thymol in T. vulgaris; geranial and neral in C. citratus, and geraniol in C. martini. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it was verified that C. citratus, C. martini and E. caryophyllata presented direct fungitoxic action on P. griseola, causing severe damage to the cellular ultrastructure of the conidia, invalidating germination. These results indicated that essential oils are a promising alternative strategy for the control of angular leaf spot in bean, representing less risk to human health and the environment.Pseudocercospora griseola, agente etiológico da mancha angular do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris, é uma doença importante nas regiões produtoras de feijão em todo o mundo e pode causar perdas de produtividade

  15. Efeito de substratos agrícolas na produção de mudas de hortelã propagadas por estaquia Effect of agricultural substrates in the production of mint seedlings propagated through cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de substratos agrícolas, adequados a cada espécie vegetal, auxilia na obtenção de mudas e plantas com qualidade comercial. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de substratos (organo-mineral, casca de arroz carbonizada + areia (1:1 e casca de arroz + solo (1:1 para produção de mudas de hortelã (Mentha arvensis L. adequadas ao cultivo no campo. O experimento teve duas fases: produção das mudas em ambiente protegido e desenvolvimento das plantas no campo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e 15 repetições. Foram avaliados a altura de planta e número de folhas aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após transplante, índice de mortalidade, matéria fresca e seca 35 dias após o transplante. As mudas produzidas no substrato organo-mineral apresentaram os melhores resultados durante a fase de desenvolvimento a campo com relação à produção de matéria fresca (7,07 g planta-1 e matéria seca (2,40 g planta-1. Tanto a mistura de casca de arroz carbonizada + solo ou areia também se mostraram apropriados para a produção de mudas de hortelã para o cultivo a campo.The use of appropriated substrates for each vegetative species is important to obtain seedlings and plants with commercial quality. The experiment was carried out in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The effect of substrates (organic-mineral, carbonized rice husk + sand (1:1 and carbonized rice husk + soil (1:1 was determined for the production of appropriated mint seedlings (Mentha arvensis L. for field cultivation. The experiment was performed in two phases: production of the seedlings under protected environment and growth of the plants in field. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments and 15 replications. We evaluated the height and number of leaves at 7; 14; 21 and 28 days after the transplant; index of mortality; fresh

  16. Composicion y variabilidad espacialdel banco de semillas de malezas en un area agricolade azul (Argentina Composition and spatial variation of a weed seed bank on an agricultural area in Azul, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Requesens

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No Distrito Azul, zona central da província de Buenos Aires (Argentina, encontram-se ambientes de planície na parte norte e ambientes serranos na parte sul. Esta última, constituí-se numa área predominantemente agrícola, onde a cultura de trigo, principal atividade agrícola, se alterna com culturas de verão como milho, girassol e soja. Com o objetivo de caracterizar globalmente o banco de sementes da área agrícola, foram analisados o conteúdo de sementes, a composição de espécies, a distribuição e variabilidade espacial das espécies que o compõem. A informação básica foi obtida aplicando-se a técnica da emergência em amostras de solo correspondentes a 20 locais alinhados numa faixa de 14 km. A densidade de sementes nos locais de amostragem variou entre 1.173 e 44.000 sem/m2. Na totalidade, foram detectadas 33 espécies. Digitaria sanguinalis foi claramente a espécie dominante, aportando com quase 43 % do banco, seguida de Polygonum aviculare com um aporte de 15 %. As duas espécies, juntamente com Anagallis arvensis e Setaria viridis completam70 % do banco de sementes. A composição específica completa-se com um grupo de 29 espécies, os quais contribuem, cada um delas, com menos de 5%. A distribuição espacial das espécies ao longo da faixa estudada mostrou um grau de agregação variável, sendo encontrada uma correlação positiva significativa entre o tamanho do banco e a relação variância/média. Demonstrou-se, assim, que as espécies mais abundantes em média, apresentaram grande variabilidade espacial. Nelas, foram observados diferentes padrões de distribuição espacial.Azul, in the center of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina, includes flat environments in the north and hill environments in the south. Last constitutes a predominantly agricultural area where the wheat crop, principal activity, alternates with summer crops as corn, sunflower and soybean. The objetive of the present paper is to

  17. Produção da hortelã-japonesa em função da adubação orgânica no plantio e em cobertura Production of mint depending on organic manure at planting and dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H Chagas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da adubação orgânica no plantio e em cobertura na produção de biomassa seca da parte aérea e no teor e rendimento de óleo essencial da hortelã-japonesa (Mentha arvensis L.. O experimento constou de duas etapas (colheitas. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Na primeira etapa, foram avaliadas cinco diferentes doses de esterco bovino aplicadas às parcelas no plantio (0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 kg m-2 e após 120 dias de cultivo foi realizada a primeira colheita. Na segunda etapa, após a primeira colheita, as parcelas foram subdivididas em quatro subparcelas, às quais foram aplicadas quatro doses de esterco bovino em cobertura (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5 kg m-2, obedecendo um arranjo de parcelas subdivididas. A segunda colheita foi realizada 120 dias após a primeira. O material vegetal foi seco em estufa a 37ºC e o óleo essencial foi extraído em aparelho de Clevenger. A biomassa seca da parte aérea (g, o teor percentual (p/p e o rendimento de óleo essencial foram determinados. Os níveis de esterco bovino aplicados tanto no plantio como em cobertura, afetaram de forma linear positiva a produção de biomassa seca da parte aérea e o rendimento de óleo essencial. O teor de óleo essencial não foi afetado pelos diferentes níveis de adubação orgânica.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of organic fertilization at planting and dressing on the aboveground part dry biomass and on the content and yield of essential oil of mint (Mentha arvensis. The experiment consisted of two stages (harvests. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications. At the first stage, five different cattle manure dosages (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg m-2 applied to the plots at planting, were evaluated and the first harvest was carried out 120 days later. At the second stage after the first harvest, the plots were subdivided in four split-plot and four cattle manure dosages

  18. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

  19. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  20. Experimentation of grapevine cultivation in organic system, on five different Romanian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Ranca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In five Romanian vineyards, in 2013-2014 period was experimented organic system growing on  grape varieties for wine representative for each area, here are applied organic growing technology in parallel with the conventional (control. White varieties studied are: Chardonnay (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca, Sauvignon blanc and Muscat Ottonel(Tarnave, Feteasca regala (Tarnave, Bujoru and Copou-Iasi. Red varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca and Merlot (Bujoru. Concerning evolution of main climatic factors for the years 2013-2014 it is show that the annual average air temperature increase compared with the average of the years 1991-2010; is observed an increasing in mean annual temperature, mean temperature during the growing season and the value of sum of sunshine hours. The water regime was kept constant, registering values close to the annual average, both during the growing season and at entire year. The weeds spectrum is represented both by dicotyledonous as knotweed (Polygonum aviculare, Veronica (Stellaria media, news (Amaranthus retroflexus, bindweed (Convolvurus arvensis and monocotyledonous as grass thick (Cynodon dactylon. Concerning the phytosanitary status, at Murfatlar were registered problems with oidium attack, with all main disease at Dealu Mare and with downy mildew at Bujoru. In all areas the pest has been found are: grape mouth (Lobesia botrana and spiders (Tetranichus sp.. Schemes of treatments focused generally on substances bassed on copper and sulfur to combat diseases and for pests have been used pheromonal traps or other certified organic products. The grapes harvest was lower in organic plots with till 25%; their quality being close at both growing variants.

  1. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects.

  2. Field evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellents and fumigants against the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J; Hill, Nigel; Ruiz, Carmen; Cameron, Mary M

    2007-07-01

    Inexpensive insect repellents may be needed to supplement the use of impregnated bed-nets in the Amazon region, where the primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi (Root), is exophilic and feeds in the early evening. Three plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon, were identified by focus group, and then they were tested against An. darlingi as well as Mansonia indubitans (Dyar & Shannon)/Mansonia titillans (Walker). Cymbopogon citratus (Staph), Guatemalan lemongrass, essential oil at 25% was used as a skin repellent, and it provided 74% protection for 2.5 h against predominantly An. darlingi and 95% protection for 2.5 h against Mansonia spp. Attalea princeps (name not verified) husks, burned on charcoal in the traditional way provided 35 and 51% protection against An. darlingi and Mansonia spp., respectively. Kerosene lamps, often used to light rural homes, were used as a heat source to volatilize 100% Mentha arvensis (Malinv ex. Bailey) essential oil, and they reduced biting by 41% inside traditional homes against Mansonia spp., although they were ineffective outdoors against An. darlingi. All three plant-based repellents provided significant protection compared with controls. Plant-based repellents, although less effective than synthetic alternatives, were shown by focus groups to be more culturally acceptable in this setting, in particular para-menthane-3, 8, idol derived from lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook). Plant-based repellents have the potential to be produced locally and therefore sold more cheaply than synthetic commercial repellents. Importantly, their low cost may encourage user compliance among indigenous and marginalized populations.

  3. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Eliana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology

  4. Phosphatase activity in sandy soil influenced by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops may difffer in the way they affect rhizosphere microbiota nutrient dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops on soil phosphatase activity and its persistence in subsequent crops. A three-year experiment was carried out with a Typic Quartzipsamment. Treatments were winter species, either mycorrhizal black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb or the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. The control treatment consisted of resident vegetation (fallow in the winter season. In the summer, a mixture of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. with sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. or with soybean (Glycine max L. was sown in all plots. Soil cores (0-10 cm and root samples were collected in six growing seasons (winter and summer of each year. Microbial biomass P was determined by the fumigation-extraction method and phosphatase activity using p-nitrophenyl-phosphate as enzyme substrate. During the flowering stage of the winter cover crops, acid phosphatase activity was 30-35 % higher in soils with the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish, than in the control plots, regardless of the amount of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The values of enzyme activity were intermediate in the plots with corn spurry and black oat. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 10-fold lower and less sensitive to the treatments, despite the significant relationship between the two phosphatase activities. The effect of plant species on the soil enzyme profile continued in the subsequent periods, during the growth of mycorrhizal summer crops, after completion of the life cycle of the cover crops.

  5. Allelopathic effect of new introduced biofuel crops on the soil biota: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heděnec, Petr; Frouz, Jan; Ustak, Sergej; Novotny, David

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel crops as an alternative to fossil fuels are a component of the energy mix in many countries. Many of them are introduced plants, so they pose a serious threat of biological invasions. Production of allelopathic compounds can increase invasion success by limiting co-occurring species in the invaded environment (novel weapons hypothesis). In this study, we focused on plant chemistry and production of allelopathic compounds by biofuel crops (hybrid sorrel Rumex tianschanicus x Rumex patientia and miscanthus Miscanthus sinensis) in comparison with invasive knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis) and cultural meadow species. First, we tested the impact of leachates isolated from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow species compared to deionized water, used as a control, on seed germination of mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated on sand and soil. Secondly, we studied the effect of leachates on the growth of soil fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia solani and Cochliobolus sativus. Finally, we tested the effect of litter of hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow litter mixed with soil on population growth of Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida. Miscanthus and knotweed litter had a higher C:N ratio than the control meadow and hybrid sorrel litter. Miscanthus and hybrid sorrel litter had a higher content of phenols than knotweed and cultural meadow litter. Leachates from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed biomass significantly decreased seed germination of wheat and mustard in both substrates. Soil fungal pathogens grew less vigorously on agar enriched by leachates from both biofuel crops than on agar enriched by knotweed and leachates. Litter from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed significantly altered (both ways) the population growth of the soil mesofauna.

  6. Study on Application of Chemical Control Techniques for Worst Weeds in Landscape Plant Nurseries in Jianghuai Region%江淮地区园林苗圃地恶性杂草化学防除技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新洋; 周根土; 张均

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the integrated control techniques regarding the main weed species, herbicides and the times,concentrations, methods of their applications for chemical weeding and artificial weeding in landscape plant nurseries were introduced. Chemical and artificial weeding techniques for 6 worst weeds in pre-emergence and seedling stages were elaborated in detail including Alternanthera philoxeroides, Commelina communis, Cyperus rotundus, Artemisia Selengensis, Cirsium setosum and Imperata cylindrica,so were the chemical weeding methods for difficult-to-control weed species Digitaria sanguinalis, Acalypha australis, Amaranthus tricolor, Eclipta prostrata, Chenopodium quinoa,Convolvu arvensis,Celosia cristata, Portulaca oleracea and Abutilon theophrasti. The study could provide practical chemical weeding operation techniques for landscape plant nurseries.%本文叙述了园林苗圃地主要杂草、除草剂,化学除草施用时间、浓度、方法,以及人工除草等综合防除技术,详细叙述了芽前、苗期化学和人工除草技术及苗圃地空心莲子草、鸭跖草、香附子、芦蒿、刺儿菜、白茅6种恶性杂草,以及防除难度较大的杂草马唐、铁苋菜、苋菜、醴肠、藜、田旋花、野鸡冠花、马齿苋、茼麻等化学除草方法,为园林苗木培育提供实用的苗圃化学除草操作技术。

  7. Assessment of Corn Densities on Ecological Indices of Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mahmoodi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity, dominance, and stability of weeds are the most important ecological properties in agricultural systems, which influenced by management factors such as crop density, abundantly. This experiment was conducted in 2009 at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Research Field. The experimental design was interval mapping with four levels of corn densities (5, 6, 7 and 9 plant.m-2 and four levels of weed control (full-control, without control, broad-leaves control and grasses control. Weed sampling was done at 3 stages included beginning and end of critical period weed control and harvesting time. The results showed that the effect of plant density on species diversity was significant; some how the amount of Shanon and Simpson Indices were lowest in the 9 plant.m-2 (0.39 and 0.45, respectively and greatest in 5 plant.m-2 (0.84. The results also showed that the maximum amount of dominance index was observed in 9 plant.m-2, that was seen in Echinochloa crus- galli and Convulvulus arvensis at the beginning of growing season, then in Solanum nigrum and Amaranthus retroflexus in the end of growing season. The amount of community dominance index in 9 plant.m-2 was higher than other densities, and it decreased with decline of densities. based on the results of present experiment the linear relationship between plant species and area was found. The calculated amount of Alpha and Beta diversities. in a θ and β scales based on coefficients of this relationship were 0.534 (four species per unit area and 0.29 (two species per unit area, respectively. In conclusion the result of this experiment pointed that the weeds diversity decreased with increasing of corn density, weed diversity decreased and therefore, having appropriate plant density is very efficient for sustainable weed management.

  8. Evaluation of yield quality and weed infestation of common valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. in dependence on weed control method and forecrop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    as Viola arvensis, Galium aparine, Capsella bursa-pastoris.

  9. Evidence based approach to unani contraceptives: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Mohd Athar Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a process or technique for preventing pregnancy by means of medication, device or method that blocks or alters one or more of the processes of reproduction in such a way that sexual union can occur without impregnation. Promotion of family planning is central to the World Health Organization work on improving maternal health and is core to achieve the Millennium Development Goal. It is estimated that 90% of abortion related and 20% of pregnancy related morbidity and mortality, could be prevented by the use of effective contraception. Population explosion is the leading cause of poverty and pollution in developing countries which has detrimental effect on the life supporting system. Hence it is necessary to control the population by the use of contraceptives. Available contraceptives in conventional medicines have many adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need for research of newer, less expensive, less toxic, self-administered, completely reversible contraceptives. Much of these properties are observed in contraceptives as mentioned in classical Unani text. Unani physician has mentioned the various medicines and techniques of contraceptives. Scientific research has confirmed the efficacy of most of the herbal drugs like Ruta graveolans (Suddab, Juniperus communis (Abhal, Piper longum (Filfil daraz, Mentha arvensis (Pudina, Azadirachta indica (Neem, Punica granatum (Anar, Alium cepa (Piyaz and Daucus carota (wild carrot etc. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the ancient concept of contraception in Unani System of Medicine in the light of available scientific research. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 268-275

  10. Optimization of foramsulfuron doses for post-emergence weed control in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannacci, E.

    2016-11-01

    Four field experiments were carried out from 2011 to 2014 in order to evaluate the effects of foramsulfuron, applied at the recommended (60.8 g a.i./ha) and reduced doses (1/3 and 2/3), on the efficacy against several of the most important weeds in maize. For each “year-weed” combination, dose-response curves were applied to estimate the dose of foramsulfuron required to obtain 90% and 95% weed control (ED90 and ED95). Foramsulfuron phytotoxicity on maize and crop yield were assessed. Foramsulfuron at 1/3 of the recommended dose (20.3 g a.i./ha) provided 95% efficacy against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) were satisfactorily controlled (95% weed efficacy) with ED95 ranged from 20 to 50 g/ha of foramsulfuron (about from 1/3 to 5/6 of the recommended dose) depending on growth stage. The recommended dose was effective against pale smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium L.) at 2-4 true leaves (12-14 BBCH scale), but this dose did not kill plants larger than 2-4 true leaves. The ranking among weed species based on their susceptibility to foramsulfuron was: redroot pigweed = green foxtail = wild mustard = black nightshade > velvetleaf = common lambsquarters = barnyardgrass > pale smartweed. Dose of foramsulfuron can be reduced below recommended dose depending on weed species and growth stage. Foramsulfuron showed a good crop selectivity and had no negative effect on maize yield. (Author)

  11. An evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial orf108 is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in different alloplasmic lines of Brassica juncea and induces male sterility in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Vasupalli, Naresh; Srinivasan, R; Bhat, Shripad R

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear-mitochondrial gene interactions governing cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in angiosperms have been found to be unique to each system. Fertility restoration of three diverse alloplasmic CMS lines of Brassica juncea by a line carrying the fertility-restorer gene introgressed from Moricandia arvensis prompted this investigation to examine the molecular basis of CMS in these lines. Since previous studies had found altered atpA transcription associated with CMS in these lines, the atpA genes and transcripts of CMS, fertility-restored, and euplasmic lines were cloned and compared. atpA coding and downstream sequences were conserved among CMS and euplasmic lines but major differences were found in the 5' flanking sequences of atpA. A unique open reading frame (ORF), orf108, co-transcribed with atpA, was found in male sterile flowers of CMS lines carrying mitochondrial genomes of Diplotaxis berthautii, D. catholica, or D. erucoides. In presence of the restorer gene, the bicistronic orf108-atpA transcript was cleaved within orf108 to yield a monocistronic atpA transcript. Transgenic expression of orf108 with anther-specific Atprx18 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana gave 50% pollen sterility, indicating that Orf108 is lethal at the gametophytic stage. Further, lack of transmission of orf108 to the progeny showed for the first time that mitochondrial ORFs could also cause female sterility. orf108 was found to be widely distributed among wild relatives of Brassica, indicating its ancient origin. This is the first report that shows that CMS lines of different origin and morphology could share common molecular basis. The gametic lethality of Orf108 offers a novel opportunity for transgene containment.

  12. Predicting weed problems in maize cropping by species distribution modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürger, Jana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing maize cultivation and changed cropping practices promote the selection of typical maize weeds that may also profit strongly from climate change. Predicting potential weed problems is of high interest for plant production. Within the project KLIFF, experiments were combined with species distribution modelling for this task in the region of Lower Saxony, Germany. For our study, we modelled ecological and damage niches of nine weed species that are significant and wide spread in maize cropping in a number of European countries. Species distribution models describe the ecological niche of a species, these are the environmental conditions under which a species can maintain a vital population. It is also possible to estimate a damage niche, i.e. the conditions under which a species causes damage in agricultural crops. For this, we combined occurrence data of European national data bases with high resolution climate, soil and land use data. Models were also projected to simulated climate conditions for the time horizon 2070 - 2100 in order to estimate climate change effects. Modelling results indicate favourable conditions for typical maize weed occurrence virtually all over the study region, but only a few species are important in maize cropping. This is in good accordance with the findings of an earlier maize weed monitoring. Reaction to changing climate conditions is species-specific, for some species neutral (E. crus-galli, other species may gain (Polygonum persicaria or loose (Viola arvensis large areas of suitable habitats. All species with damage potential under present conditions will remain important in maize cropping, some more species will gain regional importance (Calystegia sepium, Setara viridis.

  13. Is the validation of chemical weed control in linseed possible within the framework of a minor use procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tümmler, Christine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 more than 68,000 hectares linseed was cultivated in Brandenburg. Today the production has decreased to 5,000 hectares throughout Germany. Fifty percent of the production sites are still in Brandenburg with its sandy soils. According to §§ 18, 18a PflSchG (1998 the herbicides Callisto and Ciral are approved for the control of annual mono- and dicotyledonous weeds until the end of 2014. Various products have been tested for their herbicidal activity and phytotoxic disturbance of the crop because linseed is hard to grow on many sites without chemical weed control. Until 2008 the herbicide Concert dominated linseed production because of its ability to include a wide range of different weeds through splitting application. The §18, §18a approval for Concert ended because the manufacturer recalled Concert and released Concert SX, a generic equivalent with the same active ingredients. The ingredients thifensulfuron and metsulfuron in Concert SX have been known to cause delayed blooming. In experiments with Concert SX more phytotoxic damage to the linseed crop like growth inhibition and thinning of inventory could be determined at some test sites. Since 2008 for postemergance application only Ciral is available, but insufficient effects on Galium aparine, Polygonum aviculare, Fallopia convolvulus, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, and Fumaria officinalis could be detected. Therefore other herbicides e.g. sulfonylurea were given particular attention in the last few years. The experimental results show that only a few of the tested herbicides, due to the phytotoxic disturbance of the linseed crop, can be used in order to widen the range of herbicides following the regulations of Artikel 51 VO 1107/2009.

  14. Survey on species composition of weed community at wheat-rape rotation fields in conservation tillage system of Qinghai province%保护性耕作制度下青海麦油轮作田间杂草群落组成调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 郭青云; 冯俊涛

    2011-01-01

    Weed survey was conducted by sampling methods of inverted W-pattern to determine the species composition and structure of weed communities in wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system. The results showed that among 55 weed species belonging to 22 families, 4 species were considered as dominant weeds, including Elsholtzia densa Benth, Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvlus L and thlaspi arvense Linn.; 9 species were regional dominant weeds; 8 common weed species and 34 normal weed species. The overall abundance of Avenafatua Linn( Elsholtzia densa Benth), Sonchus arvensis Linn. And Chenopodium album were relatively high and were the main components of weed communities at the wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system.%采用倒置"W"取样法对青海麦油轮作区保护性耕作田间杂草进行了调查,以明确田间杂草的种类组成及群落结构.结果表明,青海省保护性耕作田杂革有55种,隶属于22科,其中优势杂草有密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、藜(Chenopodium album)、荞麦蔓(Polygonum convolvlus L.)、遏蓝菜(Thlaspi arvense Linn.)等4种,区域性优势杂草有9种,常见杂草有8种,一般杂草有34种.发生优势度较大的杂草为野燕麦(Avena fatua Linn)、密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、苣荬菜(Sonchus artensis Linn.)、藜(Chenopodium album)等,是构成保护性耕作制度下麦油轮作田间杂草群落的优势种.

  15. The influence of different herbicide doses on weed infestation of winter triticale cultivated in monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in 2003-2005 in the Bezek Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental field was situated on light loamy sand soil. The phosphorus content in soil was high, in potassium medium, in magnesium low. The humus content was 1.2%. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks in three replications. The aim of the investigation was to compare three doses of herbicides in winter triticale canopy (Janko cv., Woltario cv., Krakowiak cv. cultivated in monoculture. The herbicides Atlantis 04 WG and Factor 365 EC were applied at full recommended doses (200 g×ha-1, at doses reduced to 75% and 50%. The control was not treated with the herbicides. The weed infestation level was determined by means of the quantitative-weighting method at two dates: the first one at the 6th week after herbicide application and the second one before harvest. The density of weed individuals was counted; the species composition and air- dry biomass of above-ground parts were estimated from the randomly selected areas of 1 m x 0.25 m at four sites of each plot. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight were statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. It was found that the number of weeds and air dry mass of weeds in the control were significantly higher in comparison with the herbicide treated objects. The application of different doses of herbicides did not differentiate significantly the weed infestation level in the winter triticale canopy. Viola arvensis, Matricaria maritima, Chenopodium album and Apera spicaventi were dominant species of weeds in the winter triticale canopy. The selection of cultivars did not influence the canopy weed infestation level.

  16. Ground flora, small mammal and bird species diversity in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Cardiff University, School of Biosciences, Llysdinam Field Centre, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Wildlife monitoring of two miscanthus and two reed canary-grass fields in Herefordshire, England was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of perennial biomass grass crops on ground flora, small mammals and birds. Quadrats were used to record percentage ground vegetation cover within and around the periphery of each crop. Small mammals were sampled by live trapping using Longworth traps. The common bird census technique was used to monitor populations of birds. Miscanthus fields were richer in weed vegetation than reed canary-grass or arable fields. Bird use of the biomass crop fields varied depending on species. There were considerably more open-ground bird species such as skylarks (Alauda arvensis), lapwings (Vanellus vanellus) and meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis) within miscanthus than within reed canary-grass fields. There was no particular crop-type preference by the small mammal species, but rather a preference for good ground cover and little land disturbance, which was provided by both biomass crops. Ground flora, small mammals and most of the bird species (except open-ground birds) were found more abundantly within field margins and boundaries than in crop fields indicating the importance of retaining field structure when planting biomass crops. The miscanthus work relates entirely to young crops, which may be representative of part of the national crop if large areas are cultivated for rhizomes. The findings from the current project indicate that perennial biomass grass crops can provide substantially improved habitat for many forms of native wildlife, due to the low intensity of the agricultural management system and the untreated headlands. (author)

  17. Are unfamiliar neighbours considered to be dear-enemies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Briefer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discriminating threatening individuals from non-threatening ones allow territory owners to modulate their territorial responses according to the threat posed by each intruder. This ability reduces costs associated with territorial defence. Reduced aggression towards familiar adjacent neighbours, termed the dear-enemy effect, has been shown in numerous species. An important question that has never been investigated is whether territory owners perceive distant neighbours established in the same group as strangers because of their unfamiliarity, or as dear-enemies because of their group membership. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate this question, we played back to male skylarks (Alauda arvensis songs of adjacent neighbours, distant neighbours established a few territories away in the same microdialect area and strangers. Additionally, we carried out a propagation experiment to investigate how far skylark songs are propagated in their natural habitat and we estimated repertoire similarity between adjacent neighbours, distant neighbours and strangers. We show that skylarks, in the field, respond less aggressively to songs of their distant and likely unfamiliar neighbours, as shown by the propagation experiment, compared to stranger songs. The song analysis revealed that individuals share a high amount of syllables and sequences with both their adjacent and distant neighbours, but only few syllables and no sequences with strangers. CONCLUSIONS: The observed reduction of aggression between distant neighbours thus probably results from their familiarity with the vocal group signature shared by all members of the neighbourhood. Therefore, in skylarks, dear-enemy-like relationships can be established between unfamiliar individuals who share a common acoustic code.

  18. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  19. Control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and other dicotyledonous weeds with GF-145, a new cereal herbicide product containing isoxaben and florasulam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Jörg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available GF-145 contains the active ingredients isoxaben (610 g ai/kg and florasulam (40 g ai/kg and is formulated as a Wettable Granule (WG. The active ingredients are found in commercial products such as Primus™2 (florasulam, Starane XL™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam, Ariane C™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam + clopyralid or Flexidor™ (isoxaben. While florasulam has been widely used in cereal crops in recent years, isoxaben offers a new mode of action (MOA for use in German cereal herbicides even when considering that Flexidor™ has had regulatory approval in 1988 to 1991. The MOA of isoxaben is inhibition of cellulose synthesis (HRAC class L, while florasulam inhibits Acetolactate Synthase (ALS and is a representative of the HRAC class B. It is known that florasulam works through uptake by green leaves. Isoxaben is a herbicide with soil activity and with a very low activity when foliar applied, except on some species in the cruciferae family. GF-145 is intended to be applied in the autumn in cereals (wheat, barley, rye, triticale for the control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and annual dicotyledonous weeds including Matricaria spp., Stellaria media, Papaver rhoeas, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Myosotis arvensis, Lamium spp., Galium aparine, Veronica spp. and others when applied at early post-emergence from BBCH 10 to 13 of the crop. The use rate in winter cereals is 95 g product/ha (58 g ai/ha isoxaben plus 3.75 g ai/ha florasulam. Field trials conducted in previous years confirmed excellent selectivity in all cereal crops and efficacy trials initiated in autumn 2012 show that GF-145 provides excellent and superior control to ALS resistant oil seed rape that was better than straight florasulam and other ALS active ingredients. GF-145 adds a new MOA to the cereal herbicide portfolio and controls volunteer oil seed rape, cruciferous weeds and broad-leaved weeds and is more robust than florasulam based products that do not contain isoxaben.

  20. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water loss and lipids of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Michael J; Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2003-10-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduce water loss through the skin. In desert environments, where ambient temperatures (T(a)) can reach 50 degrees C, relative humidities are low and drinking water is scarce, integumentary modifications that reduce cutaneous water loss (CWL) could be fundamental to survival. Previous research has shown that hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) from the Arabian desert reduced CWL when acclimated to 35 degrees C compared with individuals at 15 degrees C, but skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea), from The Netherlands, and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni), also from the Arabian desert, did not. Here, we test the idea that hoopoe larks acclimated to 35 degrees C would alter the lipid composition of their stratum corneum (SC), resulting in a decrease in CWL, but that skylarks, woodlarks and Dunn's larks would not. Specifically, we hypothesized that hoopoe larks, acclimated to 35 degrees C, would increase the proportions of polar ceramide content and decrease the proportions of free fatty acids in their SC compared with individuals acclimated to 15 degrees C. Results showed that hoopoe larks at 35 degrees C had lower CWL and higher proportions of total ceramides but lower proportions of free fatty acids and sterols in their SC. We demonstrate that adjustments in ratios of lipid classes in the SC are associated with changes in CWL in hoopoe larks.

  1. Physiological adjustments to arid and mesic environments in larks (Alaudidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B; Buschur, Michael E

    2002-01-01

    Because deserts are characterized by low food availability, high ambient temperature extremes, and absence of drinking water, one might expect that birds that live in these conditions exhibit a lower basal metabolic rate (BMR), reduced total evaporative water loss (TEWL), and greater ability to cope with high air temperatures than their mesic counterparts. To minimize confounding effects of phylogeny, we compared the physiological performance of four species of larks at ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) ranging from 0 degrees to 50 degrees C: hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni) live in hot and dry deserts, whereas skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea) occur in temperate mesic areas. Mass-adjusted BMR and TEWL were indistinguishable between hoopoe lark and Dunn's lark and between skylark and woodlark. When grouping the data of the two desert larks in one set and the data of the two mesic larks in another, desert larks are shown to have 43% lower BMR levels and 27% lower TEWL values than the mesic species. Their body temperatures (T(b)'s) were 1.1 degrees C lower, and the minimal dry heat transfer coefficients (h) were 26% below values for the mesic larks. When T(a) exceeded T(b), the h of hoopoe larks and Dunn's larks was high and indistinguishable from h at 40 degrees C, in contrast to the prediction that h should be decreased to minimize heat gain through conductance, convection, or radiation from the environment when T(a) exceeds T(b).

  2. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T(a)) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni) from the Arabian Desert and skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea) from temperate mesic grasslands. The proportional contribution of CWL to TEWL in all larks at moderate T(a) ranged from 50% to 70%. At high T(a) (40 degrees -45 degrees C), larks enhanced CWL by only 45%-78% and relied on an increase in RWL by 676%-2,733% for evaporative cooling. Surface-specific CWL at 25 degrees C was 29% lower in the arid-zone species than in the mesic larks. When acclimated to constant T(a), 15 degrees C-acclimated hoopoe larks increased CWL by 22% compared with 35 degrees C-acclimated birds, but the other species did not change CWL. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that larks from deserts have a reduced CWL at moderate and low T(a) but provided no support for the hypothesis that at high T(a) larks from arid regions rely more on CWL than larks from mesic environments. Interspecific differences in CWL cannot be attributed to acclimation to environmental temperature and are possibly the result of genetic differences due to natural selection or of phenotypically plastic responses to divergent environments during ontogeny.

  3. 新疆南部地区冬麦田杂草的发生与防治%Occurrence and Control of Weeds in Winter Wheat Fields in Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广阔; 高海峰; 白微微; 高永红; 张宏芝

    2014-01-01

    The most damaging weeds in winter wheat fields in southern Xinjiang included Chenopodium album L.,Polygo-num aviculare L.,Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur.,Cephaalnoplos segetum (Willd.) Kitam.,Malcolmia africana (L .) R.Br.,Sonchus oleraceus L.,Convolvulus arvensis L.,Echinochloa crus-galli ( L.) Beauv., and Sclerochloa kengiana Tz-vel.Broadleaf weeds are controlled with tribenuron-methyl and fluroxypyr;grass weeds are eliminated with fenoxaprop-p-ethyl,clodinafop-propargyl and Traxos.A ribenuron-methyl mixture with pinoxaden· clodinafop-propargyl or fenoxaprop-p-ethyl can be applied by the double dilution method by adding water at no less than 450 L/hm2 .%当前影响南疆地区冬麦田的杂草主要有藜、播娘蒿、萹蓄、大蓟、涩荠菜、苦苣菜、田旋花、稗草、硬草等。阔叶杂草防除可选用苯磺隆、氯氟吡氧乙酸等药剂,禾本科杂草防除可选用精恶唑禾草灵、炔草酯、唑啉草酯·炔草酸等除草剂。在杂草混合危害的麦田,可选用苯磺隆与唑啉草酯·炔草酸或精禾草灵混配进行防除。施药时应采取二次稀释的方法,兑水量一般不少于450 kg/hm2。

  4. Optimization of foramsulfuron doses for post-emergence weed control in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four field experiments were carried out from 2011 to 2014 in order to evaluate the effects of foramsulfuron, applied at the recommended (60.8 g a.i./ha and reduced doses (1/3 and 2/3, on the efficacy against several of the most important weeds in maize. For each “year-weed” combination, dose-response curves were applied to estimate the dose of foramsulfuron required to obtain 90% and 95% weed control (ED90 and ED95. Foramsulfuron phytotoxicity on maize and crop yield were assessed. Foramsulfuron at 1/3 of the recommended dose (20.3 g a.i./ha provided 95% efficacy against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. Beauv., wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L. Beauv. were satisfactorily controlled (95% weed efficacy with ED95 ranged from 20 to 50 g/ha of foramsulfuron (about from 1/3 to 5/6 of the recommended dose depending on growth stage. The recommended dose was effective against pale smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium L. at 2-4 true leaves (12-14 BBCH scale, but this dose did not kill plants larger than 2-4 true leaves. The ranking among weed species based on their susceptibility to foramsulfuron was: redroot pigweed = green foxtail = wild mustard = black nightshade > velvetleaf = common lambsquarters = barnyardgrass > pale smartweed. Dose of foramsulfuron can be reduced below recommended dose depending on weed species and growth stage. Foramsulfuron showed a good crop selectivity and had no negative effect on maize yield.

  5. [Fast catalogue of alien invasive weeds by Vis/NIR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia-Jia; Zou, Wei; He, Yong; Xu, Zheng-Hao

    2009-11-01

    The feasibility of visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/WNIR) techniques as means for the nondestructive and fast detection of alien invasive weeds was evaluated. Selected sensitive bands were found validated. In the present study, 3 kinds of alien invasive weeds, Veronica persica, Veronica polita, and Veronica arvensis Linn, and one kind of local weed, Lamiaceae amplexicaule Linn, were employed. The results showed that visible and NIR (Vis/NIR) technology could be introduced in classification of the alien invasive weeds or local weed with the similar outline. Thirty x 4 weeds samples were randomly selected for the calibration set, while the remaining 20 x 4 samples for the prediction set. Smoothing methods of moving average and standard normal variate (SNV) were used to pretreat spectra data. Based on principal components analysis, soft independent models of class analogy (SIMCA) were applied to make the model. Four frontal principal components of each catalogues were applied as the input of SIMCA, and with a significance level of 0.05, recognition ratio of 78.75% was obtained. The average prediction result is 90% except for Veronica polita. According to the modeling power of each spectra data in SIMCA, some possible sensitive bands, 496-521, 589-626 and 789-926 nm, were founded. By using these possible sensitive bands as the inputs of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and setting the result of LS-SVM as the object function value of genetic algorithm (GA), mutational rate, crossover rate and population size were set up as 0.9, 0.5 and 50 respectively. Finally recognition ratio of 95.63% was obtained. The prediction results of 95.63% indicated that the selected wavelengths reflected the main characteristics of the four weeds, which proposed a new way to accelerate the research on cataloguing alien invasive weeds.

  6. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romée van der Zee

    Full Text Available This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1 Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2 presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen, (3 presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4 a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects.

  7. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  8. Flora of fallow lands of the Podlaski Przełom Bugu mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Skrzyczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on flora of fallow lands of the Podlaski Przełom Bugu mesoregion were carried out between 2001 and 2003 in the area of 77 localities, situated in 20 communes. A systematic list of fallow land flora was made and its variation with respect to occurrence frequency, biological spectrum, persistence and belonging to geographic-historical and sociological-ecological groups was analyzed. Flora of fallow lands of the Podlaski Przełom Bugu mesoregion includes 442 species included in 60 families and 241 botanical genera. The most numerous group comprises very rare, rare and quite frequent species. In the floristic composition of the analysed flora, apophytes (72.2% predominate over anthropophytes (2.8% as well as perennials (61% over ephemerals (39%. Considering the biological spectrum of flora, hemicryptophytes (49% and terophytes (32% predominate over other life forms. Forest and shrub species (18.5% as well as meadow (17% and xerothermic sward plants (17.4% have the largest share in the flora. The abundant occurrence of segetal (15.8% and long-lived ruderal communities (8.1% was also noted. Moreover, the occurrence of 25 species endangered with extinction in fallow land communities of the Południowopodlaska Lowland was noted. They are as follows: Nigella arvensis, Potentilla recta, Platanthera chlorantha, Agrostemma githago, Prunella grandiflora, Populus alba, Silene tatarica, Papaver argemone, Papaver rhoeas, Veronica polita, Hieracium floribundum, Bromus secalinus, Polygonum bistorta, Geum alleppicu, Astragalus arenarius, Centaurium erythraea, Veronica agrestis, Veronica verna, Cirsium rivulare, Allium oleraceum, Hierochloë odorata, Chenopodium polyspermum, Vinca minor, Dipsacus silvestris and Campanula latifolia.

  9. Notes on the family Brassicaceae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A GERMAN; Wen-Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A critical revision of the collections of Brassicaceae in some Chinese (PE, XJA, XJBI, XJFA, XJNM, XJU) and foreign (LE, P) herbaria is made. One genus, Neurotropis (DC.) E K. Mey., and 11 species, Alyssum szarabiacum Nyar., Barbarea stricta Andrz., Erysimum czernjajevii N. Busch, Erysimum kotuchovii D. German, Erysimum mongolicum D. German, Lepidium karelinianum A1-Shehbaz, Matthiola superba Conti, Neurotropis platycarpa (Fisch. & Mey.) E K. Mey., Ptilotrichum dahuricum Peschkova, Sisymbrium subspinescens Bunge, and Smelowskia micrantha (Botsch. & Vved.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, are reported from China for the first time. Six species, Aphragmus involucratus (Bunge) O. E. Schulz, Dontostemonperennis C. A. Mey., Goldbachia torulosa DC., Lepidium amplexicaule Willd., Neotorularia brevipes (Kar. & Kir.) Hedge & J. Leonard, and Parrya stenocarpa Kar. & Kir., are confirmed to occurr in China. Five species, Dontostemon integrifolius (L.) C. A. Mey., Draba zangbeiensis L. L. Lou, Lepidium alashanicum H. L. Yang, Sinapis arvensis L., and Strigosella brevipes (Btmge) Botsch., are reported as novelties for some provinces in China, and Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Borsch. occurs in Xinjiang, China. However, the occurrence of one genus, Pseudoarabidopsis Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, and four species, Draba huetii Boiss., Eutrema halophilum (C. A. Mey.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, Galitzkya spathulata (Steph. ex Willd.) V. Bocz., and Pseudoarabidopsis toxophylla (Bieb.) Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, could not be confirmed in China. The occurrence of six species, Aphragmus bouffordii Al-Shehbaz, Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb., Lepidium latifolium L., Ptilotrichum canescens (DC.) C. A. Mey., Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Botsch., and Strigosella scorpioides (Bunge) Botsch., is not confirmed in certain provinces of China. All names follow the latest taxonomic treatment for relevant groups; detailed morphological descriptions of the newly recorded taxa are provided; and distinguishing

  10. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  11. 青海保护性耕作农田杂草群落组成及生物多样性%The community composition and biodiversity of weeds in conservati on tillage system in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 郭青云; 郭良芝; 翁华; 程亮

    2013-01-01

    采用倒置“W”9点取样法对青海保护性耕作农田杂草种类进行了调查,以明确田间杂草的种类组成及群落结构.结果表明,青海省保护性耕作农田杂草有67种,隶属于25科,其中优势杂草有密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、猪殃殃(Galium maborasense Masamune)、野燕麦(Avena fatua Linn.)、藜(Chenopodium album L.)、苣荬菜(Sonhus arvensis Linn.)、大刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos setosum(Willd.) Kitam.)6种,是构成青海各地区保护性耕作农田杂草群落的主要优势种,区域性优势杂草有5种,常见杂草有17种,一般杂草有39种.湟中地区主要形成猪殃殃+密花香薷+藜+野燕麦+大刺儿菜+芦苇+尼泊尔蓼为主的杂草群落;民和地区为狗尾草+藜+扁蓄+野燕麦+田旋花+荞麦蔓+大刺儿菜,平安地区为野燕麦+猪殃殃+苣荬菜+大刺儿菜+赖草+荞麦蔓+密花香薷+扁蓄+泽漆,化隆地区为薄蒴草+猪殃殃+野燕麦+荞麦蔓+苣荬菜+密花香薷,大通地区为野燕麦+猪殃殃+藜+大刺儿菜+问荆+密花香薷,刚察地区为密花香薷+西伯利亚蓼+薄蒴草+藜+微孔草+旱雀麦+苣荬菜+野胡萝卜.湟中和大通地区保护性耕作农田杂草群落的物种丰富度、多样性及均匀度较其它地区高,而优势度较低.从群落相似性来看,湟中和大通群落结构最为相似.地理环境、气候条件及控草措施的不同,可能是导致保护性耕作农田杂草发生及群落组成产生差异的原因.%Weed survey was conducted by the method of inverted W-sampling to determine the composition of species and structure of weed communities in conservation tillage system in Qinghai Province. The results showed that there were 67 weed species belonging to 25 families in conservation tillage fields. The predominant species were Elsholtzia densa Benth, Galium maborasense Masamune, Avena fatua Linn, Chenopodium album L., Sonchus arvensis Linn and Cephalanoplos setosum (Willd.) Kitam. There were 5

  12. Solução nutritiva para produção de menta em hidroponia Nutrient solution for mint production in hydroponic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A menta (Mentha arvensis L. é uma planta aromática e que produz um óleo essencial rico em mentol. Para o cultivo hidropônico de hortaliças folhosas e de frutos existe um grande número de soluções nutritivas recomendadas pela pesquisa; no entanto, existem poucas informações sobre soluções nutritivas para menta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uma solução nutritiva para o cultivo de menta em hidroponia. Conduziram-se dois experimentos de outubro a dezembro de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. Para o experimento a campo, as mudas foram obtidas por estacas e produzidas em substrato organo-mineral (plantmax®, posteriormente transplantadas para canteiros de 5,00 m de comprimento e 1,00 de largura, no espaçamento 0,60 x 0,30 m. No sistema hidropônico "NFT", as mudas foram propagadas por estaquia em espuma fenólica, onde permaceram 18 dias no berçário, quando foram transferidas para as bancadas de produção final. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2x2 com os fatores: concentração da solução nutritiva e espaçamentos. Determinou-se a fitomassa seca, o teor de óleo essencial e o mentol. Os melhores resultados de teor de óleo essencial (0,60 ml 100 g-1 de folhas frescas, mentol (82,4% e fitomassa seca (45 g planta-1 foram obtidos com 100% da concentração da solução nutritiva no transplante e reposição de 50% quando a condutividade elétrica reduziu 50% do valor inicial e no espaçamento de 0,50 m x 0,25 m nos canais de cultivo. Constatou-se que o teor e rendimento de óleo essencial e fitomassa seca no cultivo hidropônico com a solução nutritiva proposta foram superiores aos encontrados em cultivo a campo de 27 g planta-1de fitomassa seca, 0,53 Ml 100 g-1 de folhas frescas de óleo essencial e 64,43% de mentol. A solução nutritiva com concentração de 100% no transplante e reposição de 50% dos nutrientes quando a condutividade elétrica reduzir 50% do valor inicial e o espaçamento 0

  13. Texture optimization of Ni-5at.%W for coated conductor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Marco

    2014-07-01

    implemented into the model to consider the faster nucleation of the Cube orientation. The bimodal size distribution after recrystallization gave the Cube grains a growth advantage during grain growth. Only with such a bimodal distribution the increase of the Cube volume fraction by grain growth could be successfully simulated with a vertex network model. The Cube volume fraction increased to 80% as determined with ODF calculations which corresponds to an actual volume fraction of 90-95%. Grain growth in Cube textured Ni-5at.%W was impeded by the orientation pinning effect caused by the high fraction of low-mobility low angle grain boundaries (LAGB). The strong texture also makes the material prone to abnormal grain growth (AGG), whereat non-Cube grains with mobile HAGBs grew abnormally large and consumed the Cube textured matrix. Both, recrystallization and grain growth, were affected by the annealing atmosphere, i.e. by oxidation which especially reduced the mobility of HAGBs. While during recrystallization this effect impedes the formation of the Cube texture it reduces the risk of AGG at higher annealing temperatures. With an established model for the formation of annealing twins the stacking fault energy of Ni-5at.%W was determined as γ{sub SF} = 51mJ/m{sup 2}. The decrease of the annealing twin density with texture sharpness could be attributed to a reduction of the mean grain boundary energy. In conclusion, a through process simulation of the texture development in Ni-5at.%W was established and optimal parameters for the formation of a sharp Cube texture were determined and discussed.

  14. Group Connectivity of Generalized q-trees%广义q-树的群连通度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣霞; 李德明; 李赵祥

    2012-01-01

    设G是无向图,A是加法交换群,且A^*=A-0.如果G有一个定向D(G),对任何满足∑v∈(G)b(v)=0的函数b:V(G)→A,都存在函数f:E(G)→A^*使得在每个顶点v∈V(G),从v发出的所有边上的f总值减去进入v的所有边上的f总值恰等于b(v),则称G是A-连通的.群连通数为:Ag(G)=min{n:对任何满足|A|≥n的群A,G是A-连通的}.令q是正整数,广义q-树的定义是按下列递推形式给出的:最小的广义q-树是阶为q的完全图Kq;阶为n+1的广义q-树是由阶为他的广义q-树通过增加一个新顶点和连接此点与阶为他的广义q-树中任意给定的q个顶点得到的.本文对广义q-树G(q≥2)考察Ag(G),证明了如果G是阶n≥3的广义2-树或阶为n∈{3,4}的广义3-树或阶为4的广义4-树,则Ag(G)=4;如果G是阶为n≥5的广义q-树(q≥3),则Ag(G)=3.%Let G be an undirected graph, A be an (additive) abelian group and A^* = A - 0. A graph G is A-connected if G has an orientation D(G) such that for every function b,: V(G)→ A satisfying ∑v∈v(a) b(v) = 0, there is a function f : E(G) → A^* such that at each vertex v∈ V(G), the amount of f values on the edges directed out from v minus the amount of f values on the edges directed into v equals b(v). The group connectivity number Ag(G) = min{n : G is A-connected for every abelian group A with |A|≥n}. Let q be a positive integer. The generalized q-trees are defined by recursion: the smallest generalized q-tree is the complete graph Kq -with order q, and a generalized q-tree with order n + 1 where n ≥ q is obtained by adding a new vertex adjacent to q arbitrarily selected vertices of a generalized q-tree with order n. In this paper, we investigate Ag(G) for generalized q-trees G with q ≥ 2. We show that if G is a generalized 2-tree with order n 〉 3 or generalized 3-tree with order n E {3, 4} or generalized 4-tree

  15. 2010年福建南平及永安监测点致泻大肠杆菌的监测报告%Surveillance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli infection in Nanping and Yongan monitoring sites of Fujian in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 陈爱平; 陈建辉; 李玉燕; 杨劲松; 郑金凤

    2011-01-01

    目的:为了解福建省腹泻病人中致泻大肠杆菌的感染情况.方法:应用多重PCR或单重PCR方法检测致泻大肠杆菌的EPEC/EHEC eaeA基因、EHEC stx基因、EAEC aggR基因、EIECipaH、EIEC virA、ETEC ST、ETEC LT、EPECbp基因.API 20E生化鉴定条进行生化试验.血清学鉴定.结果:2010年度共分离得19株致泻大肠杆菌,检出率为10.9%.1株EAEC;1株tEPEC;4株aEPEC; 13株ETEC.19株分离的致泻大肠杆菌经API 20E鉴定均为大肠埃希菌.1株tEPEC与EPEC三种多价诊断血清型均不凝集,而1株aEPEC血清型为O111:K58(B4).13株ETEC菌株血清型:多数为O6:K15,1株O25:K19(L),3株未能分型.结论:监测结果对于我们了解福建省致泻大肠杆菌感染情况,预警潜在发生疫情的可能性有其重要性.这些菌种的获得可以为下一步研究其毒力特征、分子分型及耐药性积累原始材料.%Objective:To understand the condition of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) infection in Fujian province. Methods: Genes such as EPEC/EHEC eaek, EHEC stx, EAEC aggR, EIEC ipaH, EIEC virA, ETEC ST, ETEC LT, EPEC bfp were detected by multiplex or single PCR. Biochemical identification was determined by API 20E strip and serotyping was performed. Results: 19 strains of DEC (1 EAEC, 1 tEPEC, 4 aEPEC and 13 ETEC) were isolated in the surveillance in 2010, and the detection rate was 10.9%. All isolated strains were identified as E. Coli by API 20E strip. 1 tEPEC didn't agglutinate with EPEC multivalence diagnostic serum, whereas 1 aEPEC agglutinated with EPEC serum 0111 :K58( B4). Serotypes of 13 ETEC were mainly 06:K15, while the others were 1 strain for O25:K19(L) , 3 strains untyped. Conclusion: The surveillance is important to understand DEC infection in Fujian province and early warn the potential of DEC epidemic. The isolated strains provide material for further study of their virulence characteristics, molecular typing and antibiotic resistance.

  16. Caracterización genotípica y fenotípica de cepas emergentes de Escherichia coli aisladas de niños con diarrea en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yurley Arias Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    virulencia, MLST, análisis filogenético,  ensayos de adhesión, polimerización de actina, formación de biofilm, PCR simple para más genes de virulencia característicos de cada uno de los patotipos y test de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Resultados: Se aislaron 2699 cepas de E. coli mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales, de las cuales el 0.18% (5 fueron caracterizadas como cepas emergentes. Entre estas cepas emergentes dos compartían genes positivos para más de un patotipo. La primera cepa positiva para aggR, aaiC, eae, bfpA y la segunda para aggR, aaiC, lt, correspondiendo a E. coli enteroagregativa (EAEC y E. coli enteropatogénica (EPEC y E. coli enteroagregativa (EAEC y E. coli enterotoxigénica (ETEC respectivamente. Las pruebas realizadas para la caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de estas cepas arrojó resultados contundentes sobre cepas emergentes. Conclusiones: Las pruebas genotípicas y fenotípicas realizadas demostraron que las dos cepas emergentes identificadas comparten características de los patotipos identificados. Este estudio demostró que cepas emergentes de E. coli circulan en Colombia, específicamente en la ciudad de Bucaramanga.

  17. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Huber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg. decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha, and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  18. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  19. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  20. The fine-tuning of thermosensitive and degradable polymer micelles for enhancing intracellular uptake and drug release in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Jinfeng; Gao, Jie; Li, Bohua; Xia, Yu; Meng, Yanchun; Yu, Yongsheng; Chen, Huaiwen; Dai, Jianxin; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun

    2011-05-01

    Focusing on high temperature and low pH of tumor tissue, we prepared temperature and pH responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide-b-lacitde) (PID(118)-b-PLA(59)) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PID(118)-b-PCL(60)) diblock copolymers with symmetric hydrophobic blocks by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT). The corresponding dual functional polymeric micelles were fabricated by dialysis methods. Their well-defined core-shell structure was characterized by (1)H NMR in D(2)O and further confirmed by TEM. Their structural and physical chemistry properties such as diameters (D), core corona dimension (R(core), R(shell)), distribution (PDI), M(w), aggregation number (N(agg)), second virial coefficient (A(2)), critical micellization concentration (CMC) and z-potential were firstly systemically investigated by dynamic and static laser light scattering. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) was around 40 °C above which the intracellular uptake of adriamycin (ADR) was significantly enhanced. Both flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy showed that the ADR transported by these micelles was about 4 times higher than that by the commercial ADR formulation Taxotere®. In vitro cytotoxicity assay against N-87 cancer cell and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) also confirmed such promoting efficiency. In addition, it was interesting to find that cell surviving bounced back as T = 42 °C due to the inter-micellar aggregation. The well clarified mechanism strongly support that our finely tailored dual functional core-shell micelles are potent in enhancing cellular uptake and drug release.