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Sample records for arvensis agg dipsacaceae

  1. Bringing together evolution on serpentine and polyploidy: spatiotemporal history of the diploid-tetraploid complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kolář

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae, a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary 'dead-ends' but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding

  2. AGG Maailmameistrivõistluste eel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    12.-14. juunini toimuvad Torontos Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (AGG) maailmameistrivõistlused Toronto Ülikooli võimlemiskeskuses. Nende võistluste korraldamise raske ülesande on võtnud oma õlule Kanada eestlaste võimlemisklubid Kalev Estienne ja Ritmika vastavalt Evelyn Koobi ja Annely Riga juhtimisel

  3. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule

  4. Nova variedade de Menta arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Rodrigues Lima

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available No quarto ano dos trabalhos de seleção com a menta japonêsa, foi encontrado um "seedling", o M. A. 701, que se destacou pela resistência à ferrugem e pela sua rusticidade. Os caracteres botânicos dessa variedade comercial, principalmente hábito vegetativo, coloração das fôlhas e das hastes, a tornam completa' mente distinta da variedade original. Esta distinção se confirma e acentua quando se compara a natureza dos componentes do óleo essencial da menta "Campinas" M. A. 701, descrita no presente trabalho, com a menta japonêsa comum. A maior produtividade da nova variedade comparada com a da menta japonesa comum foi desde logo também constatada pelos primeiros lavradores, a quem foram enviadas pequenas quantidades de rizomas, para plantio experimental. Foram cultivados em 1949-50 cêrca de 12 hectares; cm 1950-51, cêrca de 900 ha, e o prognóstico é que essa variedade tende a substituir totalmente a menta japonêsa anteriormente cultivada em São Paulo, devido ao seu maior valor econômico.A seedling, designated M.A.701, remarkable for its vigor and resistance to rust, was discovered during the fourth year of selection of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. subsp. haplocalix Briquet var. piperascens Holmes or forma piperascens Malinvaud. The botanical characters of the variety derived from this seedling, especially the vegetative habit and colouring of leaves and stems, make it quite different from the original variety. This difference is enhanced, when we compare the nature of the essential oil components of "Campinas" M.A.701, as described in the present paper, with that of the common Japanese mint. The higher yield of the new variety, compared with that of the common Japanese mint, was soon confirmed by the first cultivators, to whom small quantities of rhizomes were sent for experimental planting. About 12 hectars were cultivated em 1949/50 and about 900 hectars in 1950/51. It is expected that the new variety will, on account

  5. 2008 CONEXPO-CON/AGG%镜头中的CONEXPO-CON/AGG2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤彪

    2008-01-01

    @@ 于2008年3月11-15日在美国拉斯维加斯会展中心举行的CONEXPO-CON/AGG(建设机械展)和IFPE(动力传动展)圆满闭幕.CONEXPO-CON/AGG有2182家企业参展,展出净面积达21.2万平方米,较上届增长21%;IFPE有469家企业参展,展出净面积达1.2万平方米,较上届增长16%.14.46万人参观展会,其中国际观众2.8万人,占19%,中国、印度、土耳其的观众数量翻倍.

  6. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

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    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  7. Structure of amorphous Ag/Ge/S alloys: experimentally constrained density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akola, J.; Beuneu, B.; Jones, R. O.; Jóvári, P.; Kaban, I.; Kolář, J.; Voleská, I.; Wágner, T.

    2015-12-01

    Density functional/molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to determine structural and other properties of amorphous Ag/Ge/S and Ge/S alloys. In the former, the calculations have been combined with experimental data (x-ray and neutron diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure). Ag/Ge/As alloys have high ionic conductivity and are among the most promising candidates for future memristor technology. We find excellent agreement between the experimental results and large-scale (500 atoms) simulations in Ag/Ge/S, and we compare and contrast the structures of Ge/S and Ag/Ge/S. The calculated electronic structures, vibrational densities of states, ionic mobilities, and cavity distributions of the amorphous materials are discussed and compared with data on crystalline phases where available. The high mobility of Ag in solid state electrolyte applications is related to the presence of cavities and can occur via jumps to a neighbouring vacant site.

  8. A double neutron star merger origin for the cosmological relativistic fading source PTF11agg ?

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, PTF group reported their new discovery source of PTF11agg, a rapidly fading optical transient with a long-lived, scintillating radio counterpart, yet without evidence of a high energy counterpart. Nevertheless, PTF group speculate that PTF11agg may represent a new class of relativistic outbursts rather than an orphan afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Besides GRBs, gravitational wave burst (GWB, from double neutron star merger scenario) also have similar power-law behavior broadband EM afterglow emission, only if the post-merger product is a millisecond magnetar rather than a black hole. We find PTF11agg data could be well explained with GWB afterglow model. Implications for NS+NS merger event rate is discussed.

  9. PHARMACOGNOSTIC PARAMETERS AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manbir kaur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the aerial parts of Convolvulus arvensis Linn. (Convolvulaceae were collected and identified. Various Pharmacognostic parameters needed for evaluation are performed, which might be helpful in herbal medicines in future. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and glycosides with a very high content in alcohol extract. The concentration of the phytochemical constituents were in the order of alcohol > CHCl3 > Pet.ether. The result of this study validates the use of plant in ethnomedicine and could provide a lead in the isolation of activity guided phytoconstituents.

  10. 透过CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2008看行业发展八大现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤龙

    2008-01-01

    @@ 正值北美经济出现下滑之时,CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2008是否依然会光芒四射一度为众多业内人士所担心.但是亲临现场才知道CONEXPO-CON/AGG2008就如同一杯香浓的咖啡,需要细心品尝,领悟其中的滋味.

  11. A DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGER ORIGIN FOR THE COSMOLOGICAL RELATIVISTIC FADING SOURCE PTF11agg?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Ding, Xuan [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei, Jian-Yan, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) team recently reported the discovery of a rapidly fading optical transient source, PTF11agg. A long-lived scintillating radio counterpart was identified, but the search for a high-energy counterpart showed negative results. The PTF team speculated that PTF11agg may represent a new class of relativistic outbursts. Here we suggest that a neutron star (NS)-NS merger system with a supra-massive magnetar central engine could be a possible source to power such a transient, if our line of sight is not on the jet axis direction of the system. These systems are also top candidates for gravitational wave sources to be detected in the advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We find that the PTF11agg data could be explained well with such a model, suggesting that at least some gravitational wave bursts due to NS-NS mergers may be associated with such a bright electromagnetic counterpart without a γ-ray trigger.

  12. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Sami; Semur, Heybet; Kose, Ozkan; Ozhasenekler, Ayhan; Celiktas, Mustafa; Basbug, Murat; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one pa...

  13. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author)

  14. Determination of Solid State Solubility of the Components in the Ag-Ge Film System

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    A.A. Minenkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of determination of solid state solubility of the components in the system with an eutectic type of interaction (Ag-Ge by means of measuring the sample electrical resistance during thermal cycling has been shown. Film systems were formed in a vacuum by sequential condensation of components. The solubility curve of germanium in silver, obtained from the study of the samples with silver film thickness of 100 nm, is in good agreement with available literature data. The activation energy of grain-boundary diffusion has been estimated as 0,8 eV.

  15. ANALISIS KUALITATIF KANDUNGAN KIMIA KALUS Sonchus arvensis L. HASIL PERTUMBUHAN SECARA KULTUR JARINGAN

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    Katno Katno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture tecnique can be used to produce chemical compound or secondary metabolites from medicinal plant. The chemical compound of medicinal plants sometime produced locally within the callus. These compounds are generally identical with the one produced by medicinal plantgrowth in the field. Sonchus arvensis (tempuyung used as diuretic and anti-kidney stone. The flavonoid compound of Sonchus arvensis related to such activities are Apigenin 7-glucoside and Luteolin 7-glucoside. The both compounds of Sonchus arvensis are active as anti-kidney stone and diuretic by plant tissue  culture. The reseach was carried out in plants tisue culture laboratory at BPTO Tawangmangu from June to Jully 2002. The callus of Sonchus arvensis  aged of 50 days was analized with spot test and TLC methode. The result was compared to the chemical compounds from Sonchus arvensis which growth in the field. The result showed that chemical compound from  the callus and the plant growth in the field were identical.

  16. Mentha arvensis exhibit better adaptive characters in contrast to Mentha piperita when subjugated to sustained waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Timbre, Khilesh; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Waterlogging is becoming a critical threat to plants growing in areas prone to flooding. Some plants adapt various morphological and biochemical alterations which are regulated transcriptionally to cope with the situation. A comparative study of waterlogging response in two different varieties of Mentha namely Mentha piperita and Mentha arvensis was performed. M. arvensis showed better response towards waterlogging in comparison to M. piperita. M. arvensis maintained a healthy posture by utilizing its carbohydrate content; also, it showed a flourished vegetative growth under waterlogged condition. Soluble protein, chlorophyll content, relative water content, and nitric oxide scavenging activity were comparatively more salient in M. arvensis during this hypoxia treatment. Lipid peroxidation was less in M. arvensis. M. arvensis also showed vigorous outgrowth of adventitious roots to assist waterlogging tolerance. To further investigate the possible gene transcripts involved in this response, we did cDNA subtraction of waterlogging treated M. piperita and M. arvensis seedlings. cDNA subtraction has identified thirty seven novel putative Expressed Sequence Tags which were further classified functionally. Functional classification revealed that maximum percentage of proteins belonged to hypothetical proteins followed by proteins involved in biosynthesis. Some of the identified ESTs were further quantified for their induced expression in M. arvensis in comparison to M. piperita through quantitative real-time PCR.

  17. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol tolerance in Mentha arvensis L. cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajit K Shasany; Suman P S Khanuja; Sunita Dhawan; Sushil Kumar

    2000-09-01

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in Mentha arvensis. A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated genotypes and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use of this relationship as a selectable biochemical marker opens the practical applicability of large-scale in vitro screening of the germplasm, clones and breeders’ material for selection of elite genotypes.

  18. Carex flava agg. (section Ceratocystis, Cyperaceae in Poland: taxonomy, morphological variation, and soil conditions

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    Więcław Helena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedges of Carex flava agg., typical of moist or wet habitats, are difficult to classify because of a lack of clear-cut morphological differences between them and the existence of numerous hybrids. This monograph presents results of research conducted in 2007-2012 in various parts of Poland. The plant material consisted of 1852 living specimens of Carex flava agg., collected from 80 localities, and dried specimens from 26 herbaria and from 7 private collections. The analysis involved 45 morphological characters (34 quantitative and 11 qualitative and 9 soil parameters. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods were used to process the data. The results confirm the taxonomic classification dividing the C. flava group into 4 species: C. flava s.s., C. lepidocarpa, C. demissa, and C. viridula. This classification is based on (i a high observed level of morphological separation of these taxa, resulting mostly from differences in generative characters, i.e. length of the utricle and its beak, and percentage ratio of beak length to total utricle length; (ii integrity of the taxa at the sites where they coexist, although some intermediate forms resulting from hybridization are also present; (iii habitat preferences of the taxa, especially the preference of C. lepidocarpa for calcareous sites and of C. demissa for slightly acidic soils. Thus in Poland the analysed taxa are morphologically well-defined and show clear ecological preferences. Continuous variation of morphological characters was observed among specimens of C. viridula, so it is not justifiable to distinguish its subspecies (sometimes classified even as separate species, described previously in literature. Consequently, the 2 subgroups of C. viridula were treated as local variants (i.e. varieties: var. viridula and var. pulchella, considering their different habitat requirements. Additionally, 5 hybrids were distinguished within C. flava agg.: C. ×alsatica [= C. demissa

  19. Structure and physical properties of RE2AgGe3 (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumanta; Mumbaraddi, Dundappa; Halappa, Pramod; Kalsi, Deepti; Rayaprol, Sudhindra; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-09-01

    We have synthesized the compounds RE2AgGe3 (RE =Ce, Pr, Nd) by arc melting. The crystal structure obtained from single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction suggests that these compounds crystallize in the α-ThSi2 structure type. The magnetic susceptibility data of Ce2AgGe3 follows Curie-Weiss (CW) law above 25 K without any magnetic ordering down to 2 K. The effective magnetic moment (μeff) was calculated as 2.53 μB/Ce and negative Curie paramagnetic temperature (θp)=-2.4 K hint weak antiferromagnetic coupling among the adjacent spins. Pr2AgGe3 shows a complex magnetic behavior wherein the magnetic susceptibility at field cooled and zero field cooled modes bifurcates at 11.5 K with the latter undergoing a cusp like maxima, probably due to weak ferromagnetic interaction. The θp and μeff obtained are 4 K and 4.33 μB/Pr, respectively. Nd2AgGe3 undergoes multiple magnetic transitions. Temperature dependent resistivity data reveals that three compounds are metallic in nature.

  20. Deep RNA-Seq to unlock the gene bank of floral development in Sinapis arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Mei, Desheng; Li, Yunchang; Huang, Shunmou; Hu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Sinapis arvensis is a weed with strong biological activity. Despite being a problematic annual weed that contaminates agricultural crop yield, it is a valuable alien germplasm resource. It can be utilized for broadening the genetic background of Brassica crops with desirable agricultural traits like resistance to blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans), stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotium) and pod shatter (caused by FRUITFULL gene). However, few genetic studies of S. arvensis were reported because of the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive dataset for S. arvensis for the first time. We used Illumina paired-end sequencing technology to sequence the S. arvensis flower transcriptome and generated 40,981,443 reads that were assembled into 131,278 transcripts. We de novo assembled 96,562 high quality unigenes with an average length of 832 bp. A total of 33,662 full-length ORF complete sequences were identified, and 41,415 unigenes were mapped onto 128 pathways using the KEGG Pathway database. The annotated unigenes were compared against Brassica rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Among these unigenes, 76,324 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, of which 1194 were associated with plant hormone signal transduction and 113 were related to gibberellin homeostasis/signaling. Unigenes that did not match any of those sequence datasets were considered to be unique to S. arvensis. Furthermore, 21,321 simple sequence repeats were found. Our study will enhance the currently available resources for Brassicaceae and will provide a platform for future genomic studies for genetic improvement of Brassica crops. PMID:25192023

  1. Deep RNA-Seq to unlock the gene bank of floral development in Sinapis arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available Sinapis arvensis is a weed with strong biological activity. Despite being a problematic annual weed that contaminates agricultural crop yield, it is a valuable alien germplasm resource. It can be utilized for broadening the genetic background of Brassica crops with desirable agricultural traits like resistance to blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans, stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotium and pod shatter (caused by FRUITFULL gene. However, few genetic studies of S. arvensis were reported because of the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive dataset for S. arvensis for the first time. We used Illumina paired-end sequencing technology to sequence the S. arvensis flower transcriptome and generated 40,981,443 reads that were assembled into 131,278 transcripts. We de novo assembled 96,562 high quality unigenes with an average length of 832 bp. A total of 33,662 full-length ORF complete sequences were identified, and 41,415 unigenes were mapped onto 128 pathways using the KEGG Pathway database. The annotated unigenes were compared against Brassica rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Among these unigenes, 76,324 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, of which 1194 were associated with plant hormone signal transduction and 113 were related to gibberellin homeostasis/signaling. Unigenes that did not match any of those sequence datasets were considered to be unique to S. arvensis. Furthermore, 21,321 simple sequence repeats were found. Our study will enhance the currently available resources for Brassicaceae and will provide a platform for future genomic studies for genetic improvement of Brassica crops.

  2. Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2007-08-08

    Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MENTHA ARVENSIS AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF HUMAN CARIOGENIC PATHOGENS- AN IN-VITRO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Singh et al.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic dental infection are usually treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics was decreasing because increased resistance in bacteria. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of herbal crude extract of Mentha arvensis in human Cariogenic pathogens. In this study we obtained crud extract of Mentha arvensis in different solvent 50% and 10% methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and was tested against human Cariogenic pathogens Streptococcus mutans...

  4. PTF11agg AS THE FIRST EVIDENCE FOR REVERSE SHOCK EMISSION FROM A POST-MERGER MILLISECOND MAGNETAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lingjun; Dai Zigao, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-10

    Based on the stiff equations of state of neutron stars (NS) and the discovery of high-mass NSs, it is highly probable that a NS-NS merger will result in a rapidly rotating massive magnetar. The central magnetar will dissipate its rotational energy to the outflow by injecting Poynting flux, which will become lepton-dominated so that a long-lasting reverse shock (RS) develops. We calculate the emission of the RS as well as the emission of forward shock (FS) and find that, in most cases, the RS emission is stronger than FS emission. It is found that the recently discovered transient, PTF11agg, can be neatly accounted for by the RS emission powered by a millisecond magnetar. Other alternative models have been considered and cannot explain the observed light curves well. We therefore suggest that PTF11agg is the first evidence for RS emission from a post-merger millisecond magnetar.

  5. AggNet: Deep Learning From Crowds for Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Shadi; Baur, Christoph; Achilles, Felix; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    The lack of publicly available ground-truth data has been identified as the major challenge for transferring recent developments in deep learning to the biomedical imaging domain. Though crowdsourcing has enabled annotation of large scale databases for real world images, its application for biomedical purposes requires a deeper understanding and hence, more precise definition of the actual annotation task. The fact that expert tasks are being outsourced to non-expert users may lead to noisy annotations introducing disagreement between users. Despite being a valuable resource for learning annotation models from crowdsourcing, conventional machine-learning methods may have difficulties dealing with noisy annotations during training. In this manuscript, we present a new concept for learning from crowds that handle data aggregation directly as part of the learning process of the convolutional neural network (CNN) via additional crowdsourcing layer (AggNet). Besides, we present an experimental study on learning from crowds designed to answer the following questions. 1) Can deep CNN be trained with data collected from crowdsourcing? 2) How to adapt the CNN to train on multiple types of annotation datasets (ground truth and crowd-based)? 3) How does the choice of annotation and aggregation affect the accuracy? Our experimental setup involved Annot8, a self-implemented web-platform based on Crowdflower API realizing image annotation tasks for a publicly available biomedical image database. Our results give valuable insights into the functionality of deep CNN learning from crowd annotations and prove the necessity of data aggregation integration. PMID:26891484

  6. AggNet: Deep Learning From Crowds for Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Shadi; Baur, Christoph; Achilles, Felix; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    The lack of publicly available ground-truth data has been identified as the major challenge for transferring recent developments in deep learning to the biomedical imaging domain. Though crowdsourcing has enabled annotation of large scale databases for real world images, its application for biomedical purposes requires a deeper understanding and hence, more precise definition of the actual annotation task. The fact that expert tasks are being outsourced to non-expert users may lead to noisy annotations introducing disagreement between users. Despite being a valuable resource for learning annotation models from crowdsourcing, conventional machine-learning methods may have difficulties dealing with noisy annotations during training. In this manuscript, we present a new concept for learning from crowds that handle data aggregation directly as part of the learning process of the convolutional neural network (CNN) via additional crowdsourcing layer (AggNet). Besides, we present an experimental study on learning from crowds designed to answer the following questions. 1) Can deep CNN be trained with data collected from crowdsourcing? 2) How to adapt the CNN to train on multiple types of annotation datasets (ground truth and crowd-based)? 3) How does the choice of annotation and aggregation affect the accuracy? Our experimental setup involved Annot8, a self-implemented web-platform based on Crowdflower API realizing image annotation tasks for a publicly available biomedical image database. Our results give valuable insights into the functionality of deep CNN learning from crowd annotations and prove the necessity of data aggregation integration.

  7. Flower closure in the field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis): a field test of the pollination hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Prokop, Pavol; NEUPAUEROVÁ, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Although the behavioral plasticity of flower traits has received considerable attention, its adaptive value is not thoroughly understood. We experimentally examined flower opening/closure in field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), a species with short flower persistence (1 day) in which adaptive responses to pollination were not previously expected. In line with the pollination hypothesis we suggested that flower exposure in this species should respond to pollination. More specifically, we pre...

  8. [Phenotypic and phytochemical differences between Mentha arvensis L. and Mentha canadiensis L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepova, O V; Voronkova, T V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Semenova, M V; Bidiukova, G F; Olekhnovich, L S

    2014-01-01

    A taxonomic study of anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical characteristics of Mentha arvensis L. and Mentha canadiensis L. using hierarchical cluster analysis has been conducted and the differences between the species studied have been revealed. The ratio between the lengths of the calyx tube and the calyx lobes, the number of secretory glands on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf, and the composition of the essen- tial oil were shown to be the most appropriate parameters for classification.

  9. UV-radiation and the flavonoid content in callus culture of Ononis arvensis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discussed a possible influence on the production of secondary metabolites - the flavonoids, by the method of elicitation in the callus cultures of Ononis arvensis L., the elicitor employed being the UV 254 and 366 nm and the sun-lamp. In some cases there was an increase in the production of flavonoids particularly 60, 120, 240 and 300 s after sun-lamp irradiation and in case of 15 and 30 min irradiation with UV-254 nm

  10. Pb and Cd on growth, leaf ultrastructure and essential oil yield mint (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of medicinal plants with heavy metals as Pb and Cd can affect the growth and the essential oil production of the plants and represent a risk to those who consume as medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absorption and localization of Pb and Cd on growth, ultrastructural aspects of leaves and essential oil yield and composition of Mentha arvensis, applied on the soil with increasing concentrations (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128mg kg-1. There was a differential absorption of Pb and Cd by M. arvensis mainly concentrated in the roots. Pb was found in small amounts in the leaves while Cd largely exceeded the safety limit without symptoms of toxicity. The ultrastructural analysis revealed the metal accumulation on vesicles surrounding the mitochondria and the presence of electron dense deposits surrounding the mitochondria, nucleus and chloroplasts. Little changes caused by Pb and Cd application were not enough to affect the growth and essential oil yield and composition of M. arvensis

  11. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies.

  12. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  13. COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT ON GC-MS ANALYSIS OF MENTHA ARVENSIS L. CORN MINT FROM THREE DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHARMA VIVEK1*, SHARMA NISHA1, SINGH HARBANS 1, SRIVASTAVA K. DEVENDRA1, PATHANIA VIJAYLATA2, SINGH BIKRAM2, GUPTA C. RAGHBIR1

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Mentha arvensis L. (Corn Mint has been done for the first time from three locations of NorthIndia. The extraction yields for the essential oils of three locations of M. arvensis were: 0.38% for sample M-1 collectedfrom Fatehpur (415m, 0.31% for sample M-2 from Dhameta (435m and 0.36% for sample MP from Patiala (250m. Theoils were analyzed by GC-MS, the components of oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectrafragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The majorconstituents reported from essential oils of M. arvensis were: L-Menthone, Menthol, Isomenthone, Eucalyptol, Piperitoneoxide, Carvone, dl-Limonene, trans-Dihydrocarvone, Germacrene-D, etc. from all three samples collected from Punjab andHimachal Pradesh of Northern India.

  14. Leaf extracts from Moricandia arvensis promote antiproliferation of human cancer cells, induce apoptosis, and enhance antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Limem, Ilef; Kilani, Soumaya; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidant activities from leaf extracts of Moricandia arvensis, which are used in traditional cooking and medicines, were investigated. The MTT assay revealed that only TOF (total oligomer flavonoids), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells. Apoptosis plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer by promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells and limiting the concurrent death of normal cells. Thus, the possible effects of M. arvensis extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells (K562 cells) were investigated. The electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation confirms that TOF, Chl, PE, and EA extracts provoke DNA fragmentation. Using the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the antioxidant capacity of M. arvensis extracts was evaluated by the ability of each extract to inhibit malondialdehyde formation. It was revealed that EA and TOF extracts are the most active in scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. PMID:19995267

  15. Mosquitocidal activity of Polygala arvensis Willd against Aedes aegypti (Linn., Anopheles stephensi (Liston. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Deepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of benzene and methanol extract of Polygala arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of selected mosquitoes species were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 ppm and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the P. Arvensis leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to variousconcentrations were tested under laboratory conditions and the hatch rates were assessed 120hrs post treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of benzene and methanol extract of P. arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 h were 75.32, 88.26, 82.46, 58.21, 46.37, 42.68 and 260.48, 275.26, 251.39, 208.45, 189.82 and 130.44 ppm, respectively. It has been noticed that the higher concentrations of P. arvensis extractspossesses strong ovicidal activity at 200 ppm concentration against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, no egg hatchability was recorded. In the same way, methanol extracts showed maximum ovicidal activity followed by benzene extract against selected vector mosquitoes. In repellent activity, among two extracts tested P. arvensis methanol extract had strong repellent action against selected mosquitoes as it provided 100% protection against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus for 280min. From the results it can be concluded the P. arvensis extract was an excellent potential for controlling Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  16. Antibacterial activity of leaves and inter-nodal callus extracts of Mentha arvensis L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnsonM; WeselyEG; KavithaMS; UmaV

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the anti-bacterial efficacy of chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of inter-nodal and leaves derived calli extracts from Mentha arvensis (M. arvensis) against Salmonella typhi(S. typhi), Streptococcus pyogenes(S. pyogenes), Proteus vulgaris(P. vulgaris) and Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis). Methods: The inter-nodal and leaves segments of M. arvensis were cut into 0.5-0.7 cm in length and cultured on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, gelled with 0.7% agar and different concentration of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetie acid (2,4-D) either alone or in combinations. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by Brindha et al method. Antibacterial efficacy was performed by disc diffusion method and incubated for 24 h at 37 ℃. Results: Maximum percentage of callus formation (inter-nodal segments 84.3±0.78;leaves segments 93.8±1.27) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s basal medium supplemented with 3%sucrose and 1.5 mg/L of 2, 4-D. The ethanol extracts of leaves derived calli showed the maximum bio-efficacy than other solvents. The leaves and stem derived calli extracts on Proteus sp. showed that the plants can be used in the treatment of urinary tract infection associated with Proteus sp. Through the bacterial efficacy studies, it is confirmed that the in vitro raised calli tissue was more effective compared to in vivo tissue. Conclusions:The bio-efficacy study confirmed that the calli mediated tissues showed the maximum zone of inhibition. The present study paved a protocol to establish high potential cell lines by in vitro culture.

  17. Pb and Cd on growth, leaf ultrastructure and essential oil yield mint (Mentha arvensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Nery Jezler; Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira; Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida; Raildo Mota de Jesus; Rosilene Aparecida de Oliveira; Delmira da Costa Silva; Larissa Correa do Bomfim Costa

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plants with heavy metals as Pb and Cd can affect the growth and the essential oil production of the plants and represent a risk to those who consume as medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absorption and localization of Pb and Cd on growth, ultrastructural aspects of leaves and essential oil yield and composition of Mentha arvensis, applied on the soil with increasing concentrations (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128mg kg-1). There was a differential absorption...

  18. Distribution of Pathogenic Genes aatA, aap, aggR, among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Their Linkage with StbA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A; Mirinargasi, M; Merikhi, N; Sharifi, S H

    2011-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) with E. coli (UPEC) is one of the most common bacterial infections among human beings. In addition to the host predisposing factors, genes are also proposed to have an important role in the occurrence of UTIs. This study investigated the distribution of three pathogenic genes including aggR, aap and aatA among UPEC infected samples and their linkage with stbA, the essential gene for maintaining of pAA plasmid. A total of 244 samples were collected from patients with UTIs through clinical laboratories located in western side of Tehran (Iran) during years 2008-2009. E. coli isolation was performed according to standard laboratory methods. DNAs were extracted from samples using Boiling method, and the presence of aap, aggR, aatA and stbA genes were investigated by PCR. No pathogenic genes (aap, aggR, aatA) were found in 104 out of 244 UPEC samples, while 14 of them were carrying stbA gene. Out of 140 UPEC samples with pathogenic genes, 94 (46.6%) were carrying aap gene, 52 (23%) aggR gene, and 80 (35.4%) aatA gene. A total of 18 samples were also carrying all pathogenic genes together. Moreover, 44 out of 144 samples were carrying stbA gene. The results obtained by this study showed that the aggR, aap and aatA pathogenic genes have different existence patterns in different E. coli strains that infect different organs. Our study also showed that these three plasmid genes in EAEC strains are able to transpose in the genome and change their level of linkage with pAA plasmid essential gene stbA. Meanwhile, this study confirmed that aggR, aap and aatA genes are not specific to only EAEC strains.

  19. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nripendra Nath Biswas; Subarna Saha; Mohammed Khadem Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extract. In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing test in Swiss albino mice. All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Antibacterial activity was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cytotoxicity effects of the plant extract. Results:The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (IC50~41 µg/mL) compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (IC50~19 µg/mL). The extract also produced prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella boydii,Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the dose of 30 µg/disc. The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50 values of 40 µg/mL, and also 90% mortality (LC90) value was found to be 160 µg/mL. In analgesic test, the extract demonstrated statistically significant (P Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  20. Moricandia arvensis extracts protect against DNA damage, mutagenesis in bacteria system and scavenge the superoxide anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Kilani, Soumaya; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira-Chekir, Leila

    2009-02-01

    The mutagenic potential of total aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), petroleum ether (PE) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from aerial parts of Moricandia arvensis was assessed using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA100 and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9), and using plasmid pBluescript DNA assay. None of the different extracts produced a mutagenic effect, except aqueous extract when incubated with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 after metabolic activation. Likewise, the antimutagenicity of the same extracts was tested using the "Ames test". Our results showed that M. arvensis extracts possess antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA) in the two tested Salmonella assay systems, except metabolized aqueous and PE extracts when tested with S. typhimurium TA100 assay system. Different extracts were also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals, except PE and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) (X/XOD) and the non enzymatic (NBT/Riboflavine assay) systems. TOF extract was the more effective one in inhibiting both xanthine oxidase activity and NBT reduction. PMID:19015021

  1. Antioxidant Potential Fractionation from Methanol Extract of Aerial Parts of Convolvulus arvensis Linn. (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Thakral

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Convolvulus arvensis were subjected to extraction and further fractionation to obtain antioxidant rich fraction. Different concentrations of methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were subjected to antioxidant assay by DPPH method, nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The fractions showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models. IC50 values for methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were found to be 131.03 ± 2.46 and 43.21 ± 4.45 respectively in comparison to L-Ascorbic acid and Rutin as standard with IC50 values of 6.537 ± 0.235 and 5.437 ± 0.206 respectively in DPPH model. In nitric oxide scavenging activity the IC50 values were found to be 130.12 ± 2.46 and 57.5 ± 4.45, 21.06 ± 0.953 and 29.93 ± 0.324 for methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction, L-Ascorbic acid and Rutin respectively. The fractions showed good reducing power with increasing concentration. However, the ethyl acetate fraction showed a good reducing power and better free radical scavenging activity as compared to methanolic extract thus its antioxidant potential is comparable to standards. HPTLC analysis of ethyl acetate fraction confirms the presence of flavonoids which are responsible for the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on antioxidant activity of C. arvensis.

  2. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jugulam

    Full Text Available Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18 and B. napus (2n = 38 were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH. This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  3. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  4. Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

  5. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Landesmann

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb. We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MENTHA ARVENSIS AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF HUMAN CARIOGENIC PATHOGENS- AN IN-VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Singh et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic dental infection are usually treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics was decreasing because increased resistance in bacteria. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of herbal crude extract of Mentha arvensis in human Cariogenic pathogens. In this study we obtained crud extract of Mentha arvensis in different solvent 50% and 10% methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and was tested against human Cariogenic pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sangunis, Staphylococcus aurues, Lactobacillus casei were isolated from patients having dental disease. The crude extracts activity were studied by disc diffusion and both dilution methods in different concentration. Studies were also undertaken to assess the phytochemical composition of the Mentha arvensis extract. 50% methanolic extract at 2.5mg/ml and 5mg/ml concentration shows slightly bigher zone of inhibition (ranging from 26 to 30 mm and 28 to 32 mm, and 10% methanolic 2.5mg/ml and 5mg/ml extract shows slightly small zone (ranging from 20 to 24 mm and 22 to 27 mm and comparison with ethyl acetate and chloroform shows small zone at 5mg/ml ranging from 15 to 18 mm and 13 to 17 mm and in 2.5gm/ml ranging from 14 to 15mm and 09 to 16 mm or to be moderately sensitive. MIC results exhibit the profound and promising activity of Mentha arvensis on BHI 0.090 mg/ml. The secondary metabolites commonly present in the test leaves are Alkaloids, Tannins, Flavonols, Steroids, Xantones and glycosides, The GCMS analysis of revealed, the presence of Eucalyptol, Isomethone, Linalool, methnol, 4-Terpineol, OleicAcid, Tetradecanoic acid, 12-methyl-, methyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid, (Palmitic acid methyl ester. These data suggest that extracts of Mentha arvensis contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties which could serve antimicrobial property of the Mentha arvensis and it is exploited as a potential source for plant

  7. ANTI – INFLAMMATORY AND SEDATIVE – HYPNOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF MENTHA ARVENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, S. M.; Arora, H.; R. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    Mentha arvensis Linn, a plant used as traditional medicine and in perfumery, has now been explored for its pharmacological activities as an anti-inflammatory and also as sedativehypnotic plant drug. The methanolic extract of the leaves after being processed, was taken for the pharmacological study. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, the activity was compared to that of a standard anti-inflammatory drug – nimesulide and the percent inhibition of oedema determin...

  8. Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties, and Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight Analysis of Sonchus arvensis Leaves Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonchus arvensis L. (Asteraceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used in traditional medicines, in which the leaf extract was used as a diuretic, lithotriptic and antiurolithiasis agent. The leaves of S. arvensis reported contain several compounds, including a variety of flavonoids, terpenoids and sterol, even this plant also contain silica and potassium. Flavonoids are secondary metabolite compound which have ability as antioxidant. In this study, the aims are to determine of antioxidants and antiangiogenic properties, and phytoconstituents quantitative of aqueous and methanol extracts of S. arvensis leaves. The antioxidant properties were studied using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, xanthine oxidase and beta-carotene-linoleate models system. Furthermore, the antiangiogenic property was evaluated using ex vivo rat aorta ring assay. Quantitative determination of extracts phytoconstituents were carried out by using Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts have ability as antioxidant which is antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts on DPPH radical and inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity are higher than that of methanol extracts. Meanwhile antioxidant activity using beta-carotene-linoleate model system of S. arvensis aqueous extract is lower than that of methanol extracts. Nevertheless, the differences of these antioxidant activities are not significant. Antiangiogenic property of aqueous extract is also higher than that of methanol extract which is measured at 100 meu g mL/sup -1/ of extracts. This indicates that there is correlation between antioxidant activity and antiangigenic property, exhibiting that this plant possesses the potential to prevent or cure the diseases that related to angiogenesis such as cancer. (author)

  9. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Manikandan, R.; S. V. Sahi; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased ...

  10. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae) against oral pathogens=Estudo in vitro do efeito antimicrobiano dos extratos hidroalcólicos de Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae) contra patógenos orais

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Antonio Freitag; Gladis Aver Ribeiro; Patrícia da Silva Nascente; Rosana Serpa; Rafael Guerra Lund; Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pino

    2012-01-01

    In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods) were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hy...

  11. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  12. The Effect of Convolvulus arvensis Dried Extract as a Potential Antioxidant in Food Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR. The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP (80% O2 and 20% CO2 was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant.

  13. Isolation, characterization, sequencing and crystal structure of charybdin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Charybdis maritima agg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Gessmann, Renate; Kavelaki, Kalliopi; Christofakis, Emmanuil; Petratos, Kyriacos; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F

    2006-06-01

    A novel, type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein designated charybdin was isolated from bulbs of Charybdis maritima agg. The protein, consisting of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 29 kDa, inhibited translation in rabbit reticulocytes with an IC50 of 27.2 nm. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the bulb was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequence of the protein from dissolved crystals. The complete mature protein sequence was derived by partial DNA sequencing and terminal protein sequencing, and was confirmed by high-resolution crystal structure analysis. The protein contains Val at position 79 instead of the conserved Tyr residue of the ribosome-inactivating proteins known to date. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of a natural substitution of a catalytic residue at the active site of a natural ribosome-inactivating protein. This substitution in the active site may be responsible for the relatively low in vitro translation inhibitory effect compared with other ribosome-inactivating proteins. Single crystals were grown in the cold room from PEG6000 solutions. Diffraction data collected to 1.6 A resolution were used to determine the protein structure by the molecular replacement method. The fold of the protein comprises two structural domains: an alpha + beta N-terminal domain (residues 4-190) and a mainly alpha-helical C-terminal domain (residues 191-257). The active site is located in the interface between the two domains and comprises residues Val79, Tyr117, Glu167 and Arg170.

  14. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae against oral pathogens=Estudo in vitro do efeito antimicrobiano dos extratos hidroalcólicos de Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae contra patógenos orais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antonio Freitag

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis did not show any antibacterial effect, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was revealed. According to the micro-dilution broth assay, MIC of the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of M. arvensis on Candida albicans strains ranged between 625 and 2500 g mL-1. Results suggest that M. arvensis hydroalcoholic extract may be considered a potentially antifungal agent against C. albicans, and a possible item for human antibiotic therapy. However, further biological tests on the plant’s efficacy and side-effects are necessary before its use on humans. Testes in vitro podem ser uma ferramenta valiosa para a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de plantas medicinais. Mentha arvensis é uma das plantas medicinais brasileiras mais frequentemente utilizadas e pertence à família Lamiaceae. No presente estudo, extratos hidroalcólicos de M. arvensis foram analisados quanto à sua atividade antimicrobiana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus e Candida albicans. Três diferentes ensaios (métodos de difusão em ágar, macro e microdiluição em caldo foram utilizados para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana. Embora os extratos hidroalcólicos de M. arvensis não demonstraram qualquer efeito antibacteriano, eles apresentaram atividade antifúngica contra C. albicans. Baseado no ensaio de microdiluição em caldo, a CIM do extrato hidroalcólico das folhas de M. arvensis sobre cepas de C. albicans

  15. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  16. Allelopathic effect of scarlet pimpernel (anagallis arvensis) on seed germination and radical elongation of mung bean and pearl millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The green house based experiments were conducted in the Department of Botany FUUAST, Karachi to study the allelopathic effects of root and shoot leachates of Anagallis arvensis on the two test species viz., bajra and mungbean. The percentage of seed germination, speed of germination and radical elongation of the test species were recorded after 10 days. Both leachates have no effect on seed germination and speed of germination of the test species. Radical elongation of two test species showed different response. Mung radical growth was significantly reduced while bajra radical growth was significantly enhanced by the root leachate of weed. (author)

  17. Production and characterization of an alloplasmic and monosomic addition line of Brassica rapa carrying the cytoplasm and one chromosome of Moricandia arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsui, Kota; Jeong, Bum Hee; Ito, Yukiko; Bang, Sang Woo; Kaneko, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Intergeneric hybridization was performed between Moricandia arvensis and four inbred lines of Brassica rapa following embryo rescue. Three F1 hybrid plants were developed from three cross combinations of M. arvensis × B. rapa, and amphidiploids were synthesized by colchicine treatment. Six BC1 plants were generated from a single cross combination of amphidipolid × B. rapa ‘Ko1-303’ through embryo rescue. One BC2 and three BC3 plants were obtained from successive backcrossing with B. rapa ‘Ko1...

  18. Migration of the Skylark Alauda arvensis Along the Southern French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Mourguiart

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mist-nettings of Eurasian skylarks (Alauda arvensis were conducted throughout the day near the coastline in south-western France during the fall migratory period. The main objective of this work was to document some aspects of body condition (mass and fat stores in skylarks. Between 1997 and 2004, a total of 8903 birds were captured in October-November. The median capture dates of fall migrations for females and males were October 24 and October 26, respectively. About 58.4% and 34.0% of birds were females and males respectively, the remaining 7.6% corresponding to unsexed birds. Skylarks arrived to our study site with low fat stores, 42% of the individuals showing no visible fat deposits. Rates of mass changes were found to be positively related to the time of day: individuals captured during the night before 07:00 were 3-4% heavier than individuals captured during daylight between 07:00 and 20:00. On the daytime, the average rate of body mass gain was about 5% for both sexes, suggesting that migratory birds were not only able to gain energy for their regular metabolism, but they were also able to store fat for migration. According to allometric equations to estimate the energetic cost of flight, flight ranges for the majority of birds were estimated to be less than 180 - 240 km for females and lower than 160 - 220 for males. As migratory stopover sites are used for refuelling by many migrant land birds, our data suggest that most of the skylarks might exhibit a « feed-by-day, fly-by night » strategy in our region, highlighting the need for preserving stopover sites, such as those encountered in south-western France, for successful migration. Considering that many migrant birds such as skylarks feed heavily on seeds, changes in agricultural practices might affect survival capabilities of skylarks during their fall migration and in winter.

  19. [Chemical composition and microstructural peculiarities of overground and underground vegetative organs of field restharrow (Ononis arvensis L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichinava, M B; Mchelidze, K Z; Churadze, M V; Alaniia, M D; Aneli, Dzh N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of the study of anatomy and chemical composition of Field Restharrow (Ononis arvensis L.). The existence of triterpene alcohol α-onocerin and isoflavons in the overground organs of the plant is established by chemical analysis. Oxycumarines - scopoletin and scopolin are isolated and identified. Morphological characterization of the whole plant is given. Anatomy of the vegetative organs of the species is examined. Among the main microstructural characteristics multilayer integumentary tissues, active periderm and sclerenchyma cells were specified in roots; and complex radial rays and structural units of wood, located radially, were observed in the central cylinder. Shoots are characterized with intensive pubescence. Mechanical tissues of different structures exist in the parenchime of crust and central cylinder of shoots. Vessels with spiral and spiro-annular thickened walls are located in the libriforms of wood. Leaves of Ononis arvensis are bifacial, mesophile is of dorsiventral structure; central conductive bunch is complex-collateral. Basal cells of upper and lower epidermis belong to of bent-walled type, where paracytal and anisocytal cells of stomatal apparatus are scattered chaotically. PMID:25020180

  20. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  1. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  2. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manikandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  3. Haemosporidian infections in skylarks (Alauda arvensis) : a comparative PCR-based and microscopy study on the parasite diversity and prevalence in southern Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Krizanauskiene, Asta; Scebba, Sergio; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Valkiunas, Gediminas; Hegemann, Arne; Tieleman, B. Irene; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    Changes in agricultural management have been identified as the most probable cause for the decline of Skylark (Alauda arvensis) populations in Europe. However, parasitic infections have not been considered as a possible factor influencing this process. Four hundred and thirty-four Skylarks from the

  4. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  5. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae) against oral pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8959

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pino; Gladis Aver Ribeiro; Rogério Antonio Freitag; Patrícia da Silva Nascente; Rosana Serpa; Rafael Guerra Lund

    2012-01-01

    In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods) were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hy...

  6. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) control in potato by pre- or post-emergence applied flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Vasilakoglou; Kico Dhima; Konstantinos Paschalidis; Thomas Gatsis; Konstantinos Zacharis; Miltos Galanis

    2013-01-01

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is one of the most serious weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), but selective herbicides controlling this weed have not been reported. A field experiment was conducted in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Greece to study the efficacy of herbicides flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron, applied pre- or post-emergence, on field bindweed and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), as well as their phytotoxicity on potato. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography ...

  7. Tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação vegetativa da menta (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T.R Amaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa da menta utilizando diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos. O experimento foi conduzido no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Unimontes, campus Janaúba - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (dois tipos de estacas e quatro diferentes substratos com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela representada por seis estacas. Foram analisadas as variáveis comprimento de parte aérea e de raízes, massa seca de parte aérea e de raízes e número total de brotações formadas por planta. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. A interação entre os fatores estacas e substratos não foi significativa para as variáveis estudadas, passando-se a estudar o efeito isolado de cada fator. A propagação de Mentha arvensis L. pode ser realizada tanto por estacas apicais como medianas, utilizando o substrato solo + areia + esterco bovino (2:1:1 para a produção de mudas de qualidade.

  8. 苣荬菜化学成分的研究%Study on Chemical Constituents of Sonchus arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雷; 姚庆强; 解砚英

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究苣荬菜(Sonchus arvensis L.)的化学成分,为阐明其有效成分打下基础.方法 采用硅胶、聚酰胺和Sephadex LH-20柱等分离,用光谱学方法鉴定化合物的结构.结果 分离得8种化合物,鉴定了其结构,分别为棕榈酸(Palmitic acid,Ⅰ)、β-谷甾醇(β-Sito sterol,Ⅱ)、胡萝卜苷(dauco sterol,Ⅲ)、槲皮素(quercetin,Ⅳ)、芹菜素-7-O- β-D-葡糖苷(apigenin-7-O- β-D-glucopyranoside,Ⅴ)、木犀草素-7-O- β-D-葡糖苷(luteolin-7-O- β-D-glucopyranoside,Ⅵ)、槲皮素-3-O- β-D-葡糖苷(quercetin-3-O- β-D-glucopyranoside Ⅶ)、芦丁(rutin,Ⅷ).结论 化合物Ⅰ、Ⅶ、Ⅷ系首次从苣荬菜中分得.

  9. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae against oral pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis did not show any antibacterial effect, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was revealed. According to the micro-dilution broth assay, MIC of the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of M. arvensis on Candida albicans strains ranged between 625 and 2500 mg mL-1. Results suggest that M. arvensis hydroalcoholic extract may be considered a potentially antifungal agent against C. albicans, and a possible item for human antibiotic therapy.  However, further biological tests on the plant’s efficacy and side-effects are necessary before its use on humans.  

  10. Reconstructed structures of nanosized co islands on Ag/Ge(111) mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Sung-Lin; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2008-02-01

    Structural evolution of Co/Ag/Ge(111) at high temperatures was studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction. The mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3-Ag layer between the substrate Ge( 11) and Co adatoms can avoid the formation of Co-Ge compounds below 800 K. The Co atoms nucleate to form islands where mean square root of 13 x mean square root of 13 or 2 x 2 reconstructions were observed after annealing between 373 K and 737 K. The mean square root of 13 x mean square root of 13 structure with mirror symmetry relative to [-211], [11-2], and [1-21] axes was observed for 1-2 layer Co islands. Co islands with over 2 layers appear 2 x 2 structure. All reconstruction structures of the nano-sized Co islands and substrate Ag/Ge(111) mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3 surface were analyzed using the atomic hard sphere model. The bright protrusions of these reconstructions all sit in the centers of Ag or Ge trimers, which were predicted to have maximum binding energy.

  11. Rapid detection of aggR gene in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli by TaqMan-MGB fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction%TaqMan-MGB荧光定量聚合酶链反应快速检测肠聚集性大肠埃希菌aggR基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹戈; 黄世旺; 李剑; 卢亦愚; 方叶珍; 倪志敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a TaqMan-MGB fluorescence quantitative PCR method for rapid detection of aggR gene in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC).Methods Primers and probes at final concentrations of 0.16,0.24,0.32,0.40,0.48 and 0.56 μmol/L were selected to detemine the optimal concentration by matrix method.According to EAEC aggR gene sequence in GenBank,the primer and TaqManMGB probe were designed in the conserved region,and fluorescence quantitative PCR system and reaction conditions were also optimized.The specificity,sensitivity and reproducibility of this method were verified.Results Primer and probe at final concentrations of 0.48 μmol/L and 0.24 μmol/L respectively were selected for the method obtaining minimum ct value and maximum △Rn value.The optimal annealing temperature for the reaction system was 59.0 ℃.This method was highly specific for EAEC aggR genetic test and had no crossreaction with enteropathogenic E.coli,enterotoxingenic E.coli,enteroinvasive E.coli,enterohaemorrhagic E.coli,E.coli,Y.enterocolitica,S.paratyphi,S.typhimurium,S.flexneri,S.sonnei,L.monocytogenes,P.aeruginosa,P.mirabilis,B.cereus,S.aureus and V.parahaemolyticus.This method had high sensitivity and good reproducibility,with the detection limit of 6.5 ×100 copies/μL (or 13 copies/reaction system).The whole operation took only 2h.Conclusions The TaqMan-MGB fluorescence quantitative PCR assay is a quick,sensitive and specific method for rapid detection of EAEC cases and emergency diagnosis of food poisoning.%目的 建立特异、灵敏、高效的TaqMan-MGB荧光定量PCR方法用于快速检测肠聚集性大肠埃希菌(EAEC)aggR基因.方法 试验选用0.16、0.24、0.32、0.40、0.48和0.56 μmol/L引物和探针终浓度,采用矩阵法优选引物和探针的最佳浓度.根据GenBank上公布的EAEC特异基因aggR序列,在其保守区域设计引物与TaqMan-MGB探针,并对荧光定量PCR体系与反应条件进行优化,同时验证方法的特异度

  12. Pharmacological properties of Anagallis arvensis L. ("scarlet pimpernel") and Anagallis foemina Mill. ("blue pimpernel") traditionally used as wound healing remedies in Navarra (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Akerreta, Silvia;

    2011-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: : Anagallis arvensis and Anagallis foemina are traditionally used in Navarra (Spain) for dermatological purposes regarding wound healing properties. In some cases they are also used to threat internal infections although they are known to be toxic at high doses. AIM...... OF STUDY: : Due to lack of studies, we decided to evaluate the potential of the plants as wound healing remedies measuring antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties using in vitro procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial effects were studied against four bacteria and one fungus. Anti...

  13. Nonadaptive processes governing early stages of polyploid evolution: Insights from a primary contact zone of relict serpentine Knautia arvensis (Caprifoliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzl, Martin; Kolář, Filip; Nováková, Dora; Suda, Jan

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Contact zones between polyploids and their diploid progenitors may provide important insights into the mechanisms of sympatric speciation and local adaptation. However, most published studies investigated secondary contact zones where the effects of genome duplication can be confounded by previous independent evolution of currently sympatric cytotypes. We compared genetically close diploid and autotetraploid serpentine cytotypes of Knautia arvensis (Caprifoliaceae) in a primary contact zone and evaluated the role of adaptive and nonadaptive processes for cytotype coexistence.• Methods: DNA flow cytometry was used to determine ploidy distribution at various spatial scales (from across the entire contact zone to microgeographic). Habitat preferences of diploids and polyploids were assessed by comparing vegetation composition of nearby ploidy-uniform sites and by recording plant species immediately surrounding both cytotypes in mixed-ploidy plots.• Key results: Tetraploids considerably outnumbered their diploid progenitors in the contact zone. Both cytotypes were segregated at all investigated spatial scales. This pattern was not driven by ecological shifts, because both diploids and tetraploids inhabited sites with nearly identical vegetation cover. Certain interploidy niche differentiation was indicated only at the smallest spatial scale; ecologically nonadaptive processes were most likely responsible for this difference.• Conclusions: We conclude that a shift in ecological preferences (i.e., the adaptive scenario) is not necessary for the establishment and evolutionary success of autopolyploid derivatives in primary contact zones. Spatial segregation that would support ploidy coexistence can also be achieved by ecologically nonadaptive processes, including the founder effect, limited dispersal ability, intense clonal growth, and triploid block. PMID:24920762

  14. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits. PMID:26304428

  15. Assessment of phenolic content, free-radical-scavenging capacity genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effect of aqueous extract prepared from Moricandia arvensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandrani, I; Limem, I; Neffati, A; Boubaker, J; Ben Sghaier, M; Bhouri, W; Bouhlel, I; Kilani, S; Ghedira, K; Chekir-Ghedira, L

    2010-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide a set of data on the safety of an aqueous extract (AQE) from Moricandia arvensis. For this reason, Escherichia coli tested strains PQ35 and PQ37 were used to detect induction of DNA lesions by AQE. The SOS Chromotest showed that AQE induced a marginally genotoxic effect, as expressed by the induction factor (IF) value only with E. coli PQ37 tested strain (IF=1.77 at a dose of 250 microg/assay). The measurement of the anti-genotoxic activity of the AQE was also studied by inhibition of beta-galactosidase induction. A significant anti-genotoxic effect was observed with different tested doses of AQE, which suggests that M. arvensis extract has the potential to protect DNA from the action of nitrofurantoïn (NF) and free radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, AQE showed a free-radical-scavenging capacity towards ABTS+* and DPPH*. Total phenolic content was also evaluated following Folin-Ciocalteu method and results indicated high correlation between total phenol content and anti-genotoxic and antioxidant activities for AQE, but the highest correlation was showed with its capacity to stabilize ABTS+* (R2=0.9944). PMID:19951736

  16. Influence of the leaf extract of mentha arvensis linn. (Mint) on the survival of mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Baliga, M.S. [Kasturba Medical Coll., Manipal (India). Dept. of Radiobiology

    2002-02-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. Material and Methods: The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied in mice exposed to 10 Gy gamma radiation. Results: The 10 mg/kg of mint extract was found to afford best protection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors in this group at 30 days post-irradiation, and further experiments were carried out using this dose of mint extract. The mice treated with 10 mg/kg body weight mint extract or oil were exposed to 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 Gy of gamma radiation and observed for the induction of radiation-sickness and mortality up to 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract pretreatment was found to reduce the severity of symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality at all exposure doses and a significant increase in the animal survival was observed when compared with the oil + irradiation group. All of the animals that were treated with 10 mg/kg mint extract and then exposed to 7 Gy irradiation were protected against the radiation-induced mortality when compared with the concurrent oil + irradiation group, in which 20% animals died by 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract treatment protected the mice against the gastrointestinal death as well as bone marrow deaths. The DRF was found to be 1.2. The drug was non-toxic up to a dose of 1 000 mg/kg body weight, the highest drug dose that could be tested for acute toxicity. Conclusion: From our study it is clear that mint extract provides protection against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality and the optimum protective dose of 10 mg/kg is safe from the point of drug-induced toxicity. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, den radioprotektiven Effekt von Mentha arvensis (Minze

  17. Allelopathic effects of water extracts of Sorghum halepense (L. Pers., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Cirsium arvense Scop. on early seedling growth of some leguminous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Golubinova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the allelopathic effect of aboveground dry biomass of Sorghum halepense, Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense on seed germination and early seedling growth of Pisum sativum (L., varieties Mir (winter form and Kerpo (spring form; Vicia sativa (L., variety Tempo, and Medicago sativa (L., variety Dara, a laboratory experiment was conducted at the Institute of Forage Crops - Pleven. Four concentrations: 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% were applied to each weed biotype used to study allelopathic effects. The results showed that weed extracts significantly decreased germination percentage, shoot and root length (cm, shoot and root weight (g, and seed vigor index (SVI1 and SVI2 of the tested species. In general, the variable effects are related to the weed species and extract concentrations.

  18. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

  19. Modelling skylarks (Alauda arvensis) to predict impacts of changes in land management and policy: development and testing of an agent-based model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Odderskær, Peter; Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard

    2013-01-01

    formal description inter-linked to the program code). Detailed and stringent tests for model performance were carried out, and standardised model description and open access to the source code were provided to open development of the skylark model to others. Over and above documenting the utility......Agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. However, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication...... of the models. We present the development and testing of a comprehensive model for Skylark (Alauda arvensis) in Danish agricultural landscapes. The model is part of the ALMaSS system, which considers not only individual skylarks, but also the detailed dynamic environment from which they obtain the information...

  20. UN MÉTODO PARA LA DESINFECCIÓN Y EL ESTABLECIMIENTO In Vitro DE LA MENTA JAPONESA (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Héctor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Mentha constituye una importante fuente de materia prima para varias industrias como la perfumería, cosmética, licorería y farmacéutica. En el estado de Chihuahua, México, se han introducido en los últimos años varias especies de este género con propósitos comerciales, y se ha empleado con relativo éxito la propagación in vitro en la multiplicación masiva de una de ellas. La ocurrencia de contaminaciones endógenas ha sido un problema para el establecimiento in vitro de esta y otras especies comerciales. En este trabajo se presenta un método para la desinfección y el establecimiento in vitro de explantes de Mentha arvensis L., después de una previa detección de dos géneros de bacterias (Streptobacillus y Enterobacter presentes en abundancia en los explantes de esta especie. El método se basa en la combinación del empleo de cloranfenicol en un tratamiento previo a la implantación y como constituyente del medio de cultivo, y permitió la obtención de un 65 % de explantes libres de microorganismos. Se discuten las causas de la presencia de contaminación en los explantes de M. arvensis L. y se recomienda el método para su aplicación en otras especies de Mentha.

  1. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil. PMID:19763744

  2. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L. Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56% of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69% by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P<0.01. The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain.

  3. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. control in potato by pre- or post-emergence applied flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Vasilakoglou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. is one of the most serious weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., but selective herbicides controlling this weed have not been reported. A field experiment was conducted in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Greece to study the efficacy of herbicides flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron, applied pre- or post-emergence, on field bindweed and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., as well as their phytotoxicity on potato. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were conducted for possible herbicide residues in potato tubers. Also, the efficacy of these herbicides on field bindweed generated from root fragments was investigated in greenhouse pot experiments. In pots, both herbicides provided 78% to 100% control of field bindweed generated from root fragments. In field, both herbicides when applied pre-emergence at 72 to 144 g ai ha-1 provided 65% to 100% field bindweed control. However, the corresponding post-emergence applications did not provide satisfactory weed control. All treatments provided excellent control of redroot pigweed. Potato growth was not significantly affected by herbicide application in 2010. However, in 2011, post-emergence applications of flumioxazin caused significant crop injury and yield reduction. The results of this study indicate that satisfactory control of field bindweed and redroot pigweed, as well as high potato yield can be obtained by the pre-emergence application of flumioxazin or sulfosulfuron at 72 to 144 g ai ha-1, without herbicide residues on potato tubers.

  4. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, Pankyamma; Binsi, Puthanpurakkal Kizhakkathil; Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Bindu, Jaganath; Ravishankar, Chandragiri Nagarajarao; Srinivasa Gopal, Teralandur Krishnaswamy

    2015-10-01

    Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts in retarding the quality changes in Indian mackerel during chilled storage was investigated. Mint leaf extract showed higher quantity of phenolics and superior in-vitro antioxidant activities than citrus peel extract. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in mint extract (0.5 %, w/v) and citrus extract (1 % w/v), packed in LDPE pouches and stored at 0-2 °C. The biochemical quality indices viz. total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free fattyacids (FFA) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in mint extract (ME) treated fishes compared to citrus extract (CE) treated and control fishes (C) without any treatment. Plant extract treatment significantly inhibited lipid oxidation in mackerel as indicated by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aerobic plate count (APC) was markedly higher in C group followed by CE group throughout the storage period. As per sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel was determined to be 11-13 days for C group, 13-15 days for CE group and 16-17 days for ME group, during storage at 0-2 °C. PMID:26396373

  5. Essential Oil Composition of Menthol Mint (Mentha arvensis and Peppermint (Mentha piperita Cultivars at Different Stages of Plant Growth from Kumaon Region of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L. and peppermint (M. piperita L. cultivars grown in Kumaon region were evaluated for essential oil content and composition at different stages of crop growth. In men­thol mint cultivars viz., ‘Kosi’, ‘Saksham’, ‘Himalaya’, and ‘Kalka’, the essential oil content was found to vary from 0.3% - 1.2%, 0.42% - 1.1%, 0.38% - 1.0% and 0.26% - 1.2%, at different days after transplanting (DAT respectively, while in cultivars ‘Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’ of peppermint, it varied from 0.28% - 0.6%, 0.19% - 0.55% and 0.17% - 0.37%, respectively at different DAT. The menthol content in all the menthol mint cultivars reached higher values at 120 and 150 DAT. In case of peppermint cultivars viz., Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’, menthol content varied from 32.92% - 39.65%, 34.29% - 42.83% and 22.56% - 32.77%, respectively during the crop growth.

  6. Essential Oil Composition of Menthol Mint (Mentha arvensis) and Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Cultivars at Different Stages of Plant Growth from Kumaon Region of Western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, R S; Rahman, L.; Verma, R. K.; Chauhan, A.; A K Yadav; A Singh

    2010-01-01

    Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and peppermint (M. piperita L.) cultivars grown in Kumaon region were evaluated for essential oil content and composition at different stages of crop growth. In men­thol mint cultivars viz., ‘Kosi’, ‘Saksham’, ‘Himalaya’, and ‘Kalka’, the essential oil content was found to vary from 0.3% - 1.2%, 0.42% - 1.1%, 0.38% - 1.0% and 0.26% - 1.2%, at different days after transplanting (DAT) respectively, while in cultivars ‘Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’ of...

  7. Influência do manejo de poda no crescimento, produção de biomassa e teor de óleo essencial de Mentha arvensis e Mentha suaviolens em sistema agroflorestal

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Jonai; Souza, R. Edenilson; Paulus, Dalva; Devens, Gilmarise

    2015-01-01

    Mentha arvensis e Mentha suaveolens são plantas medicinais muito apreciadas por suas características farmacêuticas, cosméticas e alimentícias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a melhor época de poda, produção e teor de óleo essencial de menta em sistema agroflorestal. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na propriedade de um agricultor no município de Dois Vizinhos no estado do Paraná, Brasil, no período de fevereiro a novembro de 2014. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao aca...

  8. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner.

  9. Modelling Skylarks (Alauda arvensis to predict impacts of changes in land management and policy: development and testing of an agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Topping

    Full Text Available Agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. However, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication of the models. We present the development and testing of a comprehensive model for Skylark (Alauda arvensis in Danish agricultural landscapes. The model is part of the ALMaSS system, which considers not only individual skylarks, but also the detailed dynamic environment from which they obtain the information necessary to simulate their behaviour. Population responses emerge from individuals interacting with each other and the environment. Model development and testing was carried out using pattern-oriented modelling. The testing procedure was based on the model's ability to represent detailed real world patterns of distribution and density, reproductive performance and seasonal changes in territory numbers. Data to support this was collected over a 13-year period and comprised detailed field observations of breeding birds and intensive surveys. The model was able to recreate the real world data patterns accurately; it was also able to simultaneously fit a number of other secondary system properties which were not formally a part of the testing procedure. The correspondence of model output to real world data and sensitivity analysis are presented and discussed, and the model's description is provided in ODdox format (a formal description inter-linked to the program code. Detailed and stringent tests for model performance were carried out, and standardised model description and open access to the source code were provided to open development of the skylark model to others. Over and above documenting the utility of the model, this open process is essential to engender the user trust and ensure continued development of these comprehensive systems for applied

  10. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  11. Studies on Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Mentha arvensis Oil of Yunnan%云南薄荷精油的化学成分及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露; 谢文申

    2011-01-01

    采用GC/MS法对云南薄荷精油挥发性成分进行鉴定,检测出49个成分,鉴定了其中44个成分.薄荷精油主要化学成分为薄荷醇、薄荷酮、苧烯、1,8-桉叶素、胡椒酮、大根香叶烯D、乙酸薄荷酯等.试验研究了薄荷精油对大肠杆菌、金黄葡萄球菌、烟曲霉菌、白念珠菌的抗菌活性.结果显示精油对大肠杆菌、金黄葡萄球菌、白念珠菌有明显的抗菌活性.%The chemical constituents of the Mentha arvensis oil of Yunnan were studied by GC/MS method in this paper. 49 Constituents were isolated, 44 constituents were identified. They are menthol, menthone, limonene, 1,8-cineole, piperitone, germacrene-D and menthyl acetate, etc. The study on the antimicrobial activity of the Mentha arvensis essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans were also conducted. The results show that the oil has antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

  12. Produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis em resposta à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Yield and quality of essential oils of Mentha arvensis in response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 20 tratamentos, constituídos pela combinação de cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe e controle e quatro doses de P (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas 65 dias após o plantio. Sem adubação fosfatada, os fungos Gigaspora margarita e Glomus clarum aumentaram em 206 e 198%, respectivamente, a produção de matéria fresca em relação ao tratamento controle. A maior produção de matéria fresca (90 g por vaso foi observada no tratamento de A. scrobiculata com 133 mg kg-1 de fósforo. Na ausência de adubação fosfatada, teores de óleos essenciais e de mentol no óleo foram menores em plantas sem inoculação, e os tratamentos com inoculação proporcionaram incrementos de até 89% nos teores de óleos e de mentol, em relação ao tratamento sem inoculação. Com o incremento da adubação fosfatada, não foram observados incrementos dos teores de óleos essenciais e mentol em razão dos FMA. As maiores produtividades de óleos essenciais e de mentol nos óleos, 0,69 g e 0,48 g por vaso, respectivamente, foram encontradas em plantas com inoculação de Acaulospora scrobiculata nas doses de P de 126 e 123 mg kg-1 de solo, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetative growth, production and composition of essential oil of Mentha arvensis L., grown in different phosphorus levels. The work was carried out under greenhouse conditions and

  13. Espaçamento para menta (Mentha arvensis L. resultados experimentais do período de 1943-44 a 1950-51 Field experiments on spacing of japanese mint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribeiro dos Santos

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o espaçamento na cultura da menta (Mentha arvensis L., foram efetuados quatro ensaios de campo, um na Estação Experimental de Pindorama e os outros na Estação Experimental de Tietê. No ensaio de Pindorama, instalado em 1943-44, e nos de Tietê, nos anos de 1943-44 e 1944-45. foram adotadas as distâncias de 50, 75 e 100 centímetros entre as fileiras. No experimento de 1950-51, de Tietê, essas distâncias foram um pouco menores: 40, 60 e 80 centímetros. Em todos os ensaios, os espaçamentos adotados entre plantas, nas fileiras, foram de 20 e de 40 centímetros. As produções registraram-se como: erva-verde, a parte vegetativa aérea, recém-ceifada; erva-murcha e óleo essencial, êste obtido por destilarão a vapor em alambique. Os resultados mostraram, de forma consistente, produções significativamente maiores nos espaçamentos mais compactos. Considerações de ordem econômica sôbre o consumo de rizomas para a plantação e necessidades de instalações de viveiro, de mão-de-obra no tratamento dos viveiros e transplante das mudas, são feitas na interpretação dos resultados experimentais.Field experiments is on spacing of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L., subsp. haplocalyx Briquet, var. piperascens Holmes or forma piperascens Malinvaud were conducted at the experiment stations of Pindorama and Tietê, during the 1943-44, 1944-45 and 1950-51 seasons. In Brazil, nowadays the leading world supplier of menthol and dementholized oil, mint is generally raised in newly cleared forest soils. In these areas planting is usual|y done at irregular spacings, due to the presence of trunk and branches of the felled trees, the distances between plants being rather wide. Yields, recorded as fresh and cured (wilted hay and oil, were significantly higher from the following spacings: 40 x 20, 50 x 20, 60 x 20 and 50 x 40 centimeters. Considerations on the amount of rhizomes and labor necessary for nurseries and transplanting were

  14. Homeopathic omeopathic drugs Arsenicum album and Sulphur affect the growth and essential oil content in mint (Mentha arvensis L. = Os medicamentos homeopáticos Sulphur e Arsenicum album afetam o crescimento e o teor de óleo essencial em menta (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moacir Bonato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Arsenicum album in growthvariables and essential oil content of mint are analyzed. Four homeopathic dinamizations (6, 12, 24 and 30CH were used for both drugs in the centesimal scale (CH=centesimal hahnemannian, besides control (water. Treatments were conducted in greenhouse andhomeopathic drugs applied weekly (250 mL vase-1 for 98 days. Plant height, root system’s dry mass, shoot’s dry mass and essential oil content were determined. Among the tested homeopathy drugs, Sulphur increased values of fresh and dry biomass more than Arsenicumalbum. Plant height increased by the two drugs and their respective dinamizations. Whereas Sulphur inhibited dry biomass production, except 6CH dinamization, it increased substantially mint plant’s essential oil content. Arsenicum album presented the same behavioras Sulphur drug, with the difference that it increased the fresh biomass in 24 and 30CH dinamizations. Results suggest that Sulphur and Arsenicum album modify plant metabolism, especially by increasing secondary metabolism as occurs with essential oil contents.Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos Sulphur e Arsenicum album em algumas variáveis de crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta (Mentha arvensis L.. Utilizaram-se, para ambos os medicamentos, quatro dinamizações homeopáticas (6, 12, 24 e 30CH na escala centesimal (CH=centesimal hahnemanniana, além do controle (água para os dois medicamentos. Os tratamentos foram conduzidos em casa-devegetação, e os medicamentos homeopáticos aplicados semanalmente (250 mL vaso-1 durante98 dias. Foram determinados: altura das plantas, massa seca do sistema radicular, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e teor de óleo essencial. Dentre as homeopatias testadas, o Sulphur proporcionou maiores valores de biomassa fresca e seca do que a homeopatiaArsenicum album. A altura das plantas foi incrementada por ambos os

  15. RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) REVEALED THE HETEROKARYON OF AGARICUS ARVENSIS PRODUCED BY MATING REACTIONS%随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)在野蘑菇杂交育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春; 张丽梅

    2001-01-01

    野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis Schaeff ex.Fr.)是蘑菇属(Agaricus)又一种近年来广泛栽培的食用菌.由于它的菌丝细胞具有多核,无锁状联合,以及人们对它的繁殖模式和生活史认识的不足,给杂交育种工作造成了较多困难.运用随机扩增多态DNA遗传标记技术,结合拮抗试验和核相分析,对自育的单孢菌株之间的杂交试验进行分析研究.结果表明:两个相互亲合的同核体菌株被配对培养时,交配反应出现,并形成异核体的后代.可能野蘑菇具有双重的交配繁殖系统--同宗配合和异宗配合.在食用菌杂交育种研究中,机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)是一种非常有效和方便的检验杂合子的方法.

  16. Variação na resistência à ferrugem e na composição do óleo essencial de dois clones de menta Variation on the rust resistance and essential oil composition of two clones of Mentha arvensis L Var piperascens Malinvaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guilherme Roberto Donalísio

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas no Centro Experimental de Campinas, entre 1973 e 1976, 450 progênies do clone Samby e 295 do clone Valinhos, ambos da espécie Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinvaud, que apresentavam alguma resistência à ferrugem causada pelo fungo Puccinia menthae Pers., bom desenvolvimento vegetativo e óleo essencial com alto teor em mentol. As progênies foram obtidas de polinização livre. As plantas que apresentavam pulegona foram eliminadas por seleção olfativa, e as restantes, inoculadas com uredosporos de P. menthae Pers. e, posteriormente, classificadas em três notas de resistência à doença. Em pleno florescimento, as plantas foram destiladas em corrente de vapor, e o óleo essencial obtido analisado em cromatógrafo de gás para avaliação quantitativa de seus componentes principais: mentol, mentona e pulegona. Destacaram-se oito progênies do clone Valinhos e catorze do Samby, respectivamente, mentol entre 75,85-85,18% e 77,12-83,74%, e pulegona entre 0,48-1,36% e 0,94-2,05% pela resistência à ferrugem. Três progênies do clone Valinhos e duas do Samby apresentaram baixos teores do mentol: 56,65, 56,94 e 60,11, e 54,26 e 64,93% respectivamente, semelhantes aos verificados nos óleos desmentolados de M. arvensis L.Seedlings froco two clones of M. arvensis L var. piperascens Malinvaud were selected by olfative test to eliminate the plants with high pulegone content in the essencial oil; the selected plants were inoculated with spore suspension of Puccinia menthae Pers., and classified in three classes of susceptibility. The blooming plants were distilled and the obtained samples of essential oil were analysed by gas chromatography to verify its menthol, menthone and pulegone contents. The data showed that the studied material presents high variability to rust resistance and menthol content in its essencial oil. Eight progenies from Valinhos clone presented high rust resistance, 75.80% to 85.18% menthol and 0.48 to

  17. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kolano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  18. Rechtsmissbrauch durch „AGG-Hopping“ / Steffen Krieger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krieger, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu otsusest, mis puudutab töökohale kandideerija staatust eesmärgiga esitada kahju hüvitamise nõudeid kui teda ei valita tööle ja sellise teguviisi käsitlemist õiguse kuritarvitamisena. Vt. ka lk. 699-700

  19. GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Oil Chemical Components of Uncultivated Mentha Arvensis L. from Shannxi%陕西野生薄荷挥发油化学成分的气相色谱-质谱分析﹡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎博; 吴芳; 刘海静; 王国海; 罗定强; 郭耀武

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the chemical components of volatile oil in uncultivated Mentha arvensis L. picked from Shannxi province by GC-MS. Methods The steam distillation method was used to extract the volatile oil,then a appropriate amount of which were taken to prepare the solution for conducting analysis by GC-MS. The chromatographic column was HP-FFAP quartz capillary column(30 m × 0. 32 mm,0. 25 μm),the temperature of the injection port was 220 ℃. The column temperature was temperature pro-gramming and the initial temperature was set at 65 ℃ and kept for 3 min,then heated up to 230 ℃ with a rate of 5 ℃ /min and kept for 5 min. The carrier gas was N2 and the flow rate was 1. 5 mL/min. The split ratio was 1 :10. The mass spectrometry con-dition:the interface temperature was 230 ℃,the ion source temperature was 220 ℃. Results Totally 67 chemical compounds in the volatile oil from 5 batches of uncultivated Mentha arvensis L. were identified by GC/MS and the main components were menthol,levo-duction carvone and terpinyl acetate. Conclusion The kinds and relative contents of chemical components in volatile oil from unculti-vated Mentha arvensis L. picked from Shannxi have large difference due to different growth environments,populations and harvest time.%目的:利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)法对采自陕西省的野生薄荷挥发油化学成分进行分析。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,取适量配制成溶液,用GC-MS进行分析。色谱柱为HP-FFAP石英毛细管柱(30 m ×0.32 mm,0.25μm),进样口温度为220℃,柱温为程序升温,初始温度为65℃,保持3 min,以5℃/min的速率升温至230℃,保持5 min,载气为N2,流速为1.5 mL/min,分流比为10:1。质谱条件,接口温度为230℃,离子源温度为220℃。结果共鉴定了5批野生薄荷挥发油中的67个化学成分,主要成分有薄荷醇、左旋香芹酮和乙酸松油酯。结论生长环境、居群

  20. GRADACIJA SMREKINE OSE PREDIVICE Cephalcia arvensis (HYMENOPTERA: PAMPHILIIDAE) U SLOVENIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Meterc, Gregor; Borković, Danijel; Jurc, Maja

    2014-01-01

    U Sloveniji je prvi jak napad ose predivice iz roda Cephalcia (Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Pamphilidae) zabilježen u srpnju 2009. godine na padini Riflov vrh (koordinate: x = 492607, y = 155471) iznad grada Prevalje u sjevernom dijelu Slovenije. Napadnuto područje prostiralo se na površini od 106 ha u 60–90 godina staroj sastojini obične smreke (Picea abies) smještenoj na sjevernoj padini s nagibom 20 % i nadmorskoj visini između 600 i 800 metara. Drvna zaliha varira između 321 m3/ha i 408 m3/ha, ...

  1. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction) efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices

  2. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, J.; Kozicki, M. N.; Yannopoulos, S. N.; Greer, A. L.

    2015-07-01

    Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent "memory" effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved "memorized" during writing and erasing cycles. The "memorized" pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction) efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  3. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orava

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  4. The AGG codon is translated slowly in E. coli even at very low expression levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonekamp, Fons; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1988-01-01

    in an artificial leader peptide gene in front of the pyrE attenuator where the frequency of transcription termination is regulated by the degree of coupling between transcription and translation. Transcription of the operon is initiated from the lac-promoter dependent on the concentration of the lac-operon inducer...

  5. Effect of foliar treatments on distribution of 14C-glyphosate in Convolvulus arvensis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field bindweed is a perennial weed which produces shoots from buds on its roots. Herbicides, such as glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] used for control of field bindweed usually do not kill all shoot buds on the roots, thus field bindweed often reinfests areas within 3 to 6 weeks of treatment. This dissertation deals with the development of a technique to change glyphosate distribution in field bindweed roots and could result in less shoot regrowth after glyphosate application. In field studies eight plant growth regulators were applied in September, 3 days before 2.24 kg/ha of 2.4-D[(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] or 1.68 kg/ha of glyphosate. Eight months later, regrowth of shoots was least where glyphosate was applied at 0.028 kg/ha as a pretreatment, followed by a standard rate of 1.68 kg/ha. In subsequent greenhouse studies, typical patterns of shoot growth and 14C-glyphosate distribution in isolated root sections taken from 15-week-old intact plants were determined. In subsequent growth chamber studies, plants were decapitated to observe the effect of shoot apical dominance on 14C-glyphosate translocation. After 14C-glyphosate was applied, intact plants had about twice as much 14C in distal root sections as in proximal or middle root sections. Decapitated plants had more 14C in proximal and middle root sections than in distal sections, and about twice as much 14C was translocated to roots of decapitated plants than intact plants. Eight concentrations of 2,4,-D or glyphosate from 1 to 5000 ppm were applied in logarithmic series to 6-week old plants

  6. Antioxidant,antimicrobial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nripendra; Nath; Biswas; Subarna; Saha; Mohammed; khadem; Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate potential antioxidant,antimicrobial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arrensis l.,in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models.Methods:In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extract.In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid—induced writhing test in Swiss albino mice.All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.Antibacterial activilv was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram—positive and Gram—negative bacterial strains.Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cyloloxicity effects of the plant extract.Results:The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay(IC5041 μg/mL)compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid(IC5019 μg/mL).The extract also produced prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi.Salmonella paratyphi.Shigella boydii,Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the dose of 30 μg/disc.The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50,values of 40 μg/mL.and also 90%mortality(LC90) value was found to be 160 μg/mL.In analgesic test.the extract demonstrated statistically significant(P<0.01) analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing in white albino mice al both dose levels.Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvenns L.has potential antioxidant,antibacterial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  7. Actividade antioxidante de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis: Leucopaxillus giganteus, Sarcodon imbricatus e Agaricus arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Queirós, Bruno; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Baptista, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A azeitona de mesa é um alimento tradicionalmente incluído na dieta Mediterrânica. sendo considerada uma fonte importante de antioxidantes naturais nomeadamente composto fenólicos e vitamina E. A presença destes compostos nos alimentos tem sido relacionada com uma menor taxa de incidência de doenças coronárias nos países da Bacia do Mediterrâneo.

  8. The Effects of Fairy Ring of Agaricus arvensis of Grassland on the Growth of Herbage%草原黑蘑(Agaricus arvensis)圈对牧草生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立红; 闫伟

    2003-01-01

    在黑蘑圈上、圈内及圈外分别作测产样方,分析它们之间的差异.结果表明:黑蘑圈可极显著地提高群落地上生物量.其中对羊草(Leymus chinensis)的影响较大,圈上羊草的生物量和密度均明显高于圈内、圈外;对其它植物的影响不明显.黑蘑圈可增强植物的吸水力和储水力.

  9. Observations sur les migrations et la biometrie de l'Alouette des Champs (Alauda arvensis en automne au Pays-Basque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGNES, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    La repartición de talla de la envergadura y de las alas es bimodal, siendo los machos más grandes y el 62% de las aves capturadas, hembras. El número de migraciones parece disminuir regularmente después de varias décadas.

  10. Organic C dynamics and its conservation under wheat (Triticum aesetivum) - mint (Mentha arvensis)-Sesbania rostrata cropping in sub-tropical condition of northern Indo-Gangetic plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, D D; Chand, Sukhmal; Anwar, M

    2014-03-15

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is accumulated or depleted as a result of cropping and management strategies. It plays a significant role in maintaining soil quality, plant productivity and mitigating greenhouse gas emission. We studied the long-term (20 years) influence of a wheat-mint-Sesbania cropping system on the SOC stock. Estimates of stabilization of SOC in different pools and a tentative C budget were also developed. Twenty years of cultivation caused a decrease in SOC only in control soils, which received no manure and fertilizer. However, it increased with balanced use of NPK inputs. Soil C stock decreased significantly with increased in soil depth 0-15 cm to 15-30 and 30-45 cm. About 6% (-2 to+14) of the C added in crop residues and green manure were stabilized in the soil. On an average 12%, 14%, 59%, 15% of the water stable aggregates were in the >2 mm, 2.0-0.25 mm, 0.25-0.05 mm, and <0-0.5 size fractions, respectively. Significant improvements in structural stability and nitrogen availability were detected in all the treatments compared to the control. The amount of organic C oxidizable by a modified Walkley and Black method, which involves using only half of the amount of sulphuric acid, is a more sensitive indicator of the improvement in soil quality parameters under investigation, namely SOC, and increases in mineralizable N and water stable aggregation than the standard method.

  11. Predators and predation rates of skylark Alauda arvensis and woodlark Lullula arborea nests in a semi-natural area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praus, Libor; Hegemann, Arne; Tieleman, B. Irene; Weidinger, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a major cause of breeding failure in bird species with open nests. Although many studies have investigated nest predation rates, direct identification of nest predators is sporadic, especially in (semi-)natural habitats. We quantified nest success and identified nest predators in a popu

  12. Homeopathic omeopathic drugs Arsenicum album and Sulphur affect the growth and essential oil content in mint (Mentha arvensis L.) = Os medicamentos homeopáticos Sulphur e Arsenicum album afetam o crescimento e o teor de óleo essencial em menta (Mentha arvensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Moacir Bonato; Gentil Telles de Proença; Bruno Reis

    2009-01-01

    Effects of homeopathic drugs Sulphur and Arsenicum album in growthvariables and essential oil content of mint are analyzed. Four homeopathic dinamizations (6, 12, 24 and 30CH) were used for both drugs in the centesimal scale (CH=centesimal hahnemannian), besides control (water). Treatments were conducted in greenhouse andhomeopathic drugs applied weekly (250 mL vase-1) for 98 days. Plant height, root system’s dry mass, shoot’s dry mass and essential oil content were determined. Among the test...

  13. Primulaceae : The Northwest European pollen flora, 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.; Leeuw van Weenen, Jeanette S. de; Oostrum, W.A.P. van

    1974-01-01

    SPECIMENS EXAMINED Anagallis arvensis L. ssp. arvensis- Germany: Biol. exc. 1965--912 (U); Ireland: Hessel, Klein and Rubers 741 (U); The Netherlands: Punt s.n., Anno 1957 (fresh material); Punt s.n., Anno 1961 (fresh material); Swart 264 (U). Anagallis arvensis L. ssp. coerulea (Gouan) Vollmer -- F

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    ), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  15. Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes key aspects of the biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus, an eriophyid mite that was recently described as a new species from Dipsacus fullonum and D. laciniatus (Dipsacaceae). Preliminary host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus s...

  16. Flower visitation by generalists and specialists : Analysis of pollinator quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Velterop, O; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ

    1997-01-01

    Flowers of Scabiosa columbaria (Dipsacaceae) are visited by a large number of insect species, generalists and one specialist. Per population one insect species or group was dominant. Syrphids, bumblebee males and the day-active night moth Autographa gamma were the most numerous visitors in Dutch pop

  17. Castration du porcelet : évaluation de l'efficacité analgésique per-opératoire de l'huile essentielle Mentha arvensis (menthe des champs) par l'analyse des vocalisations

    OpenAIRE

    Zbik, Marion

    2013-01-01

    La castration des porcelets mâles est légalement pratiquée avant l'âge de 7 jours sans analgésie ni anesthésie, Cette castration chirurgicale cause une douleur importante aux porcelets. Dans un contexte où le bien-être animal a une place importante, et où l'engouement pour les "médecines alternatives" prend de l'ampleur, l'objet de notre projet est d'évaluer l'efficacité analgésique de l'huile essentielle de menthe des champs en application topique avant la castration, L'outil choisi pour éva...

  18. 属间杂交获得的甘蓝型油菜雄性不育材料的研究%Study of male sterile lines derived from intergeneric hybrids between Sinapis arvensis L. and Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卓; 李健; 钟军; 李栒; 官春云

    2008-01-01

    采用蕾期剥蕾授粉的方法,成功获得了新疆野生油菜野油2000-1和甘蓝型油菜Parol属间杂种.杂种F1育性极低,自由授粉条件下获得少量F2种子.在F2群体中成功选择到一株雄性不育株,用Parol做轮回亲本与不育株回交,BC1、BC2和BC3群体中可育株与不育株均呈1:1分离.用波里马细胞质雄性不育的保持系和恢复系、681A的保持系和恢复系、隐性核不育86A的保持系及其它33个甘蓝型油菜品系与BC2群体中的不育株测交,测交后代可育株与不育株呈5:3分离的组合有20个,呈1:1分离的组合有14个,呈3:1分离的组合有3个,有一个组合的后代完全可育,表明该雄性不育材料可能为显性核不育.

  19. 云南毛坪铅锌(银、锗)矿床流体包裹体特征及成矿流体来源%Features of fluid inclusions and sources of ore-forming fluid in the Maoping carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb-( Ag-Ge) deposit, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩润生; 邹海俊; 胡彬; 胡熠昭; 薛传东

    2007-01-01

    The Maoping Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) deposit is an important representative of the medium-to large-sized carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb-(Ag) deposits in northeast Yunnan, occurring in the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Zn-Pb Ore-forming Zone. The spatial distribution of ore bodies were controlled by the NE-extending interstratified fault belts and inverted Maomaoshan fold. Generally, fluid inclusions within the major gangue minerals, as ferro-calcite, calcite and dolomite are dominated by two kinds of small inclusions (3~15 μm) including pure-liquid and liquid. The inclusions exist in concentrated groups along the crystal planes of the gangue minerals. The ore-forming fluids belong to the Na+ -K+ -Ca2+ -Cl- -F - type, are characterized by temperatures of 180 ~ 218 ℃, medium salinity in 4. 1 wt% ~ 9.5wt% NaCl, and medium pressure at 406×105~570×105 Pa. The ratios of Na+/K+ (1.54~4.53 ) and Cl-/F- (0.72 ~ 156.33 ) in the fluid inclusions of gangue minerals are relatively high, while those of Na+/K+ (0. 32 ~ 8.36 ) and Cl-/F- (1.06 ~ 16.77) in the inclusions of barite are relatively low. The waters of fluid inclusions have δD values from -23‰ to -64‰. The δ18OV.SMOWvalues of the ore-forming fluids range from 0. 3‰ to 6.2‰ for galena, -9.0‰ to 3.4‰ for sphalerite, and -6.8‰ to -12.7‰ for pyrite. δ13CV-PDBvalues range from -1.1 to -3.7 for gangue minerals. These data better demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were the compositing results of the magma water, metamorphic water and hosted water, and mainly derived from magmatic hot fluid and hosted formation water, in relation to the sedimentation, the metamorphism of the Kunyang Group in the basement and magmatic hydrothermalism. The deposit itself might have resulted from ascending cycles along metallogenic structures of ore-forming fluid, enriched in Pb, Zn and Ag. The deposit is related to carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb sulphides.%云南毛坪铅锌(银、锗)矿床是川滇黔成矿域滇东北地区以碳酸盐岩为主岩的中-大型铅锌(银)矿床的典型代表.矿体空间分布严格受NE向层间断裂带和猫猫山倒转背斜的控制.主要脉石矿物(铁方解石、方解石及白云岩)中的流体包裹体发育,一般较小(3~15 μm),主要为纯液相和液相包裹体,常沿矿物结晶面密集成群展布.成矿流体属Na+-K+-Ca2+-Cl--F-型,流体包裹体均一温度为180~218(C,盐度为4.1 wt%~9.5 wt%NaCl,成矿压力为406×105~570×105 Pa.在主要脉石矿物流体包裹体中,Na+/K+(1.54~4.53)与Cl-/F-(0.72~156.33)较高,而重晶石流体包裹体中Na+/K+(0.32~8.36)与Cl-/F-(1.06~16.77)较低.成矿流体的(D为-23‰~-64‰,方铅矿、闪锌矿和黄铁矿中流体包体(18OV-SMOW依次为0.3‰~6.2‰,-9.0‰~3.4‰和-6.8‰~-12.7‰.脉石矿物的(13CV-PDB为-1.1‰~-3.7‰.以上信息更好地揭示了成矿流体是变质水、岩浆水和建造水混合的产物,它们与沉积作用、昆阳群基底的变质作用及岩浆热液作用有关.该矿床本身可能是富含铅、锌、银等成矿流体对流循环沿构造"贯入"而成.该矿床不同于典型的MVT型铅锌矿床,是一碳酸盐岩为主岩的铅锌多金属硫化物矿床.

  20. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on the laying-agg performance,liver type I iodothyronine activity and serum T3 and T4 of hen%富硒益生菌对鸡产蛋性能和肝脏I型脱碘酶活性以及血清T3和T4水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘翠玲; 黄克和; 赵玉鑫; 秦顺义; 陈甫

    2011-01-01

    为比较研究富硒益生菌( selenium-enriched probiotics,SP)和亚硒酸钠(sodium selenite,ss)对鸡产蛋性能和肝脏I型脱碘酶(IDI)活性以及血清T3和T4水平的影响,将2种硒源分别以0.2、0.5和1.0 mg·kg-13个硒水平添加到基础日粮中组成6种试验日粮,同时将益生菌添加到基础日粮中作为益生菌对照,基础日粮作为空白对照.选取800羽健康罗曼蛋鸡,随机均分为8组,进行为期35 d的饲养试验.在试验期间记录产蛋性能,在试验的第28天,取静脉血和肝脏测定血清T3和T4水平以及肝脏ID I活性.结果表明:富硒益生菌对鸡产蛋性能有显著影响,硒源和硒水平对蛋鸡肝脏ID I酶活性以及血清T3和T4水平均有极显著影响.添加SP或益生菌均可提高蛋鸡产蛋率、日产蛋量和平均蛋质量,降低料蛋比;添加SP或SS均能提高蛋鸡肝脏ID I酶活性和血清T3水平,降低T4水平,特别是添加SP时,随着硒添加水平的升高,蛋鸡肝脏ID I酶活性和血清T3水平升高,血清T4水平则降低;而添加益生菌对蛋鸡肝脏ID I酶活性没有显著影响,却能显著提高血清T3水平,而降低T4水平.结论:添加SP的效果优于添加SS或益生菌.%This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics( SP) and sodium selenite( SS) two sources on laying-egg performance,the type I iodothyronine( ID I ) activity and the level of T3 and T4 in hen serum. Both selenium (Se)sources were added into basal diet at 0.2,0.5 and 1.0 mg·kg-1 of Se to make six kind experiment diets. At the same time.pro-biotics was added into basal diet to make the probiotics control,and basal diet served as the blank control. Eight hundred healthy Rohman laying hens were randomly and equably allocated into eight groups and were investigated for 35 days. During the experiment, laying-egg performance was recorded. Blood and liver were sampled on days 28 for serum T3 and T4 and ID I activity of liver. The results showed that SP had a significant effect on the production performance of hen. Se source and level both had a significant effect on liver ID I activity and serum T3 and T4 of hen. The supplementation of SP or probiotics increased the laying rate of hen, hen day egg production and mean egg weight, and decreased the ratio of feed to egg, whereas the addition of SS did not. The addition of either SP or SS increased liver ID I activity and serum T3 and decreased T4 of hen. Especially when SP was added, the liver ID I activity and serum T3 of hen increased and the serum T4 of hen decreased as supplemental Se level increased. The supplementation of probiotics had not an effect on liver ID I activity,but increased serum T3 and decreased T4 of hen. It was concluded that there was a better effect of supplementating SP than that of supplementating SS or probiotics.

  1. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment.…

  2. Abrus agglutinin is a potent anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic agent in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Sujit K; Behera, Birendra; Nandini Das, Durgesh; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Sinha, Niharika; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Naik, Prajna Paramita; Patra, Samir K; Mandal, Mahitosh; Sarkar, Siddik; Menezes, Mitchell E; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Maiti, Tapas K; Das, Swadesh K; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2016-07-15

    Abrus agglutinin (AGG), a plant lectin isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, has documented antitumor and immunostimulatory effects in murine models. To examine possible antitumor activity against breast cancer, we established human breast tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice and intraperitoneally administered AGG. AGG inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis as confirmed by monitoring the expression of Ki-67 and CD-31, respectively. In addition, TUNEL positive cells increased in breast tumors treated with AGG suggesting that AGG mediates anti-tumorigenic activity through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. On a molecular level, AGG caused extrinsic apoptosis through ROS generation that was AKT-dependent in breast cancer cells, without affecting primary mammary epithelial cells, suggesting potential cancer specificity of this natural compound. In addition, using HUVECs, AGG inhibited expression of the pro-angiogenic factor IGFBP-2 in an AKT-dependent manner, reducing angiogenic phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the present results establish that AGG promotes both apoptosis and anti-angiogenic activities in human breast tumor cells, which might be exploited for treatment of breast and other cancers. PMID:26914517

  3. Arabidopsis Heterotrimeric G-protein Regulates Cell Wall Defense and Resistance to Necrotrophic Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdalena Delcado-Cerezo; Paul Schulze-Lefert; Shauna Somerville; José Manuel Estevez; Staffan Persson; Antonio Molina; Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez; Viviana Escudero; Eva Miedes; Paula Virginia Fernández; Lucía Jordá; Camilo Hernández-Blanco; Andrea Sánchez-Vallet; Pawel Bednarek

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein controls defense responses to necrotrophic and vascular fungi.The agb1 mutant impaired in the Gβ subunit displays enhanced susceptibility to these pathogens.Gβ/AGB1 forms an obligate dimer with either one of the Arabidopsis Gγ subunits (γ1/AGG1 and γ2/AGG2).Accordingly,we now demonstrate that the agg1 agg2 double mutant is as susceptible as agb1 plants to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina.To elucidate the molecular basis of heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated resistance,we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of agb1-1 mutant and wild-type plants upon inoculation with P cucumerina.This analysis,together with metabolomic studies,demonstrated that G-protein-mediated resistance was independent of defensive pathways required for resistance to necrotrophic fungi,such as the salicylic acid,jasmonic acid,ethylene,abscisic acid,and tryptophan-derived metabolites signaling,as these pathways were not impaired in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants.Notably,many mis-regulated genes in agb1 plants were related with cell wall functions,which was also the case in agg1 agg2 mutant.Biochemical analyses and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy of cell walls from G-protein mutants revealed that the xylose content was lower in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants than in wild-type plants,and that mutant walls had similar FTIR spectratypes,which differed from that of wild-type plants.The data presented here suggest a canonical functionality of the Gβ and Gγ1/γ2 subunits in the control of Arabidopsis immune responses and the regulation of cell wall composition.

  4. Aportaciones a la flora del Sistema Ibérico meridional, II

    OpenAIRE

    García Cardo, Oscar; Sánchez Melgar, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Se comentan 43 táxones de plantas vasculares nuevas o poco conocidas para las provincias de Cuenca, Guadalajara y Teruel. Merecen destacarse las primeras citas de Arabis serpillifolia, Chamaesyce prostrata, Lathyrus linifolius, Mentha arvensis, Orobanche arenaria y Potentilla pyrenaica en la provincia de Cuenca, Eryngium bourgatii, Ophioglossum vulgatum y Primula farinosa en la de Guadalajara y Mentha arvensis en la de Teruel. 43 taxa of new or scarcely known vascular plants in the provinc...

  5. Recoding method that removes inhibitory sequences and improves HIV gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabadan, Raul; Krasnitz, Michael; Robins, Harlan; Witten, Daniela; Levine, Arnold

    2016-08-23

    The invention relates to inhibitory nucleotide signal sequences or "INS" sequences in the genomes of lentiviruses. In particular the invention relates to the AGG motif present in all viral genomes. The AGG motif may have an inhibitory effect on a virus, for example by reducing the levels of, or maintaining low steady-state levels of, viral RNAs in host cells, and inducing and/or maintaining in viral latency. In one aspect, the invention provides vaccines that contain, or are produced from, viral nucleic acids in which the AGG sequences have been mutated. In another aspect, the invention provides methods and compositions for affecting the function of the AGG motif, and methods for identifying other INS sequences in viral genomes.

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  7. A New Iridoid Glycoside from the Roots of Dipsacus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglin Yang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new iridoid glycoside, named loganic acid ethyl ester (1, together with five known compounds: chlorogenic acid (2, caffeic acid (3, loganin (4, cantleyoside (5 and syringaresinol-4′,4′′-O-bis-β-D-glucoside (6 were isolated from the roots of Dipsacus asper. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses. Lignan is isolated from Dipsacaceae species for the first time. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 had moderate neuroprotective effects against the Aβ25–35 induced cell death in PC12 cells.

  8. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 106 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 72-79, 84-94, 105-106), Greece (2-60, 95-104) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 61-71, 80-83). The taxa belong to the following families: Amaranthaceae (18, 19), Amaryllidaceae (49, 50, 77), Apiaceae (3, 84, 85, 99......), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  9. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  10. Statistical model of magnetization reversal in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huijie; ZHU Minggang; LI Wei; ZHANG Xin

    2006-01-01

    Statistical model of magnetization reversal was used to simulate the magnetization reversal behavior in the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with double grain-size distributions due to the abnormal grain growth (AGG). The magnetic properties and mechanical properties due to the formation of AGG grains in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were tested. The results show that the magnetic properties, especially the rectangularity were severely deteriorated after the formation of the AGG grains and a step was shown on the demagnetization curve, and the occurrence of AGG mayaccount for the poor rectangularity and existence of the step on demagnetization curve according to the statistical model of magnetization reversal. The fracture toughness and bending strength are lowered because of the stress concentration in the AGG grains. The SEM images show that the formation of AGG grains is caused by the solid sintering due to the absence of RE-rich phase. Statistical model of magnetization reversal can qualitative by explain the dependence of the magnetization reversal behavior on the grain size in the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets.

  11. Gut gemeint ist nicht gleich gut gemacht! Meant Well is not the Same as Well Done!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lewalter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag von Manfred Becker lässt sich wohlmeinend als Plädoyer für einen pragmatischen Umgang mit dem AGG lesen. Er möchte Personaler/-innen zeigen, wie die Vorgaben des AGG im Rahmen eines Human Resources Diversity Managements positiv umgesetzt werden können. In weiten Teilen überzeugen die Ausführungen des Autors aber nicht. Gerade die Darstellung der Inhalte des AGG ist stark von seiner skeptischen Grundhaltung gegenüber dessen Zielsetzung geprägt. Auch wenn die Ausführungen zu konkreten Betriebs- und Personalmaßnahmen gelungener sind, stellt dieser Beitrag insgesamt kein überzeugendes und lesenswertes Werk dar.With the best intention, the work by Manfred Becker can be read as a plea for a pragmatic approach to the AGG. He wishes to show personnel how the guidelines of the AGG can be put into practice within the framework of Human Resources Diversity Management. However, the author’s work is often unconvincing. In particular, the presentation of the contents of the AGG is strongly influenced by his skeptical attitude toward its goals. Even when his approach to concrete company and personnel measures is more successful, the book is neither convincing nor a worthwhile read.

  12. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gallenmüller

    Full Text Available Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots. Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar. In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1 a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2 occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3 failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm² and (4 failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species.

  13. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species).

  14. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species). PMID:26629690

  15. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  16. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  17. Mitigating Abnormal Grain Growth for Friction Stir Welded Al-Li 2195 Spun Formed Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Russell, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Formability and abnormal grain growth (AGG) are the two major issues that have been encountered for Al alloy spun formed dome development using friction stir welded blanks. Material properties that have significant influence on the formability include forming range and strain hardening exponent. In this study, tensile tests were performed for two 2195 friction stir weld parameter sets at 400 F to study the effects of post weld anneal on the forming range and strain hardening exponent. It was found that the formability can be enhanced by applying a newly developed post weld anneal to heat treat the friction stir welded panels. This new post weld anneal leads to a higher forming range and much improved strain hardening exponent. AGG in the weld nugget is known to cause a significant reduction of ductility and fracture toughness. This study also investigated how AGG may be influenced by the heating rate to the solution heat treatment temperature. After post-weld annealing, friction stir welds were strained to 15% and 39% by compression at 400 F before they were subjected to SHT at 950 F for 1 hour. Salt bath SHT is very effective in reducing the grain size as it helps arrest the onset of AGG and promote normal recrystallization and grain growth. However, heat treating a 18 ft dome using a salt bath is not practical. Efforts are continuing at Marshall Space Flight Center to identify the welding parameters and heat treating parameters that can help mitigate the AGG in the friction stir welds.

  18. Friction-Stir-Welded and Spin-Formed End Domes for Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, S. J.; Tayon, W. A.; Domack, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of single-piece end domes for cryogenic tanks employing spin forming of tailored, friction-stir-welded blanks of Al-Li alloy 2195 plate offers cost and reliability benefits. The introduction of plastic deformation into a friction stir weld is a unique feature of the proposed manufacturing route. This investigation addressed abnormal grain growth [AGG] within the friction stir weldments during postfabrication processing of a prototype dome. The phenomenon of AGG was observed during the solution heat treatment [SHT] phase of T8 tempering and is a major concern for meeting specifications. Such abrupt microstructural transitions can be detrimental to notch-sensitive mechanical properties, such as ductility and/or fracture toughness. If the issue of AGG cannot be resolved, then the acceptance of this approach as a viable manufacturing route may be in jeopardy. The innovative approach adopted in this investigation was the insertion of a stand-alone, Intermediate Annealing Treatment [IAT] between the spin forming and T8 processing operations. A simple, recovery annealing step was deemed to be the most readily-scalable solution when fabricating thin-walled, ellipsoidal domes. The research effort culminated in the development of an effective IAT, which resulted in a significant decrease in AGG following SHT. The processing philosophy adopted in designing the IAT is outlined and the microstructural reasons for success are discussed. The analytical results presented are consistent with promoting continuous grain growth during the IAT, thereby suppressing AGG during the SHT.

  19. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.;

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  20. Essential oil composition of sixteen elite cultivars of Mentha from western Himalayan region, India

    OpenAIRE

    RAJENDRA C. PADALIA

    2013-01-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oils of 16 cultivars of Mentha, viz. M. arvensis L., M. spicata L. and M. citrata Ehrh., were analysed and compared by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven constituents representing 92.8-99.8% of the total essential oil composition were identified. Monoterpenoids (88.1-98.6%) are the major constituents of the essential oils. The major constituents of the oils in 9 cultivars of M. arvensis are menthol (73.7-85.8%), menthone (1.5-...

  1. リナロールを主成分とするハッカの精油

    OpenAIRE

    梅本, 和泰; 藤田 眞一

    2008-01-01

    Present report deals with the essential oil composition from several Mentha species containing linalool as a major component. The essential oil of M. arvensis grown wild in Kinashibetsu-Hokkaido consisted mainly of (-)-linalool(84.6%), limonene(4.8%), 3-octanol(2.8%), β-caryophyllene(1.0%), germacrene D(1.4%) and the following four components of linalyl acetate, pulegone, menthone and menthol were all undetected. A self-pollinated S1 plant derived from above M. arvensis was composed of linalo...

  2. Uptake of more important mineral components by common field weeds on loess soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Malicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in winter wheat, spring barley, sugar beets and winter rape, as well as in the most common weed species infesting these crops. It was established that the percentage of mineral components in the dry matter of the majority of weeds is higher than in that of the cultivated plants. The most dangerous weed species competing with plants for the investigated nutrients were: Chenopodium album, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Sonchus arvensis and Stellaria media.

  3. Influence of nitrogen rate on the efficacy of herbicides with different modes of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Swanton, C. J.; Kudsk, Per Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    -methyl. An increased susceptibility at high nitrogen rate was also observed for Anagallis arvensis, but in contrast to T. inodorum, growth of unsprayed A. arvensis was unaffected by nitrogen rate. Growth of unsprayed Chenopodium album was also promoted by nitrogen supply. However, no influence of nitrogen rate...... on herbicide efficacy was evident for C. album with tribenuron-methyl or ioxynil+bromoxynil in pot experiments. Field experiments with tribenuron-methyl were conducted on natural populations of C. album in spring barley grown at different nitrogen rates showed similar results. In conclusion, nitrogen rate...

  4. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Daniela BACIU; Lucica MIHALTE; Adriana F. SESTRAS; Radu E. SESTRAS

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz) cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.). The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6) and the large...

  5. Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M

    2013-08-01

    In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (σa) for meat and 0.061 σa for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 σa and 0.120 σa in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 σa for meat and 0.096 σa for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 σa and 0.183 σa in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the

  6. Stress-Strain Relationship of Ca(OH)2-Activated Hwangtoh Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Keun-Hyeok Yang; Ju-Hyun Mun; Hey-Zoo Hwang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the stress-strain behavior of 10 calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)-activated Hwangtoh concrete mixes. The volumetric ratio of the coarse aggregate (V agg) and the water-to-binder (W/B) ratio were selected as the main test variables. Two W/B ratios (25% and 40%) were used and the value of V agg varied between 0% and 40.0%, and 0% and 46.5% for W/B ratios of 25% and 40%, respectively. The test results demonstrated that the slope of the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve o...

  7. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Liliwirianis N.; Nor Lailatul Wahidah Musa; Wan Zuraida Wan Mohd Zain; Jamaluddin Kassim; Syaikh Abdul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai), solanum torvum (terung pipit), pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas), moringa oleifera (kacang kelor), dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan), cosmos caudatus (ulam raja), mentha arvensis (pudina), ocimum sp. (selasih), cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi), eugenia polyantha (se...

  8. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  9. Diurnal effects on Mentha canadensis oil yields and composition at two different harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese cornmint, also known as menthol mint, (Mentha canadensis L. syn M. arvensis var canadensis L.), is an essential oil crop cultivated in several countries in Asia and South America. The plant is currently the only commercially viable source for natural menthol due to the high concentration of...

  10. Cytotaxonomic studies in the genus Mentha in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweneel, W.J.

    1968-01-01

    1) 148 Dutch mints were assembled, partly from botanical gardens and partly from 12 sources throughout the country, and were cytologically investigated. 2) New chromosome numbers were found for M. arvensis (2n=24) and for M.x dumetorum (2n=72), and fourteen counts were in agreement with the literatu

  11. Furlough Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  12. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Ilić; Jasenka Ćosić; Draženka Jurković; Karolina Vrandečić

    2013-01-01

    Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency ...

  13. Drug: D06461 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e as: E00048 Therapeutic category: 7149 Lamiaceae (mint family) Mentha arvensis aerial part oil Major compon...ts 7149 Others D06461 Mentha oil (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) D06461 Mentha oil CAS: 68917-18-0 PubChem: 47208117 ...

  14. Drug: D04410 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 7149 Lamiaceae (mint family) Mentha arvensis aerial part Major component: l-Menthol [...04410 Mentha water (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) D04410 Mentha water PubChem: 17398097 ...

  15. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.;

    2013-01-01

    ) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still...

  16. Effect of Calcination on the Sintering of Gel-Derived, Zirconia-Toughened Alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter, den Peter; Winnubst, Louis; Leuwerink, Theo H.P.; Burggraaf, Anthonie J.

    1994-01-01

    The densification behavior of ZrO2 (+ 3 mol% Y2O3)/85 wt% Al2O3 powder compacts, prepared by the hydrolysis of metal chlorides, can be characterized by a transition- and an α-alumina densification stage. The sintering behavior is strongly determined by the densification of the transition alumina agg

  17. The Dysregulation Profile in middle childhood and adolescence across reporters: factor structure, measurement invariance, and links with self-harm and suicidal ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.F. Deutz (Marike); S.B. Geeraert (Sanne Barbara); A.L. Van Baar (Anneloes); M. Deković (Maja); P.J. Prinzie (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRecently, a phenotype of severe dysregulation, the Dysregulation Profile (DP), has been identified. DP consists of elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed (AD), Aggressive Behavior (AGG) and Attention Problems (AP) scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF)

  18. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron-, and ionic-Ag on the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    2011-01-01

    ionic (AgNO3)- Ag on the sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor, were compared after 10 days of sediment exposure, using survival, DNA damage (comet assay) and bioaccumulation as endpoints. The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 g Ag/g dry...

  19. Retroviral expression of the hepatitis B virus x gene promotes liver cell susceptibility to carcinogen-induced site specific mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, S; Jaitovitch-Groisman, I; Benlimame, N; Galipeau, J; Batist, G; Alaoui-Jamali, M A

    2000-06-30

    Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 is common in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). AGG to AGT transversion in codon 249 of exon 7 of the p53 gene occurs in over 50% of HCC from endemic regions, where both chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) prevail. In this study, we report the effect of the HBV x protein (HBx) on carcinogen-induced cytotoxicity and AGG to AGT mutation in codon 249 of the p53 gene in the human liver cell line CCL13. Expression of HBx, as revealed by its transactivation function, results in enhanced cell susceptibility to cytotoxicity induced by the AFB1 active metabolite, AFB1-8,9-epoxide, and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide. Under similar conditions, expression of HBx promotes apoptosis in a subset of cell population. Exposure to AFB1-8, 9-epoxide alone induces a low frequency of AGG to AGT mutation in codon 249 of the p53 gene, as determined by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) assay. However, expression of HBx enhances the frequency of AFB1-epoxide-induced AGG to AGT mutation compared to control cells. In summary, this study demonstrates that expression of HBx enhances liver cell susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mutagenesis, possibly through alteration of the balance between DNA repair and apoptosis, two cellular defense mechanisms against genotoxic stress. PMID:10856831

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSC814 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available regate formation (smlA) gene, complete cds. 664 0.0 2 X94341 |X94341.1 D.discoideum...omology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N U48706 |U48706.1 Dictyostelium discoideum small agg

  1. Analysis of FMR1 (CGG)(n) alleles and DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotypes in three European circumpolar populations: traces of genetic relationship with Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L A; Vuust, J; Nystad, M; Evseeva, I; Van Ghelue, M; Tranebjaerg, L

    2001-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by expansion of a (CGG)(n) repeat located in the FMR1 gene. The molecular factors involved in the mutation process from stable (CGG)(n) alleles towards unstable alleles are largely unknown, although family transmission studies and population studies have suggested that loss of AGG interruptions in the (CGG)(n) repeat is essential. We have analysed the AGG interspersion pattern of the FMR1 (CGG)(n) repeat and the haplotype distribution of closely located microsatellite markers DXS548 and FRAXAC1, in three circumarctic populations: Norwegians, Nenets and Saami. The data confirm the conservation, reported in all human populations studied so far, of an AGG interruption for each 9-10 CGG and support the stabilising effect of AGG interruptions. The data also indicate the existence of chromosomes of Asian origin in the Saami and Nenets population, thereby confirming a genetic relationship between Northern Europe and Asia. DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotype frequencies were compared between 24 Norwegian fragile X males and 119 normal males. Significant linkage disequilibrium were found between the fragile X mutation and haplotype 6-4 and between normal (CGG)(n) alleles and haplotype 7-3.

  2. A large family of antivirulence regulators modulates the effects of transcriptional activators in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli E Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60 in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44-100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators for this family.

  3. Parallel evolution of the genetic code in arthropod mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Abascal

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic code provides the translation table necessary to transform the information contained in DNA into the language of proteins. In this table, a correspondence between each codon and each amino acid is established: tRNA is the main adaptor that links the two. Although the genetic code is nearly universal, several variants of this code have been described in a wide range of nuclear and organellar systems, especially in metazoan mitochondria. These variants are generally found by searching for conserved positions that consistently code for a specific alternative amino acid in a new species. We have devised an accurate computational method to automate these comparisons, and have tested it with 626 metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Our results indicate that several arthropods have a new genetic code and translate the codon AGG as lysine instead of serine (as in the invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code or arginine (as in the standard genetic code. We have investigated the evolution of the genetic code in the arthropods and found several events of parallel evolution in which the AGG codon was reassigned between serine and lysine. Our analyses also revealed correlated evolution between the arthropod genetic codes and the tRNA-Lys/-Ser, which show specific point mutations at the anticodons. These rather simple mutations, together with a low usage of the AGG codon, might explain the recurrence of the AGG reassignments.

  4. Priming effect and pre-exposure aggression in Siamese fighting fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Dabelsteen, Torben

    Interactions and communication between individuals occur in a complex social environment in which senders and receivers are able to adjust their behaviour according to the context. Watching fights between others acts on a bystander’s motivation to engage in a fight and may make it behave more agg...

  5. Rubus Iconography: Antiquity to the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubus images from late Antiquity to the Renaissance are described and assessed for botanical and horticultural information. The earliest surviving European blackberry (R. fruticosus L. sp. agg.) image is found on folio 83 in the Juliana Anicia Codex (Codex Vindobonensis) of 512 CE which contains cop...

  6. Drug: D08327 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available regation inhibitor thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor [HSA:6916] [KO:K01832] ...D08327 Drug Ozagrel (INN); Cataclot (TN) C13H12N2O2 228.0899 228.2466 D08327.gif Anticoagulant, platelet agg

  7. Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Nowack, B.; Wiesner, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (MCNPs) in aquatic sediments will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon nanoparticles (BCNPs). This is concluded from model calculations accounting for MCNP sedimentation fluxes, removal rates due to agg

  8. A supergene determines highly divergent male reproductive morphs in the ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küpper, C.; Stocks, M.; Risse, J.E.; dos Remedios, N.; Farrell, L.; McRae, S.B.; Morgan, T.C.; Karlionova, N.; Pinchuk, P.; Verkuil, Y.I.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piersma, T.; Zeng, K.; Slate, J.; Blaxter, M.; Lank, D.B.; Burke, T.

    2016-01-01

    Three strikingly different alternative male mating morphs (aggressive 'independents', semicooperative 'satellites' and female-mimic 'faeders') coexist as a balanced polymorphism in the ruff, Philomachus pugnax, a lek-breeding wading bird1, 2, 3. Major differences in body size, ornamentation, and agg

  9. Ag on Ge(111): 2D x-ray structure analysis of the #sq root#3 x #sq root#3 superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dornisch, D.; Moritz, W.; Schulz, H.;

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the Ag/Ge(111) square-root 3 x square-root 3 superstructure by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. In our structural analysis we find striking similarities to the geometry of Au on Si(111). The Ag atoms form trimer clusters with an Ag-Ag distance of 2.94 +/- 0.04 angstrom...

  10. Abortive translation caused by peptidyl-tRNA drop-off at NGG codons in the early coding region of mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I; Isaksson, Leif A

    2005-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the codons CGG, AGG, UGG or GGG (NGG codons) but not GGN or GNG (where N is non-G) are associated with low expression of a reporter gene, if located at positions +2 to +5. Induction of a lacZ reporter gene with any one of the NGG codons at position +2 to +5 does not influence...

  11. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  12. Heterotrimeric G Proteins Serve as a Converging Point in Plant Defense Signaling Activated by Multiple Receptor-Like Kinases1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinman; Ding, Pingtao; Sun, Tongjun; Nitta, Yukino; Dong, Oliver; Huang, Xingchuan; Yang, Wei; Li, Xin; Botella, José Ramón; Zhang, Yuelin

    2013-01-01

    In fungi and metazoans, extracellular signals are often perceived by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and transduced through heterotrimeric G-protein complexes to downstream targets. Plant heterotrimeric G proteins are also involved in diverse biological processes, but little is known about their upstream receptors. Moreover, the presence of bona fide GPCRs in plants is yet to be established. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), heterotrimeric G protein consists of one Gα subunit (G PROTEIN α-SUBUNIT1), one Gβ subunit (ARABIDOPSIS G PROTEIN β-SUBUNIT1 [AGB1]), and three Gγs subunits (ARABIDOPSIS G PROTEIN γ-SUBUNIT1 [AGG1], AGG2, and AGG3). We identified AGB1 from a suppressor screen of BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase1-1 (bir1-1), a mutant that activates cell death and defense responses mediated by the receptor-like kinase (RLK) SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1. Mutations in AGB1 suppress the cell death and defense responses in bir1-1 and transgenic plants overexpressing SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1. In addition, agb1 mutant plants were severely compromised in immunity mediated by three other RLKs, FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE2 (FLS2), Elongation Factor-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), and CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1), respectively. By contrast, G PROTEIN α-SUBUNIT1 is not required for either cell death in bir1-1 or pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity mediated by FLS2, EFR, and CERK1. Further analysis of agg1 and agg2 mutant plants indicates that AGG1 and AGG2 are also required for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses mediated by FLS2, EFR, and CERK1, as well as cell death and defense responses in bir1-1. We hypothesize that the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins function as a converging point of plant defense signaling by mediating responses initiated by multiple RLKs, which may fulfill equivalent roles to GPCRs in fungi and animals. PMID:23424249

  13. Global Goss grain growth and grain boundary characteristics in magnetostrictive Galfenol sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single Goss grains were globally grown in magnetostrictive Galfenol thin sheets via an abnormal grain growth (AGG) process. The sample behaves like single crystal Galfenol, exhibiting large magnetostriction along the 〈100〉 axes. Small variations in surface energy conditions, which were governed by different flow rates of 0.5% H2S gas in argon during annealing, had a significant impact of the development of AGG. AGG with a fully developed Goss (011) grain over 95% of the sample surface is very reproducible and feasible for a broad range of annealing conditions. In addition, the 〈100〉 orientation of the single-crystal-like Galfenol sheet aligns exactly with the rolling direction, and produces magnetostriction values of ∼300 ppm. AGG often produces isolated grains inside Goss grains due to anisotropic properties of grain boundaries. To better understand island formation mechanisms, grain orientation and grain boundary characteristics of island grains in Goss-oriented Galfenol thin sheets were also investigated. We examined samples annealed either under an argon atmosphere or under a sulfur atmosphere, and characterized the observed island grain boundaries in terms of grain misorientation angles. Trends in measured and simulated data on misorientation angles indicate that the presence of (001) island grain boundaries with angles higher than 45° can be explained by the high energy grain boundary (HEGB) model, whereas (111) boundaries with intermediate angles (20°–45°) cannot. The role of low energy coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries on AGG in both annealing cases was found to be negligible. (paper)

  14. 上海外来植物新记录%New records for alien plants in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠茹; 汪远; 马金双

    2016-01-01

    报道了上海外来植物新记录共9科10属10种,分别是刺酸模(Rumex maritimus L.)、尖头叶藜(Chenopodium acuminatum Willd.)、匙叶南庭荠(Aubrieta deltoidea (L.) DC.)、扭花车轴草(Tri folium resupinatum L.)、圆叶锦葵(Malva pusilla Sm.)、琉璃繁缕(Anagallis arvensis L.)、柳叶马鞭草(Verbena bonariensis L.)、大花益母草(Leonurus macranthus Maxim.)、田野水苏(Stachys arvensis L.)和稷(Panicum miliaceum L.),其中匙叶南庭荠、扭花车轴草为中国外来植物新记录.

  15. Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weed species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997 a study of spatial distribution of most important weeds in apple orchard herbicide strips was performed. This study was continued in 1998, once the trees were cut down. As the time progressed, Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn., Chenopodium album L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Atriplex patulum L. showed an increase in their occurrence. An opposite tendency was found with Erigeron canadensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Taraxacum fficinale Web. Some species grew in patches (Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenopodium album L., Atriplex patulum L., while the others appeared sporadically throughout the orchard. In 1998, the decrease of occurrence of Epilobium Haussk. was observed. Simultaneously, this was coupled with an increase of occurrence of Taraxacum officinale Web., Erigeron caanadensis L. and Chenopodium album L. The predominating species in 1998 was Cerastium vulgatum L., followed by Lolium perenne L., Poa annua L. and Bromus mollis L.

  16. Elemental characterization of wild edible plants from countryside and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Massimiliano; Cocozza, Claudio; Gonnella, Maria; Abdelrahman, Hamada; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-06-15

    Thirteen elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 11 different wild edible plants (WEP) (Amaranthus retroflexus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cichorium intybus, Glebionis coronaria, Sonchus spp., Borago officinalis, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Sinapis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lagopus and Portulaca oleracea) collected from countryside and urban areas of Bari (Italy) were determined. B.officinalis and P.rhoeas could represent good nutritional sources of Mn and Fe, respectively, as well as A.retroflexus and S.arvensis for Ca. High intake of Pb and Cd could come from P.lagopus and A.retroflexus (1.40 and 0.13 mg kg(-1) FW, respectively). WEP may give a substantial contribution to the elements intake for consumers, but in some cases they may supply high level of elements potentially toxic for human health. Anyway, both ANOVA and PCA analyses have highlighted the low influence of the harvesting site on the elements content. PMID:25660854

  17. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  18. FLORA ARGENTINA: NOVEDADES EN PRIMULACEAE Argentinian flora: novelties in Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tressens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., especie no mencionada previamente para la Argentina,
    es citada, descripta e ilustrada. Se señala por primera vez A. arvensis L., ampliamente
    extendida en la Argentina, para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones. Se incluye una clave
    para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Anagallis presentes en el país
    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., species not previously mentioned for Argentina is
    recorded, described and illustrated. A. arvensis L., largely widespread in Argentina, is reported
    for the first time from Corrientes and Misiones provinces. A key for the identification of the four
    species of Anagallis present in the country is also included

  19. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwirianis N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai, solanum torvum (terung pipit, pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas, moringa oleifera (kacang kelor, dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan, cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, mentha arvensis (pudina, ocimum sp. (selasih, cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi, eugenia polyantha (serai kayu, Barringtonia scortechinii, (Putat, musa sp. (pisang, talinum paniculatum (akar som and phyllanthus acidus (cermai. Moringa oleifera leaf and dryobalanops oblongifolia fruit were found contain positive reactions of alkaloids. All the samples studied also show high content of saponin except in bark and seed of parkia speciosa and stem of phyllanthus acidus. Meanwhile, results of the phytochemical screening on saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoids showed that cosmos caudatus, ocimum sp., mentha arvensis, barringtonia scortechinii and moringa oleifera were the active compounds present in the leaves of the plant.

  20. Induced mutations in the improvement of mentha species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study on the induced mutagenesis of the three commercially important species of Mentha; M. arvensis, var. piperascens; M. citrata and M. piperita, was initiated in 1970. Dormant suckers/stolons were exposed to X- and gamma rays (3 to 10 kR). Treated suckers/stolons were planted singly and surviving seedlings carefully examined for mutations using visual, analytical techniques and olfactory assessment of the oils to detect biochemical and qualitative mutants. The mutants selected were propagated through two vegetative cycles to ascertain their genetic stability and field performance. Eventually, a few economically useful and some novel biochemical mutants were isolated. Desirable mutants were subjected to agronomic and chemical evaluation over a period of three years. Consequently one clone of M. arvensis (RRL-118/3) was released for commercial cultivation early this year. This mutant has a potentiality of giving upto 40% more menthol per unit area over the currently available commercial strain. (author)

  1. Ätherische Öle als Repellentien gegen den Rapsglanzkäfer (Meligethes spp.).

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils can have an impact on pollen beetle (Meligethes spp.). Lavender oil (Lavendula angustifolia) showed the highest repellency value in a previous laboratory study (Mauchline et al., 2005). However, lavender oil is one of the most expensive essential oils – a fact that could seriously hamper on-farm implementation of this strategy. To find a cheaper essential oil with comparable efficacy to lavender oil, we compared the essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Melale...

  2. Research on Yield, Essential Oil, Contents and Components of Mint (Mentha) Species in Different Ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÜVEN, Mensure; Kirici, Saliha

    1999-01-01

    Mint oil demand is met by imports in Turkey. For this reason, this study was conducted to determine yields and essential oil contents and components of different Mentha piperita cultivars ( M. piperita Ucrainica, M. piperita Mitcham , M. piperita Bulgaristan 36, M. piperita Multimentha, M. piperita Prilubskaja-I) and Mentha species ( M. arvensis var. piperascens (L.), M. aquatica, M. spicata ssp. spicata) in Adana and Pozanti ecological conditions over two years. In Adana, they were harvested...

  3. Assessment of mint (Mentha spp.) species for large-scale production of plantlets by micropropagation

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Teixeira Gomes; Patrícia Monah Cunha Bartos; Aline Elita Martins; Sharrine Omari Domingues Oliveira; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Species of the genus Mentha produce essential oils which are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study evaluates the potential for in vitro propagation and estimates mass production of plantlets of Mentha species. Nine species (M. piperita, M. suaveolens, M. canadensis, M. longiflora, M. aquatica, M. arvensis, Mentha x gracilis, M. gracilis and M. spicata) were propagated with five successive 30-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 µM) and BAP (4...

  4. The Leaf-Beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) Feed On Some Weeds In Tokat Province

    OpenAIRE

    Çam, Halit; ATAY, Turgut

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the leaf-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) which causes extensive damage on weeds in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey. Total 9 taxa including 4 species of Chrysomelinae, 1 species of Clytrinae, 1 species of Criocerinae, 2 species of Alticinae and 1 species of Cassidinae were found to be destructive on different weed species. These species were; Entomoscelis adonidis (Pall.) on Sinapis arvensis L., Gastrophysa polygoni (L.) on Polygonum convolvulus L. an...

  5. Chemical composition of essential oils of wild-growing Mentha piperita L and Mentha spicata L from the Mariovo region, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The genus Mentha (family Lamiaceae), comprising more than 25 species, grows widely throughout the temperate regions of the world. Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. piperita and M. spicata, commonly known as menthol mint, wild mint, peppermint and spearmint, respectively, are frequently cultivated in many countries of Europe, East Asia, America and Australia for the production of essential oils. The essential oils and extracts from Mentha species have been in use since ancient times for the t...

  6. Effect of Different Planting Times on Yields and Agricultural Characters of Different Mint (Mentha spp.) Varieties Under The Harran Plain Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Abdulhabip

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of different planting times on yield and characters of different mint varieties (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, M. piperita Mitcham, M. piperita Eskişehir Nanesi and M. piperita Prilubskaja). The field trials were carried out at GAP Agricultural Research Station of Çukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture in the Harran Plain conditions in years of 1993 and 1994. Autumn transplants gave higher herb yields and essential oil contents than pl...

  7. OA02.12. Poly herbal ayurvedic formulation for the development of anti–miliaria cotton fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    V.Rajalakshmi; Rajendran, R.; Radhai, R; ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Miliaria is also known as Sweat rash or Prickly heat, common aliment of the eccrine sweat glands that often occurs in conditions of increased heat and humidity. It is especially prevalent in babies and infants. Miliaria crystalline is the one which cause multiple tiny blisters resulting in rapidly evolving noninflammatory vesicles. The present study was mainly carried out to explore the use of herbal plants primarily Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Mint (Mentha arvensis) leaves for the...

  8. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of six wild Mentha species (Lamiaceae) from northeast of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Benabdallah; Chaabane Rahmoune; Mahieddine Boumendjel; Oumayma Aissi; Chokri Messaoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content and the in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of six wild Mentha species which are Mentha aquatica, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia and Mentha villosa. Methods: The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenols content while flavonoids were estimated according to the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. To evaluate tannins content, vanilli...

  9. Sinapis phylogeny and evolution of glucosinolates and specific nitrile degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbirk, Niels; Warwick, Suzanne I; Hansen, Paul R; Olsen, Carl E

    2008-12-01

    Levels of sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate) and 28 other glucosinolates were determined in leaves and roots of 20 species that were either phylogenetically close to Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, or Sinapis pubescens (tribe Brassiceae, Brassicaceae), or were expected to contain arylalkyl nitrilase activity. Comparison with a molecular phylogenetic tree based on ITS DNA sequences identified two separate occurrences of sinalbin. The first in a group of species related to S. alba (including members of the genera Coincya and Kremeriella); and the second in S. arvensis, nested among sinalbin deficient species. Significant 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile degrading enzyme activity was found in both S. alba and S. arvensis, but in S. alba the major product was the corresponding carboxylic acid, while in S. arvensis the major product was the amide. Both investigated enzyme activities, nitrilase and nitrile hydratase, were specific, accepting only certain arylacetonitriles such as 4-hydroxy and 4-methoxyphenylacetonitrile. Only the S. alba enzyme required an oxygen in para position of the substrate, as found in sinalbin. Indole-3-acetonitrile, arylcyanides, and arylpropionitriles were poor substrates. The nitrilase activity of S. alba was quantitatively comparable to that reported in the monocot Sorghum bicolor (believed to be involved in cyanogenic glycoside metabolism). Glucosinolates derived from methionine were found in all Sinapis clades. Glucosinolate patterns suggested a complex evolution of glucosinolates in the investigated species, with several apparent examples of abrupt changes in glucosinolate profiles including chain length variation and appearance of glucosinolates derived from branched-chain amino acids. NMR data for desulfated homosinalbin, 9-methylsulphonylnonylglucosinolate, 3-methylpentylglucosinolate and related glucosinolates are reported, and a facultative connection between sinalbin and specific nitrilases is suggested. PMID:18995873

  10. Potential of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles as Nanocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Cellulose by Cellulase

    OpenAIRE

    Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Sawant, Shailesh S.; Tae Koo Kang; Deok Yun Seo; Youngjong Cha; Sun A. Moon; Bassam Alkotaini; Ezhaveni Sathiyamoorthi; Beom Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a result of their excellent optical and electronic properties are promising catalytic materials for various applications. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach for enhanced degradation of cellulose using biosynthesized AgNPs in an enzyme catalyzed reaction of cellulose hydrolysis by cellulase. AgNPs were synthesized through reduction of silver nitrate by extracts of five medicinal plants (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Buddleja officinalis Maximowic...

  11. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Abhay K; Singh Pooja; Palni Uma T.; Tripathi N.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA) for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vi...

  12. Futterwirtschaftliche Konsequenzen adaptierter Nutzungs- und Bestandesoptionen im Kleegras zur Förderung des Bruterfolges von Feldlerchen

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, Thomas; Wolf, Ulrike; O'Halloran-Wietholz, Zita; Wachendorf, Prof. Dr. Michael

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate forage parameters of cutting regimes and species mixtures in grass-clover swards adapted to the breeding behaviour of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) as a representative of ground-nesting birds. We investigated options of a three weeks delayed cut in the second growth period to offer an adequate breeding period and an exalted cut at 14 cm height to motivate a preterm nestbuilding. Both regimes were conducted on swards of a standard see...

  13. Grapevine Yellows in the Republic of Macedonia: Molecular Identification of Stolbur Phytoplasma Strains in Grapevine and Weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Kostadinovska, Emilija

    2011-01-01

    During the period from 2006 to 2010, a survey for presence of Bois noir (BN) phytoplasmas of Vitis vinifera L., and wild spontaneous vegetation (Clematis vitalba L., Solanum nigrum L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Convolvulus arvensis L., was conducted. The aims of this study were: i)to check the presence of BN phytoplasmas on grapevines and wild vegetation in investigated vineyards in Eastern part of Macedonia, and II) to molecularly characterize and compare the isolates from grapevine wit...

  14. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović Branko I.; Meseldžija Maja U.

    2006-01-01

    Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., R...

  15. VEGETATIVNA KOMPATIBILNOST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM IZOLIRANOGA S KOROVA U ISTOČNOJ HRVATSKOJ

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Jelena; Ćosić, Jasenka; Jurković, Draženka; Vrandečić, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Različite formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum glavni su uzročnik fuzarijskih venuća. U 2008. i 2009. godini prikupili smo F. oxysporum uzorke sa sljedećih korova bez simptoma bolesti: Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense i Hibiscus trionum. Izolirali smo nit mutante za 16 od 41 izolata F. oxysporum...

  16. Obtained the backcrossing progenies between Brassica rapa and AM system%中国白菜和AM系统回交及杂种后代育成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄坚; 金林灿; 严成其; 孙志栋; 沈岚; 王芳; 朱宏芬; 陈惠云

    2007-01-01

    用AM系统(Brassica rapa × Moricandia arvensis 之间的杂种后代系统)作为桥梁植物,有可能育成Moricandia arvensis一条染色体添加系统.通过回交,可以做出具有育性的、多样的Moricandia arvensis染色体添加型植物.

  17. Discovery of a Cosmological, Relativistic Outburst via its Rapidly Fading Optical Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Cenko, S Bradley; Horesh, Assaf; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B; Carpenter, John; Frail, Dale A; Nugent, Peter E; Perley, Daniel A; Gruber, D; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Groot, Paul J; Hallinan, G; Ofek, Eran O; Rau, Arne; MacLeod, Chelsea L; Miller, Adam A; Bloom, Joshua S; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Morgan, Adam N; Polishook, David; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Sesar, Branimir; Shen, Ken J; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Sternberg, Assaf

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) of the transient source PTF11agg, which is distinguished by three primary characteristics: (1) bright, rapidly fading optical transient emission; (2) a faint, blue quiescent optical counterpart; and (3) an associated year-long, scintillating radio transient. We argue that these observed properties are inconsistent with any known class of Galactic transients, and instead suggest a cosmological origin. The detection of incoherent radio emission at such distances implies a large emitting region, from which we infer the presence of relativistic ejecta. The observed properties are all consistent with the population of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), marking the first time such an outburst has been discovered in the distant universe independent of a high-energy trigger. We searched for possible high-energy counterparts to PTF11agg, but found no evidence for associated prompt emission. We therefore consider three possible scenarios to account for ...

  18. Cache-Based Aggregate Query Shipping: An Efficient Scheme of Distributed OLAP Query Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Ming Liao; Guo-Shun Pei

    2008-01-01

    Our study introduces a novel distributed query plan refinement phase in an enhanced architecture of distributed query processing engine (DQPE). Query plan refinement generates potentially efficient distributed query plan by reusable aggregate query shipping (RAQS) approach. The approach improves response time at the cost of pre-processing time. If theoverheads could not be compensated by query results reusage, RAQS is no more favorable. Therefore a global cost estimation model is employed to get proper operators: RR_Agg, R_Agg, or R_Scan. For the purpose of reusing results of queries with aggregate function in distributed query processing, a multi-level hybrid view caching (HVC) scheme is introduced. The scheme retains the advantages of partial match and aggregate query results caching. By our solution, evaluations with distributed TPC-H queries show significant improvement on average response time.

  19. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    University of Denmark and the second largest ready-mix manufacturer in Denmark, 4K-Beton A/S. The aim is to identify the flow characteristic of SCC and the effect of concrete properties, casting technique, reinforcement configuration, and form geometry. A wall form of dimensions l = 3m, w = 0.3m, h =1m has....... Monitoring equipment has been produced and tested and is valuable as documentary evidence of the flow in combination with visual observations. In one experiment reinforcement gap sizes of 1.5 and 3⋅Dmax,agg have been applied and blocking occurred at 1.5⋅Dmax,agg. Pumping from the bottom corner at casting...... rate of 10 m/h resulted in hydrostatic pressure. Continuously shearing across the surface seems to have a positive effect on the surface quality (no blowholes)....

  20. Investigation into the Influence of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Friction Stir Welded AA6061 Al-Alloy Plates with Different Temper Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    İpekoğlu, Güven; Erim, Seçil; Çam, Gürel

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir butt-joined AA6061 Al-alloy plates both in O and T6-temper conditions was investigated by detailed microstructural investigations and microhardness measurements, in combination with transverse tensile testing. It was determined that the PWHT might result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) in the weld zone particularly in the joints produced in O-temper condition depending on the weld parameters used during friction stir welding. The PWHT generally led to an improvement in the mechanical properties even if AGG took place. Thus, the post-weld heat-treated joints exhibited mechanical properties much higher than those of respective as-welded plates and comparable to those of the respective base plates.

  1. Development and validation of SSR markers for Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernando Missio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of developing new SSR markers for Coffea arabica, two enriched genomic libraries withprobes (GT15 and (AGG10 were constructed. A total of 835 clones were sequenced and 756 presented good quality sequences.Redundant sequences were observed for 113 clones (14.94%. SSRs were found in 287 clones (38%. An estimated size of417.5Kb of the C. arabica genome was sampled, with an average of one SSR per 1.46Kb. Dinucleotide repeats were morefrequent than trinucleotides. Four repeat sequences, (AG/CTn, (AC/GTn, (AAG/CTTn, and (AGG/CCTn represented 61.1%of the total observed. A total of 96 SSR primers were designed and tested by PCR for two C. arabica genotypes. Ninety new SSRmarkers were validated for further genetic studies of C. arabica.

  2. Some Quality Traits of Different Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BASBAG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.

  3. Spectroscopic Study of Elements in Various Therapeutic Plants and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed with the aim to find out the concentrations of essential and non essential heavy metals such as Nickel, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead in selected therapeutic plant samples and soil. Methods: Plant samples like Malva parviflora, Polygonum aviculare, Anagallis arvensis, Solanum nigrum, Coronopus didymus, Aerva tomentosa, Alternanthera pungens and Cenchrus ciliaris were collected from District Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Dry method was adapted to digest the plant material and then heavy metals were investigated by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: Results showed that highest concentration of zinc was found in Polygonum aviculare 80.13 mg/kg followed by Anagallis arvensis 66.14 mg/kg. Similarly maximum amount of iron was recorded in Anagallis arvensis, 75.35 mg/kg followed by Cenchrus ciliaris 53.10 mg/kg. The copper concentration was found beyond the permissible limit in all therapeutic plants. Conclusion: The metals content in soil was higher as compared to the plant samples. The concentration of metals in each plant was also significantly different which may be due to the metals uptake rate of plants from the soil or metabolism of the plant.

  4. Some Quality Traits of Different Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AVCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.

  5. Diversité des communautés de mauvaises herbes des cultures annuelles de Côte-d'Or (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessaint F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of weed communities of annual crops in Cote-d'Or, France. Weed flora of annual crops in Cote-d'Or, France, were characterized in three successive growing seasons by measuring species frequencies and abundance over 245 fields. A total of 210 species in 143 genera were recorded representing a total of 43 families with Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae and Caryophyllaceae predominating. More than half of the species occurred in less than 5/ of the sampled plots (fields x years and only 9 species (namely Galium aparine L., Polygonum aviculare L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Loeve, Alopecurus myosuroides Hudson, Stellaria media (L. Vill., Convolvulus arvensis L., Sinapis arvensis L., Veronica persica Poiret and Anagallis arvensis L. occurred in more than 50/ of the plots. The maximum plot density was greater than 20 plants per square metre for more than one third of the species. Meanwhile, the plots where the density exceeded 20 plants per square metre, were rare and represented, for the most abundant species (A. myosuroides, less than 16/ of the plots. The total number of weed species per plots varied from 4 to 65 with a median species number of 20. In most of the plots, the weed community was mainly composed of species having a small density (less than one plant per square metre and was dominated by only one or two species in half of the plots.

  6. On the effect of crop rotation on artificially established weed species in two field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flucke, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate links between regional occurrence of well adapted weed species and crop rotations. Monocultures or very short crop rotation, which increased in the past decades are crucial for the establishment and dispersion of problematic weed species. In this study the impact of crop rotation on the occurrence of the species Amaranthus retroflexus (L., Anchusa arvensis (L. M. Bieb., Echinochloa crus-galli (L., Galium aparine (L., Geranium pusillum (L., Sisymbrium officinale (L., Solanum nigrum (L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Viola arvensis Murray is investigated in four crop rotations with varying potential of crop health risks. Therefore, maize (M, oilseed rape (WR and winter wheat [early sowing (WWF and late sowing (WWS] are cropped in four different rotations (M, WR – WWF, WR – M – WWS and WR – WWF – M – WWS at two study sites in Germany since year 2008 (Rostock and 2009 (Göttingen. At the start of the project selected weed species were sown into some plots in order to simulate an artificial similar weed pressure. In all plots weed species densities were counted before spraying in a standardized observation method. Analyses of four, respectively three years give evidences of crop specific effects regarding A. arvensis, E. crus-galli, G. pusillum, S. nigrum and S. media. Moreover, first effects of crop rotations on problematic weed species indicates that expanding crop rotations is a preventive tool to reduce weed densities.

  7. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern John H; Halpern Abraham L; Doherty Sean B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very agg...

  8. Improved Clustered Routing Algorithm Based on Distance and Energy in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dejun; Meng, Bo; Shaomin JIN

    2013-01-01

    Since the energy supply of a sensor node is limited, energy optimization should be considered as the key objective when studying the wireless sensor networks (WSN). Facing these challenges, clustering is one of the methods used to manage network energy consumption efficiently, and plays an important role in prolonging network lifetime and reducing energy consumption. The improved clustered routing algorithm based on distance and energy is proposed, which efficient improve the rate of data agg...

  9. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    OpenAIRE

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered class reproduction through the choice of GCSEs; gender normativity in single sex schools; and the relationship between domestic violence and sexual agg...

  10. AcEST: DK950736 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRADIESMDLIERRDFETEQRLTGG 374 Query: 236 ADAHSQSGSKRNKKSSKILLSTAGGRR 316 + S +NK + ++ S AGG + Sbjct: 375 IIL...KASSSGPSSTGKTSSSSTQTSGSQTSGSQTSGSQTSGSQSGQQT 193 Query: 257 GSKRNKKSSKILLSTAGGR 3...SQPRPGAPLWPGAD----SLNVAVKARPGPEDASENRAPGLPGAE 187 Query: 251 QSGSKRN------------KKSSKILLSTAGGRRY*LLTLICVTSCW...349 Query: 239 DAHSQ--SGSKRNKKSSKILLS 298 ++ SQ +GS+ SS L S Sbjct: 350 NSGSQGTTGSQSGSSSSNPLTS 371 >sp|Q96GW7...651 PASERKLFSDVARLGFASAQDSPPLR-VESGDLT-------GKSESTGEQGPAATPALSF 702 Query: 182 ADIIQAQPLKASPSATNGADAHSQS-GSKRNKKSSKILLS

  11. Expression of Hyaluronan and the Hyaluronan-Binding Proteoglycans Neurocan, Aggrecan and Versican by Neural Stem Cells and Neural Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abaskharoun, Mary; Bellemare, Marie; Lau, Elizabeth; Margolis, Richard U

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the expression and localization patterns of hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neural stem cells and differentiated neural cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Expression of proteoglycans and hyaluronan was weak in the SSEA1-positive embryonic stem cells but increased noticeably after retinoic acid induction to nestin-positive neural stem cells. After subsequent plating, the hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans agg...

  12. Clustering Effects Under Irradiation in Fe-0.1%Cu Alloy : An Atomic Scale Investigation with the Tomographic Atom Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Pareige, P.; Welzel, S; Auger, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of displacement cascades on the evolution of the microstructure of ferritic low copper supersaturated materials, analyses by 3D atomic tomography of neutron, electron and self ion irradiated Fe-0.1%Cu, were performed. This alloy was chosen because of its low copper concentration, close to that of french pressure vessel steels. The comparison of the microstructure evolutions in these irradiated specimens reveals the appearance of tiny copper "clusters" or "agg...

  13. Co-detection of virulent Escherichia coli genes in surface water sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thando Ndlovu

    Full Text Available McNemar's test and the Pearson Chi-square were used to assess the co-detection and observed frequency, respectively, for potentially virulent E. coli genes in river water. Conventional multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assays confirmed the presence of the aggR gene (69%, ipaH gene (23% and the stx gene (15% carried by Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and Enterohermorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, respectively, in river water samples collected from the Berg River (Paarl, South Africa. Only the aggR gene was present in 23% of samples collected from the Plankenburg River system (Stellenbosch, South Africa. In a comparative study, real-time multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of aggR (EAEC in 69%, stx (EHEC in 15%, ipaH (EIEC in 31% and eae (EPEC in 8% of the river water samples collected from the Berg River. In the Plankenburg River, aggR (EAEC was detected in 46% of the samples, while eae (EPEC was present in 15% of the water samples analyzed using real-time multiplex PCR in the Plankenburg River. Pearson Chi-square showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05 between the conventional and real-time multiplex PCRs for the detection of virulent E. coli genes in water samples. However, the McNemar's test showed some variation in the co-detection of virulent E. coli genes, for example, there was no statistical difference in the misclassification of the discordant results for stx versus ipaH, which implies that the ipaH gene was frequently detected with the stx gene. This study thus highlights the presence of virulent E. coli genes in river water and while early detection is crucial, quantitative microbial risk analysis has to be performed to identify and estimate the risk to human health.

  14. Beitrag zu Herstellung und Charakterisierung thermisch gespritzter kurzfaserverstärkter Kompositschichten

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Katja

    2003-01-01

    Das thermische Spritzen ist geeignet Kompositschichten herzustellen, deren Einsatzgebiet hauptsächlich im Verschleißschutz liegt. Bisher lag der Schwerpunkt in der Untersuchung partikelverstärkter Schichten. Inhalt der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Herstellung und Charakterisierung von C-kurzfaserverstärkten Schichten mit einer Aluminiummatrix. Als Spritzverfahren kamen das DC-Plasmaspritzen und das HF-Plasmaspritzen zur Anwendung. Die Aluminiumpulver und Kohlenstoffkurzfasern werden dafür agg...

  15. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Human Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Claudia; Lu, Yan; Higa, Naomi; Nakasone, Noboru; Chinen, Isabel; Baschkier, Ariela; Rivas, Marta; Iwanaga, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.

  16. The Dysregulation Profile in middle childhood and adolescence across reporters: factor structure, measurement invariance, and links with self-harm and suicidal ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Deutz, Marike H. F.; Geeraerts, Sanne B.; van Baar, Anneloes L.; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a phenotype of severe dysregulation, the Dysregulation Profile (DP), has been identified. DP consists of elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed (AD), Aggressive Behavior (AGG) and Attention Problems (AP) scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF), or Youth Self Report (YSR). A drawback in current research is that DP has been conceptualized and operationalized in different manners and research on the factor structure of DP is lacking. Therefore, we exa...

  17. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related problems prior to incarceration indicated use of alcohol for purposes of self-medication and 73% indicated that their alcohol use was associated with agg...

  18. Prion Disease Induces Alzheimer Disease-Like Neuropathologic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousseyn, Thomas; Bajsarowicz, Krystyna; Sánchez, Henry; Gheyara, Ania; Oehler, Abby; Geschwind, Michael; DeArmond, Bernadette; DeArmond, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the brains of 266 patients with prion diseases (PrionD) and found that 46 (17%) had Alzheimer disease (AD)-like changes. To explore potential mechanistic links between PrionD and AD, we exposed human brain aggregates (Hu BrnAggs) to brain homogenate from a patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and found that the neurons in the Hu BrnAggs produced many β-amyloid (β42) inclusions, whereas uninfected, control-exposed Hu BrnAggs did not. Western blots of 20-pooled CJD-infected BrnAggs verified higher Aβ42 levels than controls. We next examined the CA1 region of the hippocampus from 14 patients with PrionD and found that 5 patients had low levels of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc), many Aβ42 intraneuronal inclusions, low APOE-4, and no significant nerve cell loss. Seven patients had high levels of PrPSc, low Aβ42, high APOE-4 and 40% nerve cell loss, suggesting that APOE-4 and PrPSc together cause neuron loss in PrionD. There were also increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (Hτ) and Hτ-positive neuropil threads and neuron bodies in both PrionD and AD groups. The brains of 6 age-matched control patients without dementia did not contain Aβ42 deposits; however, there were rare Hτ-positive threads in 5 controls and 2 controls had a few Hτ-positive nerve cell bodies. We conclude that PrionD may trigger biochemical changes similar to AD and suggest that PrionD are diseases of PrPSc, Aβ42, APOE-4 and abnormal tau. PMID:26226132

  19. Genetic and Environmental Stability Differs in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; ZHENG, MO; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reactive (impulsive and affective) and proactive (planned and instrumental) aggression from childhood to early adolescence. The sample was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal twin study of risk factors for antisocial behavior at the University of Southern California (USC). The twins were measured on two occasions: ages 9–10 years (N = 1,241) and 11–14 years (N = 874). Reactive and proactive agg...

  20. Physiological Reactivity in a Community Sample of Sexually Aggressive Young Men: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Zoë D.; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R.

    2013-01-01

    Men’s sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually agg...

  1. Detection of virulence-associated genes characteristic of intestinal Escherichia coli pathotypes, including the enterohemorrhagic/enteroaggregative O104:H4, in bovines from Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; Geue, Lutz; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Barth, Stefanie; Bárcena, Carmen; Hamm, Katharina; Porrero, M Concepción; Valverde, Aránzazu; Cantón, Rafael; Menge, Christian; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2015-08-01

    Cattle are reservoirs of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, their role in the epidemiology of other pathogenic E. coli remains undefined. A new set of quantitative real-time PCR assays for the direct detection and quantification of nine virulence-associated genes (VAGs) characteristic of the most important human E. coli pathotypes and four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 , fliCH4 , rbfO157 , fliCH7 ) that can be used as a surveillance tool for detection of pathogenic strains was developed. A total of 970 cattle fecal samples were collected in slaughterhouses in Germany and Spain, pooled into 134 samples and analyzed with this tool. stx1, eae and invA were more prevalent in Spanish samples whereas bfpA, stx2, ehxA, elt, est and the rbfO157 /fliCH7 combination were observed in similar proportions in both countries. Genes characteristic of the hybrid O104:H4 strain of the 2011 German outbreak (stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 ) were simultaneously detected in six fecal pools from one German abattoir located near the outbreak epicenter. Although no isolate harboring the full stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 combination was cultured, sequencing of the aggR positive PCR products revealed 100% homology to the aggR from the outbreak strain. Concomitant detection by this direct approach of VAGs from a novel human pathogenic E. coli strain in cattle samples implies that the E. coli gene pool in these animals can be implicated in de novo formation of such highly-virulent strains. The application of this set of qPCRs in surveillance studies could be an efficient early-warning tool for the emergence of zoonotic E. coli in livestock.

  2. Lianen in mitteleuropäischen Pflanzengesellschaften und ihre Einnischung

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmanns, Otti

    2015-01-01

    Von den 88 in Mitteleuropa wild oder verwildert vorkommenden Lianen-Arten können Vitis vinifera und Humulus lupulus in Kulturen und die drei Wildpflanzen Clematis vitalba, Hedera helix und Rubus fruticosus agg. das Landschaftsbild prägen. Dies wird veranschaulicht. Die Verteilung der Kulturpflanzen auf Gesellschaftsklassen bzw. - Ordnungen gibt Tabelle 1 in Übersicht wieder. Als Lianen-reich erweisen sich: 1. die Mantel- und Heckengesellschaften der Rhamno-Prunetea, 2. die Saumgesellschaft...

  3. Distribution Characteristics and Compressibility of Agglomerates as a Reflection of Granulation Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Macho Oliver; Peciar Peter; Peciar Marián; Svěrák Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Selective adjustment of the properties of particular material agglomeration has its inherent place in the chemical, food, but especially in the pharmaceutical, industry. The requirement to produce an agglomerate with desired particle size at a given strength is often formulated. To create the targeted product, it is necessary to know the process parameters affecting the preparation of its features. This paper deals with survey distribution characteristics and compressibility changes of an agg...

  4. The Effects of Alcohol Problems, PTSD, and Combat Exposure on Nonphysical and Physical Aggression Among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Simpson, Tracy; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Aggression among combat veterans is of great concern. Although some studies have found an association between combat exposure and aggressive behavior following deployment, others conclude that aggression is more strongly associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and that alcohol misuse may influence this association. Many of these studies have assessed aggression as a single construct, whereas the current study explored both nonphysical aggression only and physical agg...

  5. Comparative evaluation of slide agglutination and Widal tube agglutination test in detecting enteric fever among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Jahan; Razia Khatoon; Amrita,; Sudhir Mehrotra; Swatantra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is a major public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although, isolation of causative organism from blood is the standard laboratory method, but due to frequent use of self-medication by patients, and its long turnaround time, it is seldom used, and enteric fever is usually diagnosed by using serological methods. Widal tube agglutination test is the standard serological test used, which is now a days replaced by slide agg...

  6. Antioxidant capacity, nutritional and functional composition of edible Dahlia flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Martin Belloso, Olga; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Barrera-Necha, Laura Leticia; Sánchez-López, Jesús Arnoldo; Bautista-Baños, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, Dahlia flowers are commonly consumed in different type of dishes; however, there are no reports on characteristics as a functional food. Proximate composition, minerals, vitamin C, phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of dahlia flowers were studied. In general, the highest values for the content of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were found in the purple dahlia (127.5 mg AG.g -1, 257.5 mg pelargonidin.100 g -1 and 24...

  7. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  8. Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate immunity by directly coupling to the FLS2 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Ding, Pingtao; Lian, Kehui; Wang, Jinlong; Ma, Miaomiao; Li, Lin; Li, Lei; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, She; Zhang, Yuelin; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate defenses through the central cytoplasmic kinase BIK1. The heterotrimeric G proteins composed of the non-canonical Gα protein XLG2, the Gβ protein AGB1, and the Gγ proteins AGG1 and AGG2 are required for FLS2-mediated immune responses through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that in the pre-activation state, XLG2 directly interacts with FLS2 and BIK1, and it functions together with AGB1 and AGG1/2 to attenuate proteasome-mediated degradation of BIK1, allowing optimum immune activation. Following the activation by flg22, XLG2 dissociates from AGB1 and is phosphorylated by BIK1 in the N terminus. The phosphorylated XLG2 enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) likely by modulating the NADPH oxidase RbohD. The study demonstrates that the G proteins are directly coupled to the FLS2 receptor complex and regulate immune signaling through both pre-activation and post-activation mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13568.001 PMID:27043937

  9. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains may carry virulence properties of diarrhoeagenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Cecilia M; Salvador, Fábia A; Falsetti, Ivan N; Vieira, Mônica A M; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Machado, Antônia M O; Elias, Waldir P; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2008-04-01

    To analyze whether Escherichia coli strains that cause urinary tract infections (UPEC) share virulence characteristics with the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes and to recognize their genetic diversity, 225 UPEC strains were examined for the presence of various properties of DEC and UPEC (type of interaction with HeLa cells, serogroups and presence of 30 virulence genes). No correlation between adherence patterns and serogroups was observed. Forty-five serogroups were found, but 64% of the strains belonged to one of the 12 serogroups (O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O14, O15, O18, O21, O25, O75, and O175) and carried UPEC virulence genes (pap, hly, aer, sfa, cnf). The DEC genes found were: aap, aatA, aggC, agg3C, aggR, astA, eae, ehly, iha, irp2, lpfA(O113), pet, pic, pilS, and shf. Sixteen strains presented aggregative adherence and/or the aatA sequence, which are characteristics of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), one of the DEC pathotypes. In summary, certain UPEC strains may carry DEC virulence properties, mostly associated to the EAEC pathotype. This finding raises the possibility that at least some faecal EAEC strains might represent potential uropathogens. Alternatively, certain UPEC strains may have acquired EAEC properties, becoming a potential cause of diarrhoea.

  10. Surface display of malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyan; Hou, Xiaoyan; Liang, Fang; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-04-01

    In order to display malolactic enzyme (MLE) on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast cell surface display plasmid pADH1-AGG was constructed by fusing the α-factor signal encoding sequence (267 bp) and the C-terminal half of α-agglutinin encoding sequence (1,645 bp) into the plasmid pADH1. The pADH1-AGG could successfully express and anchor the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) onto the yeast cell surface when the EGFP was used to verify its function. Then the pADH1-MLE was constructed by inserting the MLE encoding sequence (1,600 bp) into the pADH1-AGG and introduced into S. cerevisiae cells. The positive strain carrying pADH1-MLE was confirmed by use of the 6× His monoclonal antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. All results indicated that the MLE was displayed successfully on the cell surface of positive transformant. The MLE activity of genetically engineered yeast strain could turn 21.11 % L-malate into lactic acid after 12 h reaction with L-malate. The constructed yeast strain might be used to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine to solve the important issues of sluggish MLF, microbial spoilage, and adverse metabolic substances produced by the lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23446978

  11. 平菇汁对野蘑菇生长的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 陈有君; 李国光; 李春玲; 李立民

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus arvensis has well nutritional and medicinal value, but because of its slow growth, rapid aging, low yield, its practical application is still limied. Now with the literature material, it finds that there is some unknown components in Pleurotus ostreatus juice on Agaricus arvensis mycelium growth has a significant role, designed to identify and determine the substance, and its optimum growth concentration. This experiment is to analyze the same volume Pleurotus ostreatus juice respectively in water, ethanol, acetone, in dialysis bag whose MWCO is 8 000~14 000, by DNS method of reducing sugars, biuret method for measuring protein, acidic dye colorimetry measured alkaloids, phenol-sulfuric acid method of measuring total sugar measuring ammonia, formaldehyde method for the determination of means, and the hypha growth diameter, combining with the development situation, get the observed phenomenon: components have more protein joined medium in where Agaricus arvensis hypha growth is rapid, components have more alkaloid joined medium in where Agaricus arvensis hypha growth is slow, alkaloid joined medium part of the Agaricus arvensis hypha growth is slow, so come to the conclusion:there are classes of protein substances play a promoting effect on Agaricus arvensis mycelium growth, alkaloids substances inhibiting Agaricus arvensis hypha growth role.%野蘑菇具有很高的营养和药用价值,但人工培养时生长缓慢、老化快、产量低,使得在菌剂等实际生产应用方面受到限制。结合有关文献资料,发现平菇汁中有不知名组分对野蘑菇菌丝生长有显著的促进作用,旨在找出并确定这种物质及其最适生长浓度。分别以水、乙醇、丙酮为透析液, MWCO为8000~14000的透析袋透析等体积蘑菇汁, DNS法测还原糖、双缩脲法测蛋白质、酸性染料比色法测生物碱、苯酚-硫酸法测总糖、甲醛法测氨为测定手段,菌丝直径为测量指标。蛋白质

  12. Incidence of virulence determinants in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates collected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Strateva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients. Methods Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively, enterococcal surface protein (esp, endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA, collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm; invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl and gelatinase (gelE; cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA in E. faecalis; and modulators of the host immunity and inflammation (enhanced expression pheromone (eep in E. faecalis were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results The overall prevalence was: esp – 44.3%, agg/asa1 – 38.4%, ace/acm – 64.3%, efaA – 85.9%, eep – 69.4%, gelE – 64.3%, hyl – 25.1%, and cylA – 47.1%. E. faecalis isolates had significantly higher frequency of adhesin genes (esp and agg/asa1 and gelatinase in comparison to E. faecium. Multiple virulence genes in E. faecalis were significantly more prevalent than in E. faecium isolates. Domination of E. faecium with or without only one gene compared to the isolates of E. faecalis were found. Enterococcus spp. isolates obtained from outpatients compared to inpatients isolates had significantly higher frequency of agg/asa1, eep, gelE and cylA. Some adhesins genes (esp, agg/asa1 and efaA had higher prevalence among the non-invasive Enterococcus spp. isolates compared to those causing invasive bacteremia, while ace/acm revealed higher dissemination in isolates causing invasive infections compared to non-invasive isolates. Conclusion Most E. faecalis attaches to abiotic surfaces in hospital environment, which correlates with higher prevalence of gene encoding for virulence factors involved in biofilm formation, such as enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, and gelatinase. The intestinal tract is an

  13. Phytochemical analysis of the essential oils of 10 endemic Cephalaria species from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıkahya, N Böke; Kayce, P; Halay, E; Göktürk, R S; Sümbül, H; Kırmızıgül, S

    2013-01-01

    The volatile composition of 10 endemic Cephalaria (Dipsacaceae) species (Cephalaria gazipashensis, Cephalaria lycica, Cephalaria paphlagonica, Cephalaria elmaliensis, Cephalaria stellipilis, Cephalaria scoparia, Cephalaria isaurica, Cephalaria cilicica, Cephalaria elazigensis var. purpurea and Cephalaria davisiana) was investigated. The essential oil mixtures were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. Twenty-eight components were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. While total volatile percentages ranged from 68.99% to 84.57%, the total essential oil yields ranged between 38.15% and 64.05%. Geraniol, α-cedrene and p-cymene were determined as the main components. Geraniol was detected as a major component in C. cilicica (14.64%), and α-cedrene was detected as a major component with 26.03% for C. lycica, 16.93% for C. scoparia, 13.01% for C. davisiana and 10.94% for C. paphlagonica. Cephalaria scoparia, C. davisiana and C. gazipashensis have considerable amount of p-cymene as 12.86%, 12.70% and 11.16%, respectively. This was the first essential oil report concerning the Cephalaria genus. PMID:22757667

  14. Complex consequences of herbivory and interplant cues in three annual plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S Pearse

    Full Text Available Information exchange (or signaling between plants following herbivore damage has recently been shown to affect plant responses to herbivory in relatively simple natural systems. In a large, manipulative field study using three annual plant species (Achyrachaena mollis, Lupinus nanus, and Sinapis arvensis, we tested whether experimental damage to a neighboring conspecific affected a plant's lifetime fitness and interactions with herbivores. By manipulating relatedness between plants, we assessed whether genetic relatedness of neighboring individuals influenced the outcome of having a damaged neighbor. Additionally, in laboratory feeding assays, we assessed whether damage to a neighboring plant specifically affected palatability to a generalist herbivore and, for S. arvensis, a specialist herbivore. Our study suggested a high level of contingency in the outcomes of plant signaling. For example, in the field, damaging a neighbor resulted in greater herbivory to A. mollis, but only when the damaged neighbor was a close relative. Similarly, in laboratory trials, the palatability of S. arvensis to a generalist herbivore increased after the plant was exposed to a damaged neighbor, while palatability to a specialist herbivore decreased. Across all species, damage to a neighbor resulted in decreased lifetime fitness, but only if neighbors were closely related. These results suggest that the outcomes of plant signaling within multi-species neighborhoods may be far more context-specific than has been previously shown. In particular, our study shows that herbivore interactions and signaling between plants are contingent on the genetic relationship between neighboring plants. Many factors affect the outcomes of plant signaling, and studies that clarify these factors will be necessary in order to assess the role of plant information exchange about herbivory in natural systems.

  15. Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiewicz Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park was studied in between the years 2012 and 2013. One hundred phytosociological Braun-Blanquet releves were taken, documenting the occurrence of 152 species of vascular plants that represented 29 botanic families. Analysis of the contributions of geographic-historical groups revealed the dominance of the native species, apophytes (87 species, making 57.2%, over anthropophytes (65 species, 42.8%. The number of short-lived species was twice greater (103 species, 67.8% than the perennial ones (49 species, 32.2%. As regards the lifeforms, the therophytes were dominant (96 species, 63.2% over hemicryptophytes (44 species, 28.9% and geophytes (12 species, 7.9%. Among the species of segetal flora in the area studied, 23 valuable species classified to different categories of protection, were identified. The presence of Consolida regalis, Centaurea cyanus and Bromus secalinus, belonging to threatened species in other regions of Poland, was abundant. Also the species: Anthemis tinctoria, Echium vulgare and Anchusa officinalis were met with high frequency. The species: Agrostemma githago, Papaver argemone and Papaver dubium were represented by single plants, which can suggest their dying out. In the Park area, expansive species, threatening the biodiversity, such as Myosotis arvensis, Viola arvensis, Galeopsis tetraehit, Stellaria media, Artemisia vulgaris, Galinsoga parviflora, Elymus repens, Capsella bursa pastoris, Erodium cicutarium, Chamomilla recutita, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum persicaria, Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. pallidum and Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. lapathifolium, were commonly seen in the crop land.

  16. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop. PMID:26459375

  17. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  18. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

  19. Diasporenbankanalyse zum Nachweis gefährdeter Segetalarten auf ehemaligen Ackerstandorten : Keimlingsauflaufverfahren versus Freilandauflaufverfahren

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtz, Christine; Heinken, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Im Rahmen des DBU-Projekts „100 Äcker für die Vielfalt“ für den Schutz heimischer Ackerwildkrautvegetation wurden im Osten von Brandenburg sieben potenzielle Schutzackerflächen untersucht. Auf den sandigen bis lehmigen, z. T. basen- und kalkreichen Brachen oder Grünlandstandorten in Hanglage, die seit 2, 20 oder 50 Jahren nicht mehr ackerbaulich genutzt werden, wuchsen zur Zeit der Ackernutzung gefährdete Segetalarten wie Agrostemma githago, Arnoseris minima, Nigella arvensis und Stachys annu...

  20. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  1. Efeito de solo previamente cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. PEREIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito do solo pré-cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface cv. Simpson. A pesquisa foi realizada na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, em bandejas mantidas em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e onze tratamentos: solo pré-cultivado com hortelã-comum (Mentha x villosa, hortelã-brava (Mentha arvensis, hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita, Mentha spp., capim-citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus, capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão de folha larga (Ocimum basilicum, manjericão de folha roxa (Ocimum gratissimun, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris, sálvia (Salvia officinalis e solo da mesma área sem cultivo prévio de planta aromática (controle. Aos 30 dias após o semeio, foram avaliadas: índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, taxa de sobrevivência (TS, número de folhas (NF, comprimento da raiz principal (CRP e da parte aérea (CPA, massa fresca da raiz (MFR e da parte aérea (MFPA e massa seca da raiz (MSR e da parte aérea (MSPA. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa em relação ao IVE, sendo que o tratamento com C. citratus afetou negativamente a emergência das plântulas. O tratamento com M. arvensis apresentou uma TS de apenas 16% das plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. O NF foi menor no tratamento com M. arvensis, diferentemente de todos os demais, exceto S. officinalis. A MRF e MFF foram estimuladas pelo tratamento com T. vulgaris sendo superior a todos os outros tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que houve efeito negativo de M. arvensis e positivo de T. vulgaris no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface.

  2. Učinkovitost biljnog pripravka protiv cekalne kokcidioze u tovnih pilića

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakesan, Periasamy; Muralidharan, Kathirvel; Dinesh Kumar, Vijayakumar; Ponnudurai, Gurusamy; Jeyagopal Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli; Senthil Veland Natarajan Rani, Kandasmy

    2009-01-01

    Protukokcidijska učinkovitost biljnoga pripravka sastavljenoga od biljaka Solanum nigram 35%, Aloe vera 15%, Moringa indica 35% i Mentha arvensis 15% istražena je na tovnim pilićima invadiranima kokcidijom Eimeria tenella. Trideset jednodnevnih pilića bilo je podijeljeno u pet pokusnih skupina. U svakoj skupini bilo je šest pilića, koji su do pokusa bili hranjeni krmivom bez protukokcidijskih sredstava. Pilići skupina A, B, C i D bili su u dobi od 28 dana invadirani s 30 000 sporuliranih ooci...

  3. Excursión desde Valladolid de Fuensaldaña (Valladolid) el 5 de octubre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Excursión desde Valladolid a Fuensaldaña (Valladolid), pasando por la Cañada Real, el Val de Carros y el páramo, durante la mañana del 5 de octubre de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Anthus campestris (Bisbita campestre), Athene noctua (Mochuelo europeo), Calandrella brachydactyla (Terrera común), Calandrella sp. (Terrera), Carduelis carduelis (Jilguero), Corvus corone (Corneja negra), Falco naumanni (Cernícalo primilla), F...

  4. Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 19 de noviembre de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) durante la mañana del 19 de noviembre de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Anas crecca (Cerceta común), Anas penelope (Silbón europeo), Anas platyrhynchos (Ánade azulón, también llamado Pato bravío por el autor), Anthus spinoletta (Bisbita alpino), Carduelis sp. (probablemente, el Jilguero, C.carduelis), Corvus corone (Corneja negra), Corvus monedula (Grajilla, llamada Coloeus po...

  5. Salida de campo a Fuensaldaña (Valladolid) el 18 de marzo de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Fuensaldaña (Valladolid) el 18 de marzo de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alondra (seguramente, Alauda arvensis, la, Alondra común), Anthus pratensis (Bisbita común), Carduelis carduelis (Jilguero), Ciconia ciconia (Cigüeña blanca), Columba sp. (Paloma), Corvus corone (Corneja negra), Corvus monedula (Grajilla, llamada Coloeus por el autor), Coturnix coturnix (Codorniz común), Falco naumanni (Cernícalo primilla), Falco peregrinus (Halcón...

  6. Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 4 de febrero de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero, Valladolid, durante la mañana del 4 de febrero de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Anas penelope (Silbón europeo), Anas platyrhynchos (Ánade azulón, también llamado Pato bravío por el autor), Anas sp. (Ánade), Anthus pratensis (Bisbita común), Buteo buteo (Busardo ratonero, también llamado Águila ratera), Carduelis (seguramente, el Jilguero, C.carduelis), Ciconia sp. (seguramente, la Cigüeñ...

  7. Salida de campo a Valdestillas (Valladolid) el 14 de noviembre de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Valdestillas, en la provincia de Valladolid, el 14 de noviembre de 1951, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), Actitis hypoleucos (Andarríos chico, llamado Actynioides hypoleucus por el autor), Aegithalos caudatus (Mito), Agachadiza (pudiendo ser Gallinago sp. Lymnocryptes minimus), Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Anas acuta (Ánade rabudo), Anas penelope (Silbón europe...

  8. A guide to generalized additive models in crop science using SAS and R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Liew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear models and generalized linear models are well known and are used extensively in crop science. Generalized additive models (GAMs are less well known. GAMs extend generalized linear models through inclusion of smoothing functions of explanatory variables, e.g., spline functions, allowing the curves to bend to better describe the observed data. This article provides an introduction to GAMs in the context of crop science experiments. This is exemplified using a dataset consisting of four populations of perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis L., originating from two regions, for which emergence of shoots over time was compared.

  9. Effect of liming on yield and quality of peppermint and Sachalin mint in fine sand soil of Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Aflatuni, Abbas; Uusitalo, Jouko; Ek, Sari; Hohtola, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Soil acidity commonly limits plant production in the fine sand soil of Northern Finland, which often has a low pH (5.5-6.5) and contains low levels of Ca and Mg. The effect of five liming (10% Mg and 19% Ca) levels, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 tons ha -1 , on the herb and essential oil yield and menthol and menthone content of two mint species (peppermint, Mentha x piperita, a variety of Black Mitcham and Sachalin mint, Mentha arvensis var. sacchalinensis) cultivated in fine sand soil in Northern Fin...

  10. Cultivation Characteristics and Domestication Prospect of Main Cultivated Agaricus%蘑菇属主栽种栽培特性比较及驯化展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志江; 李荣春

    2009-01-01

    比较了蘑菇属(Agaricus)主栽种双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)、大肥菇(Agaricus bitorquis)、姬松茸(Agaricus blazei)和野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis)的生物学特性和栽培特性,旨在从共性和差异性总结出蘑菇属的特性,为研究驯化开发蘑菇属其他种提供依据.并对蘑菇属发展前景进行了展望.

  11. Morfología polínica de Veronica L. (Scrophulariaceae) en el suroeste de España

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Díaz, Julio E.; Juan, Rocío; Fernández, Inmaculada

    1997-01-01

    Morfología polínica de Veronica L. (Scrophulariaceae) en el suroeste de España. Se estudia la morfología polínica, al microscopio óptico y electónico de barrido, de 13 taxones de Veronica L.: V. scutellata, V. anagallis-aquatica, V. anagalloides, V. thriphyllos, V. praecox, V. arvensis, V. peregrina, V. polita, V. agrestis, V. persica, V. cymbalaria, V. hederifolia subsp. hederifolia y V. hedertfolia subsp. triloba. Los resultados confirman el carácter euripolínico del género. Se est...

  12. Radiation induced useful mutants of Japanese mint (Mentha arvesis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to inducing mutations, dormant suckers of Mentha arvensis var. piperascens were exposed to X- and gamma rays. Individual clones raised from these treatments were screened for morphological and biochemical traits. Clones with apparent mutations in the first vegetative generation were propagated through second generation and those breeding true for the mutated character were isolated. In this way several mutants were isolated, some of which were found to be novel with respect to the quality of oil, besides those economically useful. The study shows that induced mutations could be very useful in the breeding of vegetatively propagated plants. (orig.)

  13. Efeito de substratos agrícolas na produção de mudas de hortelã propagadas por estaquia Effect of agricultural substrates in the production of mint seedlings propagated through cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Paulus; Eloi Paulus

    2007-01-01

    A utilização de substratos agrícolas, adequados a cada espécie vegetal, auxilia na obtenção de mudas e plantas com qualidade comercial. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS) com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de substratos (organo-mineral, casca de arroz carbonizada + areia (1:1) e casca de arroz + solo (1:1)) para produção de mudas de hortelã (Mentha arvensis L.) adequadas ao cultivo no campo. O experimento teve duas fases: produção das mudas em ambiente prote...

  14. Crescimento e composição mineral da menta em resposta à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada Growth and mineral composition of mint in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Simone M Freitas; Marco Antonio Martins; Almy Junior C de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliados os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) no crescimento e composição mineral de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, num fatorial 5x4, sendo cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (controle, Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita e Acaulospora scrobiculata) e quatro doses de P (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg kg-1), com quatro repe...

  15. Produção de biomassa e teor de óleo essencial em função da idade e época de colheita em plantas de hortelã-japonesa = Biomass yield and essential oil content in function of the age and harvest period of mint plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Henrique Chagas; Jose Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto; Suzan Kelly Vilela Bertolucci; Fúlvia Maria do Santos

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da época e da idade da planta na colheita na produção de biomassa seca e no teor percentual do óleo essencial e o tempo de armazenamento das plantas de Mentha arvensis L. Foram instalados dois experimentos. No primeiro, foi avaliado o efeito de três idades na colheita, 80, 100 e 120 dias após o transplantio, e três idades na segunda colheita, 60, 75 e 90 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema fa...

  16. Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa (Valladolid) el 27 de octubre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, durante la mañana del 27 de octubre de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes órdenes de insectos: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata y Orthoptera, los siguientes mamíferos: Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Lepus sp. (Liebre), Mustela nivalis (Comadreja) y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), Alauda arvensis (Alondr...

  17. Salida de campo por Francia en mayo de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo por Francia, seguramente cerca de La Camarga, en Provenza, en mayo de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre ranas y sapos (sin identificar las especies), un Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), y las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Apus sp. (Vencejo), Ardea cinerea (Garza real), Ardea purpurea (Garza imperial), Burhinus oedicnemus (Alcaraván común), Buteo buteo (Busardo ratonero, también llamado Águila ratera), Certhia sp. (A...

  18. Variação da agregação induzida por plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno e plantio direto de milho em um solo podzólico Variation in aggregation indüced by winter cover crops and corn no-tillage in a hapludalf

    OpenAIRE

    Claudir José Basso; Dalvan José Reinert

    1998-01-01

    Com objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo no inverno por diferentes plantas sobre a estabilidade de agregados estáveis em água, desenvolveu-se um experimento de maio/93 a maio/95, em solo Podzóiico vermelho-amarelo (PV) da área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Os tratamentos constaram das seguintes plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno: ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvensis), ervilhaca (Vicia saliva L.), chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L.), a...

  19. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  20. Radiation induced useful mutants of Japanese mint (Mentha arvesis L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kak, S.N.; Kaul, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    With a view to inducing mutations, dormant suckers of Mentha arvensis var. piperascens were exposed to X- and gamma rays. Individual clones raised from these treatments were screened for morphological and biochemical traits. Clones with apparent mutations in the first vegetative generation were propagated through second generation and those breeding true for the mutated character were isolated. In this way several mutants were isolated, some of which were found to be novel with respect to the quality of oil, besides those economically useful. The study shows that induced mutations could be very useful in the breeding of vegetatively propagated plants.

  1. Óleos essenciais no controle pós-colheita de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em mamão Essential oils on postharvest control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in papaya fruit

    OpenAIRE

    P.R Carnelossi; K.R.F. Schwan-Estrada; M.E.S Cruz; A.T. Itako; R.M. Mesquini

    2009-01-01

    Os subprodutos de plantas medicinais têm sido estudados como uma alternativa para o controle de doenças de plantas visando amenizar e/ou reduzir o uso abusivo de agrotóxicos, principalmente em condições pós-colheita. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro e in vivo, o controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose do mamão em pós-colheita, por óleos essenciais (OEs) de Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Mentha arvensis e Artemisia dracuncul...

  2. Solid solubility of germanium in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Hamed [Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Weber, Ludger, E-mail: ludger.weber@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-09-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvus line in the binary Ag-Ge system has been assessed based on measurements of electrical resistivity and specific gravity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two measurement techniques yield close agreement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The data found in this contribution indicate lower solid solubility than in previous assessments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Redlich-Kister parameters have been evaluated to describe the solvus line. - Abstract: The solid solubility of germanium in silver has been measured in the temperature range of 520 K to 913 K via measurements of density and of electrical conductivity of two near-eutectic Ag-Ge alloys. The atomic fraction of germanium in solid solution varied between 0.014 and 0.089 over the mentioned range of temperature and an extrapolated maximum solubility of 0.093 at the eutectic temperature of 924 K is found. For samples with spheroidized Ge-particles before the equilibrium heat treatments at low temperature for 24 or 48 h, thermodynamic equilibrium was supposedly not achieved at temperatures below 723 K. Much longer heat treatments (tens of days) on the significantly finer as-cast microstructure allowed to reach equilibrium probably down to 600 K. Independently of whether thermodynamic equilibrium was reached or not the electrical conductivity and the density measurements yielded good agreement typically within a few tenth of percent of atomic Ge-concentration in solid solution in {alpha}-Ag for a given temperature. The results are close to, yet consistently slightly lower than, the values given by Owen and Rowland on which the current assessment of the solvus in the Ag-Ge binary is based. More recent results by Filipponi and co-workers are clearly not in agreement with the data presented here.

  3. Identification of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in infants with acute diarrhea based on biofilm production in Manipal, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangar Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC is an emerging enteric pathogen that causes persistent diarrhea among infants, both in developing and industrialized countries. The EAEC strains adhere to epithelial cell surface, to the glass substratum and to each other in a distinctive stacked brick-formation. Thus, gold standard for identification of EAEC remains the HEp-2 cell adherence test, which is time consuming and requires specialized facilities. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative biofilm assay to screen for EAEC from children with acute diarrhea. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 E. coli strains were collected from acute diarrheal cases from December 2005 to November 2006. The strains were screened for biofilm production using microtiter plate method. The biofilm in the microtiter plate was visualized after staining with crystal violet and was quantified using enzyme immunosorbent assay plate reader. The Aggregative plasmid and Heat stable toxin genes were evaluated by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The strains were identified as EAEC with an optical density at 570 nm (OD 570 > 0.2. Results: Of the total 100 Escherichia coli strains, 28 were positive by Polymerase Chain Reaction for two genes, AggR and EAST. Of the 28 PCR-positive strains screened for biofilm, 25 (89.2% showed positive results by microtiter plate method. Conclusion: The quantitative biofilm assay using microtiter plate is convenient and economical and can be used as a screening method to screen E. coli isolates from acute diarrheal cases. The best use of this test is to screen large number of isolates quickly, and if positive this can be confirmed by multiplex PCR for AggR and EAST genes. This assay may contribute to demonstrating the true incidence of EAEC with and without AggR among clinically isolated E. coli strains, which can cause acute diarrhea.

  4. Role of C-terminal domain and transmembrane helices 5 and 6 in function and quaternary structure of major intrinsic proteins: analysis of aquaporin/glycerol facilitator chimeric proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Laurence; Pellerin, Isabelle; Delamarche, Christian; Deschamps, Stephane; Lagree, Valerie; Froger, Alexandrine; Bonnec, Georgette; Thomas, Daniel; Hubert, Jean-Francois

    2002-06-01

    We previously observed that aquaporins and glycerol facilitators exhibit different oligomeric states when studied by sedimentation on density gradients following nondenaturing detergent solubilization. To determine the domains of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family proteins involved in oligomerization, we constructed protein chimeras corresponding to the aquaporin AQPcic substituted in the loop E (including the proximal part of transmembrane domain (TM) 5) and/or the C-terminal part (including the distal part of TM 6) by the equivalent domain of the glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin (GlpF) (chimeras called AGA, AAG, and AGG). The analogous chimeras of GlpF were also constructed (chimeras GAG, GGA, and GAA). cRNA corresponding to all constructs were injected into Xenopus oocytes. AQPcic, GlpF, AAG, AGG, and GAG were targeted to plasma membranes. Water or glycerol membrane permeability measurements demonstrated that only the AAG chimera exhibited a channel function corresponding to water transport. Analysis of all proteins expressed either in oocytes or in yeast by velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients following solubilization by 2% n-octyl glucoside indicated that only AQPcic and AAG exist in tetrameric forms. GlpF, GAG, and GAA sediment in a monomeric form, whereas GGA and AGG were found mono/dimeric. These data bring new evidence that, within the MIP family, aquaporins and GlpFs behave differently toward nondenaturing detergents. We demonstrate that the C-terminal part of AQPcic, including the distal half of TM 6, can be substituted by the equivalent domain of GlpF (AAG chimera) without modifying the transport specificity. Our results also suggest that interactions of TM 5 of one monomer with TM 1 of the adjacent monomer are crucial for aquaporin tetramer stability. PMID:11927589

  5. Termodinámica de Sistemas Metálicos (II. Extensión y Refinamiento de Los Modelos Energéticos de Pares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valderrama N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan k>s posibles refinamientos de los modelos de pares aplicados a soluciones metálicas liquidas. Como una extensión de los mismos se discute el tratamiento estadístico de Takeuchi y se presenta su aplicación a los sistemas Ag-Ge, Ag-Sn, Cu-ln y Cd-Cu. Cd-Sb, St>- Zn, El comportamiento de mini- estructuras en estos sistemas es también bien presentado y discutido.

  6. Accumulation and effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles to sediment-dwelling invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Forbes, Valery E; Gilliland, Douglas;

    2015-01-01

    Sediment is increasingly recognized as the major sink for contaminants including nanoparticles (NPs). Thus, sediment-living organisms are especially susceptible to NP exposure. Studies of the fate and effects of NPs in the sediment matrix are still in their infancy, and data from such studies are...... in high demand. Here, we examine the effects of exposure to sediment mixed with either aqueous Ag (administered as AgNO3) or Ag NPs (13 nm, citrate-capped) at a nominal exposure concentration of 100 μg Ag/g dry weight sediment on four benthic invertebrates: two clones of the gastropod Potamopyrgus...

  7. Electrospinning Auricular Shaped Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Walser, Jochen; Caversaccio, Marco; Ferguson, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ɛ)caprolactone scaffolds have been electrospun directly into an auricular shaped conductive mould. Bovine chondrocytes were harvested from articular cartilage and seeded onto 16 of the produced scaffolds, which received either an ethanol (group A) or a plasma treatment (group B) for sterilisation before seeding. The seeded scaffolds were cultured for 3 weeks in vitro and analysed with regard to total DNA and GAG content as well as the expression of AGG, COL1, COL2, MMP3 and MMP13. Rap...

  8. Measurement of the Floor Tilt in Experimental Determination of the Gravitational Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴书朝; 黄玉; 范淑华; 罗俊

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a device with an impact structure for measuring the floor tilt has been built in our laboratory.The mechanical construction and the capacitive transducer of the device are introduced. Experimental results indicate that the floor tilt is about 16μrad in our cavity laboratory, and the uncertainty AG/G caused by such tilt is less than 0.54 parts per million (ppm), so the floor tilt can be reasonably neglected in the experimental determination of the gravitational constant G with the total uncertainty of about 10ppm.

  9. Monetary Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Serletis; Zisimos Koustas

    2015-01-01

    We test the long-run neutrality of money proposition for the United States using the King and Watson (1997) methodology paying attention to the integration and cointegration properties of the variables. We use quarterly data (over the period from 1967:1 to 2014:1) and the new Center for Financial Stability Divisia monetary aggregates, documented in detail in Barnett et al. (2013). We make a comparison among the narrower monetary aggregates, M1 M2M, M2M, M2, and ALL, and the broad monetary agg...

  10. Novel Aggregative Adherence Fimbria Variant of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boisen, Nadia;

    2015-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) organisms belong to a diarrheagenic pathotype known to cause diarrhea and can be characterized by distinct aggregative adherence (AA) in a stacked-brick pattern to cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated 118 EAEC strains isolated from....... Transformation to a nonadherent E. coli HB101 and complementation of the nonadherent C338-14 mutant with the complete gene cluster restored the AA adhesion. Overall, we found the agg5A gene in 12% of the 118 strains isolated from Denmark, suggesting that this novel adhesin represents an important variant....

  11. Termodinámica de sistemas metálicos (ii). extensión y refinamiento de los modelos energéticos de pares

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama N., J.; Romero F., R.; Combariza C., E.

    2009-01-01

    Se analizan k>s posibles refinamientos de los modelos de pares aplicados a soluciones metálicas liquidas. Como una extensión de los mismos se discute el tratamiento estadístico de Takeuchi y se presenta su aplicación a los sistemas Ag-Ge, Ag-Sn, Cu-ln y Cd-Cu. Cd-Sb, St>- Zn, El comportamiento de mini- estructuras en estos sistemas es también bien presentado y discutido.

  12. Termodinámica de Sistemas Metálicos (II). Extensión y Refinamiento de Los Modelos Energéticos de Pares

    OpenAIRE

    J. Valderrama N.; R. Romero F.; E. Combariza C.

    2009-01-01

    Se analizan k>s posibles refinamientos de los modelos de pares aplicados a soluciones metálicas liquidas. Como una extensión de los mismos se discute el tratamiento estadístico de Takeuchi y se presenta su aplicación a los sistemas Ag-Ge, Ag-Sn, Cu-ln y Cd-Cu. Cd-Sb, St>- Zn, El comportamiento de mini- estructuras en estos sistemas es también bien presentado y discutido.

  13. A single sequence context cannot satisfy all non-AUG initiator codons in yeast†

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Tzu-Ling; Lin Chen-Huan; Chen Shun-Jia; Chang Chia-Pei; Wang Chien-Chia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that ALA1 (encoding alanyl-tRNA synthetase) and GRS1 (encoding glycyl-tRNA synthetase) respectively use ACG and TTG as their alternative translation initiator codons. To explore if any other non-ATG triplets can act as initiator codons in yeast, ALA1 was used as a reporter for screening. Results We show herein that except for AAG and AGG, all triplets that differ from ATG by a single nucleotide were able to serve as initi...

  14. Discovery of a cosmological, relativistic outburst via its rapidly fading optical emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Nugent, Peter E.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, Assaf; Carpenter, John; Perley, Daniel A.; Groot, Paul J.; Hallinan, G. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Frail, Dale A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Gruber, D.; Rau, Arne [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); MacLeod, Chelsea L. [Physics Department, United States Naval Academy, 572c Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: cenko@astro.berkeley.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) of the transient source PTF11agg, which is distinguished by three primary characteristics: (1) bright (R {sub peak} = 18.3 mag), rapidly fading (ΔR = 4 mag in Δt = 2 days) optical transient emission; (2) a faint (R = 26.2 ± 0.2 mag), blue (g' – R = 0.17 ± 0.29 mag) quiescent optical counterpart; and (3) an associated year-long, scintillating radio transient. We argue that these observed properties are inconsistent with any known class of Galactic transients (flare stars, X-ray binaries, dwarf novae), and instead suggest a cosmological origin. The detection of incoherent radio emission at such distances implies a large emitting region, from which we infer the presence of relativistic ejecta. The observed properties are all consistent with the population of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), marking the first time such an outburst has been discovered in the distant universe independent of a high-energy trigger. We searched for possible high-energy counterparts to PTF11agg, but found no evidence for associated prompt emission. We therefore consider three possible scenarios to account for a GRB-like afterglow without a high-energy counterpart: an 'untriggered' GRB (lack of satellite coverage), an 'orphan' afterglow (viewing-angle effects), and a 'dirty fireball' (suppressed high-energy emission). The observed optical and radio light curves appear inconsistent with even the most basic predictions for off-axis afterglow models. The simplest explanation, then, is that PTF11agg is a normal, on-axis long-duration GRB for which the associated high-energy emission was simply missed. However, we have calculated the likelihood of such a serendipitous discovery by PTF and find that it is quite small (≈2.6%). While not definitive, we nonetheless speculate that PTF11agg may represent a new, more common (>4 times the on-axis GRB rate at 90% confidence) class of relativistic

  15. Search for direct CP-violation in $K^{\\pm}\\to \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, Nicola; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, Donald C; Falaleev, V; Fidecaro, Maria; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Kubischta, Werner; Norton, A; Maier, A; Patel, M; Peters, A; Balev, S; Frabetti, P L; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Marinova, E; Molokanova, N A; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Rubin, P; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Wahl, H; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Celeghini, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Renk, B; Wache, M; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Coward, D; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Shieh, M; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Wood, M D; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Raggi, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Cerri, C; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Di Lella, Luigi; Doble, Niels T; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, Sergio; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Michetti, A; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Bloch-Devaux, B; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Ziolkowski, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Marchetto, F; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G

    2006-01-01

    A search for direct CP-violation in K+- --> pi+-pi0pi0 decays based on 47.14 million events has been performed by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. The asymmetry in the Dalitz plot linear slopes A_g=(g^+ - g^-)/(g^+ + g^-) is measured to be A_g=(1.8 +- 2.6).10^{-4}. The design of the experiment and the method of analysis provide good control of instrumental charge asymmetries in this measurement. The precision of the result is limited by statistics and is almost one order of magnitude better than that of previous measurements by other experiments.

  16. ACHIEVING LIPID TARGETS IN ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES--THE SANDS STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Fleg, Jerome L.; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Wm. James

    2010-01-01

    Background Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months. Objective To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs). Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations. Results On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD. Conclusion Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non

  17. Characterization of cardiac quiescence from retrospective cardiac computed tomography using a correlation-based phase-to-phase deviation measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, Carson A.; McClellan, James H. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Arepalli, Chesnal D. [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 3350-950 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E3 (Canada); Auffermann, William F.; Henry, Travis S. [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, 1364 Clifton Road Northeast, Suite 309, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Khosa, Faisal [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Emergency Radiology, 550 Peachtree Street Northeast, Atlanta, Georgia 30308 (United States); Coy, Adam M. [School of Medicine, Emory University, 100 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Tridandapani, Srini, E-mail: stridan@emory.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Winship Cancer Institute, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many cardiac imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). To accurately quantify quiescence, a method for detecting the quiescent periods of the heart from retrospective cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a correlation-based, phase-to-phase deviation measure was developed. Methods: Retrospective cardiac CT data were obtained from 20 patients (11 male, 9 female, 33–74 yr) and the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery (RCA), and interventricular septum (IVS) were segmented for each phase using a semiautomated technique. Cardiac motion of individual coronary vessels as well as the IVS was calculated using phase-to-phase deviation. As an easily identifiable feature, the IVS was analyzed to assess how well it predicts vessel quiescence. Finally, the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed volumes from the quiescent phases determined using the deviation measure from the vessels in aggregate and the IVS was compared to that from quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner. Three board-certified radiologists, fellowship-trained in cardiothoracic imaging, graded the diagnostic quality of the reconstructions using a Likert response format: 1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = adequate, 4 = nondiagnostic. Results: Systolic and diastolic quiescent periods were identified for each subject from the vessel motion calculated using the phase-to-phase deviation measure. The motion of the IVS was found to be similar to the aggregate vessel (AGG) motion. The diagnostic quality of the coronary vessels for the quiescent phases calculated from the aggregate vessel (P{sub AGG}) and IVS (P{sub IV} {sub S}) deviation signal using the proposed methods was comparable to the quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner (P{sub CT}). The one exception was the RCA, which improved for P{sub AGG} for 18 of the 20 subjects when compared to P

  18. California and the SAT: A Reanalysis of University of California Admissions Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zwick, Rebecca; Brown, Terran; Sklar, Jeffrey C.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the University of California's recent reconsideration of the role of the SAT in admissions, the UC Office of the President published an extensive report, UC and the SAT (2001), which examined the value of SAT I Reasoning Test scores, SAT II Subject Test scores, and high school grades in predicting the grade-point averages of UC freshmen (UCGPA), as well as the role of economic factors in predicting UCGPA. The analyses in UC and the SAT were based primarily on data that had been agg...

  19. Trading the bond-CDS basis: The role of credit risk and liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Trapp, Monika

    2009-01-01

    We analyze trading opportunities that arise from differences between the bond and the CDS market. By simultaneously entering a position in a CDS contract and the underlying bond, traders can build a default-risk free position that allows them to repeatedly earn the difference between the bond asset swap spread and the CDS, known as the basis. We show that the basis size is closely related to measures of company-specific credit risk and liquidity, and to market conditions. In analyzing the agg...

  20. "Buy-It-Now" or "Sell-It-Now" auctions: Effects of changing bargaining power in sequential trading mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Grebe, Tim; Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta; Kröger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    We study experimentally the effect of bargaining power in sequential trading mechanisms that offer the possibility to trade at a fixed price before an auction. In the "Buy-It-Now" format, the seller offers a price prior to the auction; whereas in the "Sell-It-No" format, it is the buyer. Both formats are extensively used in online and offline markets. Despite very different strategic implications for buyers and sellers, results from our experiment suggest no effects of bargaining power on agg...

  1. Intra- and interspecific polymorphisms ofLeishmania donovani andL. tropica minicircle DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Dobner, P; Löscher, Thomas; Rinder, H

    1994-01-01

    A pair of degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers (LEI-1, TCG GAT CC[C,T] [G,C]TG GGT AGG GGC GT; LEI-2, ACG GAT CC[G,C] [G,C][A,C]C TAT [A,T]TT ACA CC) defining a 0.15-kb segment ofLeishmania minicircle DNA was constructed. These primers amplified not only inter- but also intraspecifically polymorphic sequences. Individual sequences revealed a higher intraspecific than interspecific divergence. It is concluded that individual sequences are of limited relevance for species determin...

  2. HOBAN project: towards the development of radiation-tolerant fiber-based temperature sensors for nuclear industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, A.; Girard, S.; Marin, E.; Rizzolo, S.; Marcandella, C.; Paillet, P.; Périsse, J.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Grelin, J.; Melin, G.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Macé, J.-R.

    2015-09-01

    HOBAN (Development of Hard Optical Fiber BrAgg GratiNgs Sensors) is an European H2020 project granted by Kic InnoEnergy and aiming the development of fiber-based temperature and strain monitoring systems that can withstand harsh nuclear environment (350°C temperature and MGy dose levels). The objective will be achieved by employing `ad hoc' fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and their associated instrumentation system which will bring to the market new tools for optimizing the running and the services in current and future nuclear power plants. We'll present the challenges associated with this project and recent advances at the OFS conference.

  3. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  4. Inhibitory potential of nine mentha species against pathogenic bacteria strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants produce secondary metabolites, which are used in their growth and defense against pathogenic agents. These plant based metabolites can be used as natural antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Synthetic antibiotics caused different side effects and become resistant to bacteria. Therefore the main objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory potential of nine Mentha species extracts against pathogenic bacteria. The methanolic leaves extracts of nine Mentha species (Mentha arvensis, Mentha longifolia, Mentha officinalis, Mentha piperita, Mentha citrata, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana, Mentha spicata and Mentha suareolens) were compared for antimicrobial activities. These Mentha species showed strong antibacterial activity against four microorganisms tested. Mentha arvensis showed 25 mm and 30 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover, Mentha longifolia showed 24 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. Mentha officinalis showed 30 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. 25 mm inhibitory zone was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus by Mentha piperita. Mentha royleana showed 25 mm zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera, while Mentha spicata showed 21 mm, 22 mm and 23 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover most of the Mentha species showed zone of inhibition in the range of 10-20 mm. (author)

  5. Ocorrência de Frankliniella schultzei (trybom (thysanoptera: thripidae em plantas daninhas Ocurrence of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thysanoptera:Thripidae at weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. A. Lima

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se levantamentos de plantas daninhas, no Campus da UNESP em Jaboticabal/SP, com o objetivo de identificar espécies de plantas daninhas hospedeiras do tripes Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. As plantas foram coletadas semanalmente utilizando-se o método de ensacamento. A separação dos tripes foi feita mediante emprego do funil de Berlese. Entre as 43 espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas nas áreas amostradas, 19 são hospedeiras do tripes. Rabanete (Raphanus sativus L., nabiça (R. raphanistrum L. e mostarda (Sinapsis arvensis L. foram as que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de F. schultzei, 45, 27 e 17% do total de fêmeas coletadas respectivamente.A monitoring of weeds was carried out on the UNESP Campus in Jaboticabal, SP, with the objective of indentifying host weed species of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. The plants were collected weekly and transported to the laboratory inside paper bags. The Berlese funnel method was used to separate the insects from the plants. Thrips were found in 19 of the 43 weed species studied: Raphanus sativus L., R. raphanistrum L., and Sinapsis arvensis L. presented the highest percentage of thrips, consisting of 45, 27, and 17% respectively of the total females that were collected.

  6. Assessment of mint (Mentha spp. species for large-scale production of plantlets by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Teixeira Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Mentha produce essential oils which are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study evaluates the potential for in vitro propagation and estimates mass production of plantlets of Mentha species. Nine species (M. piperita, M. suaveolens, M. canadensis, M. longiflora, M. aquatica, M. arvensis, Mentha x gracilis, M. gracilis and M. spicata were propagated with five successive 30-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 µM and BAP (4.4 µM. Shoots were rooted in MS with IBA, IAA or NAA (0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 2.5 or 5.0 µM. The rooted plantlets were finally acclimatized in a greenhouse. Studied species increased in multiplication rates between 4.2 and 9.0-fold per month. M. piperita, M. longiflora, M. arvensis, M. x gracilis and M. gracilis showed the greatest potential for plantlet production since the estimated production varied between 6,000 and 27,000 plantlets after five 30-days subcultures. The addition of auxin to the medium did not influence root induction. However, IAA at a concentration of 5 µM provided the best results for root length and fresh weight, with averages 11.1 cm and 0.16 g, respectively. Survival of plantlets reached 100% during the greenhouse acclimatization process.

  7. Essential oil composition of sixteen elite cultivars of Mentha from western Himalayan region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistilled essential oils of 16 cultivars of Mentha, viz. M. arvensis L., M. spicata L. and M. citrata Ehrh., were analysed and compared by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven constituents representing 92.8-99.8% of the total essential oil composition were identified. Monoterpenoids (88.1-98.6% are the major constituents of the essential oils. The major constituents of the oils in 9 cultivars of M. arvensis are menthol (73.7-85.8%, menthone (1.5-11.0%, menthyl acetate (0.5-5.3%, isomenthone (2.1-3.9%, limonene (1.2-3.3% and neomenthol (1.9-2.5%. Carvone (51.3-65.1%, limonene (15.1-25.2%, -pinene (1.3-3.2% and 1,8-cineole (≤0.1-3.6% are the major constituents in 5 cultivars of M. spicata, while in one cultivar (Ganga of M. spicata the major constituents are piperitenone oxide (76.7%, α-terpineol (4.9% and limonene (4.7%. Linalool (59.7%, linalyl acetate (18.4%, nerol (2.0%, trans-p-menth-1-en-2-ol (1.8%, a-terpineol (1.5% and limonene (1.1% are the major constituents of M. citrata.

  8. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  9. Host plant-dependent metabolism of 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae: substrate specificity and effects of genetic modification and plant nitrile hydratase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik; Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2007-11-01

    After ingestion of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana CYP79A1 containing sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate) due to genetic modification, only one major sinalbin-derived sulphate ester (the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile) was excreted by Pieris rapae caterpillars (corresponding to 69mol% of ingested sinalbin). An additional sulphate ester (the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxyphenylacetamide) was excreted when the caterpillars were reared on two plant species (Sinapis alba and Sinapis arvensis) that contained sinalbin naturally. Artificial addition of sinalbin to S. arvensis leaves resulted in increased levels of the sulphated amide, and an enzymatic activity (nitrile hydratase) explaining the formation of the sulphated amide from sinalbin was detected in both Sinapis species, but not in A. thaliana. In agreement with the suggested minor metabolic pathway, the caterpillars were able to sulphate 4-hydroxyphenylacetamide offered as part of an artificial diet. In fact, phenol and seven para-substituted phenol derivatives with substituents of moderate size were sulphated and excreted, but all tested phenols devoid of a nitrile functional group were less efficiently sulphated than the primary sinalbin detoxification product, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. This suggests that the specificity of the sulphation step involved in sinalbin metabolism may be adapted to nitriles formed as metabolites of phenolic glucosinolates. On the contrary, there was no specificity for products (4-hydroxybenzylascorbigen and 4-hydroxybenzylalcohol) derived from the semistable isothiocyanate produced from sinalbin in the absence of nitrile specifier protein. PMID:17916498

  10. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda L Torres

    Full Text Available "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae. While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention.

  11. Nueva contribución al conocimiento de los macromicetos de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, D.F., México New contribution to the knowledge of the macromycetes of the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal of San Ángel, D.F., Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Herrera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se citan 8 especies de macromicetos recolectados en el área poniente de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, D.F., México, de las cuales 5 son lignícolas y 3 humícolas, Se desarrollan a la sombra y entre hojarasca de plantas superiores. Entre los agaricales la familia Agaricaceae es la mejor representada. Se citan por primera vez en la micobiota del Pedregal de San Ángel: Gymnopus confluens, Agrocybe pediades, Agaricus arvensis y A. silvaticus, Setchelliogaster rheophyllus y Coprinus truncorumse citan por primera vez para México.Eight species of macromycetes were collected from the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal de San Angel D.F. Mexico. Five of them are lignicolous, and 3 are humicolous developing under the shade of trees and among the litter of vascular plants. In the Agaricales the family Agaricaceae is the best represented. Gymnopus confluens, Agrocybe pediades, Agaricus arvensis and A. silvaticus, are first records in the mycobiota of the Pedregal de San Ángel. Setchelliogaster rheophyllus and Coprinus truncorum first records for Mexico are presented in this paper.

  12. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic hybridization is different from Polima CMS.The origin of the cytoplasm and potential use of this hovel CMS in oilseed rape breeding were discussed.Key wotds:Oilseed rape,Protoplast fusion,Cytoplasmic male sterility,Sinapis arvensis

  13. Factors determining the diurnal dynamics of blooming of chosen plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to synthesize the determinants which may influence the diurnal rhythm of blooming. Additionally, I tried to explore and bring together topics that concern blooming and have always been considered separately because of their origin in different disciplines. The following species were included: Hydrangea arborescens L. subsp. discolor (Raf., H. paniculata Sieb., Viburnum opulus L., Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L., Adonis vernalis L., Aster saggitifolius Willd., Taraxacum officinale L. Chelidonium majus L. The taxons were observed in Lublin (51008' - 51018' N and 21027' - 21041' E in the years 2001-2007. The blooming of species was determined at least for two vegetation seasons. During observations all flowers developed in one-hour intervals were counted. The diurnal dynamics of blooming differs among species and is modified by different endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous determinants of diurnal dynamics of blooming are morphological diversity of flowers (fertility or sterility within species or heterostyly. The different pattern of blooming succour different mechanisms which prevent self-pollination (Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L.. The abiotic factors, such as day length and temperature during the vegetation season, influence the change in the process of diurnal dynamics of blooming (e. g. Taraxacum officinale, Chelidonium majus.

  14. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:21542473

  15. Some Weeds Community Percent in Response to Pumice Application on Soil under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Zarehaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A factorial experiment (using RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2014 at the University of Tabriz-Iran, in order to determine the effects of pumice application (P1, P2, P3 and P4: control, 30, 60 and 90 tons per ha on soil and water stress (I1, I2 and I3: 100%, 70% and 50% water requirement calculated from class A pan, respectively on dominante weeds community percent. Results showed that community percent of weed species changed as a result of water stress and pumice application on soil. Distributions of Chenopodium album and Malva sylvestris were sensitive to water stress but, Amaranthus retroflexus and Solanum nigrum were neutral to water stress. In contrast, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cardaria draba, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium irio, Xanthium strumarium, Convolvulus arvensis and Salsola rigida distribution were resistant to water stress. Community percent of Chenopodium album as sensitive species to water stress and Salsola rigida as resistance species to water stress positively affected by pumice application especially under water stress condition. Amaranthus retroflexus, Xanthium strumarium and Convolvulus arvensis were positively affected by pumice application under well and limited water supply conditions. In contrast, Cardaria draba, Sisymbrium irio and Solanum nigrum negatively affected by pumice under water stress and it had positive effect on community of these species under well watering conditions. Thus, application of pumice and water stress are two factors which change weed community precent.

  16. Al-Ti Particulate Composite: Processing and Studies on Particle Twinning, Microstructure, and Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder; Bauri, Ranjit; Kauffmann, Alexander; Freudenberger, Jens

    2016-08-01

    The present investigation shows that alternate to the ceramic particles, hard metallic particles can be used as reinforcement in an aluminum matrix to achieve a good strength-ductility combination in a composite. Titanium particles were incorporated into aluminum by friction stir processing (FSP) to process an Al-Ti particulate composite. FSP led to uniform distribution of the particles in the stir zone without any particle-matrix reaction, thereby retaining the particles in their elemental state. Fracture and twinning of the Ti particles with different frequency of occurrence on the advancing and retreating sides of the stir zone was observed. Twinning of the particles was studied by focused ion beam-assisted transmission electron microscopy. The processed Al-Ti composite exhibited a significant improvement in strength and also retained appreciable amount of ductility. The thermal stability of the fine-grained structure against abnormal grain growth (AGG) was improved by the Ti particles. The AGG in the Al-Ti composite occurred at 713 K (440 °C) compared to 673 K (400 °C) in the unreinforced aluminum processed under the same conditions. On the other hand, the particle-matrix reaction occurred only at 823 K (550 °C), and hence the Ti particles were thermally more stable compared to the matrix grain structure.

  17. Three years of practical use of airborne gravity gradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, E.

    2003-04-01

    BHP Billiton has successfully built and deployed three airborne gravity gradiometer (AGG) systems, (Newton, Einstein and Galileo) based upon the Bell Airspace (now Lockheed Martin) Gravity Gradient Instruments developed for the United States Department of Defense. A second-generation gradiometer (Feynman) is presently nearing completion. The GGI technology is based on groups of four (4) accelerometers where the accelerometers are equi-spaced on a circle. The configuration successfully rejects both common mode accelerations and rotations about the axis perpendicular to the plane of the complement. The GGI is mounted within an aircraft in a specially designed, inertially stabilized platform, which significantly reduces sensitivity to noise and turbulence. The BHP Billiton AGG Technology provides high quality gravity maps with a resolution and sensitivity to map gravity anomalies associated with both minerals and hydrocarbon deposits. To date the purpose built and designed hardware and data processing algorithms, in conjunction with several other geophysical survey instruments, have been deployed against a broad range of mineral and hydrocarbon targets, a total of over 300,000km of operational flights having been made. Data will also be presented on the in-flight sensitivity of a gravity gradiometer to the airborne environment. It will also outline some of the many unexpected problems that were encountered in the 18-month flight trials required to achieve satisfactory airborne operation.

  18. Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Proteins and Age Reset in Yeast Are Regulated by Vac17-Dependent Vacuolar Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Malmgren Hill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Age can be reset during mitosis in both yeast and stem cells to generate a young daughter cell from an aged and deteriorated one. This phenomenon requires asymmetry-generating genes (AGGs that govern the asymmetrical inheritance of aggregated proteins. Using a genome-wide imaging screen to identify AGGs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a previously unknown role for endocytosis, vacuole fusion, and the myosin-dependent adaptor protein Vac17 in asymmetrical inheritance of misfolded proteins. Overproduction of Vac17 increases deposition of aggregates into cytoprotective vacuole-associated sites, counteracts age-related breakdown of endocytosis and vacuole integrity, and extends replicative lifespan. The link between damage asymmetry and vesicle trafficking can be explained by a direct interaction between aggregates and vesicles. We also show that the protein disaggregase Hsp104 interacts physically with endocytic vesicle-associated proteins, such as the dynamin-like protein, Vps1, which was also shown to be required for Vac17-dependent sequestration of protein aggregates. These data demonstrate that two physiognomies of aging—reduced endocytosis and protein aggregation—are interconnected and regulated by Vac17.

  19. Direct electrospinning of 3D auricle-shaped scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Jochen; Stok, Kathryn S; Caversaccio, Marco D; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-two poly(ε)caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been produced by electrospinning directly into an auricle-shaped mould and seeded with articular chondrocytes harvested from bovine ankle joints. After seeding, the auricle shaped constructs were cultured in vitro and analysed at days 1, 7, 14 and 21 for regional differences in total DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen (COL) content as well as the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen type I and type II (COL1/2) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 and 13 (MMP3/13). Stress-relaxation indentation testing was performed to investigate regional mechanical properties of the electrospun constructs. Electrospinning into a conductive mould yielded stable 3D constructs both initially and for the whole in vitro culture period, with an equilibrium modulus in the MPa range. Rapid cell proliferation and COL accumulation was observed until week 3. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed an initial increase in AGG, no change in COL2, a persistent increase in COL1, and only a slight decrease initially for MMP3. Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds directly into an auricle-shape represents a promising option for auricular tissue engineering, as it can reduce the steps needed to achieve an implantable structure. PMID:27171651

  20. Molecular Markers for Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr45 in Wheat Based on AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Na; YANG Wen-xiang; YAN Hong-fei; LIU Da-qun; CHU Dong; MENG Qing-fang; ZHANG Ting

    2006-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was carried out in Thatcher, near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying different genes conferring resistance against wheat leaf rust, and TcLr45×Thatcher F2 progenies were used to develop markers for Lr45 gene. Sixty AFLP primer combinations were screened and most of them provided clear amplification products, 31 primer combinations displayed polymorphism of TcLr45 in 23 NILs. Two AFLP markers closely linked to the gene Lr45 were acquired: P-AGG/M-GAG261 bp, which was found closely linked to the Lr45 locus at a distance of 0.6 cM on one side, and P-ACA/M-GGT105 bp, which was found at a distance of 1.3 cM on the other side. The specific bands were cloned and subsequently sequenced. The 261-bp fragment produced by P-AGG/M-GAG showed 86% similarity with the sequence of Vulgare Hort Ⅰ gene; the 105-bp fragment produced by P-ACA/M-GGT showed 96% similarity with the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase gene of the Triticum monococcum. Both included an open reading frame (ORF).

  1. Enteroaggregative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 in Belgium and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. De Rauw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O104:H4 occurred in Germany. This exceptionally virulent strain combined virulence factors of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC and STEC. After the outbreak only a few sporadic cases of infection with this rare serotype were reported, most of which were related to travel to the Middle East or North Africa. Here we describe two cases of enteroaggregative STEC (Agg-STEC O104:H4 infection that occurred in Belgium in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In both cases travel in a Mediterranean country preceded the infection. The first strain was isolated from the stool of a 42-year-old woman presenting bloody diarrhoea, who had travelled to Tunisia the week before. The second case involves a 14-year-old girl who, upon her return from Turkey to Belgium, suffered from an episode of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Extended typing of the isolates with pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the strains were closely related, though not exactly the same as the 2011 outbreak strain. This report supports the previously made hypothesis that Agg-STEC has a human reservoir and might be imported by travellers coming from an area where the pathogen is endemic. Furthermore, it emphasizes the concern that these bacteria may cause future outbreaks as evenly virulent O104:H4 isolates seem to be widespread.

  2. Glu-47, which forms a salt bridge between neurophysin-II and arginine vasopressin, is deleted in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Saito, Hidehiko (Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)); Miyamoto, S.; Sasaki, N. (Chiba Children' s Hospital, Chiba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene was sequenced in a pedigree with familial central diabetes insipidus (DI). When polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from affected subjects were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fragments including exon 2 displayed two additional, slower migrating bands. These extra bands represented DNA heteroduplexes, indicating that there was a deletion or insertion mutation in exon 2. As the region with such a mutation was identified by direct sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments including the region were subcloned and sequenced. A 3-basepair deletion (AGG) out of two consecutive AGG sequences (nucleotides 1824-1829) was identified in one of two alleles. The cosegregation of the mutation with the DI phenotype in the family was confirmed by restriction enzyme analyses. This mutation should yield an abnormal AVP precursor lacking Glu[sup 47] in its neurophysin-II (NP) moiety. Since Glu[sup 47] is essential for NP molecules to form a salt bridge with AVP, it is very likely that the function of NP as a carrier protein for AVP would be impaired. The authors suggest that AVP would undergo accelerated proteolytic degradation, and this mechanism would be involved in the pathogenesis of DI in this pedigree. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Testing the predictive validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in relation to inmate misconduct and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Davidson, Megan

    2016-08-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) has been widely employed in correctional settings as a screening tool to assess inmates' risk for committing various types of institutional misconduct. Evaluations have generally found the PAI scales Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and the Violence Potential Index (VPI) to be modestly related to institutional misbehavior, thus supporting its construct validity. The current study provides the most comprehensive examination of the predictive and incremental validity of the PAI and its subscales among a large sample of imprisoned offenders to date. In particular, the size of the sample (n = 15,546) and follow-up period (mean time at risk of 2.2 years) allowed for the disaggregation of institutional misconduct by levels of seriousness and separate examinations by conviction offense and criminal history variables. The 3 scales most strongly related to general rule infractions were ANT, AGG, and the VPI. After controlling for age at intake, violent conviction history, prior violent arrests, and time at risk, the PAI scales were shown to add incremental validity to the classification of 4 types of disciplinary infractions ranging from 2 to 4 percentage points. The study also explored the relationship of the PAI's response bias scales to institutional misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460899

  4. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  5. 小菊花色芽变品种的AFLP分析%AFLP analysis on the flower-color sprout of chrysanthemum with small inflorescences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦贺兰; 贾宗锴; 张西西

    2010-01-01

    采用AFLP(Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism)技术对小菊花色芽变品种与原始品种的DNA进行差异性分析,旨在建立芽变品系形态学以外的分子水平鉴定技术.在引用13对引物中,每对引物平均扩增出13.5条多态性带,分子量在110~800 bp之间.3对引物组合(第8对E-ACG/M-CAT、第10对E-AGG/M-CTC、第11对E-AGG/M-CTG)产生5条清晰特异性条带可以将二者区分,这些特异性片段可能包含引起花色芽变的基因序列,经计算,二者遗传相似系数为0.986,遗传物质多态性为2.81%.

  6. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Cebrián, S; Davenport, M; Elefteriadis, C; Englhauser, J; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Hoffmeister, G; Joux, J N; Königsmann, K C; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lasseur, C; Lippitsch, A; Lutz, G; Morales, J; Papaevangelou, T; Rodríguez, A; Strüder, L; Vogel, J; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  7. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to

  8. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  9. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  10. The Structure and Electrical Properties of the Ag2Se + Ga2Se3 + GeSe2 Glass System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marple, Maxwell Adam Thomas

    Silver containing homogeneous chalcogenide glasses in the ternary system Ag2Se-Ga2Se3-GeSe2 (AGGS) are synthesized and their atomic structure-property relationships are investigated. Structural studies are carried out using Raman, 77Se, 71Ga, 69Ga, and 109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure of these glasses consists primarily of a network of corner sharing (Ga/Ge)Se4/2 tetrahedra with a small fraction of homopolar Se-Se bonds. Compositional modification of the atomic structure follows the charge compensated network model developed in the literature for aluminosilicate glasses. Ag2Se acts as a network modifier, forming non-bridging Se in glasses with Ag/Ga >1, while Ga 2Se3 plays the role of a network intermediate similar to Al2O3 in oxide glasses. The network favors the formation of homopolar Ge-Ge bonding in glasses with Ag/Ga <1, to accommodate the Se deficiency brought by the incorporation of Ga2Se3 with Ga being tetrahedrally coordinated to Se. This structural model is consistent with the variation in the glass transition temperatures and molar volume. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) reveals the ionic conductivity of the AGGS glasses to be quite high at ambient temperature, reaching up to 10 --4 S/cm for glasses with the highest Ag content. Increasing Se deficiency with respect to stoichiometry can enhance the conductivity further to ˜3x10--4 S/cm . Transference number measurements using the electromotive force (EMF) method as well as variable temperature 109Ag NMR line shape studies indicate that the conductivity is predominantly ionic in nature and results from fast hopping dynamics of Ag ions. The high ionic conductivity can be related to a heavily modified structural network that results in a potential energy landscape with many suitable hopping sites for the Ag ions. These structural characteristics and electrical properties of the glasses in the AGGS system may guide in the development of next generation fast ion

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romika Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.

  12. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) potential in nine Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2012-02-01

    Mentha species are used in every day life in various food items. These species produce valuable secondary metabolites that scavenge toxic free radicals. Toxic free radicals can cause different diseases in the human body. In the present study free radical scavenging potential (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity) in nine Mentha species were investigated to evaluate and explore new potential sources for natural antioxidants. The activity was performed after different time intervals with incubation period of 30 minutes. The methanolic extracts revealed that significantly higher activity (82%) was observed in Mentha suaveolens, followed by Mentha longifolia (79%), Mentha officinalis (76%) and Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana (75%), respectively. Significantly same activity was observed in Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata. Lower activity was observed in Mentha citrata (64%). The present study revealed that these species can be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21646282

  13. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents. PMID:25630112

  14. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus arvensis and F. verticillioides from C. album were highly pathogenic to wheat seedlings and apathogenic to maize seedlings. Isolates of F. venenatum were very pathogenic to wheat and maize being the first report about pathogenicity of this species. This experiment proves that weeds and plant debris can serve as alternate hosts and source of inoculum of plant pathogens.

  15. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  16. Effects of pre-germination chilling on subsequent growth and flowering of the plants%低温处理种子对植物生长和开花习性影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊江文; M.Fenner

    2003-01-01

    本试验在对15种植物进行了低温处理种子对植物生长和开花习性的观测研究后发现,Bromus sterilis,Capsella bursa-pastoris和Myosotis arvensis 3种植物的种子经低温处理后,其开花(小穗形成)时间提前,数量增加,枝条长度增加.同时,还讨论了在全球气候变暖的条件下,植物产生的这种现象可能对该种群的繁殖和演替带来的重大影响.

  17. Allelopatic potential of weeds under the minimalization of soil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Mazirov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of water-dispersible phenol substances in rhizosphere both of annual and perennial species of weeds (Cirsium arvense, Sonchus arvensis increases under soil treatment minimalization. The higher content of phenol substances of researched weeds is defined in rhizosphere of Common Couch (Agropyrum repens. The absence of intensive anthropogenic treatment of plowing layer which accumulates the significant mass of weed’s roots in the cause of much more higher allelopathic potential of some species’ of weeds. The high level of saturation by weeds in agrophytocoenosis under non-tillage soil treatment is defines the competitiveness between certain sepsis’ of weeds, especially, at the beginning of the vegetation. In this case, increasing the secretion of phenol substances is one of the physiological screenings of such competitiveness.

  18. Solução nutritiva e composição mineral de três espécies de menta cultivadas no sistema hidropônico Nutrient solution and mineral composition of three mint species grown in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânea Maria Bisognin Garlet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o teor e a acumulação de nutrientes em três espécies de Mentha e testar o desempenho de solução nutritiva calculada para o cultivo de menta, a partir de dados anteriores de produção de matéria seca e de quantidade de nutrientes extraídos por M. arvensis, no sistema hidropônico NFT Técnica do Fluxo Laminar de Nutrientes (NFT. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação de 250m² do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, RS, Brasil, no período de outubro a dezembro de 2004. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (órgãos da planta e cinco repetições. Estacas de plantas matrizes foram enraizadas em espuma fenólica por 20 dias em berçário e após foram transferidas para bancadas de produção final. As plantas foram colhidas aos 62 (M. arvensis, 69 (M. x gracilis e 76 (M. x piperita var. citrata dias após o plantio, separadas em partes (raízes, hastes, folhas e secas em estufa a 70°C para determinação de matéria seca e análise de tecidos. Nitrogênio, cálcio e potássio foram os macronutrientes com maior concentração em todas as partes das plantas, já os micronutrientes foram ferro, manganês e zinco. Houve maior acúmulo de macronutrientes nas folhas, seguidas pelas hastes e raízes. Constatou-se que a solução nutritiva elaborada garantiu elevada produção de fitomassa, sem que as plantas apresentassem sintomas visuais de deficiência ou toxicidade de macro e micronutrientes.The intention of this study was to determine the levels and accumulation of nutrients in three Mentha species and to test the performance of the nutrient solution for the growth of mint, obtained from previous data of dry matter production and quantity of nutrients extracted by M. arvensis, in NFT (Nutrient Film Technique hydroponic system. The research was carried out at the Departament of Fitotecny, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, RS, Brazil, from

  19. Crescimento e teor de óleo essencial de mentas com diferentes concentrações de potássio na solução nutritiva Growth and essential oil content of mints at different potassium concentrations in the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânea MB Garlet

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da UFSM, RS, de outubro a dezembro de 2004. Foram conduzidos três experimentos simultâneos, cada um com uma espécie de Mentha (M.arvensis, M. x gracilis e M. x piperita var. citrata em quatro soluções hidropônicas com diferentes concentrações de K (276; 414; 552 e 690 mg L-1 e idades das plantas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, tendo os tratamentos fatorial para cada espécie: 4x6, 4x7 e 4x8, sendo quatro concentrações de K e idades da planta determinadas semanalmente a partir dos 27 dias. Foram avaliadas a altura das plantas; área foliar; fitomassa fresca e seca de folhas, hastes; relação folha:haste; e teor de óleo essencial em folhas frescas. O aumento na concentração de K nas soluções hidropônicas afeta negativamente o crescimento e a acumulação de fitomassa em plantas de Mentha, porém proporciona aumento no teor de óleo essencial por planta. Em todas as colheitas consecutivas observou-se aumento no crescimento das plantas das três espécies. As plantas de M. arvensis e M. x piperita var. citrata acumularam mais fitomassa de hastes do que de folhas, o contrário ocorrendo com M. x gracilis que, além disso, apresentou maior produção equivalente de óleo por hectare, na concentração mais baixa de K. As concentrações de K sugeridas para favorecer o crescimento de Mentha em cultivo hidropônico encontram-se na faixa entre 276 e 414 mg L-1.The work was carried out at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from October to December 2004. Three simultaneous experiments were carried out, each one with one Mentha species (M. arvensis, M. x gracilis and M. x piperita var. citrata in four hydroponic solutions with different K concentrations (276; 414; 552 and 690 mg L-1 and plant ages. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks, with five replications, the treatments

  20. Hıyarda (Cucumis sativus L.) yabancı ot çıkış zamanın tahminine yönelik araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Tursun; İrfan Ersin Akıncı; Mustafa Şahin; Ahmet Uludağ

    2015-01-01

    İstatistiki modellerin geliştirilmesi için hıyar bitkisinde on bir önemli yabancı otun çıkış zamanın belirlenmesinde modellemeler yapılmıştır. Hıyar deneme arazisinde bulunan önemli yabancı otlar çıkış zamanlarına göre gruplara ayrılmıştır. Bu yabancı otlardan; Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare ve Solanum nigrum erken, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea ve Sorghum halepense bütün vejetasyon boyunca ...

  1. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Andréa Santos Costa; Valéria Oliveira Fonseca; Pericles Barreto Alves; Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2011-01-01

    A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis) é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a mic...

  2. Solução nutritiva e composição mineral de três espécies de menta cultivadas no sistema hidropônico Nutrient solution and mineral composition of three mint species grown in hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Tânea Maria Bisognin Garlet; Osmar Souza dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o teor e a acumulação de nutrientes em três espécies de Mentha e testar o desempenho de solução nutritiva calculada para o cultivo de menta, a partir de dados anteriores de produção de matéria seca e de quantidade de nutrientes extraídos por M. arvensis, no sistema hidropônico NFT Técnica do Fluxo Laminar de Nutrientes (NFT). O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação de 250m² do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, RS, Brasil, no período de outubro a dez...

  3. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  4. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents.

  5. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) potential in nine Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2012-02-01

    Mentha species are used in every day life in various food items. These species produce valuable secondary metabolites that scavenge toxic free radicals. Toxic free radicals can cause different diseases in the human body. In the present study free radical scavenging potential (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity) in nine Mentha species were investigated to evaluate and explore new potential sources for natural antioxidants. The activity was performed after different time intervals with incubation period of 30 minutes. The methanolic extracts revealed that significantly higher activity (82%) was observed in Mentha suaveolens, followed by Mentha longifolia (79%), Mentha officinalis (76%) and Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana (75%), respectively. Significantly same activity was observed in Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata. Lower activity was observed in Mentha citrata (64%). The present study revealed that these species can be used as natural antioxidants.

  6. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF Fusarium oxysporum ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency of nit3 mutants was higher (43% than the frequency of nit1 (35% and NitM (22% mutants. Two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. oxysporum were determined in the complementation tests. These results stress out the problem with isolation of nit mutants and show a high genetic diversity of F. oxysporum isolated from weeds.

  7. Common Lawn Weed Species and Corresponding Control Measures in Yining City%伊宁市常见草坪杂草种类及防除措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巧玲; 陆平; 李降

    2013-01-01

    通过对伊宁市绿地草坪杂草进行实地调查和鉴定,确定了伊宁市草坪杂草共有15科38种,其中红花三叶草、白花三叶草、车前、蒲公英、田旋花为常见杂草,也是草坪杂草中的优势种.根据调查结果提出防除措施.%A spot survey allowed the identification 38 species of lawn weeds belonging to 15 families in Yining City. A-mong them, Tnfolium. pretense, TTifolium repens, Plantago asiatica, Herba taraxaci, and Convolvulus arvensis are the most common and dominant lawn weeds. Corresponding control measures were suggested according to the survey results.

  8. Use of radioisotopes in study of herbicide effect mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of 35S-prometryne in 8 agricultural crops and 3 woody species is explained. S released from the -SCH3 group was incorporated into cystine, a sulphate anion, and in plants from the family Brassicaceae into sinalbin and glucobrassicin. The main cause of resistance of Convolvulus arvensis to atrazine (labelled on rings with 14C) was its ability to degrade atrazine into non-toxic metabolites (hydroxyatrazine, conjugate with glutathione). Bidisin, Isobarnon and Suffix decreased the uptake, transport, and metabolism of phosphorus (32P), calcium (45Ca) and potassium (86Rb) in Avena fatua; they are used for its killing. In barley and wheat no decrease was observed with the exception of a limited transport of potassium in the youngest leaf. Bidisin and Isobarnon inhibited the fixation of 14CO2 in A. fatua within 2 hours after application. (author)

  9. Potential of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles as Nanocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Cellulose by Cellulase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipinchandra K. Salunke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs as a result of their excellent optical and electronic properties are promising catalytic materials for various applications. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach for enhanced degradation of cellulose using biosynthesized AgNPs in an enzyme catalyzed reaction of cellulose hydrolysis by cellulase. AgNPs were synthesized through reduction of silver nitrate by extracts of five medicinal plants (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz, Epimedium koreanum Nakai, Artemisia messer-schmidtiana Besser, and Magnolia kobus. An increase of around twofold in reducing sugar formation confirmed the catalytic activity of AgNPs as nanocatalyst. The present study suggests that immobilization of the enzyme onto the surface of the AgNPs can be useful strategy for enhanced degradation of cellulose, which can be utilized for diverse industrial applications.

  10. Flora in abandoned fields and adjacent crop fields on rendzina soils in the Zamość region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic inventory of segetal flora was carried out in abandoned fields and adjacent crop fields on rendzina soils in the Zamość region in the year 2010. This study found a total of 130 weed species belonging to 30 botanical families. The following families were represented most frequently: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Brassicaceae. In the segetal flora, apophytes are dominant (55% of the total flora, with the highest number of meadow and xerothermic grassland species among them. Archeophytes (38% predominate in the group of anthropophytes. The species characterized by the highest constancy classes and reaching the highest cover indices posed the greatest threat to crops in the study area. The following weeds are most frequently found in fallow fields: Consolida regalis, Cichorium intybus, and Sinapis arvensis, while Papaver rhoeas is the greatest threat to cereal crops grown on rendzina soils.

  11. Vegetation of the Landfill Supíkovice (Olomouc Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimalová Šárka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of floristic and vegetation analyses of the landfill Supíkovice. Ruderal, segetal and meadow vegetation units were recorded in June 2015. The most interesting findings were threatened weed species growing in decontamination patches on loamy and nutrient-poor soils in the central part of the landfill. Dianthus armeria (C4a and Filago arvensis (C3 are listed in the national Red List of the Czech Republic. Moreover, these taxa were evaluated in the same category of rarity on the regional level. Apart from the above mentioned, Centaurea cyanus (C4a and Papaver dubium (C4a, registered only in the regional Red List of vascular plants of the Moravian-Silesian Region (see methods, were found. Besides threatened species, relatively small populations of invasive taxa as Erigeron annuus, Impatiens parviflora or Reynoutria sp., were also recorded on the landfill Supíkovice.

  12. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  14. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a micropropagação dos genótipos de M. arvensis. A concentração de 4,4 µM de AIA promoveu um maior número de brotos e folhas por explante do genótipo MA701-02, em relação aos demais genótipos. A utilização de 4,4 µM AIA e 9,3 µM CIN + 8,9 µM BAP + 2,2 µM AIA proporcionou maior acúmulo de massa seca no genótipo MA701-02, e no MA701-04 foi a concentração de 8,9 µM BAP + 5,4 µM ANA. O substrato pó de coco + 1 g L-1 de calcário + 12 g L-1 de Biosafra® (3-12-6 pode ser indicado para a aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas dos genótipos de hortelã japonesa avaliados. A micropropagação não alterou o teor de óleo essencial e foram identificados 17 constituintes químicos, perfazendo um total de 92 a 99%.Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. is an aromatic species originated from South China and its essential oil is rich in menthol, which is used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for micropropagation and acclimatization of japanese mint genotypes and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils from micropropagated and not micropropagated plants. Nodal segments are the most indicated for micropropagation of the M. arvensis genotypes. The concentration of 4.4 µM of IAA promoved higher number of shoots and leaves per explant of the MA701-02 genotype when compared with the others. The use of 4,4 µM of IAA and 9,3 µM of KIN + 8,9 µM of BAP + 2

  15. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and

  16. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  17. Screening the antiangiogenic activity of medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlif, Malek; Afifi, Fatma; Muhtaseb, Ruba; Al-Khatib, Sondos; Abaza, Ismail; Naffa, Randa

    2012-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, invasion, and metastasis of most solid tumors and has become a valuable pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study was performed to assess the antiangiogenic activity of 31 medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan. The antiangiogenic activity was assessed using the rat aortic ring assay. Out of 31 extracts, 15 extracts showed more than 50 % inhibition of the blood vessels outgrowth from the primary tissue explants (p = 0.000). Three of these 15 extracts showed a potential cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblast cells. Four extracts shared antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Eight extracts demonstrated selective antiangiogenic activity. This is the first report demonstrating the potential antiangiogenic activity of Artemisia judaica, Aloysia citriodora, Salvia egyptiaca, and Calendula arvensis. Some extracts with antiangiogenic activity exhibited selectivity against the endothelial cells proliferation, demonstrating a direct inhibitory activity against the key step in tumor angiogenesis. PMID:22174075

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety of refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I. M. Johnst, using processes conventionally used for edible oil production. The main fatty acids (FAs) contained in the NFI are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), stearidonic acid (SDA) and linoleic acid, with smaller amounts of oleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and saturated FAs......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is produced from the seeds...... of the proposed conditions of use. The available information does not give concerns as regards other undesirable substances in the NFI. Available animal studies provide only limited information on the safety of the NFI. Human studies that investigated different plant oils or fatty acid ethyl esters as sources...

  19. Chemical Control of Curled Dock (Rumex crispus L. and Other Weeds in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex crispus L. is an invasive species widespread in our country and in particular in the region of North Bulgaria. It is characterized by high biological and ecological plasticity. Owing to its great reproductive potential, the weed has been assigned to the list of economically most important weeds in the country. With the purpose of studying the possibility of chemical weed control in noncropped areas with heavy natural background infestation with R. crispus L. and other dicotyledonous weeds, two field trials were carried out. A ready-to-use herbicide mixture 2,4-D 140.2 g/l-1 + Triclopyr 144 g/l-1, trade product Genoxon 3X (X0050, was tested at two doses of active ingredient, 3552 and 2842 ml/ha-1. It was found that: (1 population density of Rumex crispus L. can be successfully reduced by treatment at the stage of early stem formation; herbicideefficacy with 3552 and 2882 ml/ha-1 doses on the 21st day after treatment was 100% and 90.5%, respectively, at the end of vegetation 94.4 and 85.7%, respectively; (2 herbicidal efficacy was lower when R. crispus L. was treated at the 5 - 6 leaf stage, being 100 – 94.1%and 80 – 76.5% respectively for the indicated doses and time of recording; (3 at the studied doses the herbicide controlled both annual dicotyledonous weeds (Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L. and perennial dicotyledonous ones (Cirsiumarvense L., Sonchus arvensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Carduus acanthoides L., but it was not toxic to monocotyledonous weeds.

  20. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Daniela BACIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.. The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6 and the largest one on C. officinalis LDA (16.4. The average number of flowers per plant ranged from 98.0 (C. suffruticosa Valh. to 2.0 (C. officinalis UK. From among all genotypes, aphids (Aphis fabae have attacked 19 (42.2%, and the results showed that AD% (Attack Degree depend significantly on genotypes. RAPD analysis and phylogenetic dendrogram illustrated the relationship between genotypes and DNA polymorphism exists between the six species. Were found not only close phylogenetic links among cultivars apart of the same specie, but also between different species. C. officinalis A., C. alata UK and C. suffruticosa formed a subgroup similar to the molecular level, but also confirming some phenotypic similarities, these species having the smallest number of petals in the corolla and the highest sensitivity to Aphis fabae attack. The large variability identified in Calendula genotypes allows the selection of potential genitors for new breeding works, with appropriate decorative characteristics and resistance to aphids attack. RAPD analyses and phenotypic study allows hypothesis regarding the success of intra- and inter-specific hybridization, thus facilitating Calendula breeding processes.

  1. Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

    2012-11-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  2. Nomenclatural and taxonomic review of Passifloraceae species illustrated and described by Vellozo in Flora Fluminensis Revisão nomenclatória e taxonômica das espécies de Passifloraceae descritas e ilustradas por Vellozo na Flora Fluminensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Carlos Cervi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature and taxonomy of the 25 species of Passifloraceae named by Vellozo in Flora Fluminensis were reviewed by examining the plates and Latin diagnoses. Passiflora mediterranea, P. ovalis, P. porophylla, P. silvestris, P. tetraden, and P. villosa are species proposed by Vellozo that are accepted herein. Fifteen species (P. arvensis, P. bilobata, P. dentata, P. diaden, P. globosa, P. lunata, P. maliformis, P. oliviformis, P. pallida, P. pertusa, P. polyaden, P. quadrangularis, P. rubra, P. sururuca, and P. violacea are synonyms, were misidentified, or have illegitimate names.Passiflora edulis, P. foetida, and P. racemosa were correctly identified; however, the plant recognized by Vellozo as P. foetida is now considered P. foetida var. fluminensis. Passiflora obtusa was considered incertae sedis.A nomenclatura e a taxonomia das 25 espécies de Passifloraceae nomeadas por Vellozo na Flora Fluminensis foram revisadas com base na consulta das estampas e diagnoses latinas. Passiflora mediterranea, P. ovalis, P. porophylla, P. silvestris, P. tetraden e P. villosa são as espécies propostas por Vellozo aceitas aqui. Quinze espécies (P. arvensis, P. bilobata, P. dentata, P. diaden, P. globosa, P. lunata, P. maliformis, P. oliviformis, P. pallida, P. pertusa, P. polyaden, P. quadrangularis, P. rubra, P. sururuca e P. violacea são sinônimas, foram identificadas erroneamente ou possuem nomes ilegítimos: Passiflora edulis, P. foetida e P. racemosa foram corretamente identificadas; no entanto, a planta reconhecida por Vellozo como P. foetida é atualmente considerada P. foetida var. fluminensis. Passiflora obtusa foi considerada incertae sedis.

  3. Chromium and heavy metals diffusion in soil and plants in S. Croce-Castelfranco central Italy; Indagine sulla diffusione del cromo e di altri metalli pesanti nel terreno e nelle piante della zona di Santa Croce-Castelfranco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strati, S. [Florence (Italy). CNR, Ist. Patologia Alberi Forestali; Paoletti, E.; Barbolani, E. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Scienza Suolo Nutrizione Pianta

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence of heavy metals in a tannery-polluted area, with special reference to: 1) the interaction between the amount in the upper layer of the soil (15 cm) and the concentration in the plants; 2) the distribution of heavy metals in roots, stems and leaves of the sampled plants (Populus spp. and Convolvolus arvensis). As the main tanning agent contents chromium, our attention was focused on this element, even if Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd were also investigated. The results show: the absence of a high grade pollution by heavy metals in soils and plants, a positive correlation between chromium concentration and pH in soil; a higher concentration of heavy metals in the roots, with the exception of Mn, which is present in the same contents in leaves and roots; a higher values of lead in the plants sampled near the areas with the heaviest vehicular traffic. The possible use of Convolvolus arvensis as a purifier of contaminated soils was discussed. [Italiano] I metalli pesanti sono ubiquitari in tracce nei suoli e nella vegetazione, ma sono andati progressivamente diffondendosi durante l`era industriale (Freedman e Hutchinson, 1981). Pur potendo seguire numerose vie di diffusione nell`ambiente, il metallo presente nei terreni puo` essere assorbito dall`apparato radicale e trasportato nelle parti aeree delle pinte (Zoetti, 1985). Il presente studio si propone di fornire un quadro conoscitivo sul contenuto dei metalli pesanti (in particolare il cromo, principale costituente dei tannici sintetici) nella zona di S. Croce e Castelfranco (nota anche come vallata del comprensorio del cuoio) e sull`interazione tra quantita` presente nel terreno e quantita` rilevata nelle piante soprastanti ripartita tra radici, foglie e rami.

  4. Towards automated software model checking using graph transformation systems and Bogor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid RAFE; Adel T.RAHMANI

    2009-01-01

    Graph transformation systems have become a general formal modeling language to describe many models in software development process. Behavioral modeling of dynamic systems and model-to-model transformations are only a few examples in which graphs have been used to software development. But even the perfect graph transformation system must be equipped with automated analysis capabilities to let users understand whether such a formal specification fulfills their requirements. In this paper,we present a new solution to verify graph transformation systems using the Bogor model checker. The attributed graph grammars (AGG)-Iike graph transformation systems are translated to Bandera intermediate representation (BIR), the input language of Bogor,and Bogor verifies the model against some interesting properties defined by combining linear temporal logic (LTL) and special-purpose graph rules. Experimental results are encouraging, showing that in most cases oar solution improves existing approaches in terms of both performance and expressiveness.

  5. Potential for Chemolithoautotrophy Among Ubiquitous Bacteria Lineages in the Dark Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Brandon K.; Martinez-Garcia, Manuel; Preston, Christina M.; Sczyrba, Alexander; Woyke, Tanja; Lamy, Dominique; Reinthaler, Thomas; Poulton, Nicole J.; Masland, E. Dashiell P.; Gomez, Monica Lluesma; Sieracki, Michael E.; DeLong, Edward F.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that unidentified prokaryotes fix inorganic carbon at globally significant rates in the immense dark ocean. Using single-cell sorting and whole-genome amplification of prokaryotes from two subtropical gyres, we obtained genomic DNA from 738 cells representing most cosmopolitan lineages. Multiple cells of Deltaproteobacteria cluster SAR324, Gammaproteobacteria clusters ARCTIC96BD-19 and Agg47, and some Oceanospirillales from the lower mesopelagic contained ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and sulfur oxidation genes. These results corroborated community DNA and RNA profiling from diverse geographic regions. The SAR324 genomes also suggested C1 metabolism and a particle-associated life-style. Microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed bicarbonate uptake and particle association of SAR324 cells. Our study suggests potential chemolithoautotrophy in several uncultured Proteobacteria lineages that are ubiquitous in the dark oxygenated ocean and provides new perspective on carbon cycling in the ocean’s largest habitat.

  6. Identifying modular flows on multilayer networks reveals highly overlapping organization in social systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex; Rosvall, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Unveiling the community structure of networks is a powerful methodology to comprehend interconnected systems across the social and natural sciences. To identify different types of functional modules in interaction data aggregated in a single network layer, researchers have developed many powerful methods. For example, flow-based methods have proven useful for identifying modular dynamics in weighted and directed networks that capture constraints on flow in the systems they represent. However, many networked systems consist of agents or components that exhibit multiple layers of interactions. Inevitably, representing this intricate network of networks as a single aggregated network leads to information loss and may obscure the actual organization. Here we propose a method based on compression of network flows that can identify modular flows in non-aggregated multilayer networks. Our numerical experiments on synthetic networks show that the method can accurately identify modules that cannot be identified in agg...

  7. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo(z)ena (S)ER(A); Vitězslav STRA(NA)K; Michal (S)ER(Y); Milan TICH(Y); Petr (S)PATENKA

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  8. Supply Chain adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mathias Thim; Bernon, Mike

    2016-01-01

    , this research suggests that SMEs could benefit from greater awareness and adoption of supply chain capabilities. While the research is exploratory in nature, we propose that better understanding of the adoption of supply chain management within SMEs will lead to improved performance.......Purpose: The importance of having a competitive supply chain strategy is not to be underestimated (Underwood & Agg 2012; Aronow et al. 2014). Despite the importance of creating strong supply chain capabilities, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) find it difficult to implement supply chain...... management (Vaaland & Heide 2007). The aim of this research was to explore supply chain adoption in SMEs. The research was based upon investigating the extent to which supply chain management is adopted by SMEs, and what factors support companies in achieving consistency between supply chain capabilities...

  9. NOTE-Polymorphic information content of SSR markers for Coffea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernando Missio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-three coffee SSR primers from enriched genomic library with (GT15 and (AGG10 repeats were analyzedin 24 coffee tree accessions. Twenty-two primers were polymorphic among accessions; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to13, with the mean number of 5.1 alleles per primer. PIC values ranged from 0.08 to 0.79. The highest mean PIC values werefound for C. canephora (0.46, and the lowest values for C. arabica (0.22 and triploids (0.22 accessions. The polymorphicSSR markers used in this study were useful for genetic fingerprinting in the coffee tree, especially in the C. canephora and theleaf rust resistant arabica cultivars.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter suis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Van Deun, Kim; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2011-12-15

    Helicobacter suis is a very fastidious porcine gastric pathogen, which is also considered to be of zoonotic importance. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility cannot be determined using standard assays, as this agent only grows in a biphasic medium with an acidic pH. Therefore, a combined agar and broth dilution method was used to analyse the activity of nine antimicrobial agents against nine H. suis isolates. After 48 h microaerobic incubation, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by software-assisted calculation of bacterial growth. Only for enrofloxacin a bimodal distribution of MICs was demonstrated, indicating acquired resistance in one strain, which showed an AGT→AGG (Ser→Arg) substitution at codon 99 of gyrA. In conclusion, the assay developed here is suitable for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. suis isolates, although activity of acid sensitive antimicrobial agents may be higher than predicted from MIC endpoints. PMID:21733643

  11. Cross sections for proton-induced reactions on Pd isotopes at energies relevant for the gamma process

    CERN Document Server

    Dillmann, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Käppeler, F; Marganiec, J; Uberseder, E; Giesen, U; Heiske, A; Feinberg, G; Hentschel, D; Hilpp, S; Leiste, H; Rauscher, T; Thielemann, F -K

    2011-01-01

    Proton-activation reactions on natural and enriched palladium samples were investigated via the activation technique in the energy range of E_p=2.75 MeV to 9 MeV, close to the upper end of the respective Gamow window of the gamma process. We have determined cross sections for 102Pd(p,gamma)103Ag, 104Pd(p,gamma)105Ag, and 105Pd(p,n)105Ag, as well as partial cross sections of 104Pd(p,n)104Ag^g, 105Pd(p,gamma)106Ag^m, 106Pd(p,n)106Ag^m, and 110Pd(p,n)110Ag^m with uncertainties between 3% and 15% for constraining theoretical Hauser-Feshbach rates and for direct use in gamma-process calculations.

  12. L’infanticide devant la cour d’assises de la Haute-Marne au XIXe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffroy-Poisson, Simone

    2011-01-01

    « Qu’est-ce qu’un jury, sinon un corps de citoyens choisis et appelés de manière à juger avec connaissance toutes les questions qu’il importe de résoudre »Abbé Sieyès L’article 300 du Code pénal de 1810 stipule que : « l’infanticide est le meurtre d’un enfant nouveau-né ». De cette définition, il ressort que trois conditions sont nécessaires pour que le crime soit constaté : la victime doit être un enfant, né vivant. Cet enfant doit être un nouveau-né et ce meurtre revêt un caractère plus agg...

  13. Osteogenesis imperfecta Type I caused by a novel mutation in the start codon of the COL1A1 gene in a Korean family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Yoon; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ki, Chang-Seok; Chang, Mi Sun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Han, Heon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by susceptibility to bone fractures ranging in severity from perinatal death to a subtle increase in fracture frequency. We report the case of a patient who appeared healthy at birth and did not experience any fractures until 12 months of age. We observed blue sclera, frequent fractures without commensurate trauma, nearly normal stature, the absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, no bony deformity, and no limitation of mobility in the patient--all characteristics suggestive of OI Type I. The patient's mother also had blue sclera and a history of frequent fracture episodes until the age of 15 years. A novel COL1A1 missense mutation (c.2T>G) disrupting the start codon of the gene (ATG to AGG (Met1Arg)) was found in the patient and his mother.

  14. 何谓肠出血性大肠杆菌O104:H4及防治%What is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 and how to prevent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任成山; 赵晓晏

    2011-01-01

    @@ 所谓肠出血性大肠杆菌O104:H4(enterohemorrhagic E.coli,O104:H4),是由德国分离的一种新菌珠O104:H4型大肠杆菌,含有志贺毒素2(vtx2a)的基因,没有(enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli,EHEC)溶血素、志贺毒素1、肠致病性大肠埃希菌(enteropathogenic Escherichia coli)基因毒力岛基因;但含有肠集聚性粘附大肠杆菌(enteroaggragtive Escherichia coli)(第5类致泻性大肠杆菌)毒力质粒上的3个基因:aatA、aggR、aap[1].

  15. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  16. Complex organic molecules in comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy): detection of ethylene glycol and formamide

    CERN Document Server

    Biver, N; Debout, V; Crovisier, J; Boissier, J; Lis, D C; Russo, N Dello; Moreno, R; Colom, P; Paubert, G; Vervack, R; Weaver, H A

    2014-01-01

    A spectral survey in the 1 mm wavelength range was undertaken in the long-period comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using the 30 m telescope of the Institut de radioastronomie millim\\'etrique (IRAM) in April and November-December 2013. We report the detection of ethylene glycol (CH$_2$OH)$_2$ (aGg' conformer) and formamide (NH$_2$CHO) in the two comets. The abundances relative to water of ethylene glycol and formamide are 0.2-0.3% and 0.02% in the two comets, similar to the values measured in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). We also report the detection of HCOOH and CH$_3$CHO in comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), and a search for other complex species (methyl formate, glycolaldehyde).

  17. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on wettability of vitreous silica by molten silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to study the wetting behaviour of molten silver on vitreous silica and to clarify the role of different additives on interfacial properties of this liquid-solid system. Oxygen has been chosen as addition element mainly because of its solubility in silver, its electronegativity and because it does not add any degree of freedom to the system, this latter being formed by Ag,Si,O2. Furthermore its presence is a constant in every technological application where the contact between molten silver and the oxide substrate exists. Moreover we describe the behaviour of two systems, namely Ag-Ge and Ag-Zr on SiO2. The two metals, Ge and Zr, have infact very different free energies of formation of their oxides, and this allows us to discuss the chemical contribution to the stabilization of the solid-liquid interface

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Zaiqing; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is a large elasmobranch species widespread in tropical and warm oceans, rivers and lakes. We first determine the complete mitogenome of C. leucas in this article. It is 16,704 bp in length, consists 37 genes and one control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. The ND6 gene used the rare AGG as stop codon. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot form the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T and low G contents. PMID:24409857

  19. Effect of DNA target sequence on triplex formation by oligo-2′-deoxy- and 2′-O-methylribonucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Rachel A.; Puri, Nitin; Miller, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of pyrimidine deoxyribo- or 2′-O-methylribo-psoralen-conjugated, triplex-forming oligonucleotides, psTFOs, with a 17-bp env-DNA whose purine tract is 5′-AGAGAGAAAAAAGAG-3′, or an 18-bp gag-DNA whose purine tract is 5′-AGG GGGAAAGAAAAAA-3′, were studied over the pH range 6.0–7.5. The stability of the triplex formed by a deoxy-env-psTFO containing 5-methylcytosines and thymines decreased with increasing pH (Tm = 56°C at pH 6.0; 27°C at pH 7.5). Replacement of 5-methylcytosines ...

  20. Structure of the human glucokinase gene and identification of a missense mutation in a Japanese patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakura, Hiroshi; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Hirohisa; Yazaki, Yoshio; Kadowaki, Takashi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Kadowaki, Hiroko; Simokawa, Kotaro; Akanuma, Yasuo (Asahi Life Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)); Koda, Naoya; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu (Saitama Children' s Medical Center (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Glucokinase is thought to play a glucose-sensor role in the pancreas, and abnormalities in its structure, function, and regulation can induce diabetes. The authors isolated the human glucokinase gene, and determined its genomic structure including exon-intron boundaries. Structure of the glucokinase gene in human was very similar to that in rat. Then, by screening Japanese diabetic patients using polymerase chain reaction - single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct-sequencing strategies, they identified a missense mutation substituting ariginine (AGG) for glycine (GGG) at position 261 in exon 7 of the glucokinase gene in a patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic position of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Quanfa; Li, Weidong; Chen, Hao; Ai, Weiming; Chen, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma was first presented in this study. It was 16 701 bp in length with the typical gene arrangement in vertebrates. A total of 25 bp short intergenic spaces and 33 bp overlaps located in 12 and 9 gene junctions, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition was 31.0% A, 26.4% C, 13.5% G and 29.1% T. Two start (ATG and GTG) and three stop (TAG, AGG and TAA/T) codons were found in the protein-coding genes. The size of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. In the phylogenetic tree, H. microstoma (Hemigaleidae) was placed as sister to Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae). PMID:26300379

  2. AcEST: DK962121 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0013_A07 656 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0013_A0...7. 5' end sequence. DK962121 CL2880Contig1 Show DK962121 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0013_A07 Library TST39 Length ...656 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0013_A07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK962121...es. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK962121|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01...LPASKPHKSNLHHHDDIWNEEATFALLQAWGSKY 218 +++AG+ P ID G + +AGG+GL K S L + TF L WG Sbjct: 231 SNAAGIFYPFIDSGVKLI

  3. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and aqueous-Ag in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    cong, Yi

    diameter and zeta potential was only carried out on nano-Ag in stock suspension (deionized water). However, we observed a clear difference of particle sizes between the manufacturer’s information and what we measured for both nano- and micron-Ag samples. In toxicity experiment I, toxic effects of sediment...... size of particles, or other characteristics (i.e., ion release). The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg Ag/g dry weight (dw) sediment. In toxicity experiment II, toxic effects of sediment-spiked nano-Ag20, nano-Ag80 or aqueous-Ag (AgNO3) on N...... concern about the fate and potential risks of nanosilver for the aquatic environment after its eventual release via wastewater discharges. In this thesis, dispersion and stability tests of commercially available nano (particles in two media (deionized water vs...

  4. Study of temperature and pressure dependences of electric properties of amorphous Ag-Ge-As-S chalcogenides containing carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency and temperature dependences of impedance of AgGe1+xAs1-x(S+CNT)3, x = 0.4; 0.5; 0.6 were measured. There are maxima on frequency dependences of tangent of loss, which can be connected with relaxation processes inside the sample (the maximum at high frequencies) and the second maximum can be connected with processes occurring on the sample-electrode border. Activation energy of all synthesized materials was estimated to be near 0.5 eV. The relaxation of electric resistance at fixed pressures within the pressure range of 30 to 50 GPa was observed. It is established that the resistance decreases exponentially with time within this range of pressures

  5. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    . Accumulations of the Chenopodiaceae in the interfluve areas probably indicate local saline swampy environments during sea level fall. The increasing amounts of herbs indicate the existence of wet prairie areas (Thalictrum, Rumex, Valeriana, Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Galium) or steppes (Artemisia - up to 17%, Asteraceae, Campanula, Fabaceae, Daucaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantago). This is the contribution to the projects ESF -EC-009-07, APVT 51-011305, APVV-0280-07 (Slovakia) and MSM0021622427 (Czech republic).

  6. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  7. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling Fang

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR. Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG. Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B or in Australia (e.g., AG-G. The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

  8. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbetti, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

  9. One-pot synthesis of Palladium Silver nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide and their application for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide is synthesized by electrochemical method. • Reduced graphene supported Palladium silver is prepared via impregnation method. • Pd-Ag(1:1)/G is more stable than Pd/G in alkaline media. • Ethanol oxidation activity in alkaline media was 1000 mAcm−2mg−1Pd for Pd-Ag(1:1)/G. • Tafel slope of PdAg/G is much lower than that of Pd/G. - Abstracts: We report a Pd-Ag (1:1)/graphene (PdAg/G) catalyst through a one-step strategy, for the ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Graphene is synthesized from graphite electrodes using ionic liquid-assisted electrochemical exfoliation. Graphene-supported Pd-Ag electrocatalystis then was reduced by ethylene glycol as a stabilizing agent to prepare highly dispersed PdAg nanoparticles on carbon graphene oxide to be used as ethanol oxidation in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) catalysts. X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy techniques are used to investigate the crystallite size and the surface morphologies respectively. The electrochemical characteristics of the Pd-Ag(1:1)/G,Pd/G and Ag/G catalysts are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in nitrogen saturated sulfuric acid aqueous solutions and in mixed sulfuric acid and ethanol aqueous solutions. Detailed electrochemical studies (involving chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry) prove that the electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol at the Pd-Ag(1:1)/G is more stable, occurring at lower potential, giving lower Tafel slopes compared to Pd/G and Ag/G catalysts, which can reveal the particular properties of the exfoliated graphene supports and PdAg alloy

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs and pork products in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, Laura; Farneti, Silvana; Zicavo, Alessia; Mencaroni, Guerriero; Blasi, Giuliana; Striano, Gianluca; Scuota, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    In total 1095 samples from 675 pork products, 210 swine colon contents, and 210 swine carcass sponge swabs were collected in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy and examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes. stx-Positive samples were further tested for the "top five" serogroup markers (O157, O26, O103, O111, O145) and cultured onto selective media. The isolates were assigned to stx subtypes and tested for the presence of aaiC and aggR genes. Out of 420 swine samples, 38.6% faecal samples and 13.8% carcass sponge swabs were stx-positive. In total, 33 E. coli STEC isolates were obtained from 30 samples (4 carcasses and 26 colon contents) indicating a culture-positive rate of 7.1%. A higher culture-positive rate was observed in faecal samples (12.4%) than in carcass sponge swabs (1.9%). Out of 675 pork samples, 19 (2.8%) were stx-positive. No STEC strains were isolated from stx-positive pork products. We concluded that STEC isolation from foodstuffs remains difficult, despite the application of ISO/TS 13136:2012. Furthermore, in accordance with the results of studies conducted in other countries, we observed that most of swine STEC strains carried stx2e gene and lacked of virulence genes, such as eae, aaiC and aggR, indicative of potential pathogenic characteristics for humans. Although the majority of STEC isolates did not express virulence factors correlating with severe human diseases, the association between swine STEC strains and human illness requires further investigations. PMID:27236076

  11. Site-specific integration of bacteriophage VWB genome into Streptomyces venezuelae and construction of a VWB-based integrative vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mellaert, L; Mei, L; Lammertyn, E; Schacht, S; Anné, J

    1998-12-01

    The temperate bacteriophage VWB integrates into the chromosome of Streptomyces venezuelae ETH14630 via site-specific integration. Following recombination of the VWB attP region with the chromosomal attB sequence, the host-phage junctions attL and attR are formed. Nucleotide sequence analysis of attP, attB, attL and attR revealed a 45 bp common core sequence. In attB this 45 bp sequence consists of the 3' end of a putative tRNA Arg(AGG) gene with a 3'-terminal CCA sequence which is typical for prokaryotic tRNAs. Phage DNA integration restores the putative tRNA Arg(AGG) gene in attL. However, following recombination the CCA sequence is missing as is the case for most Streptomyces tRNA genes described so far. Adjacent to VWB attP, an ORF encoding a 427 aa protein was detected. The C-terminal region of this protein shows high similarity to the conserved C-terminal domain of site-specific recombinases belonging to the integrase family. To prove the functionality of this putative integrase gene (int), an integrative vector pKT02 was constructed. This vector consists of a 2.3 kb HindIII-SphI restriction fragment of VWB DNA containing attP and int cloned in a non-replicative Escherichia coli vector carrying a thiostrepton-resistance (tsr) gene. Integration of pKT02 was obtained after transformation of Streptomyces venezuelae ETH14630 and Streptomyces lividans TK24 protoplasts. This vector will thus be useful for a number of additional Streptomyces species in which a suitable tRNA gene can be functional as integration site.

  12. Codon 972 polymorphism in the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene, obesity, and risk of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigal, R.J.; Doria, A.; Warram, J.H.; Krolewski, A.S. [Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Because of the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 in insulin action, the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene is a candidate gene for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Modest associations between NIDDM and a GGG-AGG single base substitution (corresponding to a glycine-arginine amino acid substitution) in codon 972 of the gene have been found, but none reached statistical significance. To examine further how large a proportion of NIDDM cases could be caused by the mutation, we performed a stratified analysis combining the results from the 6 earlier studies and those from our panel of 192 unrelated NIDDM subjects and 104 healthy controls. In addition, we looked for a possibility that the codon 972 mutation plays a role only in the presence of certain conditions. Genomic DNA samples obtained from NIDDM cases and healthy controls were genotyped using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol modified for genomic DNA. The GGG{r_arrow}AGG substitution was found in 5.7% of the diabetic subjects (11 of 192) and 6.9% of the controls (7 of 104). The difference between groups was not statistically significant, and it was not different from the results of other studies. The Mantel-Haenszel summary odds ratio across all studies was 1.49 (P < 0.05; 95% confidence intervals, 1.01-2.2). This summary odds ratio is consistent with a small proportion of NIDDM cases ({approximately}3%) being caused by the mutation. Exploratory subgroup analyses on our panel suggested a clustering of NIDDM, the codon 972 mutation, and overweight, raising the hypothesis that the mutation may predispose to NIDDM only in the presence of excess body weight. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. 健康老年人肠道中肠集聚性大肠埃希菌流行现状及防治策略%Current epidemiology and prevention of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in healthy elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江燕; 王原; 骆丰; 曹俊敏; 吴健

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析健康老年人肠道中肠集聚性大肠埃希菌(EAEC)的流行情况,并依此提出防治策略. 方法 收取175例健康老年人的粪便标本,分别接种于血平板、SS平板、麦康凯平板进行细菌培养,用全自动微生物鉴定仪和质谱仪鉴定细菌到种;对分离出大肠埃希菌采用双纸片协同法检测其超广谱β内酰胺酶(ESBL)的表型,用PCR法扩增其EAEC毒力基因astA和aggR;用PCR法检测ESBL表型阳性的EAEC菌株基因型. 结果 175例标本中,共检出160株大肠埃希菌,ESBL携带率为36.3%(58/160);检出EAEC 16株(10.0%),其中astA阳性14株(8.8%),aggR阳性2株(1.3%);EAEC菌株的ESBL携带率为56.3% (9/16),其基因型均为CTX-M型,其中以CTX-M-14最多,占66.7%(6/9). 结论 EAEC不仅是腹泻患者的病原菌,在健康老年人群中具有较高的携带率和耐药性,提醒我们应加强防范.

  14. An investigation of the diversity of strains of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolated from cases associated with a large multi-pathogen foodborne outbreak in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Dallman

    Full Text Available Following a large outbreak of foodborne gastrointestinal (GI disease, a multiplex PCR approach was used retrospectively to investigate faecal specimens from 88 of the 413 reported cases. Gene targets from a range of bacterial GI pathogens were detected, including Salmonella species, Shigella species and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, with the majority (75% of faecal specimens being PCR positive for aggR associated with the Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC group. The 20 isolates of EAEC recovered from the outbreak specimens exhibited a range of serotypes, the most frequent being O104:H4 and O131:H27. None of the EAEC isolates had the Shiga toxin (stx genes. Multilocus sequence typing and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the core genome confirmed the diverse phylogeny of the strains. The analysis also revealed a close phylogenetic relationship between the EAEC O104:H4 strains in this outbreak and the strain of E. coli O104:H4 associated with a large outbreak of haemolytic ureamic syndrome in Germany in 2011. Further analysis of the EAEC plasmids, encoding the key enteroaggregative virulence genes, showed diversity with respect to FIB/FII type, gene content and genomic architecture. Known EAEC virulence genes, such as aggR, aat and aap, were present in all but one of the strains. A variety of fimbrial genes were observed, including genes encoding all five known fimbrial types, AAF/1 to AAF/V. The AAI operon was present in its entirety in 15 of the EAEC strains, absent in three and present, but incomplete, in two isolates. EAEC is known to be a diverse pathotype and this study demonstrates that a high level of diversity in strains recovered from cases associated with a single outbreak. Although the EAEC in this study did not carry the stx genes, this outbreak provides further evidence of the pathogenic potential of the EAEC O104:H4 serotype.

  15. The Dysregulation Profile in middle childhood and adolescence across reporters: factor structure, measurement invariance, and links with self-harm and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutz, Marike H F; Geeraerts, Sanne B; van Baar, Anneloes L; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a phenotype of severe dysregulation, the Dysregulation Profile (DP), has been identified. DP consists of elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed (AD), Aggressive Behavior (AGG) and Attention Problems (AP) scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF), or Youth Self Report (YSR). A drawback in current research is that DP has been conceptualized and operationalized in different manners and research on the factor structure of DP is lacking. Therefore, we examined the factor structure of DP across multiple reporters, measurement invariance across gender, parents, and time, as well as links between DP and self-harm and suicidal ideation. Data from a large community sample were used (N = 697), covering middle childhood (Mage = 7.90, (SD = 1.16) and adolescence (Mage = 13.93, SD = 1.14). Mothers, fathers, teachers, and youth themselves reported on children's emotional and behavioral problems using the CBCL, TRF, and YSR. Results indicated that in middle childhood and in adolescence, a bifactor model with a general factor of Dysregulation alongside three specific factors of AD, AGG, and AP fitted best, compared to a second-order or one-factor model. The model showed good fit for mother, father, teacher, and youth reports and showed invariance across gender, parents and time. Youth, mother, and father reported Dysregulation was uniquely and positively related to adolescent-reported self-harm and suicidal ideation. The DP is best conceptualized as a broad dysregulation syndrome, which exists over and above anxiety/depression, aggression, and attention problems as specific problems. The bifactor model of DP explains the uniqueness and interrelatedness of these behavioral problems and can help explaining shared and non-shared etiology factors. The exclusive link between the general dysregulation factor and adolescents' self-harm and suicidal ideation further established the clinical relevance of the bifactor model. PMID:26226917

  16. Specificity of the ModA11, ModA12 and ModD1 epigenetic regulator N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases of Neisseria meningitidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Kate L.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; Tan, Aimee; Scott, Adeana L.; Kumar, Ritesh; Power, Peter M.; Chen, Li-Tzu; Wu, Hsing-Ju; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Luyten, Yvette A.; Morgan, Richard D.; Roberts, Richard J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A.; Korlach, Jonas; Rao, Desirazu N.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Phase variation (random ON/OFF switching) of gene expression is a common feature of host-adapted pathogenic bacteria. Phase variably expressed N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases (Mod) alter global methylation patterns resulting in changes in gene expression. These systems constitute phase variable regulons called phasevarions. Neisseria meningitidis phasevarions regulate genes including virulence factors and vaccine candidates, and alter phenotypes including antibiotic resistance. The target site recognized by these Type III N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases is not known. Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis was used to identify the recognition site for three key N. meningitidis methyltransferases: ModA11 (exemplified by M.NmeMC58I) (5′-CGYm6AG-3′), ModA12 (exemplified by M.Nme77I, M.Nme18I and M.Nme579II) (5′-ACm6ACC-3′) and ModD1 (exemplified by M.Nme579I) (5′-CCm6AGC-3′). Restriction inhibition assays and mutagenesis confirmed the SMRT methylome analysis. The ModA11 site is complex and atypical and is dependent on the type of pyrimidine at the central position, in combination with the bases flanking the core recognition sequence 5′-CGYm6AG-3′. The observed efficiency of methylation in the modA11 strain (MC58) genome ranged from 4.6% at 5′-GCGCm6AGG-3′ sites, to 100% at 5′-ACGTm6AGG-3′ sites. Analysis of the distribution of modified sites in the respective genomes shows many cases of association with intergenic regions of genes with altered expression due to phasevarion switching. PMID:25845594

  17. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trulove, Paul C. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Foley, Matthew P. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  18. Uncertainties in the GSWP-2 precipitation forcing and their impacts on regional and global hydrological simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decharme, B. [CETP-IPSL-CNRS, Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Douville, H. [Meteo-France, CNRM/GMGEC/UDC, Toulouse (France)

    2006-12-15

    The Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP) is an international initiative aimed at producing global data sets of soil wetness and energy and water fluxes by driving land surface models with state-of-the-art 1 by 1 atmospheric forcing and land surface parameters. It also provides a unique opportunity to develop and test land surface parameterizations at the global scale, using multi-year off-line simulations that are not affected by the systematic errors found in atmospheric models. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of the 10-year GSWP-2 atmospheric forcing remain questionable. A first comparison using the high-resolution Rhone-AGGregation (Rhone-AGG) database reveals that the baseline GSWP-2 precipitation forcing is drastically overestimated over the Rhone river basin. Hydrological simulations driven with each dataset and using the ISBA land surface model and the MODCOU river routing model are also compared. The simulated river discharges are validated against a dense network of river gauges and are generally less realistic when using the GSWP-2 instead of the Rhone-AGG precipitation forcing. Secondly, the GSWP-2 precipitation forcing is compared with three alternative data sets (GPCP-2, CRU-2, CMAP) at the global scale. Moreover, the results of a global sensitivity study to the precipitation forcing conducted with six land surface models are shown. The TRIP river routing model is used to convert daily runoff from all models into river discharges, which are compared at 80 gauging stations distributed over the globe. In agreement with the regional evaluation, the results reveal that the baseline GSWP-2 precipitation forcing is generally overestimated over the mid and high latitudes, which implies systematic errors in the simulated discharges. This study reveals that the empirical wind corrections applied to the GSWP-2 precipitation forcing are exaggerated, whereas the GPCP satellite adjustments seem to be useful for simulating realistic annual mean river

  19. Evaluation of the MeltPro TB/STR assay for rapid detection of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and comprehensive detection of drug-resistance is essential for the control of tuberculosis, which has facilitated the development of molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistant mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We hereby assessed the analytical and clinical performance of an assay for streptomycin-resistant mutations. MeltPro TB/STR is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test designed to detect 15 streptomycin-resistant mutations in rpsL 43, rpsL 88, rrs 513, rrs 514, rrs 517, and rrs 905-908 of M. tuberculosis. Analytical studies showed that the accuracy was 100%, the limit of detection was 50-500 bacilli per reaction, the reproducibility in the form of Tm variation was within 1.0 °C, and we could detect 20% STR resistance in mixed bacterial samples. The cross-platform study demonstrated that the assay could be performed on six models of real-time PCR instruments. A multicenter clinical study was conducted using 1056 clinical isolates, which were collected from three geographically different healthcare units, including 709 STR-susceptible and 347 STR-resistant isolates characterized on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium by traditional drug susceptibility testing. The results showed that the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/STR was 88.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Sequencing analysis confirmed the accuracy of the mutation types. Among all the 8 mutation types detected, rpsL K43R (AAG → AGG), rpsL K88R (AAG → AGG) and rrs 514 A → C accounted for more than 90%. We concluded that MeltPro TB/STR represents a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of STR resistance in clinical isolates.

  20. Effect of the disruption of three cytoskeleton components on chondrocyte metabolism in rabbit knee cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Wangping; Wei Lei; Cao Xiaoming; Guo Heng; Wang Lei; Hao Yongzhuang; Wei Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Background Chondrocytes' phenotype and biosynthesis of matrix are dependent on having an intact cytoskeletal structure.Microfilaments,microtubules,and intermediate filaments are three important components of the cytoskeletal structure of chondrocytes.The aims of this study were to determine and compare the effects of the disruption of these three cytoskeletal elements on the apoptosis and matrix synthesis by rabbit knee chondrocytes in vitro.Methods Chondrocytes were isolated from full-thickness knee cartilage of two-month-old rabbits using enzymatic methods (n=24).The isolated cells were stabilized for three days and then exposed to low,medium,and high doses of chemical agents that disrupt the three principal cytoskeletal elements of interest:colchicine for microtubules,acrylamide for intermediate filaments,and cytochalasin D for actin microfilaments.A group of control cells were treated with carrier.Early apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin-FITC binding assay by flow cytometry on days 1 and 2 after exposure to the disrupting chemical agents.The components and distribution of the cytoskeleton within the cells were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) with immunofluorescence staining on day 3.The mRNA levels of aggrecan (AGG) and type Ⅱ collagen (Col-2) and their levels in culture medium were analyzed using real-time PCR and enzymelinked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA) on days 3,6,and 9.Results In the initial drug-dose-response study,there was no significant difference in the vitality of cells treated with 0.1 μmol/L colchicine,2.5 mmol/L acrylamide,and 10 μg/L cytochalasin D for two days when compared with the control group of cells.The concentrations of colchicine and acrylamide treatment selected above significantly decreased the number of viable cells over the nine-day culture and disrupted significantly more cell nuclei.Real-time PCR and ELISA results showed that the mRNA levels and medium concentrations of AGG and Col-2 were

  1. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  2. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  3. Avaliação sazonal do rendimento de óleo essencial em espécies de menta Seasonal evaluation of essential oil yield of mint species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Deschamps

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Mentha compreende diversas espécies de interesse econômico por causa da produção de óleos essenciais. Recentemente, foram introduzidos no Brasil novos materiais genéticos para avaliação da adaptação em relação ao potencial de rendimento e composição do óleo essencial. No presente trabalho, foram comparadas essas características em cultivares das espécies Mentha x piperita L. (cv. Grapefruit Mint e cv. Persian Mint Field, M. suaveolens Ehrh. (cv. Hillarys Sweet Lemon Mint, M. spicata L. (cv. Mentol Mint, M. aquatica L. (cv. Common Mint e M. arvensis L. (cv. Banana Mint, durante o verão e inverno em Curitiba (PR. O rendimento médio das cultivares no verão foi aproximadamente o dobro do rendimento observado no inverno. Duas cultivares de Mentha x piperita L. (cv. Persina Mint Field e cv. Grapefruit Mint apresentaram maior rendimento de óleo essencial no verão e inverno, sendo que as demais não diferiram entre si. A análise da composição do óleo essencial indicou grande variação nessas cultivares, sendo observada a presença de linalol, como constituinte majoritário na cv. Grapefruit Mint e a-felandren-8-ol e cis-ocimeno na cv. Persian Mint Field.The genus Mentha includes many species of economic interest due the essential oil production. Recently new genetic materials were introduced in Brazil to evaluate the adaptation related to essential oil yield and composition. In the present work, these characteristics were compared in six cultivars of the species Mentha x piperita L. (cv. Grapefruit Mint e cv. Persian Mint Field, M. suaveolens Ehrh (cv. Hillarys Sweet Lemon Mint, M. spicata L. (cv. Mentol Mint, M. aquatica L. (cv. Common Mint and M. arvensis L. (cv. Banana Mint during summer and winter in Curitiba (PR. The average of essential oil yield obtained from samples collected during the summer was approximately two fold the observed during the winter. Two cultivars of Mentha piperita (cv. Persian Mint Field

  4. Efecto de la dosis de glifosato sobre la biomasa de malezas de barbecho al estado vegetativo y reproductivo Glyphosate dose effect on weed biomass at the vegetative and reproductive stage

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    E. Puricelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los experimentos se condujeron en el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias ubicado en Zavalla (Argentina durante 2005 y 2006. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la eficacia de glifosato aplicado al estado vegetativo y reproductivo de Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis y Trifolium repens. El diseño del experimento fue completamente al azar con un arreglo factorial: año, especies, estado reproductivo y vegetativo y dosis de glifosato 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X siendo X la dosis recomendada 1200 g i.a. ha-1. Se estableció la relación entre la dosis de glifosato y el control de la biomasa de las malezas a través de curvas de dosis respuesta con un modelo log-logístico. Se comparó el grado de tolerancia por medio de la DL50. En ambos estados de las malezas, la mayor DL50 obtenida para I. diffusa indica que de las especies estudiadas ésta es la más tolerante a glifosato. El número de especies tolerantes al glifosato es menor al estado vegetativo que al reproductivo.Experiments were conducted at the University of Rosario Experimental Farm, Zavalla in 2005 and 2006 to study the effect of glyphosate on the control of Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis and Trifolium repens at the vegetative and reproductive stage. The experiments were established in a complete randomized design with the following factorial arrangement of treatments: year, species, vegetative and reproductive growth stages and glyphosate 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X being 1X the recommended dose (1,200 g a.i. ha-1. The relationship between glyphosate dose and weed biomass control was established with a log-logistic model. The degree of tolerance was compared by LD50. In both stages, the higher LD50 was obtained for I. diffusa indicating that this is the species most tolerant to glyphosate among those studied. The number of

  5. Variação da agregação induzida por plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno e plantio direto de milho em um solo podzólico Variation in aggregation indüced by winter cover crops and corn no-tillage in a hapludalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo no inverno por diferentes plantas sobre a estabilidade de agregados estáveis em água, desenvolveu-se um experimento de maio/93 a maio/95, em solo Podzóiico vermelho-amarelo (PV da área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Os tratamentos constaram das seguintes plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno: ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvensis, ervilhaca (Vicia saliva L., chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L., azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, tremoço azul (Lupinus angustifolius Lam., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Shieb e pousio invernal. As coletas de amostras do solo para as análises da estabilidade de agregados foram feitas a 5cm de profundidade e em quatro épocas: florescimento das plantas de cobertura de solo, logo após a semeadura do milho, florescimento e colheita do milho. No primeiro ano de avaliação (93/94, quarto ano de execução do experimento, verificou-se uma superioridade da aveia preta em relação ao tremoço, ervilhaca, chícharo e ervilha forrageira, durante o ciclo vegetativo das plantas de cobertura de inverno, já no ano agrícola 94/95 não houve grandes diferenças na estabilidade estrutural entre os tratamentos.A field study was carried out from May of 1993 to May of 1995 at Federal University of Santa Maria campus at the Soil Science Department experimental área, using an experiment installed on a typic Hapludalf (yellow-red podzolic since 1989. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of some winter cover crops on water aggregate stability afterfour andfive year ofno- tiliage system. The cover crops used were: forage pea (Pisum arvensis, common vetch (Vicia saliva, wild winter pea (Lathyrus sativus, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Iam, blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius and black oat (Avena strigosa. The fallow was used as a control treatment. Soil samples to measure aggregate stability were extracted from 0 to 5cm depth atfour dates

  6. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  7. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh, E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  8. Produção de biomassa e teor de óleo essencial em função da idade e época de colheita em plantas de hortelã-japonesa = Biomass yield and essential oil content in function of the age and harvest period of mint plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Chagas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da época e da idade da planta na colheita na produção de biomassa seca e no teor percentual do óleo essencial e o tempo de armazenamento das plantas de Mentha arvensis L. Foram instalados dois experimentos. No primeiro, foi avaliado o efeito de três idades na colheita, 80, 100 e 120 dias após o transplantio, e três idades na segunda colheita, 60, 75 e 90 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. No segundo experimento, foram avaliadas três épocas de colheita: início de janeiro, final de março einício de junho. O material colhido foi seco em estufa a 37ºC, calculada a biomassa seca da parte aérea, extraído o óleo essencial em aparelho de Clevenger modificado e calculado o seu teor percentual. O teor percentual de óleo essencial e a biomassa seca da parte aérea variaram conforme a idade da primeira colheita da planta. A idade da planta na primeira colheita influenciou o teor de óleo essencial e a biomassa seca da parte aérea, em resposta às idades das plantas na segunda colheita. A época de colheita em que se obteve o maior teor de óleo essencial foi no início do mês de junho.This present work aimed to evaluate the effect of period and age the plants on harvest, dry biomass production, essential oil percentage content and storage period of mint (Mentha arvensis L. plants. Two experiments were set: the first evaluated the effect of three harvest ages (80, 100 and 120 days after transplanting, and three ages at the second harvest (60, 75 and 90 days. A randomized blocks design was used, with four replications in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme. In the second experiment, three harvest periods were evaluated – early January, late March and early June. The harvested material was dried at 37°C, the dry biomass of the aerial parts was calculated, the essential oil was extracted in a modified Clevenger instrument and its

  9. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

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    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  10. Prevalence of Escherichia coli virulence genes in patients with diarrhea and a subpopulation of healthy volunteers in Madrid, Spain

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    Adriana eCabal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor VGs without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular.The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est and elt typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes (EHEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC and EIEC in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 and fliCH4, rbfO157 and fliCH7 was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA (typically associated with STEC and EPEC, invA (EIEC and the rbfO157+fliCH7 (STEC and/or STEC/EAEC combination were significantly (p<0.02 higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzxO104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p=0.014 more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels.

  11. Mucosa-associated but not luminal Escherichia coli is augmented in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

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    de Souza Helton Luis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is believed to participate in the etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD and possibly of ulcerative colitis (UC, due at least in part to the observed rise in the number of these bacteria in the gut microbiota of CD and UC patients. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood whether this quantitative variation occurs equally throughout the mucosal and luminal spaces of the gut. To assess this question, stools and mucosa biopsies from distinct intestinal sites were cultured aiming at determining their E. coli concentration. The cultures were additionally screened for the presence of some virulence genes of pathogenic E. coli. Results Analyses of clinical materials from 14 controls (38 biopsies and 14 stools samples, 11 CD (25 biopsies and 11 stools samples and 7 UC patients (18 biopsies and 7 stools samples indicated no significant variation in the number of E. coli present in stools, but a rise of at least one log10 CFU/mg in biopsies from the ileum of CD patients and the sigmoid and rectum of CD and UC patients. The cultures were screened for the presence of E. coli attaching and effacing (eae, invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH, aggregative adherence transcriptional activator (aggR, Shiga cytotoxins (stx, and heat labile enterotoxin (elt and the following serine proteases autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE genes: plasmid encoded toxin (pet, secreted autotransporter toxin (sat, Shigella extracellular protein (sepA, protein involved in intestinal colonization (pic and Shigella IgA-like protease homolog (sigA. Six of the 10 genes screened were detected in the total of samples investigated: aggR, eae, pet, sat, sepA and sigA. No difference in the prevalence of any of these markers was observed in cultures from different clinical materials or groups of patients. Methods Bacterial quantitation was carried out following cultures of diluted samples suspensions in MacConkey agar, Wilkins Chalgren agar for anaerobes

  12. 女生初潮年龄提前与黄体生成素受体基因Asp578Gly突变%Asp578 Gly mutation of luteinizing hormone receptor in girls with early menarche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丁; 钱红丹; 徐勇; 张敏婕; 沈惠芬; 刘起展

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究黄体生成素受体(LHR)基因Asp57s Gly突变与女生初潮年龄提前的关系,为青少年青春期发育研究提供依据.方法 分层整群抽取无锡市177名初潮年龄提前(初潮年龄<11岁)女生,外周血提取DNA,用5’-CAC TGC TGG CTT TTT CAC TGT ATT-3’和5’-TGA AGG CAG CTG AGA TGG CAA AAA-3作引物,经常规PCR扩增后,用限制性内切酶Msp I消化,以检测LHR基因是否存在A1733G的碱基突变.结果 初潮年龄提前组LH水平高于正常组(P<0.05),而两组FSH差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).177名初潮年龄提前女生的LHR基因均末检测到Asp578 Gly突变.结论 Asp578 Gly突变与女性初潮年龄提前无直接关系.%Objective To identify the relationship between early menarche and Asp578 Gly mutation of luteinizing hormone receptor) LHR). Methods A total of 177 girls defined as early menarche ( age of menarche less than 11 years old) were as subjects. The peripheral blood samples were taken from every girl. Genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, using primers of 5'-CAC TGC TGG CTT TIT CAC TGT ATT - 3' and 5-TGA AGG CAG CTG AGA TGG CAA AAA-3'. Then, the PCR product was treated with Msp 1 to examine whether a transition of A to G of nucleotide 1733 of the LHR cDNA existed in these girls. Results The LH level of the girls with early menarche was higher than the normal ones (P0.05). The Asp578 Gly activating mutation of LHR was not identified in the 177 girls. Conclusion The Asp578 Gly mutation of LHR gene is not related with early menarche.

  13. Study on virulence genotypes and bio-film formation of Entero-aggregative Escherichia coli%聚集性大肠埃希菌生物膜形成及毒力基因型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪涛; 沈小婷

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the association of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) virulence genes and bio -film formation. Methods; Biofilm formation test was used to screen Eagg EC and PCR was used to detect Agg R, AAT (CVD432) , agga (Aggregative fimbria I) , aafa (AAF/II) , agg3a ( AAF/Ⅲ) , pilS (Type IV pi-lus), pet ( Plasmid - encoded toxin) , east A ( EAggEC heat - stable toxin) genes and the relation between bio -film formation and virulence genes was analyzed. Results: Bio - film formation test can be used for screening of Eagg EC, which can be classified by virulence genotyping. Conclusion; Biofilm formation test is useful to screen En-teroaggregative Escherichia coli ( EAggEC) , and it has correlation with every virulence gene to varying degrees.%目的:通过肠道门诊标本检出的聚集性大肠埃希菌,研究其相关致病因子的毒力基因.方法:使用生物膜形成试验筛检聚集性大肠埃希菌,获得菌株后,进行转译激活因子基因,CVD432质粒基因,聚集性大肠埃希菌Ⅰ型鞭毛基因、Ⅱ型鞭毛基因、Ⅲ型鞭毛基因、Ⅳ菌毛基因,质粒编码毒素基因,聚集性大肠埃希菌耐热性肠毒素基因等各种基因检测,研究不同基因的分布和生物膜实验的相关性.结果:可以通过生物膜形成试验筛检聚集性大肠埃希菌,并根据毒力基因分型.结论:生物膜形成实验作为利用生物学特性筛检聚集性大肠埃希菌有一定的应用价值,聚集性大肠埃希菌的生物膜的形成与其各类毒力基因有不同程度的相关性.

  14. The resistance mechanism and distribution of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from the intestines of healthy elderly people%肠集聚性大肠埃希菌在健康老年人肠道中的分布及其耐药机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王原; 骆丰; 曹俊敏; 张嵘; 许江燕

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析健康老年人肠道中肠集聚性大肠埃希菌(EAEC)的检出率,并探讨其毒力基因及超广谱β内酰胺酶(ESBL)的携带情况.方法 取健康老年人的粪便标本分别接种于血平板、SS平板、麦康凯平板进行细菌培养,用全自动微生物鉴定仪和质谱仪鉴定细菌到种;对分离的大肠埃希菌采用双纸片协同法检测其ESBL的表型,用PCR法扩增其EAEC毒力基因astA和aggR;ESBL表型阳性的EAEC菌株用PCR法检测其ESBL基因型.结果 在1 75例研究对象中,共检出160株大肠埃希菌,ESBL携带率为36.30% (58/160);EAEC检出16株(10.o0%),其中astA阳性14株(8.75%),aggR阳性2株(1.25%);EAEC菌株的ESBL携带率为56.25% (9/16),其基因型均为CTX-M型,其中以CTX M 14最多,占66.70% (6/9).结论 本研究获得了健康老年人肠道中EAEC的检出率及其毒力基因和ESBL的携带情况,提示我们EAEC不仅是腹泻患者的病原菌,还可以在健康老年人群中携带,且具有较高的携带率和耐药性,提醒我们加强防范.

  15. The enigmatic mitochondrial genome of Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia reveals insights into selection of an efficient tRNA system and supports monophyly of Ambulacraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hemichordata comprises solitary-living Enteropneusta and colonial-living Pterobranchia, sharing morphological features with both Chordata and Echinodermata. Despite their key role for understanding deuterostome evolution, hemichordate phylogeny is controversial and only few molecular data are available for phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, mitochondrial sequences are completely lacking for pterobranchs. Therefore, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the pterobranch Rhabdopleura compacta to elucidate deuterostome evolution. Thereby, we also gained important insights in mitochondrial tRNA evolution. Results The mitochondrial DNA of Rhabdopleura compacta corresponds in size and gene content to typical mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, but shows the strongest known strand-specific mutational bias in the nucleotide composition among deuterostomes with a very GT-rich main-coding strand. The order of the protein-coding genes in R. compacta is similar to that of the deuterostome ground pattern. However, the protein-coding genes have been highly affected by a strand-specific mutational pressure showing unusual codon frequency and amino acid composition. This composition caused extremely long branches in phylogenetic analyses. The unusual codon frequency points to a selection pressure on the tRNA translation system to codon-anticodon sequences of highest versatility instead of showing adaptations in anticodon sequences to the most frequent codons. Furthermore, an assignment of the codon AGG to Lysine has been detected in the mitochondrial genome of R. compacta, which is otherwise observed only in the mitogenomes of some arthropods. The genomes of these arthropods do not have such a strong strand-specific bias as found in R. compacta but possess an identical mutation in the anticodon sequence of the tRNALys. Conclusion A strong reversed asymmetrical mutational constraint in the mitochondrial genome of

  16. Marcadores fAFLP na caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro selecionados como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro fAFLP markers to characterize three mume genotypes selected as rootstocks for peach tree

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    Ester Wickert

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética existente em três genótipos de umezeiro (Clone 05, cv. Rigitano e Clone 15 e identificar marcadores moleculares fAFLP (fluorescent Amplified Fragment Lenght Polymorphism passíveis de serem utilizados na discriminação dos três genótipos de umezeiro selecionados como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro. Foram utilizadas 24 diferentes combinações de primers seletivos fAFLP que geraram 648 marcas, das quais 272 foram diferenciadoras dos três genótipos entre si. As marcas diferenciadoras permitiram o agrupamento dos clones de umezeiro de acordo com sua similaridade através do Método da Distância e algorítmo Neighbour Joining. As mesmas marcas foram utilizadas para calcular a distância genética entre os clones. Com o uso de marcadores fAFLP foi possível discriminar os três genótipos de umezeiro entre si, destacando-se as combinações Fam ACT/CAT, Joe AGG/CTT e Ned AGC/CAA, que permitiram a diferenciação individual de cada um dos clones. A maior distância genética foi encontrada entre a cv. Rigitano e o Clone 15. Os marcadores fAFLP revelaram maior proximidade genética entre o Clone 05 e a cv. Rigitano.The objective of this work was the identification of fAFLP markers to be used in molecular characterization of three mume genotypes selected as rootstocks for peach tree. Twenty-four different fAFLP primer combinations were used and allowed the recognition of 648 markers, comprising 272 markers which were able to discriminate the three clones one from the other. These markers were used to calculate the groupment of the clones according to their similarities with the distance method and neighbour joining algorithm. The same markers were also used to calculate the genetic distance among the clones. The fAFLP markers were efficient to identify the clones, mainly by the combinations of selective primers Fam ACT/CAT, Joe AGG/CTT and Ned AGC/CAA. fAFLP markers allowed the

  17. Molecular identification of a bacterial strain isolated from a rodent of natural death%分子生物学方法鉴定由自毙鼠分离的细菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭英; 陈双艳; 石丽媛; 董珊珊; 王鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的 对1株由自毙鼠分离的细菌(X175菌株)进行属、种及型的鉴定.方法 ①采用16S rDNA对X175菌株进行种属鉴定;②应用荧光PCR检测X175菌株是否存在致泻性大肠埃希菌常见毒素基因(stx1/stx2/eae 、It/st、aggR/ipaH)及大肠埃希菌O104、H4基因;③应用PCR检测X175菌株是否存在肠出血性大肠埃希菌(EHEC)O104∶H4的9个毒力基因.结果 ①经16SrDNA鉴定,X175菌株与大肠埃希菌埃希菌属的一些菌株相似度达99%,进化树显示X175菌株与大肠埃希菌O104:H4菌株的亲缘关系较近;②大肠埃希菌O104基因和ipaH基因检测结果均为阳性,stx1 /stx2/eae、lt/st、aggR、志贺菌/沙门菌、H4等基因检测结果均为阴性;③肠出血性大肠埃希菌O104∶H4九个毒力因子检测结果均为阴性.结论 X175菌株为大肠埃希菌O104弱毒型菌株,H抗原和其他一些特性还需进一步研究.

  18. Structural organization of cetyltrimethylammonium sulfate in aqueous solution: The effect of Na2SO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Eloi; Brazolin, Marcelo Rodrigo Savério; Naal, Rose Mary Zumstein Georgetto; Del Lama, Maria Perpétua Freire de Morais; Lopes, Josias R; Loh, Watson; Vasilescu, Marilena

    2006-07-15

    We used dynamic light scattering (DLS), steady-state fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ), tensiometry, conductimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the self-assembly of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium sulfate (CTAS) in aqueous solution, which has SO(2-)4 as divalent counterion. We obtained the critical micelle concentration (cmc), aggregation number (N(agg)), area per monomer (a0), hydrodynamic radius (R(H)), and degree of counterion dissociation (alpha) of CTAS micelles in the absence and presence of up to 1 M Na2SO4 and at temperatures of 25 and 40 degrees C. Between 0.01 and 0.3 M salt the hydrodynamic radius of CTAS micelle R(H) approximately 16 A is roughly independent on Na2SO4 concentration; below and above this concentration range R(H) increases steeply with the salt concentration, indicating micelle structure transition, from spherical to rod-like structures. R(H) increases only slightly as temperature increases from 25 to 40 degrees C, and the cmc decreases initially very steeply with Na2SO4 concentration up to about 10 mM, and thereafter it is constant. The area per surfactant at the water/air interface, a0, initially increases steeply with Na2SO4 concentration, and then decreases above ca. 10 mM. Conductimetry gives alpha = 0.18 for the degree of counterion dissociation, and N(agg) obtained by fluorescence methods increases with surfactant concentration but it is roughly independent of up to 80 mM salt. The ITC data yield cmc of 0.22 mM in water, and the calculated enthalpy change of micelle formation, Delta H(mic) = 3.8 kJ mol(-1), Gibbs free energy of micellization of surfactant molecules, Delta G(mic) = -38.0 kJ mol(-1) and entropy TDelta S(mic) = 41.7 kJ mol(-1) indicate that the formation of CTAS micelles is entropy-driven.

  19. Eriophyid-myte (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae as moontlike beheeragente van ongewenste uitheemse plante in Suid-Afrika

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    C. Craemer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyid-myte kom waarskynlik op die meeste hoër plante voor en is oor die algemeen baie gasheerspesifiek. Sommiges is skadelik genoeg om oorweeg te word vir biologiese beheerprogramme teen ongewenste plante. Algemene belangstelling in die gebruik van eriophyids vir onkruidbeheer het onlangs ontstaan en vyf spesies is reeds, meestal suksesvol, gebruik vir onkruidbeheer in ander lande. Eriophyid-myte is nog nie as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika benut nie. Sewentien spesies wat simptome veroorsaak wat moontlik nuttig kan wees vir die beheer van 12 plantspesies, wat as onkruide in Suid-Afrika beskou word, word gelys en bespreek. Die onkruide is: Acacia saligna (Port Jackson, Acroptilon repens (Russiese dissel, Cardaria draba (peperbos cardaria, Chromolaena odorata (paraffienbos. Convolvulus arvensis (akkerwinde, Cuscuta epithymum (dodder, Hypericum perforatum (St. Janskruid, Lantana camara (lantana, Melia azedarach (sering, Opuntia inermis (doringturksvy, Solanum elaeagnifolium (satansbos, S. mauritianum (luisboom en Spartium junceum (Spaanse besem. Sommige van hierdie eriophyid-spesies kan moontlik suksesvol as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika gebruik word en derhalwe is verdere navorsing in hierdie verband geregverdig.

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. PMID:1795521

  1. Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts Prepared from Selected Medicinal Herbs in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Jun; Song, Ji-Hye; Shon, Myung-Soo; Kim, Hae Ok; Kwon, O Jun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246.2 μg/mL and 166.2 μg/mL, respectively, followed by ARE (186.6 μg/mL), CZE (198.6 μg/mL), MAE (337.1 μg/mL), PFE (415.3 μg/mL), LSE (548.2 μg/mL), and GJE (626.3 μg/mL). In non-toxic concentration ranges, CZE had a strong inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 adipogenes (84.5%) than those of the other extracts. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE is largely limited in the early stage of adipogenesis, and we revealed that the inhibitory role of CZE in adipogenesis is required for the activation of Wnt signaling. Our results provide scientific evidence that the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE can be applied as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutri-cosmetics for obesity prevention. PMID:27752499

  2. Weed infestation of a cereal-legume mixture depending on its concentration and position in a crop rotation

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    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out in the period 2000-2006 at the Experimental Station in Tomaszkowo belonging to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Its aim was to compare weed infestation of a mixture of spring barley and field pea grown in a four crop rotation with different crop selection and sequence. Each year during tillering of spring barley and before the harvest of the mixture, weed species composition and density were evaluated, while additionally weed biomass was also estimated before the harvest. These results were used to determine species constancy, Simpson’s dominance index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices as well as the community similarity index based on floristic richness, numbers and biomass of particular weed species. The cropping frequency and the position of the mixture in the crop rotation did not differentiate the species composition and total biomass of weed communities in the cereal-legume mixture crops. The crop rotation in which the mixture constituted 50% and was grown after itself had a reducing effect on weed numbers. Growing field pea in the 4-year crop rotation promoted weed infestation of the mixture and the dominance of weed communities. Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus repens, Polygonum convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis were constant components of the agrophytocenoses. The weed communities were more similar in terms of their floristic composition than in terms of weed density and air-dry weight of weeds.

  3. The Arable Weeds of Plešivica Hills (NW Croatia

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    Dubravka Dujmović Purgar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The arable weeds (segetal flora were explored on Plešivica hills (NW Croatia during vegetational seasons 2002 and 2003 at 10 locations. The common methods of plant recording, collecting and identification were applied in the research of the arable weeds. Th e nomenclature of plants was according to Tutin et al. (1964-1980, 1993. The total of 107 taxa of arable weeds that classified to 32 families was noted. The most represented families were Poaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Therophytes were dominant in the fields that were the subject of this research. Most of the species were the cosmopolites and the Euroasian origin. 78 weed species were noted in dense crop fi elds (wheat, barley. Some of them (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rausch., Cirsium arvense (L.Scop., Galium aparine L., Papaver rhoeas L., Stellaria media(L.Vill. and Veronica persica Poir. are the most harmful weeds of dense crops. 62 weeds were noted in maize fields. Some of them were typically row crop weeds, as for instance: Amaranthus retrofl exus L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L., Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. PB., Polygonum lapathifolium L. and Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. Very invasive species Abutilon theophrasti Med. was found on the row crop fields. Very dangerous aeroallergenic species Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was dispersed in many of the researched fields.

  4. Changes in weed infestation of spring barley depending on variable pluvio-thermal conditions

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    Roman Krawczyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze segetal weeds present in spring barley against the background of changes in pluvio-thermal conditions observed over the last 20 years (1993–2012 at the Field Experimental Station of the Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute in Winna Góra, Poland. Based on the mean value of the Sielianinov hydrothermal coefficient for the three months of spring vegetation, i.e., April, May, and June, three classes of pluvio-thermal conditions (very dry, moderately dry, humid were distinguished. The phytosociological stability of weed species analyzed during the study period was assessed and the Shannon–Wiener index of species diversity in the communities and the Simpson dominance index were calculated for segetal weeds present in spring barley. In the 20-year period analyzed, Chenopodium album and Viola arvensis exhibited the highest phytosociological stability and the highest abundance in the spring barley crop. Over the years analyzed, the dry spring vegetation periods were characterized by significant precipitation deficiency between late April and mid-June. In the years with favorable meteorological conditions, the weed species diversity measured by the Shannon–Wiener diversity index was higher than in the years with precipitation deficiency. In the very dry years, the species dominance index in the spring vegetation period was higher than in the wet years. The yield loss caused by weed infestation in the very dry years was higher by 6% as compared to moderately dry and wet years.

  5. Characteristics of Vegetation Succession on Salinized Abandoned Fields in Lower Reaches of Shiyang River%石羊河下游盐渍化弃耕地植被演替特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治元; 李昌龙; 王多泽; 郭树江

    2010-01-01

    以石羊河下游不同年代盐渍化弃耕地自然群落为对象,利用重要值、物种多样性理论研究植被演替的特征.结果显示,石羊河下游盐渍化弃耕地植被演替一般经历一年生田间杂草、多年生荒漠草本和荒漠灌木三个阶段.群落演替规律:藜(Chenopodium album)+田旋花(Convolvulus arvensis)群落(1~2年)→骆驼蒿(Peganum nigellastrum)+骆驼蓬(Peganum harmala)群落(3~10年)→苏枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)+黄毛头(Kalidium cuspidatum var.sinicum)群落(10~40年)→黄毛头群落(顶级群落).研究表明,随着群落演替时间的增加,物种丰富度呈下降趋势,而物种多样性呈先下降后上升,最后略有下降并趋于稳定,群落结构趋于简单.

  6. Phytochrome intermediates and action spectra for light perception by dry seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, M R; Frankland, B

    1984-03-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that far-red irradiation of dry Lactuca sativa L. seeds results in inhibition of subsequent germination. Although red has no effect on dry seeds, a red irradiation following a farred irradiation reverses the effect of far-red. This phenomenon is most noticeable in seeds with artificially raised levels of phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. Qualitatively similar results have been found for the seeds of Plantago major L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Bromus sterilis L. Action spectra studies on Plantago seeds show that the action peaks for promotion and inhibition of germination of hydrated seeds are at 660 and 730 nanometers, respectively. The action spectrum for inhibition of subsequent germination following irradiation of dry seeds is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that for hydrated seeds, with an action peak at 730 nanometers, indicating absorption by phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. However, the action spectrum for the reversal of this far-red effect on dry seeds has a broad peak at 680 nanometers and subsidiary peaks at 650 and 600 nanometers. It is proposed that this effect is due to light absorption by the phytochrome intermediate complex meta-Fa, and that the action spectrum reflects the in vivo absorption properties of this intermediate.

  7. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. III. Black, alluvial and rendzina soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jędruszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora growing stubble-fields area is determined by soil features. Weeds found in cereal stubble-fields on black soils formed from sands and loams, medium and haevy alluvial soils as well as brown and chernozem rendzina soils are presented in the paper. The 273 phytosociological records were worked out. They were collected from 87 stands situated in 76 localities of Kielce region. The results showed that species number and species composition were dependent on the soils (black. alluvial, rendzina. The existance of 118 (medium alluvial soil to 140 (brown rendzina soil weed species, including 73 common for all of the soils considered, was found there. Relatively high per cent (29-35 of them belonged to perennial weeds. From 22 (brown rendzina soil to 35 (heavy alluvial soil of species reached high constancy degrees (V-III. Stellaria media, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Agropyron repens and Cirsium arvense predominated on the all of the soil examined. Among the weed flora registered, 25 species, recorded only on rendzina soils, were distinguishable for that soils.

  8. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION AND CUTTING ON FLORISTIC AND PHYTOCENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FACIES (Arrenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum

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    Mirko Stjepanović

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1993-1997 investigations were conducted on natural low marshy grassland of facies Arrhenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum located 60 km west of Osijek and 7 km south of the river Drava. Variants of nitrogen fertilization, NPK fertilizers and non-fertilized were comprised in the investigation. Presence of 121 plant species of which 22 grass and grass-like species, 12 legumes and 87 other plant species was determined. On the average of five years grassland fertilization affected changes in density value of all plant groups. The highest grass density was found out with the variant fertilized with N120P12K120 and the highest legumes density appeared to be on non-fertilized variant. In 1997 Centaurea jacea, Cerastium holosteoides and Myosotis arvensis dissapeared from plant density of other species due to fertilization and mowing effect. Grasses Alopercurus pratensis and Poa pratensis var. angustifolia as well as leguminoses Trfolim pratense and Lathyrus pratensis are especially characterized by good fodder and density value.

  9. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W H Gera Hol

    Full Text Available Plant-soil feedback (PSF and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  11. The clinical differentiation of nervous and muscular locomotor disorders of sheep in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, C A

    1995-06-01

    Many of the nervous and muscular locomotor disorders that affect sheep throughout Australia are commonly referred to as "staggers" syndromes. The range of clinical signs displayed by sheep suffering these disorders is sufficiently diverse to enable each syndrome to be graded into one of 5 progressive clinical groups. The first group, the limb paresis syndromes, includes the primary myopathies associated with the ingestion of Ixiolaena brevicompta, Malva parviflora, and Trachymene ochracea, as well as selenium and Vitamin E disorders, Paroo virus staggers, congenital progressive muscular dystrophy, humpy back, hypocalcaemic muscle weakness, Tribulus terrestris staggers and tetanus. The second group is characterised by limb paresis with knuckling of the fetlocks, and includes the plant-associated toxicities of Romulea rosea, Stachys arvensis, Trachyandra divaricata, and Tribulus micrococcus, together with haloxon toxicity, enzootic ataxia (copper deficiency), and the probably genetic disorders of segmental axonopathy, neuroaxonal dystrophy, and degenerative thoracic myelopathy. Other locomotor disorders that fit more loosely into this group are listerial myelitis (post-dipping staggers), vitamin A deficiency, cervico-thoracic vertebral subluxation Stypandra glauca toxicity, Ipomoea spp toxicity, ivermectin toxicity, and botulism. The third group, the falling syndromes, includes the probably genetic disorders of thalamic cerebellar neuropathy, cerebellar abiotrophy, and globoid cell leucodystrophy, together with Swainsona spp toxicity. The fourth group, the falling syndromes, includes the plant associated toxicities of phalaris staggers, perennial rye grass staggers and nervous ergotism (Claviceps paspali).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudey, J S; Tittle, F L; Spencer, M S

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to beta-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form beta-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  13. A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to β-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form β-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

  14. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  15. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  16. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  17. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Z Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth. On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.

  18. Dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, J.C.V.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from light-exposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C/sub 3/); P. maximum (C/sub 4/ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C/sub 3/); P. miliaceum (C/sub 4/ NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C/sub 4/ NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C/sub 3/ species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. 16 references, 2 tables.

  19. Dark/Light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J C; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+) concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C(3)); P. maximum (C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C(3)/C(4)); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C(3)); P. miliaceum (C(4) NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C(4) NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C(3)/C(4)); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C(3) species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO(2) and Mg(2+) activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light.

  20. Dark/Light Modulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Plants from Different Photosynthetic Categories 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George

    1984-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO3− and Mg2+ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C3); P. maximum (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C3/C4); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C3); P. miliaceum (C4 NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C4 NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C3/C4); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C3 species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO2 and Mg2+ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  1. Influence of tillage system on the weed infestation in a long-term field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Germany reduced tillage (without ploughing increased to nearly 40% of arable land. Without using a plough weed infestation generally rises. Simultaneously the use of herbicides increases. In a long-term field trial in Dahnsdorf (federal state of Brandenburg, Germany the impact of reduced tillage on weed occurrence and herbicide use is investigated. The use of glyphosate for seedbed preparation is not always necessary, e.g. in the crop year 2010 glyphosate was not used. The use depends on the rate of weed emergence and the precedent crop. For canola the situation is different, volunteer cereal plants had to be controlled by a graminicide in 6 out of 7 years. In the first years weed emergence is determined by the former crop rotation (cash cropping with 67% cereals vs. forage cropping with 50% cereals and the herbicide strategy. Round about after four years the influence of the reduced tillage appears in case of the dicotyledonous weeds. Emergence of these weeds is promoted by the reduced tillage especially in combination with slightly reduced herbicide amounts (strategy IPS. The species of the dicotyledonous weeds are mainly (about 70% Viola arvensis, Veronica spp., Stellaria media, Matricaria spp. and Centaurea cyanus. For Apera spica-venti the emergence is mainly based on the weather conditions and the germinative terms in autumn.

  2. Influence of conservation tillage and zero tillage on arable weeds in organic faba bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 on a Gleyic Cambisol near Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. A crop sequence of summer barley, winter cover crops (intercropped oat and sunflower and summer faba bean was examined under organic farming conditions. Emphasis was given to the studying of arable weeds in faba beans. However, enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation of summer faba beans by accumulation of soil-nitrogen by winter cover crops was a second objective in these experiments. The faba bean field plots had been cultivated with three different tillage systems: 1. zero tillage, sowing with cross-slottechnique, 2. conservation tillage (wing share cultivator, rotary harrow sowing with cross-slot-technique and 3. conventional tillage with mouldboard plough followed by rotary harrow, sowing with precision monoseeder. In plots with zero tillage preceding cover crops were left as mulch on the soil surface. Cover crops accumulated adequate nitrogen amounts and following faba beans reacted with significant increase (up to 10% in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Maximum of arable weed biomass was observed in zero tillage-plots at the end of May or early in June. The abundance of the predominant weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis increased with tillage intensity, whereas the abundance of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense increased in 2010 with decreasing tillage intensity. Average grain yield of faba beans was low with only 3.0 and 2.4 t ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  3. Effects of the penetration of Artemisia vulgaris L. into maize crops as a result of the use of reduced tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Gołębiowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant increase in weed infestation of agricultural crops with Artemisia vulgaris has been observed in the south-western region of Poland. The ease of migration of this expansive species results from the fact that it does not face competition from segetal weeds and therefore poses a great threat to the ecological balance. During the period 2008–2011, a floristic study was carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method in an abandoned field adjacent to a maize monoculture grown under two tillage systems: plough and ploughless tillage. These observations allowed an evaluation of the actual risk of spread of Artemisia vulgaris depending on tillage system. The vicinity of the abandoned field had a significant effect on the penetration of Artemisia vulgaris into maize crops. Higher numbers of individuals of this species were found under ploughless tillage compared to plough tillage, regardless of the distance from the field edge, and its increased competitive effects on Viola arvensis L. and Veronica persica L. could be observed. The lowest grain yield was obtained under ploughless tillage where the strong competitive effects of Artemisia vulgaris were observed even in the plot most distant from the abandoned field adjacent to the maize crop.

  4. Effect of nitrification inhibitors on yield and essential oil contents of japanese Mint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium) flowers have been observed to have insecticidal properties and could be also used as indigenous nitrification-inhibitors for increasing N-use efficiency. During 1998 and 1999 a study was conducted to evaluate the relative performance of pyrethrum flower waste and Dicyandiamide (DCD) as nitrification inhibitors, applied with prilled urea (PU), to Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.). Application of the nitrification inhibitors with prilled urea significantly increased the growth and menthol contents of the crop, compared to that of prilled urea alone. Addition of Dicyandiamide (DCD) and pyrethrum flower waste gave 30 and 23% more herb-yield that prilled urea alone, the corresponding increase in oil-yield being 27 and 22%, respectively. Application of nitrogen enhanced the growth and menthol contents of crop to more than 300 kg N ha/sup -1/ with prilled urea. Both the materials improved the N-use efficiency by one and half time, as compared to PU at 1200 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results indicate that pyrethru nitrification inhibitor. (author)

  5. Studies on the improvement of the components of essential oil of genus Mentha by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. arvensis L. var. piperascens M sub(AL). (2 n = 96, R sup(a)Rsup(a)SS JJ AA, main component menthol) as the material the elucidation of biosynthetic mechanisms of essential oil was attempted. As the result it has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis is completed between 84 - 86 days after placing individual cells in the culture medium, especially on 85 days. Such an elucidation serves as the criteria of the biosynthetic pathway elucidation and it is the first accomplishment in the world. Next, the irradiation with γ-rays of 55R/min, total dose 19.5 KR gives a marked effect, and by this method a new plant (rose mint) having aroma similar to rose oil has been established, and this new plant has been designated as ''rose mint.'' This new improved plant can yield about 1 Kg of essential oil from 30 Kg of plant, and in comparing to 1 Kg of essential oil obtained from about 106 rose flowers by the conventional method, the yield is enormously greater and its wide application can be expected in the future. This newly developed breeding method can be also applied to other plants where the extraction of the plant compositions is desired, and at present this method is applied to the Perilla by which a new plant having sweet taste has been successfully established. (author)

  6. Radioprotective potential of mint: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliga Manjeshwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation is an important modality in cancer treatment and estimates are that between one third and one half of all patients will require ionizing irradiation therapy during some point in their clinical management. However, the radiation-induced damage to the normal tissues restricts the therapeutic doses of radiation that can be delivered to tumors and thereby limits the effectiveness of the treatment. The use of chemical compounds (radioprotectors represents an obvious strategy to improve the therapeutic index in radiotherapy. However, most of the synthetic radioprotective compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity and high cost. These observations necessitated a search for alternative agents that are less toxic and highly effective. Studies in the recent past have shown that some medicinal plants possess radioprotective effects. Two species of the commonly used aromatic herb mint, Mentha piperita and M. arvensis protected mice against the γ-radiation-induced sickness and mortality. Detail investigations have also shown that the aqueous extract of M. piperita protected the vital radiosensitive organs: the testis, gastrointestinal and hemopoetic systems in mice. The radioprotective effects are possibly due to free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and enhancement of the DNA repair processes. This review for the first time summarizes the observations and elucidates the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects. The lacunae in the existing knowledge and directions for future research are also addressed.

  7. Identification of EST-SSRs and molecular diversity analysis in Mentha piperita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birendra Kumar; Umesh Kumar; Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2015-01-01

    EST sequences of Mentha piperita available in the public domain (NCBI) were exploited to develop SSR markers. A total of 1316 ESTs were assembled into 155 contigs and 653 singletons and of these, 110 sequences were found to contain 130 SSRs, with a frequency of 1 SSR/3.4 kb. Dinucleotide repeat SSRs were most frequent (72.3%) with the AG/CT (43.8%) repeat motif followed by AT/AT (16.2%). Primers were successfully designed for 68 SSR-containing sequences (62.0%). The 68 primers amplified 13 accessions of M. piperita and 54 produced clear amplicons of the expected size. Of these 54, 33 (61%) were found to be polymorphic among M. piperita accessions, showing from 2 to 4 alleles with an average of 2.33 alleles/SSR, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value varied between 0.13 and 0.51 (average 0.25). All the amplified SSRs showed transferability among four different species of Mentha, with a highest in Mentha arvensis (87.0%) and minimum in Mentha citrata (37.0%). The newly developed SSRs markers were found to be useful for diversity analysis, as they successfully differentiated among species and accessions of Mentha.

  8. 薄荷栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 黄静兰; 丘亮伟

    2010-01-01

    @@ 薄荷(Mentha arvensis)为唇形科(Labiatae)薄荷属(Mentha)多年生宿根性草本植物.是一种有特种经济价值的芳香植物,茎叶可提取薄荷油、薄荷脑、薄荷素等香料,供医药、食品、化工、化妆品等工业用.中医学上以全草入药,性凉,气味温辛,无毒,归肺、肝、心经,具有疏散风热、清利头目、利咽喉的功效,治疗感冒发热、头痛、咽喉肿痛、偏头痛等症.其嫩茎叶凉拌食用,可清热解毒,味道清凉爽口,深受到人们的青睐,是一种开发前景很好的特色蔬菜.

  9. Formulation Design and Development of a Unani Transdermal Patch for Antiemetic Therapy and Its Pharmaceutical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) is one of the novel routes for systemic delivery of drugs through intact skin. A transdermal patch (TP) is a medicated patch that is placed on skin for delivery of medication through skin into the blood stream. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a Unani transdermal patch that could be used for antiemetic therapy. The incorporation of Unani ingredients, namely, Khardal (Brassica nigra), Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale), Podina (Mentha arvensis), and Sirka (Vinegar) were envisaged. The TP was prepared by solvent evaporation technique and was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics and other physicochemical properties, such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, drug content, and tolerability and acceptability of patch. The in vitro permeation study of the patch was carried out through Franz diffusion cell using egg shell membrane as barrier membrane. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as dissolution medium and the temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. The in vitro permeation study of the prepared TP indicated a time dependent increase in drug release throughout the study. The percentage of cumulative drug release was found to be 77.38% in 24 hours. The study shows a new approach to work in Unani pharmaceutics. PMID:27403377

  10. Identification of EST–SSRs and molecular diversity analysis in Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available EST sequences of Mentha piperita available in the public domain (NCBI were exploited to develop SSR markers. A total of 1316 ESTs were assembled into 155 contigs and 653 singletons and of these, 110 sequences were found to contain 130 SSRs, with a frequency of 1 SSR/3.4 kb. Dinucleotide repeat SSRs were most frequent (72.3% with the AG/CT (43.8% repeat motif followed by AT/AT (16.2%. Primers were successfully designed for 68 SSR-containing sequences (62.0%. The 68 primers amplified 13 accessions of M. piperita and 54 produced clear amplicons of the expected size. Of these 54, 33 (61% were found to be polymorphic among M. piperita accessions, showing from 2 to 4 alleles with an average of 2.33 alleles/SSR, and the polymorphic information content (PIC value varied between 0.13 and 0.51 (average 0.25. All the amplified SSRs showed transferability among four different species of Mentha, with a highest in Mentha arvensis (87.0% and minimum in Mentha citrata (37.0%. The newly developed SSRs markers were found to be useful for diversity analysis, as they successfully differentiated among species and accessions of Mentha.

  11. Identification of EST–SSRs and molecular diversity analysis in Mentha piperita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birendra; Kumar; Umesh; Kumar; Hemant; Kumar; Yadav

    2015-01-01

    EST sequences of Mentha piperita available in the public domain(NCBI) were exploited to develop SSR markers. A total of 1316 ESTs were assembled into 155 contigs and 653 singletons and of these, 110 sequences were found to contain 130 SSRs, with a frequency of1 SSR/3.4 kb. Dinucleotide repeat SSRs were most frequent(72.3%) with the AG/CT(43.8%)repeat motif followed by AT/AT(16.2%). Primers were successfully designed for 68SSR-containing sequences(62.0%). The 68 primers amplified 13 accessions of M. piperita and 54 produced clear amplicons of the expected size. Of these 54, 33(61%) were found to be polymorphic among M. piperita accessions, showing from 2 to 4 alleles with an average of2.33 alleles/SSR, and the polymorphic information content(PIC) value varied between 0.13 and 0.51(average 0.25). All the amplified SSRs showed transferability among four different species of Mentha, with a highest in Mentha arvensis(87.0%) and minimum in Mentha citrata(37.0%). The newly developed SSRs markers were found to be useful for diversity analysis, as they successfully differentiated among species and accessions of Mentha.

  12. НОВЫЕ ДЛЯ СИБИРИ И МАЛОИЗВЕСТНЫЕ ЧУЖЕРОДНЫЕ ВИДЫ РАСТЕНИЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Эбель, Александр

    2013-01-01

    В статье сообщаются сведения о распространении в Сибири 6 видов заносных растений, ранее не отмеченных для этой территории (Anthemis arvensis, Carduus hamulosus, Centaurea majorovii, Elytrigia intermedia, Papaver dubium, Physalis peruviana), 4 видов редких в Сибири ксенофитов (Cuscuta campestris, Erucastrum gallicum, Poa compressa, Silene dichotoma) и 4 видов, дичающих из культуры (Malva moschata, Pyrethrum parthenium, Symphytum caucasicum, Xanthoxalis corniculata)....

  13. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Branko I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., Rubus caesius L. Echinochloa crus-gall L., Polygonum aviculare L., P. lapathifolium L., P. persicaria L., Setaria glauca (L P. B., S. viridis (L P. B., Solanum nigrum L. and Sorghum halepense (L Pers. In shooting period up to 4-8 weeks upon emergence, sugar beet is under the haviest harmfull inluence of weeds, especially invasive ones such as: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Iva xanthifolia L. Sorghum halepense (L Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. Sugar beet growing requires intensive cultural practices, i.e. basic and additional tillage and cultivation. Due to the widening of weed problems, frequent herbicide use in several applications is needed in the longer time period.

  14. Chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpe, N; Roibu, C; Negrila, E; Bodescu, F; Fuia, S; Popa, C; Beraru, C

    2001-01-01

    In Romania, the first tests with Roundup Ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at Teleorman Station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at Brăila Station placed in Danube Meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. In every locality cultivated soybean cultivar S.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. During the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of which the most important are: Sorghum halepense (60-80%), Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Solarium nigrum, Yanthium italicum, Abutilon theoprasthi, Sinapis arvensis, Datum stramonium, Polygonum persicaria, Calystegia sepium, Cirsium arvense. In 3 years of experience the best weed control and the highest soybean production were obtained in the variants treated 2 times postemergent with Roundup Ready at a dose of 3 + 3 l/ha. Similar results were also obtained in the farms of the Academy of Agricultural Forestry Sciences, where GMO soybean was cultivated on 1500 hectares.

  15. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  16. Vegetation pattern and heavy metal accumulation at a mine tailing at Gyoengyoesoroszi, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamas, J.; Kovacs, E. [Dept. of Water and Environmental Management, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    Vegetation at an abandoned heavy metal bearing mine tailing may have multifunctional roles such as modification of water balance, erosion control and landscape rehabilitation. Research on the vegetation of mine tailings can provide useful information on tolerance, accumulation and translocation properties of species potentially applicable at moderately contaminated sites. Analyses of the relationship between heavy metal content (Pb, Zn and Cu) and vegetation in a mine tailing were carried out. These analyses included: (1) spatial analysis of relationship among heavy metal distribution, pH and vegetation patterns, and (2) analysis of heavy metal accumulation and translocation in some plant species. Presence of vegetation was found to be significantly dependent on pH value, which confirms that phytotoxicity is a function of element concentration in solution, which is primarily controlled by pH value in mine tailings. Among the most abundant plant species, dewberry (Rubus caesius), vipersbugloss (Echium vulgare), scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) and narrowleaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata) accumulate significant amounts of Pb, Cu and Zn, while in the case of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) only Pb can be measured in elevated contents. Considering the translocation features, scarlet pimpernel, narrowleaf plantain, and dewberry accumulate heavy metals primarily in their roots, while heavy metal concentration in vipersbugloss and annual bluegrass is higher in the shoots. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  18. Murcha do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum no Brasil: agente causal, círculo de plantas hospedeiras e transmissão via semente Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum wilt in Brazil: causal agent, host range and seed transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é uma hortaliça da família Lamiaceae, utilizada na culinária ou como matéria prima para a indústria de fármacos e óleos essenciais. Amostras de plantas de manjericão apresentando sintomas de murcha, seca de hastes e podridão de colo foram coletadas na área rural de Brazlândia (DF durante a estação chuvosa de 2005. Outras duas amostras foram coletadas em plantas cultivadas em campo aberto e casas de vegetação na região de Ponte Alta (DF. Isolados de um fungo, identificado como Fusarium oxysporum, foram obtidos em todas as amostras. Testes de patogenicidade foram conduzidos com mudas das cultivares O. basilicum 'Dark Opal' e 'Italian Large Leaf', e de acessos das espécies O. americanum L. (manjericão de folha miúda, O. campechianum Mill. (alfavaca, Origanum manjorana L. (manjerona, Origanum vulgare L. (orégano, Mentha arvensis L. (menta, Coleus blumei Benth. (tapete, Leonorus sibiricus L. (rubim e Leonotis nepetaefolia (L. W.T. Aiton (cordão-de-frade. Todos os isolados fúngicos mostraram-se altamente virulentos sobre as duas cultivares de manjericão. Em O. campechianum e O. americanum os isolados causaram apenas suave escurecimento vascular e leve redução de crescimento, sendo avirulentos sobre acessos das espécies O. manjorana, O. vulgare, M. arvensis, C. blumei, L. sibiricus e L. nepetaefolia. Este conjunto de dados indicou que o agente causal da doença é o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici, constituindo-se no primeiro registro formal deste patógeno no Brasil. Os lotes de sementes utilizados nas áreas de ocorrência da doença foram submetidos a um teste de sanidade visando verificar a presença do patógeno. O fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici foi detectado em quatro dos seis lotes e os isolados obtidos das sementes contaminadas mostraram similar sintomatologia e um idêntico perfil de virulência aos verificados em campo e casa de vegetação, sugerindo que as sementes

  19. Time-invariant differences between plant individuals in interactions with arthropods correlate with intraspecific variation in plant phenology, morphology and floral scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppler, Jonas; Höfers, Maren K; Wiesmann, Lisa; Junker, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    The basic units of ecological and evolutionary processes are individuals. Network studies aiming to infer mechanisms from complex systems, however, usually focus on interactions between species, not individuals. Accordingly, the structure and underlying mechanisms of individual-based interaction networks remain largely unknown. In a common garden, we recorded all interactions on flowers and leaves of 97 Sinapis arvensis individuals from seedling stage to fruit set and related interindividual differences in interactions to the plant individuals' phenotypes. The plant individuals significantly differed in their quantitative and qualitative interactions with arthropods on flowers and leaves. These differences remained stable over the entire season and thus were time-invariant. Variation in interacting arthropod communities could be explained by a pronounced intraspecific variability in flowering phenology, morphology and flower scent, and translated into variation in reproductive success. Interestingly, plant individuals with a similar composition of flower visitors were also visited by a similar assemblage of interaction partners at leaves. Our results show that the nonuniformity of plant species has pronounced effects in community ecology, potentially with implications for the persistence of communities and populations, and their ability to withstand environmental fluctuations. PMID:26840542

  20. Radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major feature of all higher eukaryotes is the defined life span of the organism. Radioprotections are substances that protect the cells against Radiation induced damage. Over the past decade interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phytoproducts for use in Cancer preventing strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for controlling the Cancer incidence in many developing countries as well as developed countries. Several experimental evidence has indicated that intake of fruit and vegetables and a number of other dietary items are associated with decreased Cancer incidence. These potential agents either abolish or delay the development of Cancer by interfering with one or more steps in the process of carcinogenesis, such as preventing the activation of carcinogen by increasing detoxification or by blocking the interaction of ultimate carcinogen with cellular macromolecules or suppressing the clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. The potential of using medicinal herbs as Cancer chemo preventive neutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Radioprotective potential of extracts of certain dietary botanicals including Mentha arvensi (field mint), Syzyzium cumini (Jamun), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Aegle marmelos (Bael), Emblica officianalis (Amla), Aloe vera (Gwar patha), Moringa oleifera (Moringa, Horse Radish Tree), Grewia asiatica (Phalsa), Rosemarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ocirnurn sanctum, Phylanthus niruri, Vetiveria zizanioides (vetivergrass), Delbergia sisso oil (Sesame oil) was evaluated. All botanicals tested had shown a very low toxicity. Administration of these botanicals increased the survival of whole body irradiated mice and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  1. MELLIFEROUS CHARACTHERISTICS OF SPONTANEOUS LAMIACEAE SPECIES, IDENTIFIED IN THE DANUBE VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ION

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thus the spontaneous and melliferous species of the Lamiaceae family occurring inthe Danube Valley are not very important in number; they represent one of the mainhoney sources for the Romanian apiculture. Therefore a study was carried out onthe melliferous potential of the species belonging to the Lamiaceae family from theDanube Valley. The effective area of study was represented by the Danube Valley inCălăraşi County. Within this study, the species belonging to the Mint genre wereidentified and their melliferous potential was established.A number of three species of mint (Mentha pulegium L., Mentha longifolia L.,Mentha arvensis L. was identified, to which biometric measures were performed (asthe height of plant, number of flowering stems per plant, number of flowers perplant, number of plant per square meter as well as melliferous determinations (asnectar secretion in mg per flower and the nectar concentration in sugar, and byusing a mathematical formula there were established the melliferous potential foreach identified mint species.

  2. Investigation on Weed Species in Alfalfa Field in Qingdao%青岛苜蓿田杂草种类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 田净净; 刘志英; 孙娟; 朱华敏; 杨国锋

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on weeds in artificial alfalfa field in Qingdao Animal Husbandry Technology Demonstration Garden was made from the end of March to the end of September in 2012.Twenty-one kinds of weed species (belonging to 12 families) were found.Among them,weeds belonging to Brassicaceae,Convolvulaceae,Asteraceae,Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae were severely harmful.Descuminia Sophia (L.)webb.Ex Prantl,Cirsium setosum (Wild.) MB.and Convolvulus arvensis L.were dominant species in winter-spring.Gramineae weeds,such as Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.,Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.,and Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.were dominant species in summer-autumn.%2012年自3月底苜蓿返青开始至9月底,对青岛畜牧科技示范园牧草试验基地的苜蓿田杂草调查发现:苜蓿田杂草种类有12科21种,其中十字花科、旋花科、菊科、禾本科和藜科的杂草危害较大;冬春季杂草优势种为麦蒿、刺菜和田旋花;夏秋季杂草优势种为马唐、狗尾草、稗草等禾本科植物和葎草.

  3. Linarin Inhibits the Acetylcholinesterase Activity In-vitro and Ex-vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Linarin is a flavone glycoside in the plants Flos chrysanthemi indici, Buddleja officinalis, Cirsium setosum, Mentha arvensis and Buddleja davidii, and has been reported to possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. In this paper, linarin was investigated for its AChE inhibitory potential both in-vitro and ex-vivo. Ellman's colorimetric method was used for the determination of AChE inhibitory activity in mouse brain. In-vitro assays revealed that linarin inhibited AChE activity with an IC50 of 3.801 ± 1.149 μM. Ex-vivo study showed that the AChE activity was significantly reduced in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice treated intraperitoneally with various doses of linarin (35, 70 and 140 mg/Kg). The inhibition effects produced by high dose of linarin were the same as that obtained after huperzine A treatment (0.5 mg/Kg). Molecular docking study revealed that both 4'-methoxyl group and 7-O-sugar moiety of linarin played important roles in ligand-receptor binding and thus they are mainly responsible for AChE inhibitory activity. In view of its potent AChE inhibitory activity, linarin may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some diseases associated with AChE, such as glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, gastric motility and Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Formulation Design and Development of a Unani Transdermal Patch for Antiemetic Therapy and Its Pharmaceutical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nauman Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS is one of the novel routes for systemic delivery of drugs through intact skin. A transdermal patch (TP is a medicated patch that is placed on skin for delivery of medication through skin into the blood stream. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a Unani transdermal patch that could be used for antiemetic therapy. The incorporation of Unani ingredients, namely, Khardal (Brassica nigra, Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale, Podina (Mentha arvensis, and Sirka (Vinegar were envisaged. The TP was prepared by solvent evaporation technique and was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics and other physicochemical properties, such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, drug content, and tolerability and acceptability of patch. The in vitro permeation study of the patch was carried out through Franz diffusion cell using egg shell membrane as barrier membrane. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as dissolution medium and the temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. The in vitro permeation study of the prepared TP indicated a time dependent increase in drug release throughout the study. The percentage of cumulative drug release was found to be 77.38% in 24 hours. The study shows a new approach to work in Unani pharmaceutics.

  5. Formulation Design and Development of a Unani Transdermal Patch for Antiemetic Therapy and Its Pharmaceutical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohd Nauman; Idris, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) is one of the novel routes for systemic delivery of drugs through intact skin. A transdermal patch (TP) is a medicated patch that is placed on skin for delivery of medication through skin into the blood stream. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a Unani transdermal patch that could be used for antiemetic therapy. The incorporation of Unani ingredients, namely, Khardal (Brassica nigra), Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale), Podina (Mentha arvensis), and Sirka (Vinegar) were envisaged. The TP was prepared by solvent evaporation technique and was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics and other physicochemical properties, such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, drug content, and tolerability and acceptability of patch. The in vitro permeation study of the patch was carried out through Franz diffusion cell using egg shell membrane as barrier membrane. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as dissolution medium and the temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. The in vitro permeation study of the prepared TP indicated a time dependent increase in drug release throughout the study. The percentage of cumulative drug release was found to be 77.38% in 24 hours. The study shows a new approach to work in Unani pharmaceutics. PMID:27403377

  6. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  7. The exploitation of micromorphological parameters for identification in the section / Mentha Využitie mikromorfologických parametrov pri identifikácii v sekcii Mentha

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    Fialová S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifikacia druhov v rode Mentha L. je obzvlašť naročna. Je to sposobene ľahkym križenim podporenym gynodioeciou, ktora je ďalej skomplikovana polymorfizmom, pestovanim, polyploiditou a vegetativnym rozmnožovanim, čo vysvetľuje genetickopopulačne a mikroevolučne pozadie premenlivosti v rode Mentha. V tejto praci sme študovali využitie mikromorfologickych a fytochemickych parametrov pri identifikacii a charakterizacii vybranych druhov rodu Mentha. Na spodnej pokožke listov 20 populacii Mentha sme stanovili veľkosť a počet „žliazok typu Lamiaceae“. Silicu sme analyzovali pomocou GC MS. Identifikovali a charakterizovali sme populacie druhov M. × piperita, M. spicata, M. spicata subsp. condensata, M. spicata var. crispa, M. spicata var. citrata, M. × gentilis, M. aquatic, M. arvensis a M. longifolia. Sledovanie veľkosti a počtu „žliazok typu Lamiaceae prispievaju k charakterizacii niektorych druhov Mentha (najma M. longifolia a M. × piperita.

  8. Radiosensitivity on the components of essential oil in the genus Mentha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Seiroku (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1992-10-01

    The effects of seed irradiation using X-rays (20KR) on the components of the essential oil in the adult plant were investigated using Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinvaud (2n=96). 1. X-ray irradiation produced almost no effect on the dry matter weight and content of essential oil at any stage of growth. 2. Using X-ray irradiation, the level of free menthol was increased, and ester menthol and menthone were decreased. This seemed to suggest that menthol was synthesized by the reduction of the menthone. 3. The content of free menthol was found to increase linearly toward leaves of the upper level, while the content of menthone was found to gradually decrease and, finally, to disappear in leaves at fifth level of leaves. 4. No difference was found in the ratios of contents of inorganic component between the first and second harvest seasons. There was also no difference in the content of total nitrogen at any location of leaves, except when an increased concentration of nitrogen at the seventh level of leaves was found. (author).

  9. Isomenthone protects human dermal fibroblasts from TNF-α-induced death possibly by preventing activation of JNK and p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Byun, Sangyo; Kim, Seungbeom; Kim, Moohan; Park, Deokhoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2012-10-01

    Cell death evoked by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is regulated by the TNF-α receptor-associated death domain containing protein, which interacts with and activates apoptotic proteases triggering cell death. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, induce the apoptotic program and are indispensible early elements in stress-induced apoptosis that control the release of cytochrome c. Isomenthone is a constituent of the essential oil of Mentha arvensis L. and is used as a fragrance and flavor in the cosmetic, drug, and food industries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isomenthone against TNF-α-induced cell death and its mechanism in human dermal fibroblasts. To understand the cytoprotective role of isomenthone, MTT and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays for cell viability and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis for the mechanistic study were performed. We found that isomenthone inhibited the TNF-α-mediated reduction in cell viability and inhibited the increase in apoptosis under a serum-free condition. Isomenthone also blocked the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways and downstream apoptotic events. These results indicate that isomenthone has the potential to protect fibroblasts against TNF-α-induced cell death under a serum-deprived condition by blocking activation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways and downstream apoptotic events.

  10. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vitex negundo completely inhibited the growth of test bacteria. Furthermore MIC & MBC values of C. ambrosioides oil were least for Erw. herbicola (0.25 & 2.0 μl/ml and Ps. putida (0.12 & 1.0 μl/ml respectively than other 7 oils as well as Agromycin and Streptomycin drugs used in current study. GC and GC-MS analysis of Chenopodium oil revealed presence of 125 major and minor compounds, out of them, 14 compounds were recognized. The findings concluded that Chenopodium oil may be regarded as safe antibacterial agent for the management of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables.

  11. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  12. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae, and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature.

  13. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  14. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M; Gols, Rieta

    2016-01-01

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature. PMID:27527153

  15. The influence of simplified on reserve of weeds in erodible loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of diferent simplified tillage per number and seeds botanical composition of weeds in 0-25 cm of soil layer under plants crop rotation (potato-spring barley-winter rape-winter wheat on erodible loess soil was presented. The simplifications in soil tillage relied on replaceing ploughing by cultivation, rotary cultivator tillage or Gramoxone formula. The replaceing ploughing by cultivations or rotary cultivator tillage especially bringing in chemical tillage instead of after-harvest cultivation increasing the number of weeds seed under all plants excluding spring barley. Resource of weeds seed under all plants of crop rotation were formated mainly by short duration species, especially Chenopodium album and Viola arvensis as well as Stellaria media (potato, barley, wheat and Veronica persica (wheat. It was proven that the number of weeds seed in 0-25 cm of soil layer on erodible loess slope depended from plant species more than the way of soil tillage.

  16. A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh A. M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

  17. Substituted N-Phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides, Their Synthesis and Evaluation as Herbicides and Abiotic Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kráľová

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The condensation of substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid chlorides with ring-substituted anilines yielded five substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid amides. Thesynthesis, and analytical, lipophilicity and biological data of the newly synthesizedcompounds are presented in this paper. The photosynthesis inhibition, antialgal activityand the effect of a series of pyrazine derivatives as abiotic elicitors on the accumulation offlavonoids in a callus culture of Ononis arvensis (L. were investigated. The most activeinhibitor of the oxygen evolution rate in spinach chloroplasts was 6-chloro-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (3-iodo-4-methylphenyl-amide (2, IC50 = 51.0 μmol·L-1. The highestreduction of chlorophyll content in Chlorella vulgaris was found for 5-tert-butyl-N-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (3, IC50 = 44.0 μmol·L-1. The maximalflavonoid production (about 900% was reached after a twelve-hour elicitation processwith 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (3-iodo-4-methylphenyl-amide (2.

  18. Characterization of Bois noir isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism of a Stolbur-specific putative membrane protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, D; Alma, A; Bagnoli, B; Foissac, X; Pasquini, G; Tessitori, M; Marzachì, C

    2009-06-01

    Bois noir phytoplasma (BNp), widespread in wine-producing areas of Europe and endemic in France and Italy, is classified in the 16SrXII-A subgroup, whose members are referred to as Stolbur phytoplasmas. The 16S rDNA gene of Stolbur phytoplasma shows low variability, and few non-ribosomal genes are available as markers to assess variation among isolates. We used the Stolbur-specific stol-1H10 gene, encoding a putative membrane-exposed protein, to investigate genetic diversity of French and Italian BNp isolates from plants and insects. Amplification of stol-1H10 from infected grapevines, weeds, and Hyalesthes obsoletus produced fragments of three sizes, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis divided these amplicons further into 12 profiles (V1 to V12). French BNp isolates were more variable than Italian ones, and different profiles were present in infected grapevines from France and Italy. Isolate V3, most abundant among Italian affected grapes but present among French ones, was found in one Urtica dioica sample and in all H. obsoletus collected on this species. Four Italian-specific profiles were represented among infected Convolvulus arvensis, the most frequent of which (V12) was also detected in H. obsoletus collected on this species. Most of the variability in the stol-1H10 sequence was associated with type II on the tuf gene. PMID:19453230

  19. Influence of fluorides upon vegetation. Preliminary tests in gardon uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, A.; Clausmann,, P.

    1919-01-01

    Pulverized birchwood charcoal extracted with hot acids and washed in boiling water gave a soil medium containing 1.87 mg F per kg. The soil was composed of purified charcoal, 1000 g; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as a jelly, 120 g; CaCO/sub 3/, 730 g (F = 0.002), humus, 27.3 g; very fertile garden soil, 66.0 (F = 0.007); CaHPO/sub 4/, 24 g; KNO/sub 3/, 34 g; (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/, 30 g; NaCl, 3.0 g; MgCO/sub 3/, 68 g; MnCl/sub 2/, 0.80 g, ZnCO/sub 3/, 0.07; SiO/sub 2/ as jelly, 17.0; FeSO/sub 4/, 180.0; NaAsO/sub 4/, 1.4 g. This entire mixture contained 11 mg F per kg. Plants were grown in three four-liter pots, A, B, C. The pots contained the above mixture, one with charcoal, another with KF. Pot C contained good garden soil for control. The effects of F were estimated by measuring the height of the plant and when the seed was produced, the weight of the seed. Fluorine exerted a favorable influence upon Gressin alenois, cabbage; Spergula arvensis, Escholtzia California, spinach, yellow day-lilly, viperine, Oignon communis and hemp. An unfavorable influence was observed with dwarf peas and sweet peas.

  20. Plasmid profilling and similarities in identities of probable microbes isolated from crude oil contaminated agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid analysis of bacteria isolated from agricultural soil experimentally contaminated with crude oil was carried out and the resultant bands’ depicting the different molecular sizes of the plasmid DNA molecules per isolate was obtained. There was no visible band observed for Klebsiella indicating that the organism lack plasmid DNA that confers degradative ability to it, possibly the gene could be borne on the chromosomal DNA which enabled its persistence in the polluted soil. Molecular characterization was undertaken to confirm the identities of the possible microorganisms that may be present in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the DNA extracted and amplified in a PCR using EcoRI and EcoRV restriction enzymes for cutting the DNA of the bacterial cells indicated no visible band for cuts made with EcoRV restriction enzyme showing that the enzyme is not specific for bacterial DNA of isolates in the samples, hence there was no amplification. By contrast though, visible bands of amplicons were observed using EcoRI restriction enzymes. The resultant visible bands of microbial profile obtained using the universal RAPD primer with nucleotide sequence of 5’—CTC AAA GCA TCT AGG TCC A---3’ showed that only Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus mycoides had visible bands at identical position on the gel indicating that both species possibly had identical sequence or genes of negligible differences coding for degradation of hydrocarbons as shown by similar values in molecular weight and positions in the gel electrophoresis field.

  1. Influence of graphite content on sliding wear characteristics of CNTs-Ag-G electrical contact materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; FENG Yi; LI Shu; LIN Shen

    2009-01-01

    CNTs-Ag-G electrical contact composite material was prepared by means of powder metallurgical method. The influence of the graphite content on sliding wear characteristics of electrical contact levels was examined. In experiments, CNTs content was retained as 1% (mass fraction), and graphite was added at content levels of 8%, 10%, 13%, 15% and 18%, respectively. The results indicate that with the increase of graphite content, the contact resistance of electrical contacts is enhanced to a certain level then remains constant. Friction coefficient decreases gradually with the increase of graphite content. Wear mass loss decreases to the minimum value then increases. With the small content of graphite, the adhesive wear is hindered, which leads to the decrease of wear mass loss, while excessive graphite brings much more worn debris, resulting in the increase of mass loss. It is concluded that wear mass loss reaches the minimum value when the graphite mass fraction is about 13%. Compared with conventional Ag-G contact material, the wear mass loss of CNTs-Ag-G composite is much less due to the obvious increase of hardness and electrical conductivity, decline of friction surface temperature and inhibition of adhesive wear between composites and slip rings.

  2. Effects of PEG size on structure, function and stability of PEGylated BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesner, Bitten; Fee, Conan J; Westh, Peter; Nielsen, Anders D

    2011-10-01

    The effects of PEGylation on the structural, thermal and functional stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using BSA and 6 linear mono-PEGylated BSA compounds. The secondary and tertiary structure of BSA measured by circular dichroism (CD) was independent of PEGylation. In contrast, the thermal stability of BSA was affected by PEGylation. The apparent unfolding temperature T(max) measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) decreased with PEGylation, whereas the temperature of aggregation, T(agg), measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) increased with PEGylation. The unfolding temperature and the temperature of aggregation were both independent of the molecular weight of the PEG chain. Possible functional changes of BSA after PEGylation were measured by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), where the binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to BSA and PEGylated BSA was analysed. At 25°C, two distinct classes of binding sites (high affinity and low affinity) for BSA and one class of binding site (low affinity) for PEGylated BSA were identified. The binding isotherm was modelled assuming independence and thermodynamic equivalence of the sites within each class. From the present biophysical characterisation, it is concluded that after PEGylation BSA appears to be unaffected structurally (secondary and tertiary structure), slightly destabilised thermally (unfolding temperature), stabilised kinetically (temperature of aggregation) and has an altered functionality (binding profile). These biophysical characteristics are all independent of the molecular weight of the attached polymer chain.

  3. The hot core towards the intermediate mass protostar NGC7129 FIRS 2: Chemical similarities with Orion KL

    CERN Document Server

    Fuente, A; Caselli, P; McCoey, C; Johnstone, D; Fich, M; van Kempen, T; Palau, Aina; Yildiz, U A; Tercero, B; López, A

    2014-01-01

    NGC 7129 FIRS 2 (hereafter FIRS 2) is an intermediate-mass (2 to 8 Msun) protostar located at a distance of 1250 pc. High spatial resolution observations are required to resolve the hot core at its center. We present a molecular survey from 218200 MHz to 221800 MHz carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. These observations were complemented with a long integration single-dish spectrum taken with the IRAM 30m telescope. We used a Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) single temperature code to model the whole dataset. The interferometric spectrum is crowded with a total of ~300 lines from which a few dozens remain unidentified yet. The spectrum has been modeled with a total of 20 species and their isomers, isotopologues and deuterated compounds. Complex molecules like methyl formate (CH3OCHO), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), acetone (CH3COCH3), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) and the aGg' conformer of ethylene glycol (aGg'-(CH2OH)_2) are among the detected sp...

  4. Screening of catalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity of metal-doped graphene by density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Chen, Shuangjing; Wang, Jinyu

    2016-08-01

    Graphene doping is a promising direction for developing effective oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts. In this paper, we computationally investigated the ORR performance of 10 kinds of metal-doped graphene (M-G) catalysts, namely, Al-, Si-, Mn-, Fe-, Co-, Ni-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Au-G. The results shown that the binding energies of the metal atoms incorporated into the graphene vacancy are higher than their bulk cohesive energies, indicating the formed M-G catalysts are even more stable than the corresponding bulk metal surfaces, and thus avoid the metals dissolution in the reaction environment. We demonstrated that the linear relation among the binding energies of the ORR intermediates that found on metal-based materials does not hold for the M-G catalysts, therefore a single binding energy of intermediate alone is not sufficient to evaluate the ORR activity of an arbitrary catalyst. By analysis of the detailed ORR processes, we predicted that the Au-, Co-, and Ag-G materials can be used as the ORR catalysts.

  5. Molecular detection of virulence factors among food and clinical Enterococcus faecalis strains in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A W; Pereira, R I; Oliveira, D V; Martins, P D; d'Azevedo, P A; Van der Sand, S; Frazzon, J; Frazzon, A P G

    2014-01-01

    The present report aimed to perform a molecular epidemiological survey by investigating the presence of virulence factors in E. faecalis isolated from different human clinical (n = 57) and food samples (n = 55) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, collected from 2006 to 2009. In addition, the ability to form biofilm in vitro on polystyrene and the β-haemolytic and gelatinase activities were determined. Clinical strains presented a higher prevalence of aggregation substance (agg), enterococcal surface protein (esp) and cytolysin (cylA) genes when compared with food isolates. The esp gene was found only in clinical strains. On the other hand, the gelatinase (gelE) and adherence factor (ace) genes had similar prevalence among the strains, showing the widespread occurrence of these virulence factors among food and clinical E. faecalis strains in South Brazil. More than three virulence factor genes were detected in 77.2% and 18.2% of clinical and food strains, respectively. Gelatinase and β-haemolysin activities were not associated with the presence of gelE and cylA genes. The ability to produce biofilm was detected in 100% of clinical and 94.6% of food isolates, and clinical strains were more able to form biofilm than the food isolates (Student's t-test, p detected in clinical strains.

  6. Prevalence of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Patients with Diarrhea and a Subpopulation of Healthy Volunteers in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; García-Castillo, María; Cantón, Rafael; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor virulence genes (VGs) without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est, elt and bfpA) typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)] in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzx O104 and fliCH4, rfb O157, and fliCH7) was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA [typically associated with Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) and (EPEC), invA (EIEC), and the rfb O157+fliCH7 (STEC)] combination were significantly (p invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of jade perch, Scortum barcoo (Perciformes: Terapontidae: Scortum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Li, Kaibin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Weiwei; Mai, Xiaomei; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-09-01

    This is the first documentation of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the jade perch, Scortum barcoo. The 16,843 bp mitogenome containes 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication) as do other vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall base composition of S. barcoo is 27.39% for A, 24.74% for T, 31.14% for C and 16.73% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 52.13%. All protein-coding genes are initiated with ATG except for COX1, which begin with GTG instead. Meanwhile, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes are varied with TAA, TAG, TA, T or AGG. The measure of complete mitogenome sequence of S. barcoo will provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Terapontidae. PMID:25799351

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Alopex lagopus (Caniformia: Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Li; Liu, Han-Lu; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-09-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic positions of the blue fox (Alopex lagopus) have long been unclear. In this study, we determined and described the complete mitogenome sequence of A. lagopus for the first time, which is 16,629 bp in length and contains 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 origin of replication on the light-strand and a putative control region. The overall base composition is A: 31.3%, T: 27.8%, C: 26.1% and G: 14.8%, with a slight AT bias (59.1%). Most of them have TAA as the stop codon, except ND2 uses TAG, ND4 uses AGG, Cytb uses AGA and COX3 and ND3 use an incomplete stop codon TA. This information could not only contribute to provide useful molecular data for the species identification, but also to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Alopex and Canidae. PMID:25630723

  9. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.; (UMM)

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  10. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S; Lodge, Timothy P

    2009-10-22

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R(h), and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R(c), the equivalent hard sphere radius, R(hs), and an estimate of the aggregation number, N(agg). In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  11. 晶体学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@O734 01020291 磺化铯晶体中Pb2+基聚集相的发光性质=Luminescence Properties of Pb2+-Based Agg regates in CsI Host Crystals[刊, 中]/冯锡淇(中科院上海硅酸盐所),赵建林…∥无机材料学报.-2000, 15(3).-416~420   掺铅的碘化铯(Pb:CsI)晶体在400℃空气中进行热处理可以在晶体中诱导产生发光中心,这些发光中心的激发谱与Cs-Pb-I体系中一系列化合物的激子吸收谱相吻合。图4参13 国家自然科学基金(59672001)资助 O738 01020292 纳米PbF2的制备、物相组成和离子导电性=Preparation,Phase Constitution and Ionic Conductivity of Nanophase PbF2[刊, 中]/刘金芳(浙江大学),吴希俊…∥无机材料学报.-2000, 15(3).-447~450

  12. Aptamer-based fluorescent solid-phase thrombin assay using a silver-coated glass substrate and signal amplification by glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an aptamer-based solid-state biosensor for the fluorometric determination of thrombin. The surface of silver-coated glass was modified with the thrombin-binding aptamer 1 (TBA 1) of the sequence 5′-HS-TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT GGT TGG TGT GGT TGG-3′. A second (and biotinylated) thrombin -binding aptamer (TBA 2) with the sequence 5′-biotin-AGT CCG TGG TAG GGC AGG TTG GGG TGA CT-3′ was applied as the signaling aptamer. Following binding of thrombin by TBA 1 on the surface, TBA 2 is added and then binds to the thrombin on the surface of the silver-coated glass to form the thrombin-aptamer complex. The biotin groups on TBA 2 are then coated with streptavidin, and biotin-labeled glucose oxidase (biotin-GOx) is added to bind to streptavidin. The quantity of GOx immobilized in this way is directly related to the quantity of thrombin bound on the surface. Following cleavage of the aptamer with DNase I, glucose is added and oxidized by GOx to yield H2O2. Horseradish peroxidase is added and causes the oxidation of 3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoic acid to yield a fluorescent product. The intensity of the blue fluorescence is directly related to the thrombin concentration in the 300 pM to 6500 pM range, and the detection limit is as low as 82 pM. The assay has good selectivity and practicability. (author)

  13. FUNCIONALIDADE DOS GRUPOS DE PESQUISA DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO/GESTÃO/ GERÊNCIA DE ENFERMAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de ese estudio es entender los modos de organización y funcionamiento de los Grupos de Investigación (GI de Administración/Gestión/Gerencia (AGG de Enfermería, con catastro en el Consejo Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica – (CNPq. Se utilizó la referencia metodológica de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos, realizándose 12 entrevistas con líderes de grupos de investigación, distribuidos en 2 grupos de muestra. El funcionamiento del grupo es visto como el modo estructural de las actividades de los grupos de investigación, las contribuciones teórico-metodológicas más usadas, las vivencias en el ambiente de la investigación, las relaciones intergrupales, las actitudes del líder del G I, las dificultades enfrentadas, así como las estrategias de supervivencia que garantizan la longevidad y productividad del GI. El funcionamiento de los grupos de investigación es el reflejo del calificar, legitimar, aumentar y congregar potencias para la productividad en líneas de investigación y liderazgo de los investigadores en esa área.

  14. 粪肠球菌毒力基因及耐药性分析%The Incidence of Virulence Genes and AntibioticResistence in Enterococcus Faecalis Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝进; 白永凤; 陆军; 陈晓; 陈瑜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the occurrence of known virulence factor genes in a group of E. Faecalis strains isolated from clinical isolates and healthy individuals, and to explore the relationship between the virulence genes to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. Methods A total of 113 E. Faecalis strains, isolated from clinical specimens (89 strains) and healthy individuals (24 strains) , were investigated for the presence of nine virulence genes including aggA, cylA, cylB, cylM, eep, efaA, enlA, espandgelE by using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the K-B method among clinical isolates. Results The data showed 86. 7% of the strains carried at least one virulence marker. Most of the strains carried eep(76.1% ) ,efaA (74.3% ) ,esp(52.2% ) and aggA (52.2% ) genes respectively, whereas the remaining virulence markers were detected in variable percentages ranging from 31.9 to 47.8%. Excepting enlA, the presences of other virulence genes in clinical isolates were significantly more common than isolates from healthy individuals. The results showed most isolates (23.9% ) carried 8 kinds of virulence genes. The resistance rates of clinical isolates to CIP,P,TET were high, resistance to F/M was low, while none of strains appeared to be resistance VAN and TEC. Finally, excepting GEH, there was no significant association between number of virulence markers and antibiotic resistance. Conclusion The distribution of virulence genes among E. Faecalis is associated with the increased risk of causing clinical infection, while the relationship between virulence genes and antibiotic resistance should be further studied in detail.%目的 了解临床标本与健康人群肠道来源粪肠球菌(Enterococcus faecalis,Efa)的毒力基因分布,探讨毒力基因与细菌致病性及抗生素耐药性之间关系.方法 收集89株分离临床标本和24株健康人群的粪肠球菌,采用PCR方法检测aggA、cylA、cylB、cylM、eep、efaA、enlA、esp和gelE基

  15. Enterobacteria identification and detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in a Port Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Frota Macatrão Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Port Complex of Maranhão (PCM is the second largest port complex in Brazil, receiving ships with large volumes of ballast water. To evaluate the microbiological quality of its waters, physicochemical parameters (pH and salinity, the number of coliforms (thermotolerants and totals, and the presence of enterobacterias and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains were analyzed. In order to identify the presence of E. coli virulence genes target regions of the stx, elt, est, aggR, CVD432, ipaH and eae nucleotide sequences were studied. The presence of totals and thermotolerants coliforms were positive. Analyzing the salinity parameter, a significant increase in total coliforms was observed during the rainy season. We identified the species Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella ozaenae, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae and Edwardsiella tarda. Out of the 51 E. coli isolated, two were positive for the elt gene and one was positive for the CVD432 sequence, features of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains, respectively. This study reveals that the PCM is contaminated by enterobacteria and diarrheagenic E.coli thus providing evidence regarding the risk of these bacteria being carried by ships to other countries, and draws attention to the input of fecal bacteria brought by ships in the port waters of Maranhão.

  16. 褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)肌动蛋白基因3'-RACE及基因表达的RT-PCR检测%3'-RACE of actin genes in Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) and RT-PCR examination on expression of the actin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美德; 洪晓月; 杜建光; 程遐年

    2003-01-01

    通过锚定的3'-RACE筛选实验,确定锚定效率最好的下游引物,用于褐飞虱各发育期肌动蛋白基因表达的RT-PCR检测.结果表明:3个锚定引物中,0422-7(5'>TCA CAC AGG AAA CAG CTA TGA CTTTTTTTTTTTTTT A<3')的锚定效率最好,可以扩增出5条褐飞虱的肌动蛋白基因3'末端片段,依其大小命名为BPH-A、BPH-B、BPH-C、BPH-D、BPH-E.RT-PCR检测表明:BPH-A从3龄开始到成虫期都有常量表达;BPH-B、BPH-C、BPH-E从2龄开始到成虫期都有表达;BPH-D在整个幼虫期都有表达,而在成虫期则检测不到.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pundamilia nyererei (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Song, Xiaolei; Chen, Xi; Dang, Xiao; Wang, Wenjing

    2016-09-01

    Pundamilia nyererei (Perciformes, Cichlidae) is a member of Cichlid fishes that lives in the Great Lakes of East Africa. Fishes of the Cichlidae family can adapt spectacular trophic radiations and provide good potential examples of vertebrate adaptive radiations. Here, we firstly assembled the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Pundamilia nyererei. The mitgenome was 16 761 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region. Most of these protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon except for COX1, which initiated with an infrequent start codon GTG instead, and terminated with the mitochondrial stop codon (TAA/AGG/AGA) or a single T base. The mitogenome structural organization is identical to other Cichlid fish. The overall GC content is 45.25%, which is lower than the AT content. According to these new determined mitogenome sequences and 10 other species under the same family or order, we have constructed the species phylogenetic tree to verify the accuracy of newly assembled mitogenome sequences. We accept that by taking the advantage of full mitogenome, we can address taxonomic issue and study the related evolutionary events. Our current data are going to provide important resources for the research of Cichlid fishes mitochondrial evolution and energy metabolism. PMID:26260178

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Poecilia formosa (Amazon molly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiao; Xia, Yan; Xu, Qiwu; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, a member of the Poeciliidae family, is a freshwater fish reproducing through gynogenesis. The complete mitochondrial genome of the P. formosa is determined for the first time in this study. It is a circular molecule of 16 542 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (29.59%), T (27.57%), C (28.27%), and G (14.57%) with 42.84% GC content, which is lower than the content of AT. Most protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon except for COX2, ND5 and ND6, which initiated with ATA, GTG and TTA, respectively. The stop codon was a single T- - base in most of the protein-coding genes, but COX2 and ATP8 both employed TAA and ND2 terminated with AGG codon. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the complete mitogenome of P. formosa and closely related 11 chondrichthian species to assess their phylogenic relationship and evolution. The complete mitochondrial genome of the amazon molly would help to study the evolution of Poeciliidae family. PMID:26260185

  19. Effect of Temperature on Fimbrial Gene Expression and Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranich Hinthong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of temperature on bacterial virulence has been studied worldwide from the viewpoint of climate change and global warming. The bacterium enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC is the causative agent of watery diarrhea and shows an increasing incidence worldwide. Its pathogenicity is associated with the virulence factors aggregative adherence fimbria type I and II (AAFI and AAFII, encoded by aggA and aafA in EAEC strains 17-2 and 042, respectively. This study focused on the effect of temperature increases from 29 °C to 40 °C on fimbrial gene expression using real-time PCR, and on its virulence using an aggregative adherence assay and biofilm formation assay. Incubation at 32 °C caused an up-regulation in both EAEC strains 17-2 and strain 042 virulence gene expression. EAEC strain 042 cultured at temperature above 32 °C showed down-regulation of aafA expression except at 38 °C. Interestingly, EAEC cultured at a high temperature showed a reduced adherence to cells and an uneven biofilm formation. These results provide evidence that increases in temperature potentially affect the virulence of pathogenic EAEC, although the response varies in each strain.

  20. Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli (EAEC in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abbasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and the frequency of EAEC as etiologic agent of diarrhea in Shiraz. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC is increasingly recognized as a cause of often persistent diarrhoea in children and adults in both developing and developed countries, and have been identified as the cause of several outbreaks worldwide.   Materials and Method: A total of 715 stool samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Shiraz. Diarrheagenic E. coli were isolated by biochemical tests and culture from 715 stool samples collected from different hospitals. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains isolated from diarrheal stool samples were examined for the detection of the aggR gene by Real time PCR and PCR method.   Results: In this study, a total of 101 (14.12% diarrheagenic E. coli were isolated from 715 stool samples collected from different hospitals. Diarrheagenic E. coli were isolated much more frequently in the summer months than other season. Out of these 101 diarrheagenic E. coli identified, 5 were confirmed as EAEC in patient. The high prevalence of EAEC isolates was also found in watery diarrhea.   Conclusion: We therefore, recommend the routine isolation and identification of EAEC strains from patient with diarrhea in all the clinical laboratories and other pathotype diarrhoeagenic E. coli in Iran.   Keywords: Diarrhea, Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC, Real-Time PCR.  

  1. Towards an automated tool to evaluate the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density on quarkonium, D and B meson production in proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and model-independent procedure to account for the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density as encoded in nuclear collinear PDF sets on two-to-two partonic hard processes in proton-nucleus collisions. This applies to a good approximation to quarkonium, D and B meson production, generically referred to H. Our procedure consists in parametrising the square of the parton scattering amplitude, A_{gg -> H X} and constraining it from the proton-proton data. Doing so, we have been able to compute the corresponding nuclear modification factors for J/psi, Upsilon and D^0 as a function of y and P_T at sqrt(s_NN)=5 and 8 TeV in the kinematics of the various LHC experiments in a model independent way. It is of course justified since the most important ingredient in such evaluations is the probability of each kinematical configuration. Our computations for D mesons can also be extended to B meson production. To further illustrate the potentiality of the tool, we provide --for the first t...

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis TP53 mutation analysis reflects a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; de Almeida Pereira, Thiago; Gonçalves, Patrícia Lofego; Jarske, Robson Dettmann; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Louro, Iuri Drumond

    2013-08-01

    The close relationship between aflatoxins and 249ser TP53 gene mutation (AGG to AGT, Arg to Ser) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes this mutation an indirect indicator of dietary contamination with this toxin. We have examined the prevalence of codon 249 TP53 mutation in 41 HCC and 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases diagnosed at the HUCAM University Hospital in Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. DNA was extracted from paraffin sections and from plasma. The mutation was detected by DNA amplification, followed by restriction endonuclease digestion and confirmed by direct sequencing. DNA restriction showed 249ser mutation in 16 HCC and 13 liver cirrhosis, but sequencing confirmed mutations in only 6 HCC and 1 liver cirrhosis. In addition, sequencing revealed 4 patients with mutations at codon 250 (250ser and 250leu) in HCC cases. The prevalence of TP53 mutation was 10/41 (24.3%) in HCC and 1/74 (1.4%) in liver cirrhosis. No relationship between the presence of mutations and the etiology of HCC was observed. TP53 exon 7 mutations, which are related to aflatoxins exposure, were found at 14.6% (249ser), 7.3% (250leu) and 2.4% (250ser) in 41 cases of HCC and 1.4% in 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases, suggesting a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

  3. Analysis of tandem repeats in the genome of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Jie; GAO Huan

    2005-01-01

    Through random sequencing, we found a total of 884000 base-pairs (bp) of random genomic sequences in the genome of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis). Using bio-soft Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF) software, 2159 tandem repeats were found, in which there were 1714 microsatellites and 445 minisatellites, accounting for 79.4% and 20.6% of repeat sequences, respectively. The cumulative length of repeat sequences was found to be 116685 bp, accounting for 13.2% of the total DNA sequence; the cumulative length of microsatellites occupied 9.78% of the total DNA sequence, and that of minisatellites occupied 3.42%. In decreasing order, the 20 most abundant repeat sequence classes were as follows: AT (557), AC (471), AG (274), AAT (92), A (56), AAG (28), ATC (27), ATAG (27), AGG (18), ACT (15), C (11), AAC (11), ACAT (11), CAGA (10), AGAA (9), AGGG (7), CAAA (7), CGCA (6), ATAA (6), AGAGAA (6). Dinucleotide repeats, not only in the aspect of the number, but also in cumulative length, were the preponderant repeat type. There were few classes and low copy numbers of repeat units of the pentanucleotide repeat type, which included only three classes: AGAGA, GAGGC and AAAGA. The classes and copy numbers of heptanucleotide, eleven-nucleotide and thirteen-nucleotide primer-number-composed repeats were distinctly less than that of repeat types beside them.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Xiang, Dan; Peng, Xin; Ai, Weiming; Chen, Hao

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) was determined in this study. It was 16,706 bp in length with the typical genomic organization and gene order as most vertebrates. Whole nucleotide base composition was 31.3% A, 25.3% C, 13.2% G and 30.1% T. Among the protein-coding genes, there are three overlapping reading-frames on the same strand, while one of it on the opposite strand. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were used in 13 protein-coding genes. The 22 tRNA ranged from 67 (tRNA-Cys and tRNA-Ser2) to 75 bp (tRNA-Leu1) in length. Only the tRNA-Ser2 could not fold into the typical clover-leaf structure, which lost the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and replaced by a simple loop. The control region was 1064 bp in length and showed a higher AT content (66.8%) than the average value of whole mitogenome (61.4%). PMID:25268999

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hardnose shark Carcharhinus macloti (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Xiao, Jiamei; Yang, Weidi; Peng, Zaiqing

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Carcharhinus macloti was determined in this study. It is 16,701 bp in length and contains 37 genes with the typical gene order and transcriptional orientation in vertebrates. A total of 29 bp overlaps and 29 bp short intergenic spaces located in 22 gene junctions. The overall base composition is 31.6% A, 26.2% C, 13.0% G and 29.2% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were found in 13 protein-coding genes. The length of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 66 bp (tRNA-Ser2) to 75 bp (tRNA-Leu1). The tRNA-Ser2 (GCU) lacks the dihydrouridine arm by a simple loop and can not be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T content (68.2%). PMID:24983148

  6. SSR Information in Transcriptome of White Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)%白姜转录组中的SSR位点信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹勇; 黄科; 姜玉松; 刘奕清

    2016-01-01

    利用Trinity软件对白姜转录组进行de novo组装,CAP3软件对组装的contig拼接删选;MISA工具对unigene进行SSR检索.从153 724条unigene中共发现16 593个SSR,分布在14 436条unigene序列中,出现频率为9.39%,平均每9.26kb含有1个SSR位点.其中二核苷酸、三核苷酸所占比例最大,分别为37.59%和45.24%;二者分别以AG/CT和AGG/CCT重复基元为主,占22.47%和11.79%.基序长度主要分布于12~20bp,占总数的85.06%.研究结果表明,白姜SSR位点频率、密度较高,类型多样,在生姜分子标记辅助育种、遗传多样性研究中有较大应用潜能.

  7. Self-aggregation of surfactant ethane-1,2-diyl bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-hexadecylammoniumacetoxy) dichloride: tensiometric, microscopic, and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Mohd; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2015-02-26

    We have investigated the effect of salt additives (NaCl, Na₂SO₄, Na₃PO₄, NaTos, and NaAn) on the aggregation behavior of a cleavable biodegradable ester-bonded dicationic gemini surfactant, ethane-1,2-diyl bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-hexadecylammoniumacetoxy) dichloride (16-E2-16). A multitechnique approach employing tensiometry, fluorescence, proton magnetic resonance (¹H NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorption spectrophotometry (UV), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to probe physicochemical fluctuations. Appreciable changes were observed in various physicochemical parameters, viz., critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess concentration (Γ(max)), minimum area per headgroup (A(min)), free energy of micellization (ΔG(mic)°), free energy of adsorption (ΔG(ads)°), and aggregation number (N(agg)). Counter ions were found to affect through electrostatic and hydrophobic influence obeying the overall trend as NaAn > NaTos > Na₃PO₄ > Na₂SO₄ > NaCl. ¹H NMR, TEM, UV, and FTIR results reveal microstructure evolution and phase transitions. These results thus provide deeper insights in understanding of self-aggregation and microstructure evolution of biocompatible (green) aqueous systems of the gemini surfactant and their implications in the biomedical and pharmaceutical world, which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability and other biochemical aspects like drug delivery and gene transfection. PMID:25615259

  8. Novel electroless copper deposition on carbon fibers with environmentally friendly processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-08-15

    A novel electroless deposition (ELD) of copper (Cu) on carbon fibers (CFs) with environmentally friendly processes, silver (Ag) aerosol activation and subsequent nonformaldehyde Cu ELD, was developed. Spark-generated Ag aerosol nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm in mode diameter) were deposited (48.4 microg Ag/g CF in activation intensity) onto the surfaces of CFs. After annealing (at 220 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere), the catalytically activated CFs were placed into a solution for Cu ELD (at 82 degrees C). Homogeneous Cu coating (approximately 5.1 nm/min) on CFs was achieved with 90 min of deposition and the corresponding mass deposition rate and Cu grain size for 30-90 min of deposition had ranges of 0.25-1.14 mg Cu/g CF-min and 14.8-37.2 nm, respectively. The porosity of CFs decreased by depositing the Cu for 30-90 min, and the specific surface area and pore volume of CFs decreased from 1536 to 1399 m(2)/g and from 0.65 to 0.57 cm(3)/g, respectively. PMID:20621827

  9. Next-generation sequencing and comparative analysis of Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax and Pyrrhocorax graculus (Passeriformes: Corvidae) mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinha, Francisco; Clemente, Carla; Cabral, João A; Lewicka, Magdalena M; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Dávila, José A; Santos, Mário; Blanco, Guillermo; Bastos, Estela

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Red-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) and Yellow-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus) were sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. These mitogenomes contain 16,889 bp (Red-billed Chough) and 16,905 bp (Yellow-billed Chough), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene content, orientation, and structure are similar to a wide range of other vertebrate species and the nucleotide composition is very similar to other Passeriformes. All PCGs start with ATG, except for COX1 that starts with GTG, and four stop codons and one incomplete stop codon are used (TAA, TAG, AGG, AGA, and T-). The size of PCGs is the same in both mitogenomes, except for ND6 that has one codon less in the Yellow-billed Chough. All the tRNAs can fold into a typical cloverleaf secondary structure. These mitogenomic data can be of great value in complementing forthcoming approaches on molecular ecology, comparative and functional genomics. PMID:25431821

  10. Nucleotide sequence of a human tRNA gene heterocluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leucine tRNA from bovine liver was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human gene library harbored in Charon-4A of bacteriophage lambda. The human DNA inserts from plaque-pure clones were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and Southern hybridization techniques, using both [3'-32P]-labeled bovine liver leucine tRNA and total tRNA as hybridization probes. An 8-kb Hind III fragment of one of these γ-clones was subcloned into the Hind III site of pBR322. Subsequent fine restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis of this plasmid DNA indicated the presence of four tRNA genes within the 8-kb DNA fragment. A leucine tRNA gene with an anticodon of AAG and a proline tRNA gene with an anticodon of AGG are in a 1.6-kb subfragment. A threonine tRNA gene with an anticodon of UGU and an as yet unidentified tRNA gene are located in a 1.1-kb subfragment. These two different subfragments are separated by 2.8 kb. The coding regions of the three sequenced genes contain characteristic internal split promoter sequences and do not have intervening sequences. The 3'-flanking region of these three genes have typical RNA polymerase III termination sites of at least four consecutive T residues

  11. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egeblad

    Full Text Available To identify interactions a nucleoside analog library (NAL consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay. The method was validated with deoxycytidine kinase; eight interactions known from the literature were detected and five additional interactions were revealed after the addition of ATP, the second substrate. The NAL screening gave relatively few significant hits, supporting a low rate of "off target effects." However, unexpected ligands were identified for two catabolic enzymes guanine deaminase (GDA and uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1. An acyclic guanosine prodrug analog, valaciclovir, was shown to stabilize GDA to the same degree as the natural substrate, guanine, with a ΔT(agg around 7°C. Aciclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were also identified as ligands for GDA. The crystal structure of GDA with valaciclovir bound in the active site was determined, revealing the binding of the long unbranched chain of valaciclovir in the active site of the enzyme. Several ligands were identified for UPP1: vidarabine, an antiviral nucleoside analog, as well as trifluridine, idoxuridine, floxuridine, zidovudine, telbivudine, fluorouracil and thioguanine caused concentration-dependent stabilization of UPP1. A kinetic study of UPP1 with vidarabine revealed that vidarabine was a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the natural substrate uridine. The unexpected ligands identified for UPP1 and GDA imply further metabolic consequences for these nucleoside analogs, which could also serve as a starting point for future drug design.

  12. Safety assessment and probiotic evaluation of Enterococcus faecium YF5 isolated from sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Peng, Shanshan; Dong, Suqin; Wang, Baogui; Li, Ping; Chen, Tingtao; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium YF5, a strain previously isolated from sourdough, was assessed for safety and probiotic potential. Its virulence and antibiotic resistant phenotypes (cytolysin and gelatinase production, antibiotic susceptibility) and genes (cylA, gelE, ace, agg, esp, and vanA) were surveyed. Results indicated that the tested virulence determinants were nontoxic. In addition, E. faecium YF5 was sensitive to 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, results of in vivo animal acute oral toxicity of E. faecium YF5 studies were similar to the control group that indicated no abnormalities. In addition, E. faecium YF5 stably survived in low pH, bile salts, gastric, and intestinal fluids in vitro. Moreover, E. faecium YF5 was found to adhere to human colon cancer cell line HT-29 at 3.39 (±0.67) × 10(5) CFU/mL. When cocultured with pathogenic organisms (Enterobacter sakazakii CMCC45402, Escherichia coli CMCC44102, enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli O157: H7 CMCC44828, Salmonella Typhimurium CMCC50071, Shigella flexneri 301, and Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930) and 2 gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54001 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003), it inhibited these foodborne pathogens with exception of S. aureus. Therefore, E. faecium YF5 can be regarded as a safe strain and it may be used as a probiotic preparation or for microecologics. PMID:23488799

  13. Complexation behavior of gelatin with amphiphilic drug imipramine hydrochloride as studied by conductimetry, surface tensiometry and circular dichroism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Sajid; Anjum, Kahkashan; Khan, Javed M; Khan, Rizwan H; Kabir-ud-Din

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report our studies carried out on the interaction between IMP and gelatin in aqueous medium at 25°C using conductimetry, surface tensiometry and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Both surface tensiometry and conductimetry results indicate that the drug interacts with the gelatin in a surfactant-like manner, i.e., both critical aggregation (cac) and polymer saturation points (psp) were observed. The interaction starts with the formation of a highly surface-active complex as revealed by the lowering of surface tension on the addition of drug to the macromolecule. The decrease in cac on increasing gelatin concentration is an indication of the strong interaction between gelatin and IMP. However, at low concentration of gelatin the interaction was not much strong as exposed by surface tension study, i.e., the cac was not very clear (as with higher gelatin concentrations). As usual, the psp increased on increasing the gelatin concentration and was always higher than the critical micelle concentration of the drug in pure aqueous medium. Using CD measurements the influence of IMP on the secondary structure of gelatin in aqueous solutions was also investigated. CD studies (performed at very low drug concentrations) illustrated that the random coil content of gelatin increases with increasing drug concentration. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IMP] plots.

  14. A comparative study of interaction of ibuprofen with biocompatible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iqrar A; Anjum, Kahkashan; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Kabir-ud Din

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we are reporting the interaction of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBF) with various biocompatible polymers. Being amphiphilic, the drug interacts with the polymers similar to the interaction of surfactants and polymers. Therefore, we have considered the polymer-amphiphile interaction approach using conductimetry. The polymers of different charges (cationic, anionic, and nonionic) have been taken for the study. It was found that the critical aggregation concentration (cac) decreases on increasing the polymer concentrations of cationic as well as nonionic polymers whereas it increases for anionic polymers. The results imply that anionic IBF interacts with cationic and nonionic polymers more strongly as compared to the anionic polymers. A possible anionic-anionic repulsion is responsible for the weak interaction of IBF with anionic polymers. On the other side, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) increases for all polymers which is a usual indication of the interaction between amphiphiles and polymers. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were also computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IBF] isotherms.

  15. Probing the Birth of Post-merger Millisecond Magnetars by X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L J; Liu, L D; Wu, X F

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a stable magnetar could be formed from the coalescence of double neutron stars. In previous papers, we investigated the signature of formation of stable millisecond magnetars in radio and optical/ultraviolet bands by assuming that the central rapidly rotating magnetar deposits its rotational energy in the form of a relativistic leptonized wind. We found that the optical transient PTF11agg could be the first evidence for the formation of post-merger millisecond magnetars. To enhance the probability of finding more evidence for the post-merger magnetar formation, it is better to extend the observational channel to other photon energy bands. In this paper we propose to search the signature of post-merger magnetar formation in X-ray and especially gamma-ray bands. We calculate the SSC emission of the reverse shock powered by post-merger millisecond magnetars. We find that the SSC component peaks at $1\\,{\\rm GeV}$ in the spectral energy distribution and extends to $\\gtrsim 10\\,{\\rm T...

  16. The effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation in young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Porsbjerg, C; Backer, V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been shown to have several detrimental effects on asthma, including poor symptom control, attenuated treatment response and accelerated decline in lung function. In spite of this, smoking is at least as common among asthma patients as in the rest of the population. The agg......BACKGROUND: Smoking has been shown to have several detrimental effects on asthma, including poor symptom control, attenuated treatment response and accelerated decline in lung function. In spite of this, smoking is at least as common among asthma patients as in the rest of the population....... The aggravations of smoking on asthma may be caused by effects on airway inflammation, which has been found to be changed in asthmatic smokers. It is not known whether these smoking-induced airway inflammation changes are reversible after smoking cessation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess airway...... parameters. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation improved asthma control, but the changes were not related to change in eosinophilic inflammation, and the reduction in neutrophils was small. Thus, airway inflammation with eosinophils and neutrophils may be less important drivers of asthma control in smokers than...

  17. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K; Coutens, A; Lykke, J M; Müller, H S P; van Dishoeck, E F; Calcutt, H; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, "Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)" of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The survey covers the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) with additional targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. More than 10,000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary. Glycolaldehyde, its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid, and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the ISM. The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center, these two species...

  18. Alpha-thalassemia mutations in Gilan Province, North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, Valeh; Jafroodi, Maryam; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Moghadam, Sousan Dehnadi; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Tarashohi, Shahin; Pourfahim, Hamideh; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and three patients from Gilan Province, Iran, presenting with hypochromic and microcytic anemia parameters without iron deficiency were included in this study. Using gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR), reverse hybridization StripAssay and DNA sequencing, we detected a total of 113 alpha-globin mutations in 94 (91.3%) of these patients. Most prevalent of the 16 different alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) alleles was -alpha(3.7) (42.5%), followed by the polyadenylation signal (poly A2) (AATAAA>AATGAA) (12.4%), Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, alpha142, Term-->Gln (TAA>CAA in alpha2] (10.6%), --(MED) (8.8%), IVS-I donor site [GAG GTG AGG>GAG G-----, alpha(-5 nt) (-TGAGG)] (7.1%), -alpha(4.2) (4.4%) and poly A1 (AATAAA>AATAAG) (3.5%). An additional nine mutations were observed at frequencies below 2%. We also found two novel alpha1 gene mutations: alpha(-9) (HBA1: c.-9 G>C) and alpha(IVS-I-4) (HBA1: c.95+4 A>G). Our new findings will be valuable for improving targeted thalassemia screening and prevention strategies in this area. PMID:19657838

  19. Novel simple sequence repeats (SSRs detected by ND-FISH in heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouve Nicolás

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the organization of sequences in heterochromatin regions containing single-copy genes and transposable elements. However, the sequence and organization of tandem repeat DNA sequences, which are by far the majority fraction of D. melanogaster heterochromatin, are little understood. Results This paper reports that the heterochromatin, as well as containing long tandem arrays of pentanucleotide satellites (AAGAG, AAGAC, AATAT, AATAC and AACAC, is also enriched in other simple sequence repeats (SSRs such as A, AC, AG, AAG, ACT, GATA and GACA. Non-denaturing FISH (ND-FISH showed these SSRs to localize to the chromocentre of polytene chromosomes, and was used to map them on mitotic chromosomes. Different distributions were detected ranging from single heterochromatic clusters to complex combinations on different chromosomes. ND-FISH performed on extended DNA fibres, along with Southern blotting, showed the complex organization of these heterochromatin sequences in long tracts, and revealed subclusters of SSRs (several kilobase in length flanked by other DNA sequences. The chromosomal characterization of C, AAC, AGG, AAT, CCG, ACG, AGC, ATC and ACC provided further detailed information on the SSR content of D. melanogaster at the whole genome level. Conclusion These data clearly show the variation in the abundance of different SSR motifs and reveal their non-random distribution within and between chromosomes. The greater representation of certain SSRs in D. melanogaster heterochromatin suggests that its complexity may be greater than previously thought.

  20. Identification of the plant compound geraniin as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vassallo

    Full Text Available Besides its function in normal cellular growth, the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 binds to a large number of client proteins required for promoting cancer cell growth and/or survival. In an effort to discover new small molecules able to inhibit the Hsp90 ATPase and chaperoning activities, we screened, by a surface plasmon resonance assay, a small library including different plant polyphenols. The ellagitannin geraniin, was identified as the most promising molecule, showing a binding affinity to Hsp90α similar to that of 17-(allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AGG. Geraniin was able to inhibit in vitro the Hsp90α ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with an inhibitory efficiency comparable to that measured for 17-AAG. In addition, this compound compromised the chaperone activity of Hsp90α, monitored by the citrate synthase thermal induced aggregation assay. Geraniin decreased the viability of HeLa and Jurkat cell lines and caused an arrest in G2/M phase. We also proved that following exposure to different concentrations of geraniin, the level of expression of the client proteins c-Raf, pAkt, and EGFR was strongly down-regulated in both the cell lines. These results, along with the finding that geraniin did not exert any appreciable cytotoxicity on normal cells, encourage further studies on this compound as a promising chemical scaffold for the design of new Hsp90 inhibitors.