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Sample records for arvejas pisum sativum

  1. Preacondicionamiento de la Semilla de Arveja (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Omar A; Marciales Bertha N; Medina Clara I; Lobo A. Mario

    1997-01-01

    En el Centro de Investigación "La selva ", de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria. CORPOICA, ubicado en Rionegro, Antioquia. a 2120 msnm, con una temperatura promedio de 17 °C y perteneciente a la formación ecológica Bosque Húmedo Montano Bajo, se llevó a cabo un estudio con la especie arveja (Pisum sativum L.), con el fin de evaluar el efecto del tratamiento de preacondicionamiento de las semillas, conocido como humedecimiento-secado, sobre la germinación, la emergencia y...

  2. Preacondicionamiento de la semilla de arveja (pisum sativum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Henao, Omar A; Marciales, Bertha N; Medina, Clara I; Lobo A., Mario

    2012-01-01

    En el Centro de Investigación "La selva ", de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria. CORPOICA, ubicado en Rionegro, Antioquia. a 2120 msnm, con una temperatura promedio de 17 °C y perteneciente a la formación ecológica Bosque Húmedo Montano Bajo, se llevó a cabo un estudio con la especie arveja (Pisum sativum L.), con el fin de evaluar el efecto del tratamiento de preacondicionamiento de las semillas, conocido como humedecimiento-secado, sobre la germinación, la emergencia y...

  3. Preacondicionamiento de la Semilla de Arveja (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henao Omar A

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigación "La selva ", de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria. CORPOICA, ubicado en Rionegro, Antioquia. a 2120 msnm, con una temperatura promedio de 17 °C y perteneciente a la formación ecológica Bosque Húmedo Montano Bajo, se llevó a cabo un estudio con la especie arveja (Pisum sativum L., con el fin de evaluar el efecto del tratamiento de preacondicionamiento de las semillas, conocido como humedecimiento-secado, sobre la germinación, la emergencia y el establecimiento de plantas. Adicionalmente se evaluó el procedimiento con diferentes concentraciones del fungicida sistémico benomyl, en comparación con agua destilada, buscándose reducir la pérdida de plantas durante el período de establecimiento del cultivo, y se midió el efecto de los tratamientos con y sin fungicida sobre el rendimiento, en comparación con plantas provenientes de semilla no preacondicionada. A nivel de laboratorio se encontró que el tratamiento que produjo mayor velocidad de germinación fué la imbibición hasta el 75% de peso de la semilla, con secado posterior hasta recobrar el peso inicial. Utilizando el tratamiento anterior, se halló que la adición de benomyl, en diferentes concentraciones, no afectó la velocidad de germinación ni la germinación total, incrementándose el porcentaje de plantas sanas obtenidas en comparación con el preacondicionamiento sin fungicida, con valores máximos al imbibir con una solución de benomyl al 0.1%. En el campo no se observó efecto de los tratamientos de preacondicionamiento con y sin fungicida sobre la velocidad de emergencia y la emergencia total, reduciendo los tratamientos con fungicida la incidencia de plantas muertas en forma sensible con una respuesta diferencial en rendimiento, por parte de las dos variedades estudiadas, al aplicar los diversos procedimientos de preacondicionamiento. Así, mientras que con el cultivar 'Small Sieve All Sweet ', no hubo efecto

  4. Efectos del Trichoderma sp. sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo de la arveja (Pisum sativum L.

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    David Fernando Camargo-Cepeda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estima que el cultivo de arveja en Colombia genera alrededor de 2,3 millones de jornales y unos 15.000 empleos directos; de él dependen más de 26.000 productores (1. Ante la ausencia de alternativas de producción, el agricultor ha recurrido tradicionalmente a la aplicación de productos de síntesis química, práctica que cada vez se encuentra más restringida por razones económicas y ecológicas (2; por esto, se hace necesario encontrar nuevos modelos que contribuyan a mejorar la calidad de vida de los productores. El trabajo determinó los efectos de la aplicación de Trichoderma sp. sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo de la arveja. Se realizó el aislamiento de la cepa nativa de Trichoderma sp. a partir de suelo proveniente de cultivos de arveja; luego se procedió a hacer las diluciones tanto de Trichoderma sp. nativa como de la comercial; se inocularon las plantas y se realizó la medición de las variables de crecimiento y desarrollo. La aplicación de Trichoderma sp. comercial en el cultivo de arveja mejora notablemente su crecimiento y desarrollo, influyendo en variables fisiológicas como germinación, área foliar, peso seco y fresco de la raíz, peso seco y fresco de la parte aérea, y longitud de raíz.

  5. Efectos del Trichoderma sp. sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo de la arveja (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    David Fernando Camargo-Cepeda; Edwin Ricardo Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Se estima que el cultivo de arveja en Colombia genera alrededor de 2,3 millones de jornales y unos 15.000 empleos directos; de él dependen más de 26.000 productores (1). Ante la ausencia de alternativas de producción, el agricultor ha recurrido tradicionalmente a la aplicación de productos de síntesis química, práctica que cada vez se encuentra más restringida por razones económicas y ecológicas (2); por esto, se hace necesario encontrar nuevos modelos que contribuyan a mejorar la calidad de ...

  6. Evaluación de nueve variedades de arveja (pisum sativum l.) para uso industrial, en la región de suba, santafé de bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño O., William J.; Valderrama G., John A.; Ñustez L., Carlos E.

    2011-01-01

    En la localidad de Suba, Santafé de Bogotá, (Cundinamarca), se sembraron nueve variedades arbustivas de arveja (Pisum sativum L.): Aim, Alsweet, Flair, Kriter, Marifon, Payload, Pronto, Rondifon y Trend, a las cuales se les evaluaron algunas variables fenológicas y variables relacionadas con los componentes de rendimiento. Los materiales de mejor comportamiento fueron aquéllos de mayor precocidad y menor altura de planta (Payload, Marifon, Pronto y Rondifon), tendiendo a presentar mayor rendi...

  7. Evaluación de la habilidad combinatoria y heterosis de siete progenitores de arveja pisum sativum l.

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Natalia; Ligarreto, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    En Colombia se carece de información referente al tipo de control genético en la arveja que gobierna la precocidad, el rendimiento y sus componentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la habilidad combinatoria y heterosis en cuatro líneas y tres variedades comerciales de arveja, para once variables agronómicas. Se desarrolló un diseño dialélico (Griffing, método 1, modelo 1) con siete materiales, bajo condiciones de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se hizo el análisis de varianza y se obtuvieron lo...

  8. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris y arveja (Pisum sativum. Efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilbao Reboredo Tania

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y la arveja (Pisum sativum y tampoco se han estudiado los cambios que pueden sufrir durante su almacenamiento, así como la efectividad de los tratamientos caseros. Muestras de estos granos fueron analizadas durante un año de almacenamiento comercial a una temperatura promedio de 27 °C y 79 % de humedad relativa. Se evaluó la presencia de taninos, ácido cianhídrico, ácido fítico, inhibidores de proteasas y lectinas, en los granos crudos y después de dos tratamientos: remojo y cocción y cocción directamente, en olla de presión. Todos los antinutientes disminuyeron con el tiempo de almacenamiento (p<0,05. Los tratamientos aplicados eliminaron el ácido cianhídrico, los inhibidores de tripsina y las lectinas en los dos tipos de granos, comprobándose la efectividad de la combinación remojo-cocción sobre la aplicación únicamente del tratamiento térmico, sobre el resto de los antinutrientes.

  9. Análisis de parámetros heredables asociados al rendimiento y precocidad en arveja voluble (pisum sativum l.) tipo santa isabel

    OpenAIRE

    Ligarreto, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    En el mejoramiento del cultivo de arveja es importante estimar los factores heredables que, asociados al rendimiento y la precocidad de los diferentes materiales, tienden a incrementar la productividad. Para tal efecto, en la Sabana de Bogotá se realizó el presente estudio durante un ciclo de producción en condiciones de invernadero. Se emplearon 10 materiales de arveja en diferentes generaciones filiales, usando como parentales los cultivares Santa Isabel (SI), San Isidro (SAI), Diacol Calda...

  10. El manganeso como factor positivo en la producción de papa (solanum tuberosum l.) y arveja (pisum sativum l.) en suelos del altiplano cundiboyacense

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Manuel Iván; López, Miguel Ángel; Cifuentes, Yenny Carolina

    2010-01-01

    En dos suelos contrastantes, Andic Eutrudepts (Funza, Cundinamarca) y Typic Hapludands (Saboyá, Boyacá), se evaluó la respuesta agronómica a la aplicación de manganeso de Solanum tuberosum L. y Pisum sativum L. En S. tuberosum se realizó la investigación en dos localidades, Funza y Saboyá, evaluando dosis de Mn de 0,0; 3,0; 4,0; 6,0 kg· ha-1, respectivamente, aplicado en mezcla con el fertilizante NPK en siembra; en Saboyá se contó con un testigo sin aplicación de fertilizante. Las variedades...

  11. Evaluación de la competencia de arvenses en el cultivo de arveja (pisum sativum) en fusagasugá, cundinamarca (colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamorano, Carolina; López, Holman; Alzate, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    La competencia es uno de los tipos de interferencia que ocurren con más frecuencia en sistemas agrícolas; sin embargo, existen pocos documentos relacionados con el cultivo de arveja en Colombia. Con el objetivo de evaluar la competencia de arvenses y el efecto que tiene sobre el cultivo de arveja, variedad Santa Isabel, bajo el sistema de tutorado y una densidad de 133.333 plantas/ha, se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 6 periodos libres de arvenses. Se determinaron porcenta...

  12. Establecimiento de una metodología para la inducción de regenerantes de arveja (pisum sativum l.) variedad ‘santa isabel’

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Edgar Alexander; Mosquera, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Con el fin de establecer una metodología para la obtención de regenerantes de arveja a partir de diferentes tipos de explantes, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de bencilaminopurina (BAP), ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) y 2-isopenteniladenina (2-ip) sobre la obtención de regenerantes para uso en transformación genética, como parte del proyecto de introducción de resistencia a Fusarium oxysporumf. sp.pisi, causante de la enfermedad marchitez vascular. Se evaluaron vari...

  13. Clasificación de 85 accesiones de arveja (pisum sativum l.), de acuerdo con su comportamiento agronómico y caracteres morfológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, César

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación –llevada a cabo en condiciones de invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá– tuvo por objetivo la identificación de progenitores y selección de variables poblacionales discriminantes en un conjunto de 85 accesiones de arveja, durante dos ciclos de cultivo. En el primero se evaluaron variables morfológicas y agronómicas tales como: componentes de rendimiento, precocidad, altura, hábito de crecimiento, cantidad de ramas, tipo de hoja, tamaño, tipo y grado de curvatura de la v...

  14. Efecto de Oxidantes y Emulsionantes sobre la Calidad del Pan elaborado con incorporación de Harina de Arvejas (Pisum sativum inactivadas Enzimáticamente Effect of Oxidants and Surfactants on bread quality made with Enzymatically inactivated Pea Flour (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Alasino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de oxidantes y emulsionantes sobre la calidad del pan elaborado con incorporación de harina de arvejas inactivadas. Se determinó volumen específico y se realizó evaluación sensorial. Se utilizó Análisis de Variancia (ANOVA y Test de Rango Múltiple de Duncan. Se seleccionó el reemplazo de 10% de harina de trigo por harina de arvejas como situación de equilibrio entre mejora nutricional y deterioro tecnológico. La azodicarbonamida produjo resultados estadísticamente superiores a los obtenidos con ácido ascórbico. En emulsionantes el estearoillactilato de sodio produjo mejor comportamiento tecnológico que el monoglicérido de diacetiltartárico. Se concluye entonces, que con 10% de harina de arvejas se logra una mejora del 22,4% en score químico.The effect of oxidants and emulsifiers on the quality of bread made with the addition of inactivated pea flour was studied. Specific volume determination and sensory evaluation were carried out. Statistical tools were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Duncan's Múltiple Range Test. The replacement of 10% of wheat flour by pea flour was selected as equilibrium between nutritional improvement and technological deterioration. Azodicarbonamide gave better results than those obtained with ascorbic acid. Sodium stearoyl lactylate had better technological performance compared to the diacetyitartaric monoglyceride. It is concluded that with 10% pea flour the chemical score increased by 22.4% in chemical score.

  15. CLASIFICACIÓN DE 42 LÍNEAS MEJORADAS DE ARVEJA (PISUM SATIVUM L. POR CARACTERES MORFOLÓGICOS Y COMPORTAMIENTO AGRONÓMICO CLASSIFICATION OF 42 GENOTYPES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L. ACCORDING TO THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND AGRONOMIC BEHAVIOR

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    César Andrés Pacheco Ch.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia, bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante dos ciclos de cultivo. En el primero se evaluaron las variables morfológicas y agronómicas, relacionadas con: componentes de rendimiento, precocidad, altura y hábito de crecimiento, cantidad de ramas, tipo de hoja; tamaño de hoja, tipo y grado de curvatura de la vaina, tamaño de pedúnculo, número de vainas por racimo, color de flor y características morfológicas del grano. En el segundo ciclo se evaluó la enfermedad “ascochyta” causada por Ascochyta spp. y Mycosphaerella spp. El objetivo de esta investigación fue: identificar líneas genéticas promisorias para continuar el programa de fitomejoramiento en arveja. El Análisis Factorial de Datos Mixtos AFDM, permitió agrupar las 42 líneas de mejora genética en 4 clases de variación cualitativa y cuantitativa, como también seleccionar a los genotipos M-049, M-078, M-080 y M-082 como sobresalientes por caracteres agronómicos.The study was carried out in the Bogotá plateau (Colombia, under greenhouse conditions during two crop cycles. During the first cycle the morphological and agronomical variables associated with yield components, such us precocity, growth habit, number of branches, leaf type, leaf size, type and degree of curvature of pod, size of peduncle, number of pods per cluster, flower color and grain morphological characteristics were evaluated. In the second cycle, the disease “ascochyta” caused by Ascochyta spp. and Mycosphaerella spp was evaluated. The objective of this research was to identify pea lines prospective for plant breeding. The factorial analysis of mixed data (FAMD, allowed clustering 42 genotypes into 4 groups of qualitative and quantitative variation and also selecting the materials M-049, M-078, M-080 and M-082 as the best genotypes according to their agronomical characters.

  16. Biosynthesis of the phytoalexin pisatin. [Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisig, C.L.; Bell, J.N.; Matthews, D.E.; VanEtten, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Sun, Yuejin; Hrazdina, G. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    NADPH-dependent reduction of 2{prime},7-dihydroxy-4{prime},5{prime}-methylenedioxyisoflavone to the isoflavanone sophorol, a proposed intermediate step in pisatin biosynthesis, was detected in extracts of Pisum sativum. This isoflavone reductase activity was inducible by treatment of pea seedlings with CuCl{sub 2}. The timing of induction coincided with that of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain 3-O-methyltransferase, which catalyzes the terminal biosynthetic step. Neither enzyme was light inducible. Further NADPH-dependent metabolism of sophorol by extracts of CuCl{sub 2}-treated seedlings was also observed; three products were radiolabeled when ({sup 3}H)sophorol was the substrate, one of which is tentatively identified as maackiain.

  17. Inheritance of enlarged leaf mutations in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, two pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants experimentally obtained after gamma irradiation of dry seeds are described. Both mutants were characterized by enlarged leaf size. The mutant 2/462 was shown to have semi-dominant inheritance pattern; 2/927 was sterile and inherited monogenic recessive. The induced mutations have pleiotropic effect, affecting morphological and reproductive traits. New mutants had similar phenotypes to previously named mutants latifolium (lat) and cabbage leaf (calf), but no allelism tests were made between the new and the previously reported mutants. Both mutant lines may be useful plant material for research on leaf development

  18. Genetic study of necrotic leaf pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by necrotic leaves were isolated following mutagenesis. The mutants were shown to have single-gene recessive inheritance, characterized morphologically and for seed production. New mutants 1/704, 1/711M, XV/915 and 2/352 had similar phenotypes, respectively, to previously named mutants dgl (degenerating leaves), nec (necrosis), bls (brown leaf spots) and bls (brown leaf), but no allelism tests were made between the new and the previously reported mutants. Mutants 1/704 and 1/711M were shown to be non-allelic. The mutation in line 2/352 may be useful as a genetic marker

  19. Evaluation of SRAP markers for mapping of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Guindon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linkage maps have become important tools for genetic studies. With the aim of evaluating the SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique for linkage mapping in Pisum sativum L., a F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between cvs. DDR11 and Zav25 was generated. A total of 25 SRAP primer combinations were evaluated in 45 F2 plants and both parental lines, generating 208 polymorphic bands/markers. The markers were analyzed by the chi-square goodness-of-fit test to check the expected Mendelian segregation ratio. The resulting linkage map consists of 112 genetic markers distributed in 7 linkage groups (LGs, covering a total of 528.8 cM. The length of the LGs ranged from 47.6 to 144.3 cM (mean 75.54 cM, with 9 to 34 markers. The linkage map developed in this study indicates that the SRAP marker system could be applied to mapping studies of pea.

  20. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces stomatal closure in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanling; Guo, Moran; Zhao, Wenlu; Chen, Kaoshan; Zhang, Pengying

    2013-09-12

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) isolated from the root tissue of Arctium lappa is a reserve carbohydrate that can induce resistance against a number of plant diseases. Stomatal closure is a part of plant innate immune response to restrict bacterial invasion. In this study, the effects of BFO on stomata movement in Pisum sativum and the possible mechanisms were studied with abscisic acid (ABA) as a positive control. The results showed that BFO could induce stomatal closure accompanied by ROS and NO production, as is the case with ABA. BFO-induced stomatal closure was inhibited by pre-treatment with L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, hydrochloride; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) and catalase (hydrogen peroxide scavenger). Exogenous catalase completely restricted BFO-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells. In contrast, L-NAME prevented the rise in NO levels but only partially restricted the ROS production. These results indicate that BFO-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS and ROS-dependent NO production.

  1. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:19156736

  2. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces stomatal closure in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanling; Guo, Moran; Zhao, Wenlu; Chen, Kaoshan; Zhang, Pengying

    2013-09-12

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) isolated from the root tissue of Arctium lappa is a reserve carbohydrate that can induce resistance against a number of plant diseases. Stomatal closure is a part of plant innate immune response to restrict bacterial invasion. In this study, the effects of BFO on stomata movement in Pisum sativum and the possible mechanisms were studied with abscisic acid (ABA) as a positive control. The results showed that BFO could induce stomatal closure accompanied by ROS and NO production, as is the case with ABA. BFO-induced stomatal closure was inhibited by pre-treatment with L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, hydrochloride; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) and catalase (hydrogen peroxide scavenger). Exogenous catalase completely restricted BFO-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells. In contrast, L-NAME prevented the rise in NO levels but only partially restricted the ROS production. These results indicate that BFO-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS and ROS-dependent NO production. PMID:23911508

  3. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine. PMID:22916813

  4. Processing Pisum sativum seed storage protein precursors in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGLIJUN; CDOMONEY; 等

    1990-01-01

    The profile of polypeptides separated by SDS-PAGE from seed of major crop species such as pea(Pisum sativum) is complex,resulting from cleavage (processing) of precursors expressed from multiple copies of genes encoding vicilin and legumin,the major storage globulins.Translation in vitro of mRNAs hybridselected from mid-maturation pea seed RNAs by defined vicilin and legumin cDNA clones provided precursor molecules that were cleaved in vitro by a cell-free protease extract obtained from similar stage seed;the derived polypeptides were of comparable sizes to those observed in vivo.The feasibility of transcribing mRNA in vitro from a cDNA clone and cleavage in vitro of the derived translation products was established for a legumin clone,providing a method for determining polypeptide products of an expressed sequence.This approach will also be useful for characterising cleavage site requirements since modifications an readily be introduced at the DNA level.

  5. Fertility improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.) autotetraploids -mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, H.; Mercykuty, V.C.; Srivastava, C.P. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    1995-12-31

    C{sub 2} seeds of autotetraploids (colchicine-induced) of two diverse genotypes, T 163 and 5064-S, of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and their corresponding diploids were irradiated with 10 kR gamma-ray. Autotetraploids showed a high seed-sterility as compared to diploids. Seed fertility increased in M{sub 2} as compared to M{sub 1}. Both quadrivalent and bivalent frequencies decreased in the M{sub 1} generation of autotetraploids in relation to their respective controls. However, a positive shift in the mean bivalent formation was noted at the cost of other configurations in C{sub 3}-M{sub 2} with respect to C{sub 2}-M{sub 1} and varied with the genotype. In the M{sub 2} generation of autotetraploids, the variability was relatively higher for the number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Although the mean values for pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and seed yield per plant remained more or less parallel in autotetraploids in M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} generations, there was an increase in the upper range limit probably due to micromutation for these characters in M{sub 2}. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs.

  6. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d. In the expand......To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d...

  7. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Novel EST-Derived Genic Markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Jain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Novel markers were developed for pea (Pisum sativum from pea expressed sequence tags (ESTs having significant homology to Medicago truncatula gene sequences to investigate genetic diversity, linkage mapping, and cross-species transferability. Methods and Results: Seventy-seven EST-derived genic markers were developed through comparative mapping between M. truncatula and P. sativum in which 75 markers produced PCR products and 33 were polymorphic among 16 pea genotypes. Conclusions: The novel markers described here will be useful for future genetic studies of P. sativum; their amplification in lentil (Lens culinaris demonstrates their potential for use in closely related species.

  9. Effect of TDZ on plant regeneration from mature seeds in pea (Pisum sativum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Zhihui; Tzitzikas, E.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Zhengqiang, M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Espace) seeds directly cultured on thidiazuron (TDZ)-containing medium formed high numbers of shoots. The number of shoots per seedling depended on the concentration and duration of the TDZ treatment. The best treatment was 12-wk incubation on MS medium supplemented with 4

  10. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  11. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...... pattern with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from a modern pea variety cultivated in the same field....

  12. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  13. INFLUENCE OF NOSTOC VAUCHER EX BORNET ET FLAHAULT STRAINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PISUM SATIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Ye. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the positive impact of cultures cyanobacteria genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault on growth and development of higher plants as an example Pisum sativum L. All the Nostoc species have a positive effect on the viability, germination energy, and biometric characteristics of Pisum sativum. The greatest positive influence was registered for N. entophytum Born. et. Flah. and N. linckia (Roth Bornetet Flahault f. linckia.

  14. Impact of dyeing industry effluent on germination and growth of pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Piyush; Hali, Rajesh; Sharma, Neeru

    2012-11-01

    Dye industry effluent was analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and its impact on germination and growth behaviour of Pea (Pisum sativum). The 100% effluent showed high pH (10.3) and TDS (1088 mg l(-1)). The germination parameters included percent germination, delay index, speed of germination, peak value and germination period while growth parameters comprised of root and shoot length, root and shootweight, root-shoot ratio and number of stipules. The study showed the maximum values of positive germination parameters viz. speed of germination (7.85), peak value (3.28), germination index (123.87) and all growth parameters at 20% effluent concentration while the values of negative germination parameters viz. delay index (-0.14) and percent inhibition (-8.34) were found to be minimum at 20% effluent concentration. The study demonstrated that at lower concentrations the dyeing industry effluent caused a positive impact on germination and growth of Pisum sativum. PMID:23741804

  15. Comportement agronomique d'une collection de pois (Pisum sativum L)

    OpenAIRE

    M. BOUSLAMA; Rezgui, S.; Hannachi, C.; Mani, F.

    2007-01-01

    Agronomical Behaviour of a Pea Collection (Pisum sativum L.). This experience was achieved under greenhouse conditions. Twelve genotypes of pea were used (Asgrow, Jumbo, Lincoln, Merveille de Kelvedon, Purser, Rajai Torpe, Snajor Kosep, Korai,Wando, Rondo, local genotype, Major Kosep Korai and Surgevil). They were cultivated on peat during 5.5 months (from October to April). Some agronomical parameters were studied: resistance to diseases, (Powdery-mildew, mildew, top yellow virus, anthracnos...

  16. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967). Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960). Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pir...

  17. Physiological responses of pisum sativum plant to exogenous aba application under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using foliar ABA application with different concentrations (50,100 and 150 meu g/L-1) in order to decrease the adverse effect of water-deficit stress. The main parameters of interest were; growth parameters; endogenous phytohormones, proline; pigments contents; number and shape of stomata; minerals concentrations; isozymes; and SDS -PAGE protein profile in Pisum sativum plant at 36 days under drought and ABA treatments. The results showed that ABA reduces the reduction in both fresh and dry weights shoot and root of Pisum induced by drought stress. Proline content was increased in response to drought and ABA treatments. Water-stress caused significant reduction in Chl. a, b, whereas application of ABA significantly increased in total chlorohpyll. Water stress significantly decreased IAA, GA concentrations and increased ABA level in leaves than these of the control. ABA treatment partially overcame the decrease in IAA and GA contents. Water stress and ABA increased the activity of (POD) and (ACP) enzymes in Pisum plants. Proteins profile of Pisum sativum in shoot revealed qualitative and quantitative changes, also appearance or disappearance of some bands. After 54 days the yield harvested and total carbohydrates and SDS -PAGE protein profile in seed were investigated. The data showed that total carbohydrates contents were significantly decreased in plant under drought and ABA partially alleviate the adverse effect of water-deficit stress. (author)

  18. Analysis of genetic effects of major genes on yield traits of a pea (pisum sativum l.) cross between the santa isabel x wsu 31 varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Ligarreto Moreno, Gustavo Adolfo; Gomez, Gustavo Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Análisis de efectos de genes mayores sobre rasgos de rendimiento en arveja (Pisum Generation means and heritability analyses were conducted to estimate dominance, additive, maternal and gene interaction effects controlling eleven agronomic characteristics related with production in the pea. Ten generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1, RC2 and each reciprocal generation) from a cross between the Santa Isabel and WSU 31 varieties were sown in two different environments for the present study. Eleven ch...

  19. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeh Kwadwo; Lee YeonKyeong; Ambrose Mike J; Hvoslef-Eide Anne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either...

  20. Analysis of nucleolar pre-rRNA processing sites in pea(Pisum sativum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG; Hong; (龙; 鸿); ZENG; Xianlu; (曾宪录); JIAO; Mingda; (焦明大); HU; Bo; (胡; 波); SUN; Haijing; (孙海晶); LIU; Zhenlan; (刘振兰); ZHANG; Liyong; (张立勇); HAO; Shui; (郝; 水)

    2003-01-01

    The location of rRNA processing was analyzed by using in situ hybridization with ITS1 probe and immunolabeling of anti-fibrillarin mAb in pea (Pisum sativum) root pole cells. The results showed that rRNA processing sites were in dense fibrillar components (DFCs) and granular components (GCs), but not in fibrillar centers (FCs). Low doses of actinomycin D (AMD) treatment can selectively suppress pre-rRNA synthesis but cannot disturb the processing of preformed pre-rRNAs. With AMD treatment prolonged, the density of labeled signals gradually decreased, indicating the preformed pre-rRNAs were gradually processed.

  1. Genetic study of pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants with altered shape of the pod (moniliform pod)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants 1/39 and 2/179 were induced in pea cultivars Auralia and Borek after gamma-ray irradiation and temperature treatment of the seeds. The mutants were isolated in M2 generation and were characterized by altered shape of the pod. It was established that the mutants were allelic and resulted from mutation of a single recessive gene. The designation moniliform pod was proposed for the mutation type and the symbol mfp for the gene. Mutants are useful plant material for studying the genetics of the mutated trait, i.e. the shape of pod in peas (Pisum sativum L.)

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  3. Effect of clinorotation on the leaf mesophyll structure and pigment content in Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I

    2004-07-01

    Properties of mesophyll cells and photosynthetic membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Pisum sativum (L.) plants grown in a horizontal clinostat and in control conditions were compared. Obtained data have show that under clinorotation conditions seedlings have experienced the following cell morphology changes structural chloroplast rearrangement in palisade cells, pigment content alteration, and cell aging acceleration.

  4. Calcium-calmodulin signalling is involved in light-induced acidification by epidermal leaf cells of pea, Pisum sativum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    1997-01-01

    Pathways of signal transduction of red and blue light-dependent acidification by leaf epidermal cells were studied using epidermal strips of the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum. In these preparations the contribution of guard cells to the acidification is minimal. The hydroxypyridine nifedipine, a

  5. Photosynthesis and growth responses of pea Pisum sativum L. under heavy metals stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabrine Hattab; Boutheina Dridi; Lassad Chouba; Mohamed Ben Kheder; Hamadi Bousetta

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the physiological effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in pea (Pisum sativum).Pea plants were exposed to increasing doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl_2) and copper chloride (CuCl_2) for 20 d.The examined parameters,namely root and shoot lengths,the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and the rate of photosynthesis were affected by the treatments especially with high metals concentrations.The analysis of heavy metals accumulation shows that leaves significantly accumulate cadmium for all the tested concentrations.However,copper was significantly accumulated only with the highest tested dose.This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of cadmium on photosynthesis and growth in pea plants.These results are valuable for understanding the biological consequences of heavy metals contamination particularly in soils devoted to organic agriculture.

  6. Organic fertilization alters the community composition of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Ravnskov, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Organic fertilization is well known to affect individual functional groups of root associated fungi such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root pathogens, but limited information is available on the effect of organic fertilization at the fungal community composition level. The main objecti......, the organic fertilizer Protamylasse clearly affects communities of root associated fungi, which seems to be linked to the life strategy of the different functional groups of root associated fungi. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------......Organic fertilization is well known to affect individual functional groups of root associated fungi such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root pathogens, but limited information is available on the effect of organic fertilization at the fungal community composition level. The main objective...... of the present study was to examine the response of communities of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum to Protamylasse, an organic fertilizer used in pea production. Plants were grown in pots with field soil amended with four different levels of Protamylasse. 454 pyrosequencing was employed to examine...

  7. Removal of chromium (III) and zinc(II) by using pods of pisum sativum (garden peas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of Chromium(III) and Zinc(II) on ground pods of Pisum sativum (Garden peas) have been studied. The effects of adsorbent dose, pH, contact time and agitation speed on adsorption were studied. The study has revealed that pea pods have high metal removal efficiency. Cr(III) has been removed up to 80.92% and Zn(II) up to 75.11%. Adsorption equilibriums for both metals were developed, which were well described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum amounts of Cr(III) and Zn(II) adsorbed (Qmax), as evaluated by Langmuir isotherms were 1.88 mg and 1.45 mg per gram of pea pod's powder, respectively. It is anticipated that waste materials like pea pods can be used for removal of toxic metals like Cr(III) and Zn(II) from industrial effluents/waste waters. (author)

  8. Nitrogen deficiency hinders etioplast development in stems of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) shoot cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, Annamária; Preininger, Éva; Böddi, Béla

    2015-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) deprivation were studied in etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Zsuzsi) grown in shoot cultures. The average shoot lengths decreased and the stems significantly altered considering their pigment contents, 77 K fluorescence spectra and ultrastructural properties. The protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) content and the relative contribution of the 654-655 nm emitting flash-photoactive Pchlide form significantly decreased. The etioplast inner membrane structure characteristically changed: N deprivation correlated with a decrease in the size and number of prolamellar bodies (PLBs). These results show that N deficiency directly hinders the pigment production, as well as the synthesis of other etioplast inner membrane components in etiolated pea stems.

  9. SSR genetic linkage map construction of pea(Pisum sativum L.) based on Chinese native varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelian; Sun; Tao; Yang; Junjie; Hao; Xiaoyan; Zhang; Rebecca; Ford; Junye; Jiang; Fang; Wang; Jianping; Guan; Xuxiao; Zong

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat(SSR)markers have previously been applied to linkage mapping of the pea(Pisum sativum L.)genome.However,the transferability of existing loci to the molecularly distinct Chinese winter pea gene pool was limited.A novel set of pea SSR markers was accordingly developed.Together with existing SSR sequences,the genome of the G0003973(winter hardy)×G0005527(cold sensitive)cross was mapped using 190 F2individuals.In total,157 SSR markers were placed in 11 linkage groups with an average interval of 9.7 cM and total coverage of 1518 cM.The novel markers and genetic linkage map will be useful for marker-assisted pea breeding.

  10. Cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco-Medina, Sergio [Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-18008 Granada (Spain); López-Jaramillo, Francisco Javier, E-mail: fjljara@ugr.es [Instituto de Biotecnología, Campus Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Bernier-Villamor, Laura [Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Sevilla, Francisca [Departamento de Biología del Estrés y Patología Vegetal, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-30080 Murcia (Spain); Lázaro, Juan-José [Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The isolation, purification, crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from P. sativum is reported. A cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 199 amino acids corresponding to a type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum with its transit peptide was isolated by RT-PCR. The 171-amino-acid mature protein (estimated molecular weight 18.6 kDa) was cloned into the pET3d vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set (98.2% completeness) was collected using a rotating-anode generator to a resolution of 2.8 Å from a single crystal flash-cooled at 100 K. X-ray data revealed that the protein crystallizes in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.88, b = 66.40, c = 77.23 Å, α = 102.90, β = 104.40, γ = 99.07°, and molecular replacement using a theoretical model predicted from the primary structure as a search model confirmed the presence of six molecules in the unit cell as expected from the Matthews coefficient. Refinement of the structure is in progress.

  11. Determination of the genotoxic effects of Trigonella foenum graecum L. extracts in stored Pisum sativum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia, I. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the effect of Trigonella foenum graecum L extracts on mitotic, meiotic and cell cycle parameters in stored Pisum sativum seeds. The Trigonella foenum extracts induced a marked decrease in the mitotic index accompanied with considerable percentage of chromosomal aberrations. These abnormalities include stickiness, disturbed chromosomes, bridges and lagging chromosome. Cytophotometric measurements showed inhibition of cells in the Go/G1 phase at the expense of other phases of cell cycle (S-phase, G2-phase. The percentage of cells having 2C DNA content decreased gradually with increasing the concentrations, while those having 4C DNA increased. Trigonella foenum extracts not affected on PMCs. Of P. sativum plant after the seeds treated with 0.5-1% and storage for three months but, significant percentage of chromosome abnormalities observed in the PMCs of the plants treated with 2% Trigonella foenum extracts and storage for three months. Also, after storage for six months all treatments have significant effect on abnormalities of PMCs. In all the treatment, various abnormal cells were observed in mitotic and meiotic division. Aberrant cells observed according to concentration and time of storage of Trigonella foenum extracts.

  12. Cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation, purification, crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from P. sativum is reported. A cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 199 amino acids corresponding to a type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum with its transit peptide was isolated by RT-PCR. The 171-amino-acid mature protein (estimated molecular weight 18.6 kDa) was cloned into the pET3d vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set (98.2% completeness) was collected using a rotating-anode generator to a resolution of 2.8 Å from a single crystal flash-cooled at 100 K. X-ray data revealed that the protein crystallizes in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.88, b = 66.40, c = 77.23 Å, α = 102.90, β = 104.40, γ = 99.07°, and molecular replacement using a theoretical model predicted from the primary structure as a search model confirmed the presence of six molecules in the unit cell as expected from the Matthews coefficient. Refinement of the structure is in progress

  13. Genetic interaction and mapping studies on the leaflet development (lld) mutant in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Mishra, Raghvendra Kumar; Kumar, Arvind; Chaudhary, Swati; Sharma, Vishakha; Kumari, Renu

    2012-01-01

    In Pisum sativum, the completely penetrant leaflet development (lld) mutation is known to sporadically abort pinnae suborgans in the unipinnate compound leaf. Here, the frequency and morphology of abortion was studied in each of the leaf suborgans in 36 genotypes and in presence of auxin and gibberellin, and their antagonists. Various lld genotypes were constructed by multifariously recombining lld with a coch homeotic stipule mutation and with af, ins, mare, mfp, tl and uni-tac leaf morphology mutations. It was observed that the suborgans at all levels of pinna subdivisions underwent lld-led abortion events at different stages of development. As in leafblades, lld aborted the pinnae in leaf-like compound coch stipules. The lld mutation interacted with mfp synergistically and with other leaf mutations additively. The rod-shaped and trumpet-shaped aborted pea leaf suborgans mimicked the phenotype of aborted leaves in HD-ZIP-III-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Suborganwise aborted morphologies in lld gnotypes were in agreement with basipetal differentiation of leaflets and acropetal differentiation in tendrils. Altogether, the observations suggested that LLD was the master regulator of pinna development. On the basis of molecular markers found linked to lld, its locus was positioned on the linkage group III of the P. sativum genetic map. PMID:23271018

  14. Genetic interaction and mapping studies on the leaflet development (lld) mutant in Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Raghvendra Kumar Mishra; Arvind Kumar; Swati Chaudhary; Vishakha Sharma; Renu Kumari

    2012-12-01

    In Pisum sativum, the completely penetrant leaflet development (lld) mutation is known to sporadically abort pinnae suborgans in the unipinnate compound leaf. Here, the frequency and morphology of abortion was studied in each of the leaf suborgans in 36 genotypes and in presence of auxin and gibberellin, and their antagonists. Various lld genotypes were constructed by multifariously recombining lld with a coch homeotic stipule mutation and with af, ins, mare, mfp, tl and uni-tac leaf morphology mutations. It was observed that the suborgans at all levels of pinna subdivisions underwent lld-led abortion events at different stages of development. As in leafblades, lld aborted the pinnae in leaf-like compound coch stipules. The lld mutation interacted with mfp synergistically and with other leaf mutations additively. The rod-shaped and trumpet-shaped aborted pea leaf suborgans mimicked the phenotype of aborted leaves in HD-ZIP-III-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Suborganwise aborted morphologies in lld gnotypes were in agreement with basipetal differentiation of leaflets and acropetal differentiation in tendrils. Altogether, the observations suggested that LLD was the master regulator of pinna development. On the basis of molecular markers found linked to lld, its locus was positioned on the linkage group III of the P. sativum genetic map.

  15. Palladium uptake by Pisum sativum: partitioning and effects on growth and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchini, Matteo; Cherchi, Laura; Cantamessa, Simone; Lanfranchi, Marco; Vianelli, Alberto; Gerola, Paolo; Berta, Graziella; Fumagalli, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    Environmental palladium levels are increasing because of anthropogenic activities. The considerable mobility of the metal, due to solubilisation phenomena, and its known bioavailability may indicate interactions with higher organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the Pd uptake and distribution in the various organs of the higher plant Pisum sativum and the metal-induced effects on its growth and reproduction. P. sativum was grown in vermiculite with a modified Hoagland's solution of nutrients in the presence of Pd at concentrations ranging 0.10-25 mg/L. After 8-10 weeks in a controlled environment room, plants were harvested and dissected to isolate the roots, stems, leaves, pods and peas. The samples were analysed for Pd content using AAS and SEM-EDX. P. sativum absorbed Pd, supplied as K₂PdCl₄, beginning at seed germination and continuing throughout its life. Minimal doses (0.10-1.0 mg Pd/L) severely inhibited pea reproductive processes while showing a peculiar hormetic effect on root development. Pd concentrations ≥1 mg/L induced developmental delay, with late growth resumption, increased leaf biomass (up to 25%) and a 15-20% reduction of root mass. Unsuccessful repeated blossoming efforts led to misshapen pods and no seed production. Photosynthesis was also disrupted. The absorbed Pd (ca. 0.5 % of the supplied metal) was primarily fixed in the root, specifically in the cortex, reaching concentrations up to 200 μg/g. The metal moved through the stem (up to 1 μg/g) to the leaves (2 μg/g) and pods (0.3 μg/g). The presence of Pd in the pea fruits, together with established evidence of environmental Pd accumulation and bioavailability, suggests possible contamination of food plants and propagation in the food chain and must be the cause for concern. PMID:25639246

  16. Effect of exogenous supply of boron on nodule development in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous supply of boron was evaluated on the seeds of Pisum sativum L. inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum and grown in aqua-culture. The liquid nutrition medium contained six boron concentrations (control, 1, 1.86, 2.86, 3.86, and 4.86 mg L/sup -1/ ). The results obtained from the present work showed that number of nodules, size of nodules and weight of boron treatment. Toxic effect of high concentration of boron (4.86 mg L/sup -1/ ) nodules exhibit great improvement in 2.86 mg L /sup-1/ was also recorded. There was significant reduction as compare to control in nodule weight, size and numbers. This fact becomes clear while observing the nodules growing in the boron free culture, which did not develop extensively. The comparison of the transverse sections of root-nodule area, from nutrient solutions with various boron concentrations showed that in the absence of boron, there was a considerable hypertrophy in cambial cells and a frequent disintegration of phloem and ground tissue along with xylem. The disintegration of the tissue seems to be linked with nodule bacteria. The nodular bacteria are considered to assume a parasitic habit in the absence of boron. (author)

  17. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  18. Sink to Source Transition in Tendrils of a Semileafless Mutant, Pisum sativum cv Curly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, R; Gerrath, J M; Peterson, C A; Grodzinski, B

    1992-12-01

    Sink to source transition parallels loss of thigmotropic capacity in tendrils of a semileafless mutant, Pisum sativum cv Curly. Macroscopic tendril development is subdivided based on thigmotropic capacity. Stage I is the elongation stage and, although the rate of photosynthesis is similar to that of stage II and III tendrils, dark respiration rates are higher in stage I. During stage II, tendrils are thigmotropic and act as a sink. Even though stage II tendrils have CO(2) exchange characteristics similar to those of stage III tendrils, which are coiled, our fluorescein, (14)C-partitioning, and (11)C-translocation experiments suggest that stage I and II tendrils do not export carbon. Only stage III tendrils act as sources of newly fixed carbon. Export from them is blocked by cold, heat girdling of the petiole, or anoxia treatment of the tendrils. A late stage II tendril complex, in which coiling is occurring, may be exporting photoassimilates; however, this phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that the pea leaf is a compound structure and there may be one or more stage III tendrils, no longer thigmotropic, within the tendril complex. Photosynthetic maturity in pea tendrils occurs at stage III and is characterized by the ability of these tendrils to export photoassimilates. PMID:16653179

  19. Study of DC and AC electric field effect on Pisum sativum seeds growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Bahar; Jaleh, Sojoodi; Yasaman, Yasaie

    2014-07-01

    In this research the effect of electric field on two groups of wet and dry Pisum sativum seeds growth was studied. To generate the required electric field a parallel-plate capacitor with round copper plates of 30 cm diameter was used. The experiments were performed once in fixed exposure duration of 8 min in variable DC electric field of 0.25-1.5 kV/m. The other experiments were performed in variable fields of 50-125 kV/m in fixed exposure duration of 8 min, in two groups of AC and DC electric fields. The experiments were repeated three times. In each experiment 10 seeds were used and there was a sham exposed group for comparison, too. After application of electric field, the seeds were kept for six days in the same growth chamber with the temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and 12 h light/12 h darkness. On the 6th day length of stems and height of roots were measured. After doing statistical analysis, in low intensities of DC electric field, the highest significant increase of mean growth (The average of stem length and the height of roots) was seen in 1.5 kV/m in wet seeds. In high intensities of DC and AC electric fields, the highest significant increase of mean growth was seen in AC electric field of 100 kV/m in wet seeds.

  20. Purification and properties of asparaginase from the testa of immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Eliana P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A K+-dependent asparaginase (E.C. 3.5.1.1. was purified 1328-fold from the testas of immature pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., var. Bolero and characterized. Antibodies raised against purified asparaginase cross-reacted with the putative asparaginase band in Western blot analyses of semi-purified extracts. However, for crude extracts of pea testas, a cross-reaction was obtained with at least four protein bands, one of which was asparaginase protein. Affinity-purified antibodies to the four strongest bands of crude extracts were fairly specific for the bands from which they were purified, suggesting a mixture of specific antibodies. The Mr of asparaginase was 69,000 by Sephacryl S200 chromatography and also by mobility on native PAGE relative to BSA. There was no evidence for dissociation into subunits on SDS-PAGE, suggesting a monomeric protein of Mr 69,000. Other properties include an apparent Km of 2.4 mM, pI between 4.5 and 5, and competitive inhibition by aspartate and glycine.

  1. Nutritional assessment in vitro and in vivo of raw and extruded peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R; Grant, G; Dewey, P; Marzo, F

    2000-06-01

    The effects of extrusion cooking on the nutritional properties of Pisum sativum L. have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The treatment greatly elevated protein and starch digestibility in vitro. Also, the amounts of intact starch diminished while total free sugars increased. In addition, the levels of antinutritional factors, such as protease inhibitors and lectins, were greatly decreased. Concentrations of methionine and cystine were low in raw peas and were further reduced by extrusion treatment. The nutritional performance of rats fed extruded pea diets for 15 days was no better than that of rats given raw pea diet. This was due to the overriding effects of amino acid deficiencies in the diets. Weight gains by rats fed extruded pea diets supplemented with amino acids were, however, much higher than those achieved by rats fed supplemented raw pea diets. Food transformation index and protein efficiency ratio values were also greatly improved. Extrusion treatment did therefore significantly improve the nutritional quality of peas. PMID:10888538

  2. Effect of Pisum sativum as protein supplement on buffalo milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grassi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out at an organic buffalo dairy farm in order to investigate the effect of feeding protein peas (Pisum sativum L. as an alternative protein source for buffalo cow diets. Two concentrates were formulated to contain (as fed basis either 350 g/kg of soybean cake (SC or 450 g/kg of peas (PC as the main protein sources. The two concentrates were formulated to be almost isonitrogenous (on average crude protein 240 g/kg DM. Two groups of 10 buffalo cows were used in a 100-day lactation study (from 10 days in milk onwards. Cows were blocked into two groups according to lactation number and previous milk yield and were assigned to one of two dietary treatments: control group was offered in the milking parlour 3 kg of SC, while treatment group was offered the same quantity of PC. All cows were fed a total mixed ration containing 3 kg of SC. Daily milk yield was not affected by treatment, as well as, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, urea content and fatty acid composition.

  3. Pb2+ exposure induced microsatellite instability in Pisum sativum in a locus related with glutamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Azevedo, R; Moreira, H; Souto, L; Santos, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic element, but its putative mutagenic effects in plant cells, using molecular markers, remain to unveil. To evaluate if Pb induces mutagenicity, Pisum sativum L. seedlings were exposed to Pb(2+) (up to 2000 mg L(-1)) for 28 days and the instability of microsatellites (or Simple Sequence Repeats, SSR) was analyzed in leaves and roots. The analysis of eight selected microsatellites (SSR1-SSR8) demonstrated that only at the highest dosage microsatellite instability (MSI) occurred, at a frequency of 4.2%. Changes were detected in one microsatellite (SSR6) that is inserted in the locus for glutamine synthetase. SSR6 products of roots exposed to the highest concentration of Pb were 3 bp larger than those of the control. Our data demonstrate that: (a) SSR technique is sensitive to detect Pb-induced mutagenicity in plants. MSI instability is Pb dose dependent and organ dependent (roots are more sensitive); (b) the Pb-sensitive SSR6 is inserted in the glutamine synthetase locus, with still unknown relation with functional changes of this enzyme; (c) Pb levels inducing MSI are much above the maximum admitted levels in some European Union countries for agricultural purpose waters. In conclusion, we propose here the potential use of SSR to evaluate Pb(2+)-induced mutagenicity, in combination with other genetic markers.

  4. Comportement agronomique d'une collection de pois (Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouslama, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Agronomical Behaviour of a Pea Collection (Pisum sativum L.. This experience was achieved under greenhouse conditions. Twelve genotypes of pea were used (Asgrow, Jumbo, Lincoln, Merveille de Kelvedon, Purser, Rajai Torpe, Snajor Kosep, Korai,Wando, Rondo, local genotype, Major Kosep Korai and Surgevil. They were cultivated on peat during 5.5 months (from October to April. Some agronomical parameters were studied: resistance to diseases, (Powdery-mildew, mildew, top yellow virus, anthracnose, browning, fresh matter, number of branches/plant, number of flowers/plant, number of pods/ plant and the yield of grains /plant. Results showed that only the genotype Purser is resistant to all diseases and Surgevil is sensitive only to the Top Yellow virus. The local genotype is sensitive to three frequent diseases (Powdery-mildew, mildew and Anthracnose. With regard to vegetative growth, the highest yield of fresh matter do not contribute towards a high fertility rate. In fact, only the genotypes having a weak yield of fresh matter (Snajor Kosep Korai, Asgrow, Major Kosep Korai, Rajai Torpe and Purser have the most important rate of fertility (> 30%. Within this group, the most important yield (> 9 g/plant is a result of high: number of pods/plant (7.5 to 21.6 and of grains/pod (2.8 to 4.92. Finally, genotype Purser should be retained for farmers and programs of genetic amelioration for its resistance to diseases and agronomical performances.

  5. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  6. Evaluation of genetic divergence and heritability in pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on genetic evaluation of five genotypes of forage pea (Glyans, Svit, Kamerton, Modus, Pleven 4 was conducted during 2012-2014 period. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for the traits pod width, seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and 1000 seed weight. The estimates of genetic parameters of five varieties of Pisum sativum L. indicated a good amount of genetic variation in the experimental materials under investigation. Moderate phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for most of traits except pod length and pod width. For the traits studied seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and plant height were found high heritability along with high genetic gain indicating preponderance of additive effects. Therefore, selection programme based on these characters would be more effective in improving yield parameters of forage pea. The seed yield was positively and significantly correlated with 1000 seed weight and pod stem, which suggested the possibilities of improving seed yield by simultaneous improvement of these traits.

  7. Changes in free polyamines and related enzymes during stipule and pod wall development in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Lahiri, Kajari; Bharati, Ghosh

    2002-08-01

    Level of free polyamines, their key metabolic enzymes, and other features related to ageing were examined during stipule and pod wall development in pea (Pisum sativum). Free polyamine titre (per unit fresh mass) in both the organs, the specific activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in the pod wall, gradually decreased with maturation. In stipule, these enzymes attained peak activity at 15 days after pod emergence and declined thereafter. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was greater in pod wall than in stipule; while, arginine decarboxylase activity was higher in stipule. Activity of degradative enzyme diamine oxidase increased with the onset of senescence in both the organs. Chlorophyll and electrical conductance had a inverse relationship throughout the experimental period, whereas, the chlorophyll content was directly related with polyamine levels in both stipule and pod wall during aging. On the other hand, protein and RNA contents were positively correlated with free polyamines throughout the test period in stipule, but in the pod wall this was true only for the later stages of development.

  8. Role of LLD, a new locus for leaflet/pinna morphogenesis in Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seema Prajapati; Sushil Kumar

    2001-12-01

    Properties of a mutant at the LLD (LEAF-LET DEVELOPMENT) locus in pea Pisum sativum L. are reported in this paper. Plants homozygous for the Mendelian recessive mutation lld bear leaves in which a few to many leaflets are incompletely developed. Opposite pinnae of rachis nodes often formed fused incompletely developed leaflets. The lld mutation was observed to abort pinna development at almost all morphogenetic stages. The lld mutation demonstrated high penetrance and low expressivity. The phenotypes of lld plants in tl, tac, tl tac, tl af and tl af tac backgrounds suggested that LLD function is involved in the separation of lateral adjacent blastozones differentiated on primary, secondary and tertiary rachides and lamina development in leaflets. The aborted development of tendrils and leaflets in lld mutants was related to deficiency in vascular tissue growth. The morphological and anatomical features of the leaflets formed on a tl lld double mutant permitted a model of basipetal leaflet development. The key steps of leaflet morphogenesis include origin of the lamina by splitting of a radially symmetrical growing pinna having abaxial outer surface, opposite to the vascular cylinder, through an invaginational groove, differentiation of adaxial surface along the outer boundary of split tissue in the groove and expansion of the lamina ridges so formed into lamina spans.

  9. Evidence that the mature leaves contribute auxin to the immature tissues of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Glancy, Naomi E; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2007-07-01

    In plants such as the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), it is widely thought that the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is synthesised mainly in the immature tissues of the apical bud and then transported basipetally to other parts of the plant. Consistent with this belief are results showing that removal of the apical bud markedly reduces the IAA content in the stem. However, it has also been suggested that the mature leaves may synthesise substantial amounts of IAA, which enters the basipetal transport stream after being transported to the shoot apex in the phloem (Cambridge and Morris in Planta 99:583-588, 1996). To examine this theory, we defoliated pea plants and measured the effect on IAA content in the remaining shoot tissues. IAA levels were reduced in the internodes, and to a lesser extent in the apical bud, after defoliation, suggesting that mature leaves are indeed an important source of auxin for the shoot. Consistent with this idea, we have demonstrated that mature, fully expanded leaves are capable of de novo IAA synthesis. Furthermore, we report evidence for the presence of IAA in the phloem sap of pea. Together these results support those of Cambridge and Morris, suggesting that mature leaves are a source of the IAA in the basipetal transport stream. PMID:17308928

  10. Auxin effects on in vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylation in pea. [Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, S.R.; Ray, P.M.

    1987-04-01

    Terminal 8mm sections from the third internode of dark grown 7 day old Pisum sativum cv Alaska seedlings were separated into membrane and soluble fractions. SDS gradient PAGE identified approximately 50 in vivo phosphorylated proteins and proved superior to 2-D SDS PAGE in terms of resolution and repeatability. Addition of indoleacetic acid (IAA), fusicoccin, or 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to membranes resulted in no detectable change in the number or phosphorylation level of the labeled proteins during in vitro phosphorylation in the presence of submicromolar concentrations of calcium. Similar results were obtained with soluble proteins. In the absence of calcium, the level of in vitro protein phosphorylation was much less, but not auxin effects could be identified. Furthermore, treatment of the sections with IAA in vivo followed by cell fractionation and in vitro phosphorylation failed to identify auxin responsive proteins. Lastly, when sections were labeled with /sup 32/P inorganic phosphate in the presence of 17 uM IAA, no auxin specific changes were found in the level of phosphorylation or in the number of phosphorylated proteins. Auxin effects on phosphorylation are thus slight or below their detection limit.

  11. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-11-01

    Lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. A mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of Pisum sativum) and characterized. The purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Superdex 200. The purified lectin had a native molecular mass of around 50 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. It appeared as a heterotetramer, composed of two distinct polypeptide bands with a molecular mass of 6 and 19 kDa, respectively, in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The N-terminal sequence of green split pea lectin shows some degree of homology compared to lectins from other legume species. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by glucose, mannose, and sucrose, and attenuated at pH values higher than 12 or lower than 3. Hemagglutinating activity was preserved at temperatures lower than 80 °C. The lectin did not show antifungal activity toward fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Green split pea lectin showed a mitogenic effect toward murine splenocytes and could inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  12. Phytochrome regulation of gibberellin metabolism in shoots of dwarf Pisum sativum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effect of light on the recessive dwarfing allele, le, of Pisum sativum L., etiolated, paclobutrazol treated LeLe (cv. Alaska) and lele (cv. Progress) pea seedlings were transferred to different light regimes. The growth response of both genotypes to applications of GA1, GA20, and steviol was measured over 48 hours using position transducers. Both genotypes responded to GA1 under red irradiation and in darkness. The LeLe plants grew in response to steviol and GA20 under red irradiation and in darkness. The lele plants responded to steviol and GA20 in darkness, but showed a much smaller response when red irradiated. The red effect on lele plants was reversible by far-red irradiation. [3H]GA20 was applied to nana pea seedlings, homozygous for le, grown under different light regimes. Radioactive metabolites were later extracted from the shoots of the treated plants. Both the free acid and conjugate pools were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC, and some radioactive metabolites were tentatively identified by comparing their retention times to those of authentic [3H]GAs

  13. Genetic control and identification of QTLs associated with visual quality traits of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visual seed quality of field pea and are considered as important breeding objectives. The objectives of this research were to study the genetics and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling of green and yellow field peas. Two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) consisting of 120 and 90 lines of F(5)-derived F(7) (F(5:7)) yellow pea (P. sativum 'Alfetta' × P. sativum 'CDC Bronco') and green pea (P. sativum 'Orb' × P. sativum 'CDC Striker'), respectively, were evaluated over two years at two locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quantitative inheritance with polygenic control and transgressive segregation were observed for all visual quality traits studied. All 90 RILs of the green pea population and 92 selected RILs from the yellow pea population were screened using AFLP and SSR markers and two linkage maps were developed. Nine QTLs controlling yellow seed lightness, 3 for yellow seed greenness, 15 for seed shape, and 9 for seed dimpling were detected. Among them, five QTLs located on LG II, LG IV, and LG VII were consistent in at least two environments. The QTLs and their associated markers will be useful tools to assist pea breeding programs attempting to pyramid positive alleles for the traits. PMID:21491970

  14. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  15. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies. PMID:26896301

  16. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  17. Antifungal Pisum sativum defensin 1 interacts with Neurospora crassa cyclin F related to the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Denise S; Pereira, Iuri B; Fragel-Madeira, Lucianne; Medeiros, Luciano N; Cabral, Luiz M; Faria, Jane; Bellio, Maria; Campos, Reinaldo C; Linden, Rafael; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2007-01-30

    Plant defensins, components of the plant innate immune system, are cationic cysteine-rich antifungal peptides. Evidence from the literature [Thevissen, K., et al. (2003) Peptides 24, 1705-1712] has demonstrated that patches of fungi membrane containing mannosyldiinositolphosphorylceramide and glucosylceramides are selective binding sites for the plant defensins isolated from Dahlia merckii and Raphanus sativus, respectively. Whether plant defensins interact directly or indirectly with fungus intracellular targets is unknown. To identify physical protein-protein interactions, a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system was performed using the antifungal plant peptide Pisum sativum defensin 1 (Psd1) as the bait. Target proteins were screened within a Neurospora crassa cDNA library. Nine out of 11 two-hybrid candidates were nuclear proteins. One clone, detected with high frequency per screening, presented sequence similarity to a cyclin-like protein, with F-box and WD-repeat domains, related to the cell cycle control. GST pull-down assay corroborated in vitro this two-hybrid interaction. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of FITC-conjugated Psd1 and DAPI-stained fungal nuclei showed in vivo the colocalization of the plant peptide Psd1 and the nucleus. Analysis of the DNA content of N. crassa conidia using flow cytometry suggested that Psd1 directed cell cycle impairment and caused conidia to undergo endoreduplication. The developing retina of neonatal rats was used as a model to observe the interkinetic nuclear migration during proliferation of an organized tissue from the S toward the M phase of the cell cycle in the presence of Psd1. The results demonstrated that the plant defensin Psd1 regulates interkinetic nuclear migration in retinal neuroblasts. PMID:17240982

  18. Effects of long-term reduced tillage on weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivated under conditions of conventional (CT, reduced (RT and herbicide tillage (HT. It demonstrated the highest weed density per m2 in plots with the herbicide (HT and reduced (RT systems and significantly lower weed infestation in plots cultivated in the conventional system (CT. In addition, more weeds occurred at the third leaf stage (13/14 in BBCH scale than at the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH of pea. The highest biomass was produced by weeds in the herbicide system (HT, a lower one – in the reduced system (RT, and the lowest one – in the conventional system (CT. The air-dry weight of weeds depended also on pea development stage. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the air-dry weight of weeds was significantly higher than at the third leaf stage (13/14 BBCH. The tillage system was also observed to influence the species composition of weeds. This trait was also affected by the period of weed infestation assessment. At the third leaf stage of pea (13/14 BBCH, there occurred 26 weed species, including 24 annual ones. The most abundant species included: Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Med., Matricaria inodora L., Thlaspi arvense L., and Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the pea crop was colonized by 24 weed species, including 3 perennial ones. At this stage the predominant species included: Avena fatua L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Papaver rhoeas L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.B., Matricaria inodora L., and Galeopsis tetrahit L.

  19. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies.

  20. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayeh Kwadwo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW, width of funicles (WFN, seed width (SW and seed height (SH were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ or an abscission-less zone (ALZ forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat.

  1. Preservative potential of cumin essential oil for Pisum sativum L. during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Narendra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The samples of stored seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. were collected from 30 farmer markets. The mycobiota analysis showed presence of 15 fungal species and one species of insect Callosobruchus chinensis. The fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceous, A. terreus were found to be dominant based on percent frequency of each in blotter method in unsterilized and sterilized seeds 18.9-7.9, 15.0-3.9, 12.2-3.7, 10.1-1.7, respectively, and in agar plate technique 17.9-8.3, 15.1-9.5, 12.8-5, 7.9.7-6.7, respectively. These species showed reduction in terms of weight loss, germination and protein content in pathogenicity testing. Essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. was evaluated against the most common occurring funi such as A. flavus and A. niger as well as the insect species C. chinensis and the oil exhibited high toxicity. The oil killed the tested fungi and showed thermostable nature at its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 400 ppm. The oil safely preserved pea seeds up to 120 days at 0.50 (1,000 ppm and 0.76 ml (1,500 ppm in polyethylene and jute bags of 500 ml capacity containing 400 g seeds separately. There were no changes in organoleptic appereance of food seeds during storage. The oil has beneficial effect on number of visible nodule formation and shoot and root dry biomass of 15-day-old plants in comparison to control sets. The cumin oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  2. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  3. Roles for auxin during morphogenesis of the compound leaves of pea ( Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMason, Darleen A; Chawla, Rekha

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the impact of the plant growth regulator auxin on the development of compound leaves in pea. Wildtype ( WT) plantlets, as well as those of two leaf mutants, acacia ( tl) and tendrilled acacia ( uni-tac) of pea ( Pisum sativum L.), were grown on media containing the auxin-transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), or the auxin antagonist, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB). The resulting plantlets were carefully analyzed morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy and for Uni gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Auxin transport was measured in WT leaf parts using [(14)C]indole-3-acetic acid. Relative Uni gene expression was determined in shoot tips of a range of leaf-form mutants. Morphological abnormalities were observed for all genotypes examined. The terminal tendrils on WT plants were converted to leaflets, stubs or were aborted. The number of pinna pairs produced on leaves was reduced, with the distal forms being eliminated before the proximal ones. Some leaves were converted to simple, including tri-and bilobed, forms. These treatments phenocopy the uni-tac and unifoliata ( uni) mutants of pea. In the most extreme situations, leaf blades were completely lost leaving only a pair of stipules or scale leaves. Polar auxin transport was basipetal for all leaf parts. Uni gene expression in shoot tips was significantly reduced in 60 microM NPA and TIBA. Uni mRNA was more abundant in tl, af and af tl and reduced in the uni mutants compared to WT. These results indicate that an auxin gradient plays fundamental roles in controlling morphogenesis in the compound leaves of pea and specifically it: (i). is the driving force for leaf growth and pinna determination; (ii). is necessary for pinna initiation; and (iii). controls subsequent pinna development. PMID:12942326

  4. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Herle, Carolyn E; Lupwayi, Newton Z

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs.

  5. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen.

  6. Antioxidant enzymes regulate reactive oxygen species during pod elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.- and .OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of .OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.- was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.- decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of(.)OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  7. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  8. Batch Scale Removal of an Organic Pollutant Amaranth Dye from Aqueous Solution using Pisum sativum Peels and Arachis hypogaea Shells as Adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to utilize low cost and environmentally friendly adsorbents for batch scale removal of Amaranth dye from aqueous medium. Peels of Pisum sativum (Pea) and Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) were utilized to investigate their dye removing capacity. The optimized adsorption conditions for Pisum sativum (P.S.P) and Arachis hypogaea (A.H.S) were: adsorbent dose; 0.6 and 0.4 g, contact time; 45 and 10 minutes, pH; 2.0 for both, agitation speed; 150 and 100 rpm and temperature; 60 and 50 degree C for P.S.P and A.H.S respectively. The adsorption data well suited to Langmuir isotherm. Maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 144.93 and 10.53 mg/g for P.S.P and A.H.S respectively. Feasibility of the process was indicated by negative values of thermodynamic parameters delta G/sup 0/ for both adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicated that adsorption of Amaranth dye from aqueous medium by Pisum sativum peels and Arachis hypogaea shells followed pseudo-seconder order kinetics. It was concluded that Pisum sativum peels are more effective adsorbent for removal of Amaranth from aqueous solution as compared to Arachis hypogaea shells. (author)

  9. Evaluation of expression stability of candidate references genes among green and yellow pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L.) subjected to abiotic and biotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea (Pisum sativum) is grown as human and animal feed throughout the world. Large yield losses in pea due to biotic and abiotic stresses compel an improved understanding of mechanisms of stress tolerance and genetic determinants conditioning these tolerances. The availability of stably expressed...

  10. Effect of pre-sowing magnetic field treatment to garden pea (pisum sativum l.) seed on germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of garden pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. climax) were exposed to full-wave rectified sumusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields of strength 60 mT, 120 mT and 180 mT for 5, 10 and 15 min prior to sowing. The magnetically treated seeds were sown according to the protocol of International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Magnetically treated seed showed significant increase in germination. The emergence index, final emergence index and vigor index increased by 86.43%, 13.21% and 204.60%, respectively. It was found that exposure of 5 min for magnetic field strengths of 60 mT and 180 mT significantly enhanced the germination parameters of the pea and these treatments can be used practically to accelerate the germination in garden pea. (author)

  11. The influence of rate and time of nitrate supply on nitrogen fixation and yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen

    1986-01-01

    pea, by the lowest rate of nitrate at this application time. The pea very efficiently took up and assimilated the nitrate N supplied. The average fertilizer N recovery was 82%. The later the N was supplied the more efficiently it was recovered. When nitrate was supplied at the flat pod growth stage 88......The influence of nitrate N supply on dry matter production, N content and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soil-grown pea (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in a pot experiment by means of15N fertilizer dilution. In pea receiving no fertilizer N symbiotic nitrogen fixation, soil and seed-borne N...... contributed with 82, 13 and 5% of total plant N, respectively. The supply of low rates of nitrate fertilizer at sowing (“starter N”) increased the vegetative dry matter production, but not the seed yield significantly. Nitrogen fixation was not significantly decreased by the lower rates of nitrate but higher...

  12. The same allele of translation initiation factor 4E mediates resistance against two potyvirus species in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Møller, I S; Tulinius, G;

    2007-01-01

    was overcome, and virus from these plants had a codon change causing an Arg to His change at position 116 of the predicted viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Accordingly, plants carrying the wlv resistance gene were infected upon inoculation with BYMV-W derived from cDNA with a His codon at position 116......Pathogenicity of two sequenced isolates of Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was established on genotypes of Pisum sativum L. reported to carry resistance genes to BYMV and other potyviruses. Resistance to the white lupin strain of BYMV (BYMV-W) is inherited as a recessive gene named wlv that maps...... to linkage group VI together with other Potyvirus resistances. One of these, sbm1, confers resistance to strains of Pea seedborne mosaic virus and previously has been identified as a mutant allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E gene (eIF4E). Sequence comparison of eIF4E from BYMV...

  13. Differential changes in size distribution of xyloglucan in the cell walls of gravitropically responding Pisum sativum epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, L. D.; Pickard, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    Growth-related change in the size distribution of hemicellulosic wall polymers during the gravitropic curvature response of intact pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls was examined by gel-filtration chromatography. The gravitropic response was characterized by the appearance of curvature 20 to 30 min after horizontal placement, with 35 degrees of curvature attained by 80 min. Correlated with the onset of curvature, on the upper side of the epicotyl, there was a conspicuous transient increase in the abundance of relatively large hemicellulosic xyloglucan polymers, similar to increases previously found under conditions where diminished wall extensibility was expected. On the lower side there was a moderate, slower, and longer-term increase in abundance of small xyloglucan, similar to changes previously found in connection with auxin-stimulated growth responses. Both shifts occurred primarily in the epidermis. They appear to represent two coordinated physiological mechanisms contributing to differential growth.

  14. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  15. The conformational stability and biophysical properties of the eukaryotic thioredoxins of Pisum sativum are not family-conserved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguado-Llera

    Full Text Available Thioredoxins (TRXs are ubiquitous proteins involved in redox processes. About forty genes encode TRX or TRX-related proteins in plants, grouped in different families according to their subcellular localization. For instance, the h-type TRXs are located in cytoplasm or mitochondria, whereas f-type TRXs have a plastidial origin, although both types of proteins have an eukaryotic origin as opposed to other TRXs. Herein, we study the conformational and the biophysical features of TRXh1, TRXh2 and TRXf from Pisum sativum. The modelled structures of the three proteins show the well-known TRX fold. While sharing similar pH-denaturations features, the chemical and thermal stabilities are different, being PsTRXh1 (Pisum sativum thioredoxin h1 the most stable isoform; moreover, the three proteins follow a three-state denaturation model, during the chemical-denaturations. These differences in the thermal- and chemical-denaturations result from changes, in a broad sense, of the several ASAs (accessible surface areas of the proteins. Thus, although a strong relationship can be found between the primary amino acid sequence and the structure among TRXs, that between the residue sequence and the conformational stability and biophysical properties is not. We discuss how these differences in the biophysical properties of TRXs determine their unique functions in pea, and we show how residues involved in the biophysical features described (pH-titrations, dimerizations and chemical-denaturations belong to regions involved in interaction with other proteins. Our results suggest that the sequence demands of protein-protein function are relatively rigid, with different protein-binding pockets (some in common for each of the three proteins, but the demands of structure and conformational stability per se (as long as there is a maintained core, are less so.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model (MLM taking population structure (Q and relative kinship (K into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  17. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. (IRNA, Salamanca (Spain) Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada (Spain))

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad; Ahmad; Simerjeet; Kaur; Neil; Dylan; Lamb-Palmer; Mark; Lefsrud; Jaswinder; Singh

    2015-01-01

    Field pea(Pisum sativum L.) is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model(MLM) taking population structure(Q) and relative kinship(K) into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  19. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. ‘Zhongwan no. 6’) were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (104 RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0–2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity. PMID:27679639

  20. The same allele of translation initiation factor 4E mediates resistance against two Potyvirus spp. in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, M; Møller, I S; Tulinius, G; Hansen, J K R; Lund, O S; Johansen, I E

    2007-09-01

    Pathogenicity of two sequenced isolates of Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was established on genotypes of Pisum sativum L. reported to carry resistance genes to BYMV and other potyviruses. Resistance to the white lupin strain of BYMV (BYMV-W) is inherited as a recessive gene named wlv that maps to linkage group VI together with other Potyvirus resistances. One of these, sbm1, confers resistance to strains of Pea seedborne mosaic virus and previously has been identified as a mutant allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E gene (eIF4E). Sequence comparison of eIF4E from BYMV-W-susceptible and -resistant P. sativum genotypes revealed a polymorphism correlating with the resistance profile. Expression of eIF4E from susceptible plants in resistant plants facilitated BYMV-W infection in inoculated leaves. When cDNA of BYMV-W was agroinoculated, resistance mediated by the wlv gene frequently was overcome, and virus from these plants had a codon change causing an Arg to His change at position 116 of the predicted viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Accordingly, plants carrying the wlv resistance gene were infected upon inoculation with BYMV-W derived from cDNA with a His codon at position 116 of the VPg coding region. These results suggested that VPg determined pathogenicity on plants carrying the wlv resistance gene and that wlv corresponded to the sbm1 allele of eIF4E. PMID:17849710

  1. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. 'Zhongwan no. 6') were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (10(4) RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0-2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity.

  2. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. Thes...

  3. Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma on the Structure of Seeds, Growth and Metabolism of Endogenous Phytohormones in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stolárik, T.; Henselová, M.; Martinka, M; Novák, O.; Záhoranová, A.; Černák, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of low-temperature plasma (LTP) on seed surface modification, water uptake by seeds, seed germination and vigor of seedlings, as well as changes in the content of endogenous hormones in pea, (Pisum sativum L. var. Prophet). The study's authors used diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge as the source of LTP in various duration times of treatment (from 60 to 600 s). The SEM analysis showed that LTP induced significant changes on th...

  4. A novel lipid transfer protein from the pea Pisum sativum: isolation, recombinant expression, solution structure, antifungal activity, lipid binding, and allergenic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Ivan V.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Finkina, Ekaterina I.; Melnikova, Daria N.; Rumynskiy, Eugene I.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) assemble a family of small (7–9 kDa) ubiquitous cationic proteins with an ability to bind and transport lipids as well as participate in various physiological processes including defense against phytopathogens. They also form one of the most clinically relevant classes of plant allergens. Nothing is known to date about correlation between lipid-binding and IgE-binding properties of LTPs. The garden pea Pisum sativum is widely consumed crop and i...

  5. The role of phosphorus in nitrogen fixation by young pea plants (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1985-01-01

    The influence of P on N2 fixation and dry matter production of young pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) plants grown in a soil-sand mixture was investigated in growth cabinet experiments. Nodule dry weight, specific C2H2 reduction and P concentration in shoots responded to P addition before any growth...

  6. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  7. Genetic diversity of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) in subtropical regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of 42 isolates from effective nodules of Pisum sativum in different geographical regions of China were studied using 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns, 16S rRNA sequencing, 16S–23S rRNA inter-genic spacer (IGS) region RFLP patterns and G-C rich random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The isolates were distributed in two groups on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns group I were very closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370. Group II consisting of WzP3 and WzP15 was closely related to Rhizobium etli CFN42. The analysis of the 16S–23S IGS RFLP pat-terns divided the isolates into 18 genotypes and four groups. Group I was clustered with R. legumino-sarum USDA2370. Group II consisted of YcP2, YcP3 and CqP7. The strains of group III were distributed abroad. Group IV consisted of WzP3, WzP15 and R. etli CFN42. RAPD divided the isolates into nine clusters in which group IV only consisted of YcP2 and the strains of group V and IX were from Wenzhou and Xiantao, respectively. This assay demonstrated the geographical effect on genetic diversity of pea rhizobia.

  8. Remote sensing study of the influence of herbicides on the spectral reflectance of pea plant leaves (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, D.; Alexieva, V.; Yanev, T.; Ivanov, S.

    Results from a remote sensing study of spectral reflectance of leaves of pea plants Pisum sativum L treated by the herbicides atrazine 2 4-D glyphosate fluridone and chlorsulfuron are reported According to the classification of the Herbicide Action Committee reflecting their mode of action they belong to different groups photosystem II bloker - C1 atrazine synthetic auxins - O 2 4-D inhibition of EPSP synthase - G glyphosate photobleaching - F1 fluridone and inhibition of acetoctate synthase - B chlorsulfuron The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at three low concentrations 1 mu M 0 1 mu M and 0 01 mu M with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice The spectral measurements of the leaf spectral reflectance were carried out in laboratory using a multichannel spectrometer in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum 480 div 810 nm Data was registered in 128 channels at a high spectral resolution of 2 6 nm halfwidth and a spatial resolution of 2 mm 2 The reflectance spectra were obtained from the leaf-reflected radiation referenced against a standard white screen To assess the changes arising in the leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action the developed by us approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods was applied The spectral reflectance characteristics SRC were investigated in three spectral intervals 520 div 580 nm region of maximal

  9. Genetic diversity of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) in subtropical regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ChengYun; YANG JiangKe; LI YouGuo; ZHOU JunOhu

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of 42 isolates from effective nodules of Pisum sativum in different geographical regions of China were studied using 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns, 16S rRNA sequencing, 16S-23S rRNA inter-genic spacer (IGS) region RFLP patterns and G-C rich random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The isolates were distributed in two groups on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns group Ⅰ were very closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370. Group Ⅱ consisting of WzP3 and WzP15 was closely related to Rhizobium etli CFN42. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS RFLP pat-terns divided the isolates into 18 genotypes and four groups. Group Ⅰ was clustered with R. legumino-sarum USDA2370. Group Ⅱ consisted of YcP2, YcP3 and CqP7. The strains of group Ⅲ were distributed abroad. Group Ⅳ consisted of WzP3, WzP15 and R. etli CFN42. RAPD divided the isolates into nine clusters in which group Ⅳ only consisted of YcP2 and the strains of group Ⅴ and Ⅸ were from Wenzhou and Xiantao, respectively. This assay demonstrated the geographical effect on genetic diversity of pea rhizobia.

  10. Extrusion of Peas (Pisum sativum L.: Effects on the Apparent Metabolisable Energy and Ileal Nutrient Digestibility of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Nalle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The potential feeding values of grain legumes, such as peas (Pisum sativum, are limited because of the presence of anti-nutritional factors. In particular, protease inhibitors are of interest, but these can be readily destroyed by thermal treatments. In the present study, the influence of extrusion on the chemical composition and nutritive value of peas was evaluated. Approach: Two extrudates were produced by extruding the peas at two moisture levels (19 and 22% and one temperature (140°C. Four treatment diets consisting of a corn-soy basal diet and three test diets containing raw and the two extruded pea meals were formulated and assayed in digestibility and balance trials using broiler chickens. The test diets were formulated by substituting the raw and extruded pea meals for 25% (w/w of the basal diet. Ileal nutrient digestibility was calculated using titanium oxide as an indigestible indicator and the apparent metabolisable energy was determined using the classical total excreta collection method. Results: Extrusion had no effect (P>0.05 on the contents of crude protein and starch. Soluble non-starch polysaccharide contents were increased (P 0.05 on the apparent ileal protein digestibility and the apparent metabolisable energy of peas. Conclusion: Under the extrusion conditions employed in the present study, extrusion was not beneficial to improving the nutritive value of peas for broilers.

  11. Phenotypic characterization and inheritance of two foliar mutants in pea (Pisum Sativum L.): 'Reduced leaf size' and 'Orange leaf'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two foliar pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by reduced leaf size (2/978) and orange leaf (2/1409 M) were established. Both mutants were described morphologically and their productivity potential , pollen viability and inheritance of the mutant traits were evaluated. The mutant 2/978 was identified after irradiation of dry seeds from cv Borek with 15 Gy fast neutrons and was related to the leaf mutation 'rogue'. Reciprocal crosses between mutant 2/978 and cv Borel were executed, and F1 and F2 generations were analyzed. The altered leaf trait was presented in all F1 plants suggesting a dominant character. F2 segregation data indicated that the trait was controlled by a single dominant gene. The mutant 2/1409M originated from the mutant 2/978 after irradiation with 50 Gy γ-rays. The main mutant's phenotypic characteristic was the orange-yellow coloration of leaves and plants. After of series of crosses it was established that induced chlorophyll mutation is monogenic, recessive and both mutant traits are independently inherited. Two mutants could be used as appropriate plant material for genetic and biological investigations

  12. Symbiont effect of Rhizobium bacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Pisum sativum in recultivated mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, B.; Voros, I.; Kovespechy, K.; Szegi, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Research Institute)

    The frequency (F%) of spontaneous endomycorrhizal fungal infection (AMF) and the root modulation of Pisum sativum L, was studied after 8 and 15 years of recultivation in 4 soils (andesitic tuff yellow sand, yellow clay, and grey clay) disturbed by mining activities. The effects of Rhizobium inoculation and the interaction of both microsymbionts with plant production were also examined along with humus content and the humus stability coefficient, in the following variations: control, NPK fertilizer, NPK+lignite, NPK+straw and sewage sludge. Dump spoils originating from deep geological layers were poor in organic materials. After 12 years of recultivation, the humus content increased significantly. No such increase was noted in grey clay and the natural, brown forest soil used as an undisturbed (control) sample. The degradation of soils by mining brings about a decrease in the rhizobial and mycorrhizal population, so the number of spontaneous Rhizobium nodules is relatively low and does not influence the yield of peas. Inoculation with a selected effective strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae, however, enhanced dry matter production in these microbiologically degraded soils. Although the frequency of AMF infection was also higher after rhizobial inoculation, no positive correlation was found between dry matter production of peas and the F% of AMF. Spoils treated with lignite, straw, and sewage sludge had an especially high level of spontaneous mycorrhizal populations, indicating that organic materials had a favorable effect on the recultivation processes and fertility of mine spoils.

  13. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses.

  14. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  15. SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant growth and development in Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; Moreau, Carol; Chinoy, Catherine; Spanner, Rebecca; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdel; Klenell, Markus; Domoney, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.

  16. Auxin-cytokinin and auxin-gibberellin interactions during morphogenesis of the compound leaves of pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMason, Darleen A

    2005-09-01

    A number of mutations that alter the form of the compound leaf in pea (Pisum sativum) has proven useful in elucidating the role that auxin might play in pea leaf development. The goals of this study were to determine if auxin application can rescue any of the pea leaf mutants and if gibberellic acid (GA) plays a role in leaf morphogenesis in pea. A tissue culture system was used to determine the effects of various auxins, GA or a GA biosynethesis inhibitor (paclobutrazol) on leaf development. The GA mutant, nana1 (na1) was analyzed. The uni-tac mutant was rescued by auxin and GA and rescue involved both a conversion of the terminal leaflet into a tendril and an addition of a pair of lateral tendrils. This rescue required the presence of cytokinin. The auxins tested varied in their effectiveness, although methyl-IAA worked best. The terminal tendrils of wildtype plantlets grown on paclobutrazol were converted into leaflets, stubs or were aborted. The number of lateral pinna pairs produced was reduced and leaf initiation was impaired. These abnormalities resembled those caused by auxin transport inhibitors and phenocopy the uni mutants. The na1 mutant shared some morphological features with the uni mutants; including, flowering late and producing leaves with fewer lateral pinna pairs. These results show that both auxin and GA play similar and significant roles in pea leaf development. Pea leaf morphogenesis might involve auxin regulation of GA biosynthesis and GA regulation of Uni expression. PMID:15809864

  17. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  18. Digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlad, J S; Mathers, J C

    1991-03-01

    The digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets was measured. In the four experimental diets, wheat was included at a constant 500 g/kg whilst peas contributed 0-300 g/kg and these were the only dietary sources of NSP. Separate estimates of digestibility for wheat and peas were obtained by using a multiple linear regression technique which also tested the possibility that the presence of peas might influence the digestibility of wheat NSP. There was little evidence of the latter and it was found that the digestibility of peas NSP (0.84) was considerably greater than that of wheat (0.65). The non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) had twofold greater digestibilities than had cellulose for both foods with essentially all the peas NCP being digested. Faecal alpha, epsilon-diaminopimelic acid concentration increased with feeding of peas, suggesting stimulation of bacterial biomass production in the large intestine using the readily fermented peas NSP. All three major volatile fatty acids produced by large intestinal fermentation were detected in jugular blood and increased significantly with increasing peas inclusion rate in the diet.

  19. Evidence for Phytochrome Regulation of Gibberellin A(20) 3beta-Hydroxylation in Shoots of Dwarf (lele) Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campell, B R; Bonner, B A

    1986-12-01

    The effect of light on the dwarfing allele, le, in Pisum sativum L. was tested as the growth response to gibberellins prior to or beyond the presumed block in the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway. The response to the substrate (GA(20)), the product (GA(1)), and a nonendogenous early precursor (steviol) was compared in plants bearing the normal Le and the deficient lele genotypes in plants made low in gibberellin content genetically (nana lines) or by paclobutrazol treatment to tall (cv Alaska) and dwarf (cv Progress) peas. Both genotypes responded to GA(1) under red irradiation and in darkness. The lele plants grew in response to GA(20) and steviol in darkness but showed a much smaller response when red irradiated. The Le plants responded to GA(20) and steviol in both light and darkness. The red effects on lele plants were largely reversible by far-red irradiation. It is concluded that the deficiency in 3beta-hydroxylation of GA(20) to GA(1) in genotype lele is due to a Pfr-induced blockage in the expression of that activity. PMID:16665165

  20. Clasificación de 42 líneas mejoradas de arveja (pisum sativum l.) por caracteres morfológicos y comportamiento agronómico.

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Ch, César Andrés; Vergara Holguín, María Consuelo; Ligarreto Moreno, Gustavo Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante dos ciclos de cultivo. En el primero se evaluaron las variables morfológicas y agronómicas, relacionadas con: componentes de rendimiento, precocidad, altura y hábito de crecimiento, cantidad de ramas, tipo de hoja; tamaño de hoja, tipo y grado de curvatura de la vaina, tamaño de pedúnculo, número de vainas por racimo, color de flor y características morfológicas del grano. En el segundo ciclo se ...

  1. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (phaseolus vulgaris) y arveja (pisum sativum). efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbao Reboredo Tania; Hampe Amador Sandra; Smith Ruth Addae; Puerta García Felicidad; Ledesma Rivero Luis

    2011-01-01

    Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) y la...

  2. Optimization of Agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum Provides a New Tool for Studying the Salivary Protein Functions in the Pea Aphid Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Endrick; Boulain, Hélène; Aigu, Yoann; Le Pennec, Charlotte; Chawki, Khaoula; Morlière, Stéphanie; Schädel, Kristina; Kunert, Grit; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Sugio, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant-aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary) proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from 3 to 10 days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that transient expression of

  3. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses, but decrea......Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses...... relative to the total N-accumulation was greater with strain 128c53 due to a higher production of nodule tissue. The root bleeding sap of the symbiosis with the greater yield (strain 1044) contained high levels of asparagine and aspartic acid. In the 128c53 symbiosis, glutamine plus homoserine accounted...... for a higher percentage of the organic solutes transporting newly assimilated N from the root system than in the association with 1044. The Rhizobium strain effect on amino compound composition of the bleeding sap may indicate an influence of the bacteroids on either the N-assimilatory enzyme system...

  4. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Kózka, Małgorzata; Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Sobczak, Paweł

    2009-07-15

    An analytical approach based on hyphenated techniques was used for studying the speciation of cadmium and lead in Pisum sativum. Proper preservation conditions were employed to avoid the oxidation of -SH groups and corresponding decomposition of metal-binding complexes. SEC column was washed with 5 mM beta-mercaptoethanol and then samples were analysed using ICP-MS as a detector. Results showed that cadmium is the inhibitor of lead uptake. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) assays revealed fragmentation pathways of phytochelatins.

  5. Avances en la sistemática del género Micromonospora: estudio de cepas aisladas de la Rizosfera y Nódulos de Pisum sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Carro Garcia, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    [ES] En este trabajo se ha llevado a cabo el aislamiento de 272 cepas, 239 obtenidas a partir de nódulos fijadores de nitrógeno de plantas de Pisum sativum esterilizados en superficie y recogidos en siete localidades diferentes de Castilla y León y 33 a partir de la rizosfera de esas mismas plantas. De estas cepas se seleccionaron las 106 obtenidas en Cañizal y en Salamanca, 27 y 46 obtenidas de nódulos, y 21 y 12 obtenidas de rizosfera respectivamente, para realizar un análisis de la diversi...

  6. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  7. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Malkov, Nikita V; Davies, William J; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECd(t) and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECd(t) accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECd(t). Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECd(t) in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECd(t) plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECd(t) mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation. PMID:25694548

  8. Expression of arginine decarboxylase is induced during early fruit development and in young tissues of Pisum sativum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Amador, M A; Carbonell, J; Granell, A

    1995-09-01

    A cDNA coding for arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) has been isolated from a cDNA library of parthenocarpic young fruits of Pisum sativum (L.). The deduced aminoacid sequence is 74%, 46% and 35% identical to ADCs from tomato, oat and Escherichia coli, respectively. When the pea ADC cDNA was put under the control of the galactose inducible yeast promoter CYC1-GAL10 and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it conferred galactose-regulated expression of the ADC activity. The ADC activity expressed in S. cerevisiae was inhibited 99% by alpha-DL-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific inhibitor of ADC activity. No activity was detected in the untransformed S. cerevisiae, nor when it was transformed with an antisense ADC construct. This provides direct evidence that the ADC cDNA from pea encoded a functional, specific ADC activity and that S. cerevisiae is able to process correctly the protein. In the pea plant, gene expression of the ADC is high in young developing tissues like shoot tips, young leaflets and flower buds. Fully expanded leaflets and roots have much lower, but still detectable, levels of the ADC transcript. In the ovary and fruit, they are developmentally regulated, showing high levels of expression during the early stages of fruit growth, which in pea is mainly due to cell expansion. The observed changes in the steady-state levels of ADC mRNA alone, however, cannot account for the differences in ADC activity suggesting that other regulatory mechanisms must be acting.

  9. Cadmium accumulation and buffering of cadmium-induced stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza in three Pisum sativum L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Calantzis, Catherine; Turnau, Katarzyna; Caussanel, Jean-Pierre; Belimov, Andrei A; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Strasser, Reto J; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2002-05-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in reducing Cd stress was investigated in three genotypes of Pisum sativum L. (cv. Frisson, VIR4788, VIR7128), grown in soil/sand pot cultures in the presence and absence of 2-3 mg kg(-1) bioavailable Cd, and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Shoot, root and pod biomass were decreased by Cd in non-mycorrhizal plants. The presence of mycorrhiza attenuated the negative effect of Cd so that shoot biomass and activity of photosystem II, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, were not significantly different between mycorrhizal plants growing in the presence or absence of the heavy metal (HM). Total P concentrations were not significantly different between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants treated with Cd. From 20-50-fold more Cd accumulated in roots than in shoots of Cd-treated plants, and overall levels were comparable to other metal-accumulating plants. Genetic variability in Cd accumulation existed between the pea genotypes. Concentration of the HM was lowest in roots of VIR4788 and in pods of VIR4788 and VIR7128. G. intraradices inoculation decreased Cd accumulation in roots and pods of cv. Frisson, whilst high concentrations were maintained in roots and pods of mycorrhizal VIR7128. Shoot concentrations of Cd increased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR4788. Sequestration of Cd in root cell walls and/or cytoplasm, measured by EDS/SEM, was comparable between non-mycorrhizal pea genotypes but considerably decreased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR7128. Possible mechanisms for mycorrhiza buffering of Cd-induced stress in the pea genotypes are discussed.

  10. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion. [Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.J.; Fry, S.C. (Univ. of Edinburgh (England))

    1990-07-01

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose) and XG9n (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose{sub 2}) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose {center dot} fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10{sup {minus}4} molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of ({sup 3}H)xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products).

  11. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Malkov, Nikita V; Davies, William J; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECd(t) and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECd(t) accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECd(t). Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECd(t) in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECd(t) plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECd(t) mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation.

  12. High-Throughput Development of SSR Markers from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Next Generation Sequencing of a Purified Chinese Commercial Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Bao, Shiying; Hao, Junjie; Li, Ling; He, Yuhua; Jiang, Junye; Wang, Fang; Tian, Shufang; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lagged behind many other crops. Development of a large number of novel and reliable SSR (simple sequence repeat) or microsatellite markers will help both basic and applied genomics research of this crop. The Illumina HiSeq 2500 System was used to uncover 8,899 putative SSR containing sequences, and 3,275 non-redundant primers were designed to amplify these SSRs. Among the 1,644 SSRs that were randomly selected for primer validation, 841 yielded reliable amplifications of detectable polymorphisms among 24 genotypes of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wild relatives (P. fulvum Sm.) originated from diverse geographical locations. The dataset indicated that the allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 10, and that the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.38. These 1,644 novel SSR markers were also tested for polymorphism between genotypes G0003973 and G0005527. Finally, 33 polymorphic SSR markers were anchored on the genetic linkage map of G0003973 × G0005527 F2 population.

  13. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders. PMID:26809053

  14. Inheritance of quantitative traits in crosses between two Pisum sativum subspecies with particular reference to their breeding value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosev, V; Pachev, I; Angelova, S; Mikić, A

    2012-01-01

    The experimental study was conducted during the period of 2008-2010 at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven. The hybridization scheme included direct and back crosses covering four varieties of forage pea (Pisum sativum L.), namely two spring ones, Usatii 90 and Kamerton from Ukraine, and a winter one from Bulgaria, Pleven 10. There was analyzed the inheritance of quantitative traits such as plant height, height to first pod, pod number per plant, seed number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight per plant and number of fertile nodes per plant of parental components (P1 and P2) and both first (F1) and second (F2) hybrid generations. The cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10 showed the highest real heterosis effect for plant height (8.26%), pods per plant (158.79%), seeds per plant (272.16%), seeds per pod (42.09%), seed weight per plant (432.43%) and number of fertile nodes per plant (117.14%). The cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90 had the highest real heterosis effect height to first pod (11.06%). In F2 plants, the strongest depression for plant height (5.88%), seeds per plant (57.88%), seeds per pod (55.93%) and seed weight per plant (55.99%) was in the cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10, for height to first pod (1.47%) in the cross Kamerton x Pleven 10 and for number of fertile nodes per plant (15.91%) in the cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90. The highest positive degree of transgression for number of fertile nodes per plant (165.64%) and seed weight per plant (162.10%) was in the cross Pleven 10 x Kamerton and for pod number per plant (102.54%) and seeds per plant (99.13%) in Kamerton x Pleven 10. The stability of the characters was determined. Low variability in F1 and F2 was found in plant height (3.97-6.85%). Variability of number seeds per plant in F1 was highest (11.86-33.23%). For all other traits, the variability varied from average to high. A lower narrow-sense heritability coefficient was observed for plant height, height to first pod, pods per

  15. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders.

  16. Rhythmical changes of a level nitric oxide (NO in roots etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. and influence of exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Glyan’ko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studied time dynamics (during 60 mines a level oxide nitric (NO in cross cuts of roots 2 – day etiolated seedlings of pea sowing (Pisum sativum L. by use of fluorescent probe DAF-2DA and a fluorescent microscope depending on action exogenous calcium (Ca2+. During an exposition of seedlings on water, solution CaCl2 are shown fluctuation in level NO in roots – his increase and decrease that testifies to the certain rhythm in generation NO. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ change time dynamics of level NO in comparison with variant “water”. Ca2+chelate EGTA removes action exogenous calcium on rhythmical change of a level NO in roots. Results are discussed in aspect of close interference of signaling systems and molecules (Ca2+, NO, Н2О2.

  17. Effects of moderately enhanced levels of ozone on the acyl lipid composition and dynamical properties of plasma membranes isolated from garden pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sellden, G.; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma membranes were isolated from leaves of 16-day-old garden pea, Pisum sativum L., that had been grown in the absence or presence of 65 nl l(-1) ozone for 4 days prior to membrane isolation, Plasma membranes from ozone-fumigated plants contained significantly more acyl lipids per protein than...... those from leaves of plants grown in filtered air on a molar/weight ratio, The ratio between the major acyl lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), also increased due to the ozone fumigation, while the fatty acid unsaturation level was unaltered in total plasma membrane acyl...... lipids, as well as in PC and PE, The amount of free sterols per protein was unaltered, but the percentage of campesterol increased, concomitant with a decrease in stigmasterol, The dynamical properties of the isolated plasma membranes were assessed using Laurdan fluorescence spectroscopy, which monitors...

  18. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  19. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of pea weevil Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleóptera: Bruchidae to volatiles collected from its host Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ceballos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleóptera: Bruchidae is one of the most damaging pests of pea (Pisum sativum L. We investigated the role of pea volatiles on the electrophysiological and behavioral response of B. pisorum using electroantennography (EAG and olfactometry bioassays. Plant volatiles emitted at different phenological stages were collected in situ by headspace on Porapak Q traps and analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Most abundant volatiles identified in all phenological stages were terpenes and green leaf volatiles. All tested volatile extracts elicited significant EAG responses in both male and female B. pisorum, with females exhibiting a greater response (1.35 mV than males (1.02 mV to pea-pod volatiles. Volatiles from each phenological stage stimulated an attractant behavioral response of both males and females B. pisorum in olfactometer bioassay. A larger attraction of B. pisorum females was observed to volatiles from pods over other phenological stages (P < 0.001. These results suggest the relative importance of volatiles cues from plant mediating host location by B. pisorum. This work showed that plant volatiles elicited electrophysiological and behavioral responses and that B. pisorum female can discern between phenological stages of P. sativum based on those chemical cues.

  20. COCHLEATA controls leaf size and secondary inflorescence architecture via negative regulation of UNIFOLIATA (LEAFY ortholog) gene in garden pea Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Arvind Kumar; Sushil Kumar

    2012-12-01

    UNIFOLIATA [(UNI) or UNIFOLIATA-TENDRILLED ACACIA (UNI-TAC)] expression is known to be negatively regulated by COCHLEATA (COCH) in the differentiating stipules and flowers of Pisum sativum. In this study, additional roles of UNI and COCH in P. sativum were investigated. Comparative phenotyping revealed pleiotropic differences between COCH (UNI-TAC and uni-tac) and coch (UNI-TAC and uni-tac) genotypes of common genetic background. Secondary inflorescences were bracteole-less and bracteolated in COCH and coch genotypes, respectively. In comparison to the leaves and corresponding sub-organs and tissues produced on COCH plants, coch plants produced leaves of 1.5-fold higher biomass, 1.5-fold broader petioles and leaflets that were 1.8-fold larger in span and 1.2-fold dorso-ventrally thicker. coch leaflets possessed epidermal cells 1.3-fold larger in number and size, 1.4-fold larger spongy parenchyma cells and primary vascular bundles with 1.2-fold larger diameter . The transcript levels of UNI were at least 2-fold higher in coch leaves and secondary inflorescences than the corresponding COCH organs. It was concluded that COCH negatively regulated UNI in the differentiating leaves and secondary inflorescences and thereby controlled their sizes and/or structures. It was also surmised that COCH and UNI (LFY homolog) occur together widely in stipulate flowering plants.

  1. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Pyellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (Pyellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas. PMID:26188704

  2. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  3. Inducible expression of Pisum sativum xyloglucan fucosyltransferase in the pea root cap meristem, and effects of antisense mRNA expression on root cap cell wall structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; Celoy, Rhodesia M; Nguyen, Trang; Zeng, Weiqing; Keegstra, Kenneth; Immerzeel, Peter; Pauly, Markus; Hawes, Martha C

    2008-07-01

    Mitosis and cell wall synthesis in the legume root cap meristem can be induced and synchronized by the nondestructive removal of border cells from the cap periphery. Newly synthesized cells can be examined microscopically as they differentiate progressively during cap development, and ultimately detach as a new population of border cells. This system was used to demonstrate that Pisum sativum L. fucosyl transferase (PsFut1) mRNA expression is strongly expressed in root meristematic tissues, and is induced >2-fold during a 5-h period when mitosis in the root cap meristem is increased. Expression of PsFut1 antisense mRNA in pea hairy roots under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, which exhibits meristem localized expression in pea root caps, resulted in a 50-60% reduction in meristem localized endogenous PsFut1 mRNA expression measured using whole mount in situ hybridization. Changes in gross levels of cell wall fucosylated xyloglucan were not detected, but altered surface localization patterns were detected using whole mount immunolocalization with CCRC-M1, an antibody that recognizes fucosylated xyloglucan. Emerging hairy roots expressing antisense PsFut1 mRNA appeared normal macroscopically but scanning electron microscopy of tissues with altered CCRC-M1 localization patterns revealed wrinkled, collapsed cell surfaces. As individual border cells separated from the cap periphery, cell death occurred in correlation with extrusion of cellular contents through breaks in the wall.

  4. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Seed Coats of Differently Colored European Varieties of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Characterization of Their Antioxidant and In Vitro Anticancer Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, Nemanja S; Ilić, Marija D; Matić, Ivana Z; Jovanović, Živko S; Čupić, Tihomir; Dabić, Dragana Č; Natić, Maja M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2016-01-01

    To date little has been done on identification of major phenolic compounds responsible for anticancer and antioxidant properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed coat extracts. In the present study, phenolic profile of the seed coat extracts from 10 differently colored European varieties has been determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer technique. Extracts of dark colored varieties with high total phenolic content (up to 46.56 mg GAE/g) exhibited strong antioxidant activities (measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH assay, and ferric ion reducing and ferrous ion chelating capacity assays) which could be attributed to presence of gallic acid, epigallocatechin, naringenin, and apigenin. The aqueous extracts of dark colored varieties exert concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on all tested malignant cell lines (human colon adenocarcinoma LS174, human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453, human lung carcinoma A594, and myelogenous leukemia K562). Correlation analysis revealed that intensities of cytotoxic activity of the extracts strongly correlated with contents of epigallocatechin and luteolin. Cell cycle analysis on LS174 cells in the presence of caspase-3 inhibitor points out that extracts may activate other cell death modalities besides caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. The study provides evidence that seed coat extracts of dark colored pea varieties might be used as potential cancer-chemopreventive and complementary agents in cancer therapy. PMID:27348025

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of the pyrB1 and pyrB2 genes encoding aspartate transcarbamoylase in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, C L; Slocum, R D

    1994-05-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding two different pea (Pisum sativum L.) aspartate transcarbamoylases (ATCases) by complementation of an Escherichia coli delta pyrB mutant. The two cDNAs, designated pyrB1 and pyrB2, encode polypeptides of 386 and 385 amino acid residues, respectively, both of which exhibit typical chloroplast transit peptide sequences. Wheat germ ATCase antibody recognizes a 36.5-kD polypeptide in pea leaf and root tissues that is similar in size to other plant ATCase polypeptides and to the catalytic polypeptides of bacterial ATCases. Northern analyses indicate that the pyrB1 and pyrB2 transcripts are 1.6 kb in size and are differentially expressed in pea tissues. The small transcript size and data from biochemical studies indicate that plant ATCases are simple homotrimers of 36- to 37-kD catalytic subunits, rather than part of a multifunctional enzyme containing glutamine-dependent carbamoylphosphate synthetase and dihydroorotase activities, as is seen in other eukaryotes. In the pea ATCases, the carbamoylphosphate- and aspartate-binding domains are highly homologous to those of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic ATCases and critical active-site residues are completely conserved. The pea ATCases also exhibit a putative pyrimidine-binding site, consistent with the known allosteric regulation of plant ATCases by UMP in vitro. PMID:8029359

  6. The involvement of indole-3-acetic acid in the control of stem elongation in dark- and light-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Carlo; Picciarelli, Piero; Calistri, Gianni; Lercari, Bartolomeo; Ceccarelli, Nello

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of auxin on stem elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) grown for 10d in continuous darkness or under low-irradiance blue, red, far red and white light. The third internode of treated seedlings was peeled and the tissues (epidermis and cortex+central cylinder) were separately analyzed for the concentration of free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Under red, far red and white light internode elongation was linearly related with the free IAA content of all internode tissues, suggesting that phytochrome-dependent inhibition of stem growth may be mediated by a decrease of free IAA levels in pea seedlings. The correlation between IAA and internode elongation, however, did not hold for blue light-grown seedlings. The hypothesis that the growth response under low-irradiance blue light might be correlated with the lack of phytochrome B signalling and changes in gibberellin metabolism is discussed in view of current knowledge on hormonal control of stem growth. PMID:17706834

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure among pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars as revealed by simple sequence repeat and novel genic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Ajay; Mamidi, Sujan; McPhee, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important cool season legume crop widely grown around the world. This research provides a basis for selection of pea germplasm across geographical regions in current and future breeding and genetic mapping efforts for pea improvement. Eleven novel genic markers were developed from pea expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences having significant similarity with gene calls from Medicago truncatula spanning at least one intron. In this study, 96 cultivars widely grown or used in breeding programs in the USA and Canada were analyzed for genetic diversity using 31 microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 11 novel EST-derived genic markers. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.01-0.56 among SSR markers and 0.04-0.43 among genic markers. The results showed that SSR and EST-derived genic markers displayed one or more highly reproducible, multi-allelic, and easy to score loci ranging from 200 to 700 bp in size. Genetic diversity was assessed through unweighted neighbor-joining method, and 96 varieties were grouped into three main clusters based on the dissimilarity matrix. Four subpopulations were determined through STRUCTURE analysis with no significant geographic separation of the subpopulations. The findings of the present study can be used to select diverse genotypes to be used as parents of crosses aimed for breeding improved pea cultivars.

  8. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  9. Nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict in pea (Pisum sativum L.) is associated with nuclear and plastidic candidate genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Vera S; Zaytseva, Olga O; Mglinets, Anatoliy V; Shatskaya, Natalia V; Kosterin, Oleg E; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized.

  10. [Features of Expression of the PsSst] and PsIgn1 Genes in Nodules of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, V A; Rychagova, T S; Fedorina, Ya V; Pinaeva, A G; Andronova, E E; Borisova, A Yu; Tikhonovich, I A

    2016-04-01

    The sequences of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) homologous to the symbiotic LjSST1 and LjIGN1 genes of Lotusjaponicus (Regel.) K. Larsen are determined. The expression level of PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes is determined by real-time PCR in nodules of several symbiotic mutants and original lines of pea. Lines with increased (Sprint-2Fix⁻ (Pssym31)) and decreased (P61 (Pssym25)) expression level of both genes are revealed along with the lines characterized by changes in the expression level of only one of these genes. The revealed features of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 expression allow us to expand the phenotypic characterization of pea symbiotic mutants. In addition, PsSst1 and PsIgn1 cDNA is sequenced in selected mutant lines, characterized by a decreased expression level of these genes in nodules, but no mutations are found.

  11. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Ppeas had lower (Ppea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas.

  12. The influence of water stress on biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and on N rhizodeposition during reproductive growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahieu, S.; Germont, Florent; Aveline, A.;

    2009-01-01

    rhizodeposition by a pea (Pisum sativum L.) when influenced by water stress. In a controlled environment, pea plants were exposed to a severe drought or not stressed, either at flowering or during pod filling. N rhizodeposition was measured using the split root method and plants were harvested at the end...... of flowering (59 days after sowing, DAS 59), at the end of the drought period applied during pod filling (DAS 74) and at maturity (DAS 101). Water stress strongly affected pea dry weight and N accumulation. In both stressed treatments, nodule biomass and N content were reduced by about 65% in the absence...

  13. Characterization and structural analysis of wild type and a non-abscission mutant at the development funiculus (Def locus in Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrose Mike J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., the Def locus defines an abscission event where the seed separates from the funicle through the intervening hilum region at maturity. A spontaneous mutation at this locus results in the seed failing to abscise from the funicle as occurs in wild type peas. In this work, structural differences between wild type peas that developed a distinct abscission zone (AZ between the funicle and the seed coat and non-abscission def mutant were characterized. Results A clear abscission event was observed in wild type pea seeds that were associated with a distinct double palisade layers at the junction between the seed coat and funicle. Generally, mature seeds fully developed an AZ, which was not present in young wild type seeds. The AZ was formed exactly below the counter palisade layer. In contrast, the palisade layers at the junction of the seed coat and funicle were completely absent in the def mutant pea seeds and the cells in this region were seen to be extensions of surrounding parenchymatous cells. Conclusion The Def wild type developed a distinct AZ associated with palisade layer and counterpalisade layer at the junction of the seed coat and funicle while the def mutant pea seed showed non-abscission and an absence of the double palisade layers in the same region. We conclude that the presence of the double palisade layer in the hilum of the wild type pea seeds plays an important structural role in AZ formation by delimiting the specific region between the seed coat and the funicle and may play a structural role in the AZ formation and subsequent detachment of the seed from the funicle.

  14. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  15. Studies on the control of ascochyta blight in field peas (Pisum sativum L. caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14 showed high activity towards ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  16. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area. PMID:27148177

  17. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O3) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. PN of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O3. The maximum impairment in PN was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O3 levels were recorded (90 nL L−1). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between PN and Ci, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The PN vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O3) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O3 has a clear influence on the physiological parameters. • O3 decreased Photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. • The

  18. Assessment of variation in antioxidative defense system in salt-treated pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars and its putative use as salinity tolerance markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Zahra; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-11-01

    The present work describes whether the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some non-enzymatic antioxidants could be used as markers of salt tolerance in nine genetically diverse pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars. All cultivars were exposed to four levels of NaCl i.e., 0, 40, 80 and 120mM in sand culture. Plant fresh biomass, total phenolics, total soluble proteins, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in leaves while different forms of tocopherols (alpha-, gamma- and Delta-tocopherol) in fresh seed of salt-stressed and non-stressed plants were analyzed. On the basis of percent inhibition in shoot biomass at the highest salt level (120mM) cultivars 2001-35, 2001-55 and Climax were ranked as tolerant (percent inhibition less than 60%), 2001-20, 9800-5 and 9800-10 moderately tolerant (percent inhibition 60-70%), and 2001-40, 9200 and Tere 2 salt sensitive (percent inhibition more than 70%). Salt stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD and POD, levels of total phenolics and gamma- and Delta-tocopherols, and decreased the total soluble proteins and CAT activity, while the internal levels of H(2)O(2) remained unaffected in all pea cultivars. Although salt-induced oxidative stress occurred in all pea cultivars, the response of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars with respect to the generation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic metabolites measured in the present study was not consistent. Of different antioxidant enzymes and metabolites analyzed, only CAT activity was found to be a reliable marker of salt tolerance in the set of pea cultivars examined.

  19. Inoculation with Pseudomonas spp.containing ACC-deaminase partially eliminates the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ARSHAD; B.SHAHAROONA; T.MAHMOOD

    2008-01-01

    Two preselected plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyelopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)deaminase (EC 4.1.99.4) were used to investigate their potential to ameliorate the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.).Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (four seeds pot-1) and placed in a wire house.The plants were exposed to drought stress at different stages of growth (vegetative,flowering,and pod formation) by skipping the respective irrigation.Results revealed that inoculation of peas with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on the growth and yield of peas.Exposure of plants to drought stress at vegetative growth stage significantly decreased shoot growth by 41% in the ease of uninoculated plants,whereas,by only 18% in the case of inoculated plants compared to nonstressed unlnoculated controlGrain yield was decreased when plants were exposed to drought stress at the flowering and pod formation stage,but inoculation resulted in better grain yield (up to 62% and 40% higher,respectively) than the respective uninoculated nonstressed control.Ripening of pods was also delayed in plants inoculated with PGPR,which may imply decreased endogenous ethylene production in inoculated plants.This premise is further supported by the observation that inoculation with PGPR reduced the intensity of classical "triple" response in etiolated pea seedlings,caused by externally applied ACC.It is very probable that the drought stress induced inhibitory effects of ethylene could be partially or completely eliminated by inoculation with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase.

  20. Effects of mixed saline and alkaline stress on the morphology and anatomy of Pisum sativum L.: The role of peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase in growth regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukavica Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperalkaline, thermo-mineral water from Slatina on the morphology and anatomy of pea plants (Pisum sativum L., were examined after eleven days of treatment with a mixture of tap water and Slatina water in 3:1 (T1 and 1:1 ratios (T2. Complete growth arrest of seedlings was observed in the Slatina water (T3. The alkalinity of external media was recovered to pH 8 within four days only in T1 and T2. Analysis of morphological parameters (the length of the main root, root application zone, number of lateral roots indicated that the thermo-mineral water either promoted (T1 or inhibited (T2 the formation of lateral roots and plant growth. Comparative histological and anatomical analyses showed that inhibition of lateral roots was accompanied by an increase in the xylem and phloem. These changes in root morphology were accompanied by an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD: E.C. 1.15.1.1 and peroxidase (POD: E.C 1.1.1.17 in the soluble fraction, whereas the activities of ascorbate oxidase (AAO: E.C. 1.10.3.3 bound to the cell wall and ionic POD decreased. The lower ratio of Slatina water in the hydroponic solution contributed to a more developed mesophyll with significantly higher AAO activity in the leaves and the induction of ionic POD isoforms. Besides alkalinity and excess NaCl, we suggest that a specific combination of metals (e.g. Ca and Mg might be responsible for subtle changes in the cell area and xylem development, leading to dramatic changes in root anatomy.

  1. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer rate and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain on field pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense (L. Asch. growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram SALEHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Rezvanshahr, Guilan province, Iran, to evaluate the effects of phosphorus fertilizer rate and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on growth and yield of field pea (Pisum sativum L.. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial arrangement with three replicates. Factors were phosphorus fertilizer rates (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as triple superphosphate, and seed inoculation with P. florescens strains [control (non-inoculated, inoculated with strain R41, and strain R187. Analysis of variance showed that plant height, seed yield, pod number per m2, 100-seed weight, biological yield, harvest index, and leaf P concentration were significantly influenced by phosphorus fertilizer rate and P. florescens strain. At the same time, phosphorus fertilizer rate × P. fluorescens strain interaction was significant only for 100-seed weight. On the other hand, seed number per pod was significantly affected neither by phosphorus fertilizer rate nor by pseudomonas strains. Result showed that seed yield was significantly increased from 1099 ± 67 to 1898 ± 118 kg ha-1 as P2O5 application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, and thereafter relatively remained constant. There was no significant difference in seed yield between plants raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens, strain R187 (1664 ± 97 kg ha-1 and those raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens, strain R41 (1669 ± 104 kg ha-1. At the same time, plants raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens (both strains produced greater grain yield compared to those raised from uninoculated seeds (1370 ± 80 kg ha-1. Based on the results of this study, P2O5 application at the rate of 75 kg ha-1 and inoculation with pseudomonas bacteria are recommended for obtaining the greatest seed yield in field pea.

  2. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James M C; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S; Weiner, Catherine A; Emery, R J Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-07-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses.

  3. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, I M; Basahi, J M; Hassan, I A

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009-2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O3) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. PN of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O3. The maximum impairment in PN was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O3 levels were recorded (90 nL L(-1)). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between PN and Ci, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The PN vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively.

  4. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea.

  5. Ultraviolet-B responses of nuclear genes encoding light-harvesting complex II proteins in pea (Pisum sativum) are altered by norflurazon- and photobleaching-induced chloroplast changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of functional and intact chloroplasts in mediating the ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 290–320 nm) regulation of two nuclear genes encoding light-harvesting complex II proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Extra Early Alaska) was studied. Plants with chloroplasts lacking or containing carotenoids and functional photosystem II were obtained by growth under dim red light (0.2 µmol m−2 s−1) in the presence or absence of norflurazon (NF), an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis. The NF-treatment resulted in an increase in AB80 (lhcb1*2) mRNA but no substantial change in Cab-8 (lhcb1*4) mRNA, indicating that the mRNA accumulations for AB80 and Cab-8 were differently correlated with the presence and absence of carotenoids. The mRNA levels for both Cab-8 and AB80 in the NF-treated plants were reduced to the same extent by partially photobleaching the chloroplasts with 3 h of higher intensity white light (W, 110 µmol m−2 s−1), suggesting that chloroplast integrity was equally important for transcript accumulation of both genes. The mRNAs of both Cab-8 and AB80 in non-NF-treated control plants were decreased by UV-B irradiation, with the level of AB80 mRNA reduced to a greater extent. The UV-B-induced mRNA reduction of both genes was inhibited by NF. The difference between the UV-B responses of the two genes was unaffected by NF, but was abolished by photobleaching the NF-treated plants prior to the UV-B irradiation. Therefore, the presence of carotenoids enhanced rather than prevented the UV-B down-regulation, and the difference in UV-B responses of the two genes may be dependent on chloroplast integrity. (author)

  6. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Alice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum. Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data

  7. Remote Sensing Study of the Influence of Different Herbicides on the Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence of Pea Plants (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Yanev, Tony; Iliev, Ilko; Alexieva, Vera; Tsaneva, Mariana

    The effective use of airborne and satellite-based remote sensor systems in resource management, agriculture, mineral exploration and environmental monitoring requires an understanding of the nature and limitations of the high-resolution remote sensing data and of various strategies for processing and interpreting it. In developing the necessary knowledge base, ground-based measurements are the expedient source of information. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied in laboratory for detection of the influence of herbicides 2.4-D, glyphosate, fluridone and acifluorfen on the leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). According to the classification of the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee with reference to their mode of action they belong to different groups: synthetic auxins - O (2.4-D), inhibition of EPSP synthase - G (glyphosate), photobleaching - F1 (fluridone), and inhibition of PPO - E (acifluorfen). During the last 40 years, these herbicides are among the ones used most widely in agriculture worldwide. The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at two low concentrations (1 µM, 0.1 µM) with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice. High-resolution spectral data for leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence were collected from freshly detached leaves using three multichannel spectrometers. Spectral reflectance characteristics were obtained from the leaf reflectance referenced against a standard (white diffuse screen) in the visible and near infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum (450÷850 nm). Fluorescence spectra were taken in the spectral range 650-850 nm. To assess the changes arising in leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action we developed and applied an analytical approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods. The spectral characteristics were analyzed in

  8. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  9. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M. [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, I.A., E-mail: ihassan_eg@yahoo.com [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21526 El Shatby, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P{sub N}), stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), intercellular CO{sub 2} (C{sub i}) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O{sub 3}) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P{sub N} of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O{sub 3}. The maximum impairment in P{sub N} was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O{sub 3} levels were recorded (90 nL L{sup −1}). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P{sub N} and C{sub i}, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P{sub N} vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ{sub PSII}) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O{sub 3} has a clear influence on the physiological

  10. Controlling Biofilm Formation by Inhibiting the Quorum-Sensing Activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the Ethanolic Extracts of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae Fruit, Punica granatum (Lythraceae Pericarp, and Pisum sativum (Fabaceae Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Dazal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogen that exhibit biofilm formation through quorum-sensing, which is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication that regulates the production of many virulence factors. The inhibition of biofilm formation is a viable option for bacterial eradication. The antibacterial effect of Piper nigrum is related to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid components. Punica granatum has been reported to possess a wide range of biological actions, with tannins and alkaloids stated to be the reason of its antibacterial property. Pisum sativum, on the other hand, contains various constituents, but the tannins and phenolic compounds stated as responsible for its antibacterial property. The minimum inhibitory concentration using the susceptibility testing of P. nigrum, P. granatum, P. sativum ethanolic extracts were 6.67×10-4 g/mL, 2.1978×10-5 g/mL, and 6.25×10-4 g/mL, respectively. On the swarming assay, P. granatum and P. sativum inhibits swarming motility at concentrations of 2.1978×10-2 up to 2.1978×10-4 g/mL, and 6.25×10-2 to 6.25×10-3 g/mL, respectively. The P. nigrum extract did not inhibit the motility.

  11. Fatty acid profiling of the seed oils of some varieties of field peas (Pisum sativum) by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS: towards the development of an oilseed pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Solis, Manuel Ivan; Patel, Anil; Orsat, Valérie; Singh, Jaswinder; Lefsrud, Mark

    2013-08-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to study the fatty acid profile from the oil of harvested field pea (Pisum sativum) varieties as part of a research project to develop this legume as a commercial oilseed for Canada. The seed oils from pea samples contained palmitic and stearic acids as major saturated fatty acids. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids found. Small percentages of other long chain fatty acids were also detected. This profile suggests that the species of field pea investigated might have the potential to be used as raw materials to develop a future new oilseed crop for the food industry. Fatty acid extracts did not require further manipulation before final analysis by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS, indicating the utility and relative simplicity of this technique for future screening studies.

  12. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  13. CLASIFICACIÓN DE 42 LÍNEAS MEJORADAS DE ARVEJA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) POR CARACTERES MORFOLÓGICOS Y COMPORTAMIENTO AGRONÓMICO CLASSIFICATION OF 42 GENOTYPES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) ACCORDING TO THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND AGRONOMIC BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    César Andrés Pacheco Ch.; María Consuelo Vergara Holguín; Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto Moreno

    2010-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante dos ciclos de cultivo. En el primero se evaluaron las variables morfológicas y agronómicas, relacionadas con: componentes de rendimiento, precocidad, altura y hábito de crecimiento, cantidad de ramas, tipo de hoja; tamaño de hoja, tipo y grado de curvatura de la vaina, tamaño de pedúnculo, número de vainas por racimo, color de flor y características morfológicas del grano. En el segundo ciclo se ...

  14. Expression of Early Light Induced Protein in Grapevine and Pea, under Different Conditions and its Relation with Photoinhibition Expresión de una Proteína inducida Tempranamente por Luz en Vid y Arveja Bajo Diferentes Condiciones y su Relación con la Fotoinhibición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Berti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Early light induced proteins (ELIP are a type of proteins which are expressed before than other chloroplast proteins in the presence of light. These proteins have been studied in a large number of annual species such as pea (Pisum sativum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Arabidopsis sp. In perennials plants the studies about ELIPs are very scarce. The possible photoprotective function of the ELIPs has motivated the interest in investigating the presence of this type of proteins in a perennial plant such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. and if their characteristics differ from those found in annual plants. In this paper a comparative study was conducted on the ELIPs expression in grapevine and pea to investigate whether there are differences regarding to temperature and light intensity conditions necessary for maximum ELIP expression in each species and for studying in each case the relationship between ELIP expression and photoinhibition degree. The results of this study showed that the maximum ELIPs expression was reached from 25 °C and 1000 µmol PAR m-2 s-1 in both species. Above these values the expression remained constant. Regarding the temperature and light intensity effect on the photoinhibition degree, it was observed that temperature produced inverse relation in grapevine but no relation with pea. On the other hand, the light intensity produced direct relation in both grapevine and pea. The light intensity effect on ELIP expression suggests that these proteins may have a photorepairing role of the photosynthetic system, but the effect of temperature on the ELIP expression in short-term stress may be associated rather to the optimum conditions for their synthesis.Las proteínas tempranamente inducidas por luz (ELIP se expresan antes que otras proteínas del cloroplasto en presencia de luz. Estas proteínas han sido estudiadas en un gran número de especies anuales tales como arveja (Pisum sativum L., cebada (Hordeum bulgare L. y

  15. Efectos alelopáticos de Rumex Crispus L. sobre Pissum Sativum L

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno B. Luis Francisco

    1989-01-01

    Se investigaron los efectos alelopáticos de R. Crispus sobre P. sativum mediante 3 ensayos: el primero consistió en incorporar residuos de diferentes partes de la maleza a un cultivo de arveja: los otros dos, en aplicar extractos acuosos y etéricos, en diferentes concentraciones, a semillas de arveja puestas a germinar. El estudio se realizó bajo un diseño completamente al azar en parcelas divididas. El efecto se evaluó mediante la varianza y pruebas de Desviación Standard Media (DSM...

  16. Gravity-controlled asymmetrical transport of auxin regulates a gravitropic response in the early growth stage of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) epicotyls: studies using simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat and using an agravitropic mutant, ageotropum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi

    2007-09-01

    Increased expression of the auxin-inducible gene PsIAA4/5 was observed in the elongated side of epicotyls in early growth stages of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown in a horizontal or an inclined position under 1 g conditions. Under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, accumulation of PsIAA4/5 mRNA was found throughout epicotyls showing automorphosis. Polar auxin transport in the proximal side of epicotyls changed when the seedlings were grown in a horizontal or an inclined position under 1 g conditions, but that under clinorotation did not, regardless of the direction of seed setting. Accumulation of PsPIN1 and PsPIN2 mRNAs in epicotyls was affected by gravistimulation, but not by clinorotation. Under 1 g conditions, auxin-transport inhibitors made epicotyls of seedlings grown in a horizontal or inclined position grow toward the proximal direction to cotyledons. These inhibitors led to epicotyl bending toward the cotyledons in seedlings grown in an inclined position under clinorotation. Polar auxin transport, as well as growth direction, of epicotyls of the agravitropic mutant ageotropum did not respond to various gravistimulation. These results suggest that alteration of polar auxin transport in the proximal side of epicotyls regulates the graviresponse of pea epicotyls. PMID:17712525

  17. Individual members of the light-harvesting complex II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene family in pea (Pisum sativum) show differential responses to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, UV-B-repressible and UV-B-inducible genes were identified in the pea, Pisum sativum L., by rapid amplification of 3′ cDNA ends through use of the polymerase chain reaction. Of the UV-B-repressible clones, psUVRub and psUVDeh represent genes encoding Rubisco activase and dehydrin, respectively. A third clone, psUVZinc, did not correspond closely in overall nucleotide sequence to any gene registered in GenBank; however, a short deduced peptide shared similarity with the photosystem-II reaction center X protein of the chlorophyll a+c-containing alga, Odontella sinensis. The UV-B-inducible clones, psUVGluc, psUVAux and psUVRib, were related to genes encoding β-1, 3-glucanase, auxin-repressed protein, and a 40S ribosomal protein, respectively. The modulation of these pea genes indicates how UV-B, through its actions as a physical stressor, affects several important physiological processes in plants. (author)

  18. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  19. Identification and Analysis of Genetic Diversity Structure Within Pisum Genus Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Rebecca Ford; Robert R Redden; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2009-01-01

    To assesse the genetic diversity among wild and cultivated accessions of 8 taxonomic groups in 2 species, and 5 subspecies under Pisum genus, and to analyze population structure and their genetic relationships among various groups of taxonomy,the study tried to verify the fitness of traditionally botanical taxonomic system under Pisum genus and to provide essential information for the exploration and utilization of wild relatives of pea genetic resources. 197 Pisum accessions from 62 counties of 5 continents were employed for SSR analysis using 21 polymorphic primer pairs in this study. Except for cultivated field pea Pisum sativum ssp. sativum vat. sativum (94 genotypes), also included were wild relative genotypes that were classified as belonging to P. fulvum, P. sativum ssp.abyssinicum, P. sativum ssp. asiaticum, P. sativum ssp. transcaucasicum, P. sativum ssp. elatius vat. elatius, P. sativum ssp. elatius vat. pumilio and P. sativum ssp.sativum vat. arvense (103 genotypes). The PCA analyses and 3-dimension PCA graphs were conducted and drawn by NTSYSpe 2.2d statistical package. Nei78 genetic distances among groups of genetic resources were calculated, and cluster analysis using UPGMA method was carried out by using Popgene V1.32 statistical package, the dendrogram was drawn by MEGA3.1 statistical package. Allelie statistics were carried out by Popgene V1.32. The significance test between groups of genotypes was carried out by Fstat V2.9.3.2 statistical package. 104 polymorphic bands were amplified using 21 SSR primer pairs with unambiguous unique polymorphic bands. 4.95 alleles were detected by each SSR primer pair in average, of which 65.56% were effective alleles for diversity. PSAD270, PSAC58, PSAA18, PSAC75, PSAA175 and PSAB72 were the most effective SSR pairs. SSR alleles were uniformly distributed among botanical taxon units under Pisum genus, but significant difference appeared in most pairwise comparisons for genetic diversity between taxon unit based

  20. Effects of biological insecticides NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS EC and their interaction with organic products in treatments of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae on Pisum sativum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and effects of two biological insecticides, NeemAzal T/S® and Pyrethrum FS EC, applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (a biological growth regulator and fungicide and Biofa (an organic foliar fertilizer, in controlling Acyrthosyphon pisum population density were studied. Nurelle D (a synthetic insecticide, applied alone and in combination with Flordimex 420 (a synthetic growth regulator, was used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage or twice (at budding and flowering stages. Twenty-four variants were studied. The interaction of Pyrethrum with Biofa was the most efficient variant of the biological products, causing a reduction in aphid density that reached 48.2% after double treatment, while Pyrethrum+Polyversum (42.5% was the second most successful treatment. The combination of Pyrethrum with Biofa achieved the highest efficacy and synergism and their efficacy approached that of the synthetic insecticide.

  1. Technological Study on Preparing Sodium Copper Chlorophyll from Peel of Pisum sativum Linn.%从豌豆果皮中制取叶绿素铜钠盐的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦清娟; 孙永林; 余海忠

    2011-01-01

    [目的]考察制取叶绿素铜钠盐的工艺优化条件.[方法]以新鲜的豌豆果皮为材料,通过单因素试验研究乙醇浓度、料液比和浸提时间对豌豆果皮叶绿素提取的影响,应用正交试验对叶绿素铜钠盐的制取工艺进行了优化.[结果]碗豆果皮叶绿素提取的最佳条件为:乙醇浓度95%,料液比1:8(g:ml),浸提4 h.叶绿素铜钠盐的制取工艺为:皂化pH为11~12,皂化时间为30 min,酸化铜代的反应温度为75 ℃、回流时间为90 min、CUSO4的加入量为理论值的2.0倍、pH为2~3,[结论]优化后的方法有助于豌豆果皮叶绿素的提取及其叶绿素铜钠盐的制备.%[ Objective] The study aimed to investigate the optimized technology conditions for preparing the sodium copper chlorophyll from the peel of Pisum sativum Linn. [ Method ] With the fresh peel of P. sativum as the material, the effects of the ethanol concn. , ratio of solute to solvent and extracting time on the extraction of the chlorophyll from the peel of P. sativum were studied through the single factor experiment and the technology for preparing the sodium copper chlorophyll was optimized through the orthogonal experiment. [ Result] The optimum conditions for extracting chlorophyll from the peel of P. sativum were as follows: the solvent was 95% ethanol, the ratio of solute to solvent was 1:8 and the extracting time was 4 h. The technology for preparing the sodium copper chlorophyll was follows: the conditions of saponification were at pH of 11 - 12 for 30 min, the conditions of acidifying the copper was at the reaction temperature of 75 ℃, pH of 2 -3 and the reflow time of 90 min, with the CuSO4 addition amount being 2.0 times of the theoretical value. [ Conclusion ] The optimized technology was helpful to the extraction of the chlorophyll from the peel of P. sativum and the preparation of the sodium copper chlorophyll.

  2. Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

  3. Subnucleolar Distribution and Transportation of U3 snoRNA in the Nucleolus of Pisum sativum%豌豆细胞核仁中U3 snoRNA的分布和转运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙鸿; 曾宪录; 胡波; 孙海晶; 刘振兰; 郝水

    2003-01-01

    rRNA前体剪切是发生在核仁中的重要生物学事件.U3 snoRNA作为rRNA的一个剪切因子被认为是rRNA前体剪切第一步,即5′ ETS剪切所必需的.鉴定U3能够为确定rRNA前体剪切位点和剪切产物转运提供间接证据.本文利用原位杂交技术研究了豌豆(Pisum sativum L.)核仁中U3 snoRNA的分布和转运.结果表明, U3 snoRNA分布在致密纤维组分(dense fibrillar component, DFC)和颗粒组分(granular component, GC)中,在纤维中心(fibrillar center, FC)没有分布.当用放线菌素D (actinomycin D, AMD)处理豌豆根端分生细胞时,rDNA转录受到抑制,标记信号减弱.随着AMD处理时间的延长,标记信号逐渐变弱并出现在DFC远轴区域和GC区域.本文结果提示,rRNA前体剪切发生在DFC和GC区域,剪切产物从围绕FC的区域向周边转运.%Processing of pre-rRNA is one of the major events taking place in the nucleolus. U3 snoRNA, an rRNA spliceosomal factor, is suggested to be essential in the first cleavage step of the 5′ ETS sequence in the processing of pre-rRNA. Identification of U3 in the nucleolus provides a piece of indirect evidence for pre-rRNA processing site and transportation of processing products. In the present study, subnucleolar distribution of U3 snoRNA in the nucleolus of Pisum sativum L. was studied by in situ hybridization with a U3 snoRNA probe. The results showed that the U3 labeling signals were distributed throughout dense fibrillar components (DFCs) and granular components (GCs), while no signal was found in fibrillar centers (FCs). When treated with actinomycine D (AMD), the labeling signals were decreased. Along with the increase of the AMD treatment time, the labeling signals became fewer and they were found in the distal regions of DFC and GC. Our results indicated that pre-rRNA splicing took place in the regions of DFC and GC, and the transportation of pre-rRNA processing products was from the regions around FCs towards the distal

  4. 外源硫化氢对豌豆根尖及其边缘细胞的影响%Effects of Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) on the Root Tip and Root Border Cells of Pisum sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东波; 肖朝霞; 刘灵霞; 王金成; 宋国力; 毕玉蓉

    2010-01-01

    为研究外源硫化氢(H2S)对豌豆(Pisum sativum)胚根生理特性及其边缘细胞的影响,测定了不同浓度外源H2S处理下豌豆根长、根尖组织可溶性蛋白质含量、抗氧化酶(APX、CAT、POD和SOD)活性、根尖边缘细胞存活率及其粘胶层相对面积的变化.结果表明:低浓度(0-40 μmol·L-1)H2S可促进豌豆胚根生长,根尖组织可溶性蛋白质含量升高,SOD、APX和POD活性增加,CAT活性降低,根尖边缘细胞存活率上升,粘胶层相对面积变小.高浓度(60-80 μmol·L-1)H2S可抑制豌豆胚根生长,可溶性蛋白质含量和边缘细胞存活率明显下降,APX和POD活性降低,CAT活性升高,SOD活性没有明显变化,粘胶层相对面积变大;边缘细胞染色体凝集并边缘化,然后逐渐降解并伴随粉末化,细胞质膜皱缩.因此,推测H2S可能在植物体内发挥着重要的生理作用.

  5. Response to water deficit and high temperature of transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) containing a seed-specific alpha-amylase inhibitor and the subsequent effects on pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Majer, Maria José de; Turner, Neil C; Hardie, Darryl C; Morton, Roger L; Lamont, Byron; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2004-02-01

    The effects of water deficit and high temperature on the production of alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 (alpha-AI-1) were studied in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that were developed to control the seed-feeding pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Transgenic and non-transgenic plants were subjected to water-deficit and high-temperature treatments under controlled conditions in the glasshouse and growth cabinet, beginning 1 week after the first pods were formed. In the water-deficit treatments, the peas were either adequately watered (control) or water was withheld after first pod formation. The high-temperature experiments were performed in two growth cabinets, one maintained at 27/22 degrees C (control) and one at 32/27 degrees C day/night temperatures, with the vapour pressure deficit maintained at 1.3 kPa. The plants exposure to high temperatures and water deficit produced 27% and 79% fewer seeds, respectively, than the controls. In the transgenic peas the level of alpha-AI-1 as a percentage of total protein was not influenced by water stress, but was reduced on average by 36.3% (the range in two experiments was 11-50%) in the high-temperature treatment. Transgenic and non-transgenic pods of plants grown at 27/22 degrees C and 32/27 degrees C were inoculated with pea weevil eggs to evaluate whether the reduction in level of alpha-AI-1 in the transgenic pea seeds affected pea weevil development and survival. At the higher temperatures, 39% of adult pea weevil emerged, compared to 1.2% in the transgenic peas grown at the lower temperatures, indicating that high temperature reduced the protective capacity of the transgenic peas.

  6. Induction of host defences by Rhizobium during ineffective nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) carrying symbiotically defective mutations sym40 (PsEFD), sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS) and sym42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kira A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Brewin, Nicholas J; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2015-11-01

    Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise

  7. [Molecular genetic diversity of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) from the collection of N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry as detected by AFLP analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iachenko, E A; Ryzhova, N N; Vishniakova, M A; Kochieva, E Z

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a pea selection obtained from the Vavilov Research Institute collection comprising 83 P. sativum samples, including representatives of three subspecies, was studied using the ?FL? labeling method. Local cultivars for different uses with maximum ecological and geographical diversity (including those from the centers of origin of the species) were predominantly chosen for the study; a number of their morphological and biological characteristics were evaluated. We obtained 382 polymorphic AFLP fragments; each sample was characterized by a unique set of these fragments. The genetic diversity of the studied material was evaluated, and a wide range of genetic differences in the investigated samples (0.07-0.27) was demonstrated. The affiliation of the samples to the certain subspecies was not confirmed by the obtained data; the ecogeographical differentiation of the samples was not reflected by the data. Factor analysis allowed us to identify the sample groups of European and Asian origin and the intermediate nature of most of the samples from the studied selection. PMID:25735134

  8. Stomatal responses to carbon dioxide of isolated epidermis from a C/sub 3/ plant, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum L. , and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewer, P.C.; Neales, T.F.; Incoll, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The response of stomata in isolated epidermis to the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase was examined in a C/sub 3/ species, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum, and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) species, Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Epidermis from leaves of both species was incubated on buffer solutions in the presence of air containing various volume fractions of CO/sub 2/ (0 to 10,000 x 10/sup -6/). In both species and in the light and in darkness, the effect of CO/sub 2/ was to inhibit stomatal opening, the maximum inhibition of opening occurring in the range 0 to 360 x 10/sup -6/. The inhibition of opening per unit change in concentration was greatest between volume fractions of 0 and 240 x 10/sup -6/. There was little further closure above the volume fraction of 360 x 10/sup -6/, i.e. approximately ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/. Thus, although leaves of CAM species may experience much higher internal concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the light than those of C/sub 3/ plants, this does not affect the sensitivity of their stomata to CO/sub 2/ concentration or the range over which they respond. Stomatal responses to CO/sub 2/ were similar in both the light and the dark, indicating that effects of CO/sub 2/ on stomata occur via mechanisms which are independent of light. The responses of stomata to CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase took place without the treatments changing the pH of the buffered solutions. Thus, it is unlikely that CO/sub 2/ elicited stomatal movement by changing either the pH or the HCO/sub 3//sup -//CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ equilibria. It is suggested that the concentration of dissolved unhydrated CO/sub 2/ may be the effector of stomatal movement and that its activity is related to its reactivity with amines.

  9. 铝对豌豆根边缘细胞存活率和粘胶层厚度的影响%Influence of Al on cell viability and mucilage of root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯英明; 喻敏; 温海祥; 张英慧; 萧洪东; 王惠珍; 何丽烂; 梁火娣

    2005-01-01

    根边缘细胞(Root border cells)是从根冠游离并聚集在根尖周围的一群特殊细胞,铝毒的作用部位正是根尖,因此推测边缘细胞在铝毒反应中起着重要作用.作者研究了不同铝浓度(0、50、100、250、500 (mol/L AlCl3(含0.1 mmol/L CaCl2, pH4.5)与离体豌豆(Pisum Sativum)根边缘细胞共培养1 h、2 h、4 h、6 h、8 h、24 h后根边缘细胞存活率、粘胶层厚度及细胞数量的变化,以揭示铝毒胁迫边缘细胞的响应.结果为:随着处理时间的延长,边缘细胞的存活率明显下降;在0~100 (mol/L铝浓度范围,边缘细胞存活率有随铝浓度升高而降低的趋势;8 h及24 h边缘细胞存活率为铝浓度500 (mol/L时显著高于0、50、100和250 (mol/L时,6 h边缘细胞存活率为250和500 (mol/L铝浓度时显著高于0、50、100 (mol/L AlCl3时.随处理时间延长,边缘细胞数量降低,铝浓度100,250和500 (mol/L时边缘细胞数量低于0和50 (mol/L时,且铝浓度越高,细胞数量越少;随处理时间延长和铝浓度升高,粘胶层相对面积增加,铝浓度500和250 (mol/L时粘胶层相对面积增加尤为明显.通过与pH 7.01水溶液及pH 4.50水溶液中粘胶层变化的比较,发现粘胶层在铝处理8 h后出现一个峰值,可能是粘胶物质的诱导合成和分泌.研究结果表明,铝毒对根边缘细胞具有致死效应,这种致死效应在一定浓度范围符合剂量依数性关系,高浓度时则边缘细胞存活率反而升高,这与根边缘细胞对铝毒作出的适应性响应--粘胶层的增厚和细胞降解增强有关.粘胶层起着保护和减轻边缘细胞铝毒的作用.

  10. Efecto de la temperatura de almacenamiento sobre la viabilidad de bacterias simbióticas fijadoras de nitrógeno utilizadas en la elaboración de inoculantes biológicos para arveja (Pisum sativum) y soya (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Lina M. Moreno Conn; Adrián Pérez; Margarita Ramírez; Marcela Franco

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an element required in large amounts by most crops, however, in soil is one of the most limiting and located in ways not available to the plant and must be incorporated through chemical fertilization or by biological fixation conducted by microorganisms. Fixing symbiotic bacteria nitrogen has been widely used for the production of inoculants, becoming a viable alternative to improve crop yields through a better supply of this element. These inoculants to be marketed must meet cert...

  11. Efecto de la temperatura de almacenamiento sobre la viabilidad de bacterias simbióticas fijadoras de nitrógeno utilizadas en la elaboración de inoculantes biológicos para arveja (Pisum sativum y soya (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Moreno Conn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an element required in large amounts by most crops, however, in soil is one of the most limiting and located in ways not available to the plant and must be incorporated through chemical fertilization or by biological fixation conducted by microorganisms. Fixing symbiotic bacteria nitrogen has been widely used for the production of inoculants, becoming a viable alternative to improve crop yields through a better supply of this element. These inoculants to be marketed must meet certain requirements quality to ensure the smooth operation of the product. This study assessed the viability of the strains ICA L9 and ICA J96 inoculants stored at temperatures 4±2, 18±3 y 28±2°C for 180 days and the biological activity in pea and soybean plants. The strains used belong to the collection of work Germplasm Bank CORPOICA Microorganisms; for biological assays were used pea seeds variety “Santa Isabel” and soybean variety "Superior Corpoica 6". In assessing the viability of inoculants stored at 4±2°C, 18±3°C y 28±2°C, evidenced that the temperature did not affect the survival and the concentration of rhizobia after 180 days of storage allowing to observe a number of colony forming units per gram than 108, value that guarantees the quality of the inoculant. Concerning the biological activity, it was observed that the strains were inoculated infective and effective biological nitrogen fixation, absolute compared to controls.

  12. Estudios de transformación genética en arveja voluble cultivar santa isabel

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Peñaranda; Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto; Víctor Manuel Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Título corto: Estudios de transformación genética en arveja.Resumen: Se probaron diferentes alternativas de transformación genética en arveja cultivar “Santa Isabel” con el fin de estudiar los factores que afectan el proceso. Se emplearon los métodos de infiltración mediante vacío, infección directa de explantes, transformación de polen, y microinyección de ovarios. La prueba histoquímica de expresión gus fue escogida como método de análisis en la determinación de transformantes positivos. Co...

  13. Efectos alelopáticos de Rumex Crispus L. sobre Pissum Sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno B. Luis Francisco

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se investigaron los efectos alelopáticos de R. Crispus sobre P. sativum mediante 3 ensayos: el primero consistió en incorporar residuos de diferentes partes de la maleza a un cultivo de arveja: los otros dos, en aplicar extractos acuosos y etéricos, en diferentes concentraciones, a semillas de arveja puestas a germinar. El estudio se realizó bajo un diseño completamente al azar en parcelas divididas. El efecto se evaluó mediante la varianza y pruebas de Desviación Standard Media (DSM. Se halló que la maleza inhibe la germinación,  afecta el crecimiento y aspecto de la radicula e incrementa el crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa. Se concluye que la planta presenta alelopatía, mediante inhibidores presentes en las hojas. Esta investigación es de utilidad práctica en manejo de agroecosisternas. Por su carácter preliminar, plantea nuevas investigaciones que deberán hacerse para completar la información adquirida.

  14. 孟德尔豌豆基因克隆的研究进展及其在遗传学教学中的应用%Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何风华; 朱碧岩; 高峰; 李韶山; 李娘辉

    2013-01-01

    150多年前,孟德尔进行了豌豆7对相对性状的杂交试验,发现了遗传学的两个基本规律.1900年,孟德尔定律被重新发现以后,人们从生理生化、细胞和分子水平等不同层次上对豌豆的这7个性状进行了深入研究.近年,随着分子生物学技术的发展,已有种子形状(R)、茎的长度(Le)、子叶颜色(D和花的颜色(A)等4个性状的基因被克隆;未成熟豆荚的颜色(Gp)、花的着生位置(Fa)和豆荚形状(V)的基因已被定位在各自的连锁群上.4个孟德尔基因的鉴定和克隆加深了人们对基因概念的理解:如基因功能的多样性、在分子水平上基因变异原因的多样性、显性和隐性的分子实质等.在遗传学教学中,把孟德尔基因克隆和研究的最新进展介绍给学生,在分子水平上诠释经典遗传规律,有助于提高学生的学习兴趣,帮助学生全面把握从形式遗传学到分子遗传学的内容和遗传学的发展方向.%One hundred and fifty years ago,Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics.After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900,the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels.Recently,with the development of molecular technology in genetics,four genes for seed shape (R),stem length (Le),cotyledon colour (Ⅰ),and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp),fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups,respectively.The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects:like the diversity ofgene function,the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level,and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a

  15. Estudios de transformación genética en arveja voluble cultivar Santa Isabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Peñaranda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título corto: Estudios de transformación genética en arveja.Resumen: Se probaron diferentes alternativas de transformación genética en arveja cultivar “Santa Isabel” con el fin de estudiar los factores que afectan el proceso. Se emplearon los métodos de infiltración mediante vacío, infección directa de explantes, transformación de polen, y microinyección de ovarios. La prueba histoquímica de expresión gus fue escogida como método de análisis en la determinación de transformantes positivos. Con las metodologías empleadas se detectaron puntos azules en el tejido vegetal, lo cual indica la expresión transitoria del transgen en los explantes utilizados. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la transformación genética en arveja cultivada en Colombia puede ser utilizada para la introducción de genes de interés como apoyo a los procesos de mejoramiento genético.Palabras clave: genotipos, expresión gus, fitomejoramiento.Abstract: Different genetic transformation alternatives were tested in “Santa Isabel” cultivar pea, in order to study the factors that affect the process. The methods used were infiltration with vacuum, direct infection of the explants, pollen transformation and ovary microinjection. The hystochemical test of  gus expression was chosen as analysis method in the determination of positive transformants. Blue spots in the plant tissue were detected, with the used methodologies, which indicates transient expression of the transgene in the explants utilized. The obtained results suggest that the genetic transformation in pea genotypes planted in Colombia can be used for the introduction of genes of interest as support to genetic improvement.Key words: genotypes, gus expressions, plant breeding.

  16. The genetic diversity and evolution of field pea (Pisum studied by high throughput retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP marker analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smýkal Petr

    2010-02-01

    of the major distinct gene pools into which the genus Pisum is partitioned and their geographical distribution. The data strongly support the model of independent domestications for P. sativum ssp abyssinicum and P. sativum. The relationships between these two cultivated germplasms and the various sub-divisions of wild Pisum have been clarified and the most likely ancestral wild gene pools for domesticated P. sativum identified. Lastly, this study provides a framework for defining global Pisum germplasm which will be useful for designing core collections.

  17. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  18. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  19. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  20. Genetic analysis of pod dehiscence in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F; Brauner, Soren; Przyborowski, Jerzy A

    2002-01-01

    The inheritance of the dehiscent pod character was investigated in two recombinant inbred populations using a simplified correlation analysis. The approach identified three regions on the pea genome that affect the expression of pod dehiscence. The region on linkage group III corresponded to the expected position of Dpo, a gene known to influence pod dehiscence. A locus on linkage group V appeared to have a slightly smaller effect on expression of the phenotype. The third region was observed only in one cross, had a greater effect than Dpo, and was postulated to be yellow pod allele at the Gp locus

  1. INHERITANCE OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN DRY PEA (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Gantner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with six parental genotypes: varieties Anno, Gold, Joel, Junior, PF-G1 and Shawnee with aim to improve the dry pea breeding for higher grain yield. Objectives of the research were to investigate: a the inheritance of grain yield per plant and its components; b to determination of the combining ability of parents and their cross-combinations; c the interrelationships among grain yield, its components and morphological traits; d choosing the primary selection criteria; e choosing the best cross-combinations in order to achieve the highest selection response of grain yield; f simple and digenic epistatic gene-effects in the chosen cross-combinations which determ the trait chosen as a primary selection criterion; g the genetic components of variation in the chosen cross-combinations of the trait chosen as a primary selection criterion; h the anticipation of genetic gain of grain yield per plant of the chosen cross-combinations. The research was conducted on experimental fields and laboratories of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Parental lines were chosen in 2006, the first series of crossings in a diallel fashion were performed in 2007, and the second series in 2008, in a diallel fashion plus back-crossing. The obtained generation material (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 i BC2 of 15 biparental combinations was seeded in the field trial in 2009. Measurement of the yield, its components and morfological traits was done at the end of vegetation. The inheritance of investigated traits was estimated using Hayman’s approach to diallel analysis, combining abilities were determined using Griffing’s approach to diallel analysis, interrelationships among investigated traits were determined using correlation analysis, the primary selection criterion was chosen according to the inheritance of the investigated traits and their interrelationships, best cross-combinations were chosen upon Griffing’s analysis results and two principles: a the highest per-se value of F1 cross-combination and b the highest values of general combining abilities of the two involved parents. In the chosen cross-combinations, estimation of genetic effects determining the chosen trait (yield per plant was conducted using the generation mean analysis, and estimation of genetic variance components was conducted using variances of the six basic generations. Anticipation of the genetic gain of grain yield per plant was conducted using estimated genetic effects and variances in the chosen cross-combinations. The highest narrow-sense heritability was estimated for thousand grain weight (82%, followed by plant height (78%, count of nodes till the first pod (60%, grain yield per plant (52%, count of pods per plant (40%, and the least one was estimated for count of grains per plant (31%. Cross-combination Anno×Joel had the highest per-se grain yield per plant and highly significant special combining effect. Very strong positive correlation was found between grain yield per plant, count of grains per plant and count of pods per plant. Aiming to increase a grain yield per plant, the grain yield per plant per-se was elected as the primary selection criterion due to its appreciable narrow sence heritability estimation. Anno×Joel cross-combination was chosen as the most promising according to the highest per-se value of grain yield per plant, and Gold×Joel cross-combination according to the highest values of general combining ability effects of both parents. Using generation mean analysis there were estimated small additive genetic effects for grain yield. On the contrary, there were estimated high values of additive genetic variance component at six basic generations. The highest anticipated genetic values of grain yield of the future recombinant inbred lines that could be derived from the chosen cross-combinations should surpass 10.91 g/plant, respectively. These would respond to selection gain of maximum of 167 % in relation to the highest yielding parent Shawnee which had the genetic value of grain yield per plant of 4.08 g.

  2. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  3. Содержание фотосинтетических пигментов в проростках Pisum sativum L. в присутствии ионов Ni2+ в среде

    OpenAIRE

    Кузнецов Дмитрий Андреевич; Минайчев Владислав Валентинович; Иванищев В. В.

    2016-01-01

    Изучено влияние широкого диапазона концентраций ионов Ni2+ на образование фотосинтетических пигментов в проростках гороха (Pisum sativum L., сорт Фараон) на раннем этапе онтогенеза. Показано, что присутствие ионов никеля в среде в концентрации более 0,01 мМ приводило к уменьшению соотношения хлорофиллов a/b. Присутствие ионов никеля, даже при минимальной концентрации равной 0,001 мМ, вызывало уменьшение соотношения зеленых и желтых пигментов по сравнению с контролем....

  4. Expression of Early Light Induced Protein in Grapevine and Pea, under Different Conditions and its Relation with Photoinhibition Expresión de una Proteína inducida Tempranamente por Luz en Vid y Arveja Bajo Diferentes Condiciones y su Relación con la Fotoinhibición

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Berti; Manuel Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Early light induced proteins (ELIP) are a type of proteins which are expressed before than other chloroplast proteins in the presence of light. These proteins have been studied in a large number of annual species such as pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Arabidopsis sp. In perennials plants the studies about ELIPs are very scarce. The possible photoprotective function of the ELIPs has motivated the interest in investigating the presence of this type of proteins in a pere...

  5. The Temperature Response and Aggressiveness of Peyronellaea pinodes Isolates Originating from Wild and Domesticated Pisum sp. in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, M; Abbo, S; Sherman, A; Frenkel, O; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Domesticated pea fields are grown in relatively close proximity to wild pea species in Israel. Despite the major role attributed to ascochyta blight in causing yield losses in domesticated pea, very limited information is available on the pathogens prevailing in natural ecosystems. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the species causing ascochyta blight symptoms on leaves, stems, and petioles of domesticated pea and wild Pisum plants in Israel, and (ii) to quantify the temperature response(s) and aggressiveness of such pathogens originating from Pisum plants growing in sympatric and allopatric contexts. Eighteen fungal isolates were examined and identified; three of them were sampled from Pisum sativum, 11 from Pisum fulvum, and four from Pisum elatius. All isolates were identified as Peyronellaea pinodes. Spore germination and mycelial growth took place over a wide range of temperatures, the lower and upper cardinal temperatures being 2 to 9 and 33 to 38°C, respectively; the optimal temperatures ranged from 22 to 26°C. At an optimal temperature, disease severity was significantly higher for plants maintained under moist conditions for 24 h postinoculation than for those exposed to humidity for 5 or 10 h. Analyses of the data revealed that temperature responses, spore germination rates, and aggressiveness of isolates sampled from domesticated pea plants did not differ from those of isolates sampled from adjacent or distant wild populations. Host specificity was not observed. These observations suggest that Israel may be inhabited by a single metapopulation of P. pinodes. PMID:27050578

  6. Relations between protein production, protein quality and environmental factors in Pisum mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seed protein content of 138 radiation-induced Pisum mutants was determined. The variability of this genetically well-defined material agrees approximately with that of the world collection of Pisum sativum. Some environmental factors to a great extent influence the protein production of the mutants and the initial line. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the relations between the genetically controlled protein production and its dependence upon the environmental factors. This is especially evident if the protein situation of the same genotypes cultivated under the moderate climatic conditions of middle Europe is compared with the subtropical conditions of India. A generally firm correlation between seed size and protein content could not be found in material regarding 148 different mutants of our assortment. Therefore, the selection of small-grained mutants does not result in a selection of protein-rich genotypes in Pisum sativum. Considering all the criteria positively and negatively influencing the protein production, a positive situation could be found in some mutants, especially in the fasciated ones. Furthermore, an improvement of the protein quality could be reached by a genetically conditioned alteration of the globulin-albumin ratio leading to an increase of some essential amino acids such as methionine and lysine. The combined action of mutant genes results in unexpected changes of the protein quantity as well as the quality of the recombinants in relation to their parental mutants. The comparison of some essential amino acids of our useful mutants with those of the varieties of other genera of the Leguminosae shows certain trends of biochemical alterations realized during evolutionary development of the family. (author)

  7. Silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) alleviate chromium (VI) phytotoxicity in Pisum sativum (L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) against Cr (VI) phytotoxicity in pea seedlings. Results show that Cr(VI, 100 μM) significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth of pea which was accompanied by the enhanced level of Cr. Additionally, photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters like F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ significantly (P < 0.05) increased under Cr(VI) treatment. Superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA-lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by Cr(VI). Activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were increased by Cr (VI) while activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were inhibited significantly (P < 0.05). Micro and macronutrients also show decreasing trends (except S) under Cr(VI) treatment. However, addition of SiNp together with Cr(VI) protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity hence improved growth was noticed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that Cr(VI) causes negative impact on pea seedlings, however; SiNp protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity by reducing Cr accumulation and oxidative stress, and up-regulating antioxidant defense system and nutrient elements.

  8. Use of gamma irradiation for prolonging shelf life of Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garden pea pods of variety Arkel were irradiated with 5 doses of 60Co gamma rays ranging from 0.5-3 kGy and stored at ambient temperature up to 9 days along with control to study the effect of radiation in prolonging shelf life of pea pods and stabilizing its market demand. Physiological weight loss percentage decrease as the doses of gamma radiation increased. Minimum weight loss was noted in pods treated with 3 kGy gamma radiation as compared to control. Decay loss percent showed inverse relation with dose of gamma radiation. The minimum decay loss was recorded in 3 kGy and the organisms identified for decay loss were Alternaria and Cladosporium species of fungi. With regard to sugar content, pea pods irradiated with 1 kGy gamma rays recorded maximum sugar content. Pods irradiated with 0.5 kGy and 1 kGy gamma rays retained their green colour for a long period (up to 9th day of storage). Based on 9 point's hedonic scale the overall acceptability for appearance, taste and texture was observed in 1 kGy treatment. (author)

  9. Use of Gamma Irradiation for Prolonging Shelf Life of Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garden pea pods of variety 'Arkel' were irradiated with 5 doses of 60Co gamma rays ranging from 0.5-3.0 kGy and stored at ambient temperature up to 9 days along with control to study the effect of radiation in prolonging shelf life of pea pods and stabilizing its market demand. Physiological weight loss (%) decreased as the doses of gamma radiation increased. Minimum weight loss was noted in pods irradiated with 3.0 kGy gamma rays compared to control. Decay loss % showed an inverse relationship with dose of gamma radiation. Minimum decay loss was recorded with 3.0 kGy gamma ray dose. Pea pods irradiated with 1.0 kGy gamma rays recorded maximum sugar content. Pods irradiated with 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy gamma rays retained their green colour for a longer period. Based on a 9 point hedonic scale the highest acceptability for appearance, taste and texture was observed in pods treated with the 1.0 kGy dose. (author)

  10. Linking fungal communities in roots, rhizosphere, and soil to the health status of Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lihui; Ravnskov, Sabine; Larsen, John;

    2012-01-01

    Changes in fungal communities associated with healthy and diseased pea roots were investigated using deep amplicon pyrosequencing in three spatial compartments: roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding soil. Thirty root systems were collected from three fields, half of which showing clear symptoms...... in richness were observed between samples associated with diseased and healthy roots. Health status and field both had significant effects on fungal community structures in roots, whereas only field had significant effects on communities in rhizosphere and bulk soils. Indicator species analysis across...... the three fields identified a number of OTUs that were more abundant in healthy roots. Pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum were abundant in diseased roots in some fields. Patterns of disease and causal agents of root rot were different among the three fields, which were also reflected in fungal communities...

  11. Survey of ferric reductase transcription and activity in Pisum sativum accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for the growth of plants. While Fe is not limiting in most soils (it makes up approximately 5% of total soil minerals), Fe availability to plants in aerated, calcareous soils near neutral or basic pH can be severely limited as Fe oxidizes to form less soluble ferri...

  12. Response of root fungi in Pisum sativum to plant and soil environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Lingling

    during senescence, suggesting that fungal species have different strategies for obtaining organic energy from their host plant. The last study was focused on how soil organic amendments regulated fungal community, generally, the distribution of fungal groups revealed their ecological functional traits...... and nutritional status of the plant and soil environments. However, limited information is available about the richness and composition of most of these root-associated fungi as studies of fungal communities remain a challenge because of below-ground high taxonomic and ecological diversity. In the present study...... analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in the measurement of plant growth parameters and relative abundance of root-associated fungi, and principle component analysis (PCA) was used to examine the response of communities of root fungi to the plant and soil environmental factors. vi The three...

  13. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Geçgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  14. Techno-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum protein isolates: A review

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    Barać Miroljub B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high nutritive quality, good techno-functional properties and low cost, legume protein products are becoming the most appropriate alternative to protein products of animal origin. In food industries, these products are usually used as techno-functional additives which provide specific characteristics of final food products. Legume proteins are commonly used as flour, concentrates, and isolates. The greatest application on industrial scale has soy proteins, and to a lesser extent, in the past 20 years, pea protein isolates. The modest use of pea protein is partly a result of insufficient information relating to their techno-functional properties. This paper is an overview of techno-functional properties of pea proteins and their isolates. Also, the paper deals with the possible use of limited enzymatic hydrolysis as a method for the improvement of their techno-functional properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31069

  15. FIELD PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L. BIOMASS PRODUCTION DEPENDED ON SEED AGE AND AGROECOLOGICAL GROWTH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of weather conditions and seed age on fresh and dry biomass production, field germination, seed yield and 1000 seed weight of field pea were investigated in field trials during two years at two locations of East Croatia (Osijek and Vinkovci. Seed of „Timo“ cultivar 9 and 21 month old was used for sowing. In the investigation of the years influence, significantly higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (57,035 t/ha, dry matter yield (9.796 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (129.7 g was found in the first year of the investigation. On the average for years, significantly higher field germination (87.0% and seed yield (2.173 t/ha at p=0.01, and green mass yield (55.728 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (130.1 g at p=0.05 were found at location Osijek. Seed of 21 month old had higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (64.376 t/ha, dry matter yield (10.934 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (134 g but significantly lower field germination (76.4% at location Vinkovci in the investigation of seed age and location influences during 2005 year..

  16. Fatty acid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L., var. Citrina during seed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, F.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil content and fatty acid composition of four sizes of raw and canned pea were determined. In the seed growth period, considered (from 4.7 mm to 10.2 mm of diameter, crude oil content was not modified and its level showed a mean value of 2.52% on a dry weight basis. Generally, in raw pea the following fatty acid composition was obtained C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:0 > C18:3 > C18:0; however, during seed growth C18:2 increased and C18:3 decreased. These variations are discussed in relation to environmental temperature and cotyledon/testa ratio modifications during seed growth. A low oil content, which remains constant during seed growth, and a lower linolenic acid content in fine (FN size showed that when Citrina variety is used for processing, peas should be harvested when a FN size are predominant in crop. During canning, crude oil content is not modified in any size, but some differences in fatty acid composition occur between raw and canned peas because, in general, the degree of saturation decreases during canning.Se ha determinado el contenido lipídico y la composición en ácidos grasos de cuatro tamaños de guisantes crudos y enlatados. Durante el período de crecimiento considerado (4.7-10.2 mm de diámetro, el contenido lipídico no es modificado, y el contenido medio fue de 2.52% expresado en peso seco. En general, el predominio de los ácidos grasos en el guisante crudo se ajusta a la fórmula C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:C > C18:3 > C18:0; sin embargo, durante el crecimiento de la semilla incrementa C18:2 y decrecen C18:0 y C18:3. Estas variaciones son discutidas en relación a la temperatura ambiental y a la modificación del cociente cotiledón/testa durante el crecimiento de la semilla. Un bajo contenido lipídico, que permanece constante durante el crecimiento de la semilla, y el menor contenido de C18:3 en el tamaño FN (8.3-8.8 mm, ponen de manifiesto que cuando la variedad Citrina es utilizada para la elaboración de productos procesados, la cosecha debe ser realizada cuando existe un predominio del tamaño FN. El contenido lipídico durante el enlatado no es modificado en ningún tamaño, aunque se producen algunas modificaciones en la composición de ácidos grasos debidas, en general, a que durante el enlatado se produce una disminución en el grado de saturación.

  17. Influence of plant stage and organ age on the receptivity of Pisum sativum to Mycosphaerella pinodes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Benjamin; Jumel, Stephane; Rouault, Francois; Tivoli, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    On spring pea, ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerellapinodes) frequently appears at the plant base on yellowing stipules and disease scores are higher on basal parts of the plants than on the uppermost parts. In order to investigate the relationship between pea plant growth stage and/ororgan age, and ascochyta blight on whole plants and detached stipules and pods, two experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 under controlled conditions. This study showed that plant stage does not influence recep...

  18. Emulsifying and foaming properties of commercial yellow pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Rotimi E; Mofolasayo, Olawunmi A; Watts, Beverley M

    2009-10-28

    Commercial yellow pea seed flours prepared by a patented wet-milling process and pea protein isolate (PPI) were analyzed for emulsifying and foaming properties at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 and compared to soybean protein isolate (SPI). PPI and SPI formed emulsions with significantly smaller (p pea starch into SPI emulsions produced a synergistic effect that led to significant increases (p pea starch could be used to improve the quality of SPI-stabilized food emulsions. PMID:20560631

  19. Quality traits analysis and protein profiling of field pea (Pisum sativum) germplasm from Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Rana, Jai Chand

    2015-04-01

    The grain and flour characteristics of different field pea (FP) accessions were evaluated. Accessions with higher grain weight had less compact structure with a greater proportion of large-sized starch granules. Accessions with higher protein content had lower starch content, blue value and λ(max) whereas accessions with higher amylose showed higher resistant starch (RS) and final viscosity and lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS). Ca, Zn, K and Fe content vary significantly amongst different accessions and creamish green and white seeds accessions showed higher Fe and Zn content. Yellow coloured accessions (1.36-3.71%) showed lower antioxidant activity as compared to brownish and green coloured accessions (4.06-9.30%). Out of 21 major polypeptides observed (9-100 kDa), 11 showed differential trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) under non-reducing conditions. Polypeptides of 68, 46, 33 and 22 kDa showed prominent TIA. PMID:25442588

  20. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth;

    2010-01-01

    , the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes...... involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis....

  1. Identification of RAPD markers and their use for molecular mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheghamirza, Kianoosh; Koveza, Oksana; Konovalov, Fedor; Gostimsky, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    The RAPD method (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) was used for identifying and mapping new molecular markers in pea. RAPD analysis of various cultivars and lines of pea was carried out using 10-mer random primers. The presence of multiple polymorphism between cultivars and lines was revealed; at least one fragment for any given primer was present in the DNA of one form of pea and absent in the DNA of another line or cultivar. To detect molecular markers linked to the genes of chi-15, xa-18 and also to the 12 morphological markers of the L-1238 line, the F2 populations (Chi-15 ? L-1238), (Vio ? L-1238), (Xa-18 ? L-1238), (L-111 ? Chi-15) and (L-84 ? Xa-18) were studied via bulked segregant analysis. DNA molecular analysis of F1 hybrids revealed the presence of parental polymorphic fragments in all of the populations. The study of the F2 plants showed that the obtained fragments are inherited as Mendelian factors. 13 RAPD-markers linked to genes of A/a (flower color), I/i (seed color), Gp/gp (pod color), R/r (seed form), S/s (seeds linkage), and also to genes of Chi-15/chi-15 (leaf color) and Xa-18/xa-18 (leaf color) were discovered. The study of individual plant DNA from the F2 populations allowed us to determine the genetic distances between genes and the RAPD markers linked to them.

  2. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Pisum sativum L. Seedlings by Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the role of calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance and reducing cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Some treatment with 1 and 5 mM CaCl2 mitigated cadmium stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities: catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid (ASA, tocopherol and carotenoids. On the other hand, total carbohydrate and total soluble proteins decreased with increasing cadmium concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, total phenol, total free amino acids, proline and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium acetate. Electrophoretic studies of protein revealed that cadmium treatments alone or in combination with calcium chloride were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of new bands in pea seedlings. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities.

  3. Breeding potential of the field pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivars and their progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kosev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance and gene effects structure were investigated for ten quantitative traits in field cultivars by a full diallel model of four parents – the cultivars Kerpo, Pleven 10, Mir and EFB33. Overdominance was prevalent for most of the traits in both hybrid generations (F1 and F2 except for 1000-seed weigth. A non-additive gene action appeared to be more predominant for the inheritance of most traits studied. The fraction of h2/H2 indicated that at least one group of genes controlled dominance for all the traits, namely for seed weight per plant (6, seeds per pod (3. The Н2/4Н1 ratio was close to the expected value of 0.25 for seeds per plant and seed weight per plant, indicating a symmetrical distribution of dominant and recessive genes. Dominant alleles were more frequent in parental forms for the inheritance of most traits except seeds per pod in F1. In the case of seeds per pod (F1 and 1000-seed weight (F1 and F2 a comparatively low difference was established between the coefficient of heritability in narrow and broad sense, indicating that the selection in early generations may be effective. The genotypes with exhibited dominant alleles were EFB33 for plant height, first pod height, internode distance and fertile nodes per plant, Mir for pods per plant, nodes per plant and 1000-seed weight and Pleven 10 for seeds per plant and seed weight per plant. Kerpo had recessive alleles for all the tested traits except seeds per pod.

  4. Investigation of Stomata Densities in Pea (Pisum sativum L. Lines/Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Karayel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine, if stomata density can be used as a criterion in cultivar differentiation or not. In this study, density of stomatas in stipula and abaxial and adaxial surface of leaflets was determined in the flowering and pod set period of 23 pea cultivars and lines that were sowed as wintertime for 2 years. The effect of years on the stomata density in other parts sections except for the stomata numbers in stipula and leaflet adaxial surface were determined on the level of statistical significance. In pod setting period, stomata numbers were higher compared to the flowering period. Stomata number in leaf section of the 5 cultivars used in the trial is in general higher than those of the lines. The determination of year x genotype interaction in the study shows that there is not enough evidence for using this characteristic for cultivar differentiation.

  5. Root antioxidant responses of two Pisum sativum cultivars to direct and induced Fe deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelali, N; Donnini, S; Dell'Orto, M; Abdelly, C; Gharsalli, M; Zocchi, G

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of antioxidant defence systems in different tolerance to direct and bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency was evaluated in two pea cultivars (Kelvedon, tolerant and Lincoln, susceptible). Fe deficiency enhanced lipid peroxidation and H2 O2 concentration in roots of both cultivars, particularly in the sensitive one grown under bicarbonate supply. The results obtained on antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, POD) suggest that H2 O2 accumulation could be due to an overproduction of this ROS and, at the same time, to a poor capacity to detoxify it. Moreover, under bicarbonate supply the activity of POD isoforms was reduced only in the sensitive cultivar, while in the tolerant one a new isoform was detected, suggesting that POD activity might be an important contributor to pea tolerance to Fe deficiency. The presence of bicarbonate also resulted in stimulation of GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities, part of the ASC-GSH pathway, which was higher in the tolerant cultivar than in the sensitive one. Overall, while in the absence of Fe only slight differences were reported between the two cultivars, the adaptation of Kelvedon to the presence of bicarbonate seems to be related to its greater ability to enhance the antioxidant response at the root level.

  6. Genetic Variability and Association of Quality Characters and Pod Yield in Garden Peas (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Mohammad AL-AYSH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten garden pea landraces in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications over 2 winter seasons 2011 - 2012 and 2012 - 2013 were evaluated at the experimental field of Dara'a Center of Scientific Agricultural Research, GCSAR, Syria. The study showed high heritability (H with high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV and genetic gain as percent of mean (GA % for vitamin C, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, total carotenoids and pod yield plant-1 indicating good scope for selection. The genotypic (rg and phenotypic associations (rph of pod yield plant-1 were significantly positive with protein content, fiber content and total carotenoids but significantly negative with soluble sugars. Path coefficient analysis confirmed that protein content and total soluble solids registered positive direct effects on pod yield plant-1 and negative indirect effects through each other. Protein content should be considered independently or in combination with total soluble solids and chlorophyll A while imposing selection for amelioration of quality and yield in garden peas.

  7. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  8. Silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) alleviate chromium (VI) phytotoxicity in Pisum sativum (L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) against Cr (VI) phytotoxicity in pea seedlings. Results show that Cr(VI, 100 μM) significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth of pea which was accompanied by the enhanced level of Cr. Additionally, photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters like F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ significantly (P < 0.05) increased under Cr(VI) treatment. Superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA-lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by Cr(VI). Activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were increased by Cr (VI) while activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were inhibited significantly (P < 0.05). Micro and macronutrients also show decreasing trends (except S) under Cr(VI) treatment. However, addition of SiNp together with Cr(VI) protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity hence improved growth was noticed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that Cr(VI) causes negative impact on pea seedlings, however; SiNp protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity by reducing Cr accumulation and oxidative stress, and up-regulating antioxidant defense system and nutrient elements. PMID:26298805

  9. Turnover of nitrogenase and leghemoglobin in root nodules of Pisum sativum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, T.; Straten, van J.; Houwaard, F.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover rates of the two nitrogenase components and leghemoglobin in root nodules of pea plants nodulated with Rhizobium leguminosarum were determined with three different methods: 1, Kinetics of 35S incorporation into protein; 2, pulse-chase experiments; 3, chloramphenicol inhibition of bacteroid

  10. Auxin regulation of a proton translocating ATPase in pea root plasma membrane vesicles. [Pisum sativum. L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabathuler, R.; Cleland, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    Pea root microsomal vesicles have been fractionated on a Dextran step gradient to give three fractions, each of which carries out ATP-dependent proton accumulation as measured by fluorescence quenching of quinacrine. The fraction at the 4/6% Dextran interface is enriched in plasma membrane, as determined by UDPG sterol glucosyltransferase and vanadate-inhibited ATPase. The vanadate-sensitive phosphohydrolase is not specific for ATP, has a K/sub m/ of about 0.23 millimolar for MgATP, is only slightly affected by K/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/ and is insensitive to auxin. Proton transport, on the other hand, is more specific for ATP, enhanced by anions (NO/sub 3//sup -/ > Cl/sup -/) and has a K/sub m/ of about 0.7 millimolar. Auxins decrease the K/sub m/ to about 0.35 millimolar, with no significant effect on the V/sub max/, while antiauxins or weak acids have no such effect. It appears that auxin has the ability to alter the efficiency of the ATP-driven proton transport.

  11. Mechanisms associated with Fe-deficiency tolerance and signaling in shoots of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Paltridge, Nicholas G; Roessner, Ute; Stangoulis, James C R

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms of Fe-deficiency tolerance and signaling were investigated in shoots of Santi (deficiency tolerant) and Parafield (deficiency intolerant) pea genotypes using metabolomic and physiological approaches. From metabolomic studies, Fe deficiency induced significant increases in N-, S- and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites in Santi but not in Parafield. Elevated N metabolites reflect an increase in N-recycling processes. Increased glutathione and S-metabolites suggest better protection of pea plants from Fe-deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, Fe-deficiency induced increases in citrate and malate in leaves of Santi suggests long-distance transport of Fe is promoted by better xylem unloading. Supporting a role of citrate in the deficiency tolerance mechanism, physiological experiments showed higher Fe and citrate in the xylem of Santi. Reciprocal-grafting experiments confirm that the Fe-deficiency signal driving root Fe reductase and proton extrusion activity is generated in the shoot. Finally, our studies show that auxin can induce increased Fe-reductase activity and proton extrusion in roots. This article identifies several mechanisms in shoots associated with the differential Fe-deficiency tolerance of genotypes within a species, and provides essential background for future efforts to improve the Fe content and deficiency tolerance in peas. PMID:22913816

  12. Pea starch (Pisum sativum L.) with slow digestion property produced using β-amylase and transglucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Miaomiao; Zhang, Zhiheng; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Kai; Gilbert, Robert G; Gao, Qunyu

    2014-12-01

    Starches extracted from wrinkled (WP) and smooth (SP) peas were treated using β-amylase (B) alone and also with a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase (BT). After enzymatic treatment, the proportions of slowly digested starch in WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT samples were increased by 6%, 9%, 9% and 12%, respectively. Starches treated by a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase exhibited a smaller amount of longer amylopectin chains, a larger amount of short amylopectin chains, and higher branching fraction. The branching fraction was significantly increased, with an increase of 8%, 10%, 13% and 14% for WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT, respectively. The maximum absorbance and iodine binding of enzyme-treated starches were reduced compared with their native starch parents. The C-type crystalline structure completely disappeared after enzymatic treatment. The results support previous findings that increases in the amount of shorter amylopectin chains and branch fraction are likely to contribute to the slow digestion of starch.

  13. Dehydration induces expression of GALACTINOL SYNTHASE and RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE in seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuta, Lesław B; Pluskota, Wioletta E; Stelmaszewska, Joanna; Szablińska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    The exposition of 7-day-old pea seedlings to dehydration induced sudden changes in the concentration of monosaccharides and sucrose in epicotyl and roots tissues. During 24h of dehydration, the concentration of glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose in seedling tissues decreased. The accumulation of sucrose was observed in roots after 4h and in epicotyls after 8h of stress. Epicotyls and roots also began to accumulate galactinol and raffinose after 8h of stress, when small changes in the water content of tissues occurred. The accumulation of galactinol and raffinose progressed parallel to water withdrawal from tissues, but after seedling rehydration both galactosides disappeared. The synthesis of galactinol and raffinose by an early induction (during the first hour of treatment) of galactinol synthase (PsGolS) and raffinose synthase (PsRS) gene expression as well as a later increase in the activity of both enzymes was noted. Signals possibly triggering the induction of PsGolS and PsRS gene expression and accumulation of galactinol and raffinose in seedlings are discussed.

  14. The structure of the endodermis during the development of pea (Pisum sativum L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kopcińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown on the basis of cytological studies that during the development of the pea root endodermis, the following structures were formed (in order of appearance: proendodermis, Casparian strips, suberin lamellae and secondary cell walls. The proendodermis cells had, in addition to the commonly occurring cell components, small vacuoles filled with phenols. The Casparian strips developed in the radial walls and accounted for no more than 1/3 of their length. The suberin layer, found on all of the endodermis walls, was deposited last over the Casparian strips. The secondary cell wall was formed only in the cells located over the phloem bundles. Its thickness was uniform over the entire circumference of the cell.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  16. Raw, extruded and expanded pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cows diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritive value of raw, extruded or expanded peas relative to soybean meal in lactating dairy cows feeding. Twenty four Italian Holstein cows (8 primiparous and 16 pluriparous, 604 ± 109 kg body weight, 34.5 ± 2.5 kg/d milk yield, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 4x4 Latin square arrangement with periods of four weeks and washout period of seven days. Diets were fed ad libitum(5% orts. The bulk of the base diet on a dry matter basis was corn silage (31.2%, alfalfa hay (16.7%, grass hay (4.1%, protein supplement (10.3%, whole cotton seed (8.5%, corn and barley mix (24.9%, soybean meal (3.4% and calcium soap (0.9%. The pea (2.5 kg/cow/day partially replaced the soybean meal and totally replaced the barley meal of the base diet. The unprocessed or differently processed pea did not affect the dry matter intake. The extruded pea group had a 3.2% increase (P< 0.05 of the milk yield compared to the control group. When estimated as contrast analysis, the technological treatment (extruded or expanded on peas did not modify the milk yield and composition. Among pea diets, animal fed the extruded pea had the higher (P< 0.05 milk protein content, although not different than that of the control group. The rumen acetate was reduced (P< 0.05 and the butyrate and valerate were increased (P< 0.05 in animals fed extruded pea compared to the control. No differences were observed among feeding groups on blood parameters except for the cholesterol level higher (P< 0.05 in animals fed the expanded pea diet. There were no effects of diets on milk rennet coagulation characteris- tics. Results support the partial substitution of soybean meal and the total substitution of barley meal with peas in diets for lactating cows with no negative effects on milk yield and composition.

  17. Genetic control of leaf-blade morphogenesis by the INSECATUS gene in Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Swati Chaudhary; Vishakha Sharma; Renu Kumari; Raghvendra Kumar Mishra; Arvind Kumar; Debjani Roy Choudhury; Ruchi Jha; Anupama Priyadarshini; Arun Kumar

    2010-08-01

    To understand the role of INSECATUS (INS) gene in pea, the leaf blades of wild-type, ins mutant and seven other genotypes, constructed by recombining ins with uni-tac, af, tl and mfp gene mutations, were quantitatively compared. The ins was inherited as a recessive mutant allele and expressed its phenotype in proximal leaflets of full size leaf blades. In ins leaflets, the midvein development was arrested in distal domain and a cleft was formed in lamina above this point. There was change in the identity of ins leaflets such that the intercalary interrupted midvein bore a leaf blade. Such adventitious blades in ins, ins tl and ins tl mfp were like the distal segment of respective main leaf blade. The ins phenotype was not seen in ins af and ins af uni-tac genotypes. There was epistasis of uni-tac over ins. The ins, tl and mfp mutations interacted synergistically to produce highly pronounced ins phenotype in the ins tl mfp triple mutant. The role(s) of INS in leaf-blade organogenesis are: positive regulation of vascular patterning in leaflets, repression of UNI activity in leaflet primordia for ectopic growth and in leaf-blade primordium for indeterminate growth of rachis, delimitation of proximal leaflet domain and together with TL and MFP homeostasis for meristematic activity in leaflet primordia. The variant apically bifid shape of the affected ins leaflets demonstrated that the leaflet shape is dependent on the venation pattern.

  18. Mapping of the multifoliate pinna (mfp) leaf-blade morphology mutation in grain pea Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghvendra Kumar Mishra; Anil Kumar; Swati Chaudhary; Sushil Kumar

    2009-08-01

    The multifoliate pinna (mfp) mutation alters the leaf-blade architecture of pea, such that simple tendril pinnae of distal domain are replaced by compound pinna blades of tendrilled leaflets in mfp homozygotes. The MFP locus was mapped with reference to DNA markers using F2 and F2:5 RIL as mapping populations. Among 205 RAPD, 27 ISSR and 35 SSR markers that demonstrated polymorphism between the parents of mapping populations, three RAPD markers were found linked to the MFP locus by bulk segregant analyses on mfp/mfp and MFP/MFP bulks assembled from the F2:5 population. The segregational analysis of mfp and 267 DNA markers on 96 F2 plants allowed placement of 26 DNA markers with reference to MFP on a linkage group. The existence of common markers on reference genetic maps and MFP linkage group developed here showed that MFP is located on linkage group IV of the consensus genetic map of pea.

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  20. Efectos alelopáticos de rumex crispus l. sobre pissum sativum l.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno B., Luis Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Se investigaron los efectos alelopáticos de R. Crispus sobre P. sativwn mediante 3 ensayos: el primero consistió en incorporar residuos de diferentes partes de la maleza a un cultivo de arveja; los otros dos, en aplicar extractos acuosos y etéricos, en diferentes concentraciones, a semillas de arveja puestas a germinar. El estudio se realizó bajo un diseño completamente al azar en parcelas divididas. El efecto se evaluó mediante la varianza y pruebas de Desviación Standard Media (DSM). Se hal...

  1. SELECTIVITY OF CYANAZINE AND LINURON ON SEVERAL CULTIVARS OF Pisum sativum IN THE ‘CERRADO’ REGION SELETIVIDADE DE CYANAZINE E LINURON EM CULTIVARES DE ERVILHA (Pisum sativum L. NA REGIÃO DOS CERRADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The herbicides cyanazine and linuron were tested on the pea cultivars Marina, Mikado and Triofin, in Goiânia, State of Goiás, from May to August 1989. The number of pods/plant, grains/pod, weight of 100 grains and yield of grains were not affected by the herbicides used. There was no interaction effect of herbicides and cultivars. Only a slight toxic effect on the foliage of young plants of all cultivars was caused by linuron and on young plants of Mikado by cyanazine at 1,250 g.a.i./ha. In most treatments, Marina and Mikado proved to be more productive than Triofin.

    Foi instalado em Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, no período de maio a agosto de 1989, um ensaio para verificar a seletividade dos herbicidas cyanazine e linuron para as cultivares de ervilha Marina, Mikado e Triofin. Linuron provocou uma fraca fitotoxicidade em todas as cultivares, enquanto que cyanazine a 1.250 g.i.a./ha foi levemente fitotóxico apenas para a cultivar Mikado. O número de vagens por planta e grãos por vagem, peso de 100 grãos secos e a produção de grãos não foram afetados pela ação dos herbicidas. Não houve interação herbicidas versus cultivares. Na maioria dos tratamentos, Marina e Mikado mostraram-se mais produtivas que Triofin.

  2. Pea (Pisum sp.) genetic resources, its analysis and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea is important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. Originated and domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean, it formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a small genus with two or three species, it is very diverse and structured, r...

  3. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.

  4. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on the basis of weed biomass was higher in the system with potato. The similarity indices, which express the convergence of floristic composition as well as of the density and biomass of weeds growing in pea fields in the two crop rotation systems compared, were within a broad range (42–86%. The biodiversity of weed communities was more closely correlated to total precipitation than to air temperature.

  5. Succession of root-associated fungi in Pisum sativum during a plant growth cycle as examined by 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Larsen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Roots are inhabited by a broad range of fungi, including pathogens and mycorrhizal fungi, with functional traits related to plant health and nutrition. Management of these fungi in agroecosystems requires profound knowledge about their ecology. The main objective of this study...... was to examine succession patterns of root-associated fungi in pea during a full plant growth cycle. Methods Plants were grown in pots with field soil in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Fungal communities in pea roots were analyzed at different plant growth stages including the vegetative growth...... during plant senescence. Conclusions In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrated highly diverse fungal communities in pea roots with clear succession patterns related to fungal traits....

  6. Long-term impact of sublethal atrazine perturbs the redox homeostasis in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Sergei; Shopova, Elena; Kerchev, Pavel; Sergiev, Iskren; Miteva, Lyuba; Polizoev, Djovani; Alexieva, Vera

    2013-02-01

    Atrazine frequently contaminates soil, groundwater, rivers, and ponds. It is well know that acute doses (1-5 mM) of atrazine induce massive generation of singlet oxygen by blocking photosystem II. The sublethal concentrations of this herbicide, similar to those found in the environment, also reduce growth and disrupt photosynthesis in a long-term aspect, but exact mechanisms remain much uncertain. In this study the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine levels, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM, on pea plants were characterized for up to 20 days. The plants exposed to continuous influence of atrazine exhibited perturbed redox homeostasis with increases of the lipid peroxides, the total and oxidized glutathione pools and elevated guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities. In contrast, the long-term atrazine impact did not affect superoxide dismutase activity whereas the catalase was inhibited. The perturbations of the redox status and the recruitment of the antioxidant machinery imply that the sublethal atrazine concentrations alter the poise between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Taken together these results show that the long-term impact of sublethal atrazine has hallmarks of oxidative stress most probably triggered by generation of singlet oxygen.

  7. QUANTITY DETERMINATION OF MOLYBDENUM FROM PISUM SATIVUM PLANTS AND THE INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METAL TO CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ACCUMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA BUTNARIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the pea plant as sentinel specie for the heavy metal molybdenum. Evaluation of soil quality after the molybdenum uptake by pea revealed the following results: Pea plant is a bioindicator that concentrates molybdenum with fast reaction to increasing concentrations in soil. Molybdenum had a positive effect concerning the plant growth (throughout all experimental process, pea plants treated with highest concentrated metal solution reached the largest dimensions. Accumulated molybdenum was directly proportional to increasing concentration of the applied solution to roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the experimental plants; however it resided in flowerpot soil too .In the leguminous roots where the nitroreductase and nitrogenese activity is increased, molybdenum content was much higher compared to the aerial parts of the plant. All the way through molybdenum accumulation in the experimental plants up to high concentrations, other chemical elements revealed lower concentration although within the normal limits, with the exception of phosphorus. These plants were found to assimilate high molybdenum quantities without any detrimental consequences for them since molybdenum accumulation occurred in vacuoles in innocuous chemical forms.

  8. Effect of calcium on RNA content in meristematic cells of pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots treated with toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lbik-Nowak, A; Gabara, B

    1997-01-01

    RNA content in nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm in meristematic cells of pea roots growing for 144 h in the presence of calcium and/or toxic metals (Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+) was examined using cytophotometric procedures, after staining with gallocyanine. The effect of treatment with tested metals was twofold: on the one hand, it considerably reduced RNA content in the nucleolus, on the other it enhanced RNA level in the nucleus and most visibly in the cytoplasm, resulting in the increase in total amount of RNA in cells of pea roots. The presence of calcium in metal solutions in different ways affected RNA content in meristematic cells of pea. In roots treated with cadmium, the addition of calcium ions diminished the toxic effect of that metal, as demonstrated by an increase in RNA content in the nucleolus, although reduction of RNA amount in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in whole cell was observed. A clearly stimulative effect of calcium was noted in material grown in the presence of chromium or lead, where a high increase in RNA content in nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm took place. PMID:9619424

  9. [Pigment accumulation and functional activity of chloroplasts in common Pisum sativum L. mutants with low chlorophyll level (chlorotica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 with a low content of chlorophyll were studied. The mutant 2004 has light green leaves and stem, and the mutant 2014 has yellow green leaves and stem. They accumulate approximately 80 and 50% chlorophylls of the parent form of pea Torsdag cv. The content of carotene in carotenoids of the mutant 2004 was much lower, and the accumulation of lutein and violaxanthine was increased. The accumulation of all carotenoids in the mutant 2014 decreased almost proportionally to a decrease in the chlorophyll content. The rate of CO2 evolution in mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 was established to be lower. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants was 29-30% lower as compared to the control, and in hybrid plants it was 1.5-2-fold higher. It is assumed that the increase in the activity of the night-time respiration in gas exchange of chlorotica mutants and the drop of photosynthesis lead to a decrease in biomass increment. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the mutation of chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affects the genes controlling the formation and functioning of different components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:12723346

  10. [Photochemical activity, spectral properties, and structure of chloroplasts in leaves of Pisum sativum L. under iron deficit and root anaerobiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladygin, V G

    2005-01-01

    A combined effect of iron deficit and root anaerobiosis on the biochemical composition, functional activity, and structure of chloroplasts in pea leaves was studied. These factors are shown to affect the chlorophyll accumulation, causing leaf chlorosis. Iron deficit makes itself evident in the chlorosis of top leaves. In the case of root anaerobiosis, chlorosis damages lower plant layers. The destructive effects are summarized under the influence of both factors. The light-harvesting complexes of photosystems are reduced to a greater degree under iron deficit; under root anaerobiosis, complexes of reaction centers of photosystem I and II are reduced. Nevertheless, even under the combined effect of these factors, all pigment-protein complexes and their functional activities are preserved in yellow leaves. The ultrastructure of chloroplasts is gradually reduced in the course of developing chlorosis. In the begging, intergranal sites of thylakoids are destroyed, which is typical for iron deficit, then granal sites are broken. However, even in yellow and almost white leaves, small thylakoids capable of forming stacking and small grana of 2-3 thylakoids are preserved. The destructive effects are summarized due to different mechanisms of action of iron deficit and root anaerobiosis on the structure and function of leaves under their combined effect. PMID:15759507

  11. [Structural and functional organization of chloroplasts in leaves of Pisum sativum L. under conditions of root hypoxia and iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladygin, V G; Semenova, G A

    2003-01-01

    A combined effect of iron deficiency and root hypoxia on the biochemical composition activity and structure of chloroplasts in pea leaves have been studied. Both factors are shown to affect the accumulation of chlorophyll causing leaf chlorosis. At iron deficiency chlorosis occurs from the top of plant leaves. At root hypoxia chlorosis starts from the lower strata. At a combined action of both factors the destructive effects are summarized. It was established that light-harvesting complexes of photosystems were reduced stronger at iron deficiency, while complexes of reaction centers of photosystem I and photosystem II are lessened at root hypoxia. Nevertheless, even at a combined effect of both factors yellow leaves preserved small amounts of any pigment-protein complexes and their functional activities. The ultrastructure of chloroplasts during leaf chlorosis was gradually reduced. At first, intergranal sites of thylakoids and then granal ones were destroyed, that was typical of iron deficiency. However, even yellow and almost white leaves kept small thylakoids, capable of forming stacking and small grana made of 2-3 thylakoids. It has been concluded that the destructive effects are summarized due to different kinds of action of iron deficiency and root hypoxia on the structure and functioning of leaves at their combined action. PMID:15216630

  12. RESPONSE OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM SSP. ARVENSE L. AT SOWING TERM, STAND AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT VINKOVCI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pea is an exquisite protein crop (it contains 20-37% of protein used for human diet, animal feeding and as sideration. The hypothesis has been set up that the spring field pea for the grain production (cultivar Sobel will respond differently to the sowing term, stand (840,000 and 1,250,000 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilization (0 and 60 kg ha-1 The Vinkovci site was known for the grain yield (t ha . In 1997 and 1998 the investigations were conducted via field experiments on semigley soil at Vinkovci sites. Observations and measuring of, for example, phenological phase and more important climatic factors were accomplished during the growing season (temperature and precipitations. The harvest was followed by determination of number of pods, number of grains and grain yield. Obtained results were statistically processed by an adequate method (by a variance analysis of the split-split-plot experiment in four replicates whereas averages of the reached values were used for the results interpretation. -1 being 0.07-1.72 t ha-1 in the first investigation year and 0.14-2.12 t ha-1 in the second one. In 1997 thousand grain weight at Vinkovci site varied between 224.75 and 232.63 g whereas in 1998 it was 203.90-249.73 g. Results of the research justified the hypothesis of the optimal sowing date and stand as well as their interaction.

  13. Effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B and cadmium on growth, antioxidants and yield of Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S B; Mishra, Shweta

    2009-02-01

    The impact of supplemental UV-B irradiation (sUV-B) and cadmium (Cd, 68 micromol kg(-1) soil) singly and in combination was studied on growth, pigments, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation (LPO), uptake and translocation of Cd and yield of pea plants under field condition. Compared to the control, both the stresses individually and in combination led to in reductions in growth, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid, catalase (CAT) activity and yield, whereas a reverse trend was observed for flavonoids, thiols and proline contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and LPO. The uptake and translocation of Cd increased in different plant parts with duration of its treatment and also when applied with sUV-B. Combined treatment of sUV-B and Cd inhibited the growth and various metabolic processes antagonistically except the CAT activity which showed additive response. Further, CAT activity may be used as a bioindicator parameter to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of both the stresses.

  14. Diversity of pea (Pisum sativum) accessions based on morphological data for sustainable field pea breeding in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, I; Espósito, M A; Almirón, P; Cravero, V P; Cointry, E L

    2011-10-31

    We characterized 13 accessions of dry peas of different origins from various growing regions in Argentina, based on three replications of 20 plants cultivated in 2009 and 2010 in a greenhouse, with the objective of selecting those with favorable characteristics for use in breeding programs. Significant differences were found for length and width of stipule and pod, length of the internodes and leaflets, plant height, total number of nodes, number of nodes at the first pod, number of days to flowering and to harvest, number of pods and seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and grain diameter, demonstrating a high degree of genetic variability. Phenotypic correlation analysis demonstrated that large pods produced more seeds per pod, but the seed weight decreased. Plants with smaller number of nodes in the first pod were more productive. Estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients indicated a strong inherent association among the different traits. Clustering methods grouped the accessions into five clusters. Cluster 5 included two accessions and showed the highest values for length and width of stipules (4.9 and 4.5 cm, respectively), length of leaflets (7.43 cm) and days to flowering (122.6), while cluster 3, with one accession, and cluster 4, with two accessions, showed the highest values for number of seeds per pod (3.78 and 4.39), number of pods per plant (5.33 and 5.70), length of pods (5.54 and 5.72 cm), and width of pods (1.21 and 1.20 cm, respectively). We conclude that accessions in clusters 3 and 4 would be useful for crosses with other cultivars in pea breeding programs.

  15. Effects of low doses of short-term gamma irradiation on growth and development through two generations of Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, R.; Misset, M.T. [UMR-CNRS 6553 Ecobio, Equipe Evolution des Populations et des Especes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu Bat. 14, Rennes Cedex F 35042 (France); Chenal, C. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie, Universite de Rennes 1, Centre Regional de Lutte contre le Cancer, Rennes Cedex F 35062 (France)

    2004-03-29

    The effects of short-term gamma radiation on pea plants were investigated by exposing 5-day-old seedlings with doses ranging from 0 to 60 Gy, and studying plant growth and development over two generations after irradiation. Doses higher than 6 Gy significantly inhibited the G1 plant growth and productivity, and no seedling survived irradiation with 40 Gy and above. These effects were transmitted and were even more severe in the next generation, G2. Irradiated G1 ({>=}10 Gy) and G2 ({>=}0.4 Gy) plants were significantly smaller than controls. The mean number of pods produced per plant was reduced by at least 20% at all doses in both G1 and G2. In parallel, the mean numbers of ovules and normally developed seeds per pod were significantly reduced after 10 Gy in G1 and after 0.4 Gy in G2, leading to a significant drop in seed production. This effect was correlated with a linear decrease in male fertility linked to abnormal meiosis (tetrads with micronuclei) as a function of doses from 0 to 10 Gy, in G1 and G2 plants. These long-term changes in plant development demonstrate a genomic instability induced by irradiation. However, there were neither quantitative nor qualitative changes in storage proteins in G1 seeds at any of the irradiation doses tested from 0 to 10 Gy.

  16. Phenotypic variation in the agronomic and morphological traits of Pisum sativum L. germplasm obtained from different parts of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, M; Ghafoor, A; Khan, M R

    2011-01-01

    A total of 286 genotypes were collected from 39 countries of the world and were evaluated to determine the phenotypic diversity for 17 quantitative traits. Higher degree of coefficient of variation were recorded for grain yield(-5) (52.46%), biomass(-5) (45.73%), fresh pod width(-10) (47.24%), dry pod weight(-1) (40.33%), plant height(-1) (35.25%), harvest index (32.70%) and number of branches(-5). Cluster-II clearly reflected that late genotypes were having lightest pods weight, shortest pod width, and pod length; low grain yield, biomass and harvest index. While genotypes in Cluster-III were in contrast to Cluster-II having heaviest pods weight, longest pods width and length, highest grain yield, biomass and harvest index. Higher PC(-1) values have been determined for days to flower initiation which consequently were contributing weighed positive to days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance, days to plant harvesting while negatively contributed to yield producing traits, indicating that late flowering pea germplasm emphasizes more on the vegetative growth and was low yielding. However, higher PC(-2) values have been obtained for number of branches(-5), grain yield and biomass while lower values for days to flowering, days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance and days to plant harvesting confirming the fact that early genotypes were high yielding.

  17. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on pea (Pisum sativum L.) grown under field conditions in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new modulated lamp system is described. This system has successfully provided an ultraviolet-B (UV-B) supplement in proportion to ambient UV-B. The modulated system was used to simulate the UV-B environment resulting from an annual mean reduction of 15% in the stratospheric ozone under UK field conditions, but taking account of seasonal variation in depletion. The effects of this enhanced level of UV-B on the growth, physiology and yield of four cultivars of pea were assessed. Enhanced UV-B resulted in small reductions in the number of stems and total stem length per plant (respectively 4.7 and 8.7%). There were also significant decreases in the dry weight of peas (10.1%), pods (10.3%) and stems (7.8%) per plant. UV-B treatment had no effect on the number of peas per pod or average pea weight, but did significantly reduce (12.1%) the number of pods per plant. This decrease in pod number was partly due to enhanced abscission of pods during the final month of plant growth. UV-B treatment had no significant effect on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics or CO2 assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These results are consistent with previous controlled environment experiments, and suggest that reduction in yield may be due to direct effects of UV-B on plant growth rather than a decrease in photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area. (author)

  18. Analysis of Protein by Spectrophotometric and Computer Colour Based Intensity Method from Stem of Pea (Pisum sativum at Different Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Mushtaque Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study proteins were analyzed from pea plants at three different growth stages of stem by spectrophotometric i.e Lowry and Bradford quantitative methods and computer colour intensity based method. Though Spectrophotometric methods are regarded as classical methods, we report an alternate computer based method which gave comparable results. Computer software was developed the for protein analysis which is easier, time and money saving method as compared to the classical methods.

  19. Crop rotation as a factor differentiating the intensity of the diseases of field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz P. Kurowski; Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak; Tadeusz Sadowski

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1998-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health of the field pea cv. Kormoran grown in four various crop rotations and to determine the patogens causing the root-rot. On the pea plants the following diseases were found: root rot (complex of fungi), ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi, Phoma pinodella, Mycospaerella pinodes) and fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.). All the diseases occurred in the highest intensity on the pea cultivated in thre...

  20. Crop rotation as a factor differentiating the intensity of the diseases of field pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1998-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health of the field pea cv. Kormoran grown in four various crop rotations and to determine the patogens causing the root-rot. On the pea plants the following diseases were found: root rot (complex of fungi, ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi, Phoma pinodella, Mycospaerella pinodes and fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. All the diseases occurred in the highest intensity on the pea cultivated in three-field crop rotation without manure. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases. From the roots of seedlings with the symptoms of root rot 44,7% of fungi with pathogenic potential in relation to pea were obtained. The most commonly isolated were Fusarium oxysporum (26,7% of all isolates, Rhizoctonia solani (10,7%, F.solani (3,3%, F.avenaceum (2,7% and F.equiseti (1,3%. From the infected root necks, 55,3% of potential pathogens of field pea were obtained. Among the isolates the most commonly found was F.oxysporum (31,1% of all isolates. Other fungi of the Fusarium genus constituted 15,4% of isolates, R.solani 7,0%, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 1,8%.

  1. Effects of cadmium and copper on antioxidant capacities, lignification and auxin degradation in leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2005-01-01

    Twelve-day-old seedlings of pea were treated for four days by 20 and 100 microM of Cd(NO3)2 or CuSO4. In leaves, all treatments caused an increase in the lipoperoxidation product rate. However, 20 microM of Cu did not affect the growth. Moreover, except for 20 microM of Cu, the activity of unspecific peroxidases, used as stress marker, was enhanced in cell walls of metal-stressed plants. No change in the antioxidant capacities was observed in plants treated with 20 microM of metal. At this dose, the Cd-reduced growth could be associated to an elevation in the activities of IAA oxidase and of lignifying peroxidases. Increase of these latter, in concert with loss in antioxidant capacities, would be responsible for the growth diminution after exposure to 100 microM of metal. However, the activity of lignifying enzymes was not affected by 100 microM of Cu. The contribution of cell fractions to enzymatic responses to stress is emphasized. PMID:15714877

  2. Involvement of auxin and CKs in boron deficiency induced changes in apical dominance of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Römheld, Volker; Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2006-04-01

    It has previously been shown that boron (B) deficiency inhibits growth of the plant apex, which consequently results in a relatively weak apical dominance, and a subsequent sprouting of lateral buds. Auxin and cytokinins (CKs) are the two most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of apical dominance. In this study, the possible involvement of these two hormones in B-deficiency-induced changes in apical dominance was investigated by applying B or the synthetic CK CPPU to the shoot apex of pea plants grown in nutrient solution without B supply. Export of IAA out of the shoot apex, as well as the level of IAA, Z/ZR and isopentenyl-adenine/isopentenyl-adenosine (i-Ade/i-Ado) in the shoot apex were assayed. In addition, polar IAA transport capacity was measured in two internodes of different ages using 3H-IAA. In B-deficient plants, both the level of auxin and CKs were reduced, and the export of auxin from the shoot apex was considerably decreased relative to plants well supplied with B. Application of B to the shoot apex restored the endogenous Z/ZR and IAA level to control levels and increased the export of IAA from the shoot apex, as well as the 3H-IAA transport capacity in the newly developed internodes. Further, B application to the shoot apex inhibited lateral bud growth and stimulated lateral root formation, presumably by stimulated polar IAA transport. Applying CPPU to the shoot apex, a treatment that stimulates IAA export under adequate B supply, considerably reduced the endogenous Z/ZR concentration in the shoot apex, but had no stimulatory effect on IAA concentration and transport in B-deficient plants. A similar situation appeared to exist in lateral buds of B-deficient plants as, in contrast to plants well supplied with B, application of CKs to these plants did not stimulate lateral bud growth. In contrast to the changes of Z/ZR levels in the shoot apex, which occurred after application of B or CPPU, the levels of i-Ade/i-Ado stayed more or less constant. These results suggest that there is a complex interaction between B supply and plant hormones, with a B-deficiency-induced inhibition of IAA export from the shoot apex as one of the earliest measurable events. PMID:16330125

  3. Characterisation by proteomics of peribacteroid space and peribacteroid membrane preparations from pea (¤Pisum sativum¤) symbiosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalbach, G.; Erik, P.; Wienkoop, S.

    2002-01-01

    The legume Rhizobium symbiosis leads to the formation of a new compartment in the plant cell, the symbiosome. This compartment harbours the bacteroids surrounded by a peribacteroid membrane (PBM) originating from the plant plasma membrane. The PBM and the space between the PBM and the bacteroid...... membrane, called peribacteroid space (PS), mediate the exchange of metabolites between the symbionts. Proteome analysis was used as an approach to characterise the proteins in the PBM and the PS. A standard differential centrifugation procedure including a Percoll gradient was used for symbiosome isolation...

  4. Water deficit down-regulates miR398 and miR408 in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Živko; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Mikić, Aleksandar; Radović, Svetlana; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), recently recognized as important regulator of gene expression at posttranscriptional level, have been found to be involved in plant stress responses. The observation that some miRNAs are up- or down regulated by stress implies that they could play vital roles in plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. We investigated the effect of water stress treatment during 10 days on expression of conserved miRNAs-miR398a/b and miR408 in pea plants. This time frame reflects the changes as close as possible to the changes where water stress causes visible effects under field condition. It was observed that dehydration strongly down regulates the expression of both miR398a/b and miR408 in pea roots and shoots. The down-regulation of miR398a/b and the up-regulation of potential target genes - copper superoxide dismutase, CSD1, highlight the involvement of this miRNA in pea stress response. To the contrary, the mRNA level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 (COX5b) did not change in roots and shoots of water-stressed plants, compared to control (well) hydrated plants. This suggests that COX5b is not the target of miR398, or that its expression is regulated by some other mechanism. P1B-ATPase expression increased during water deficit only in the shoots of pea; in the roots there were no changes in expression. Our results help to understand the possible role of investigated miRNAs and their contribution to pea capacity to cope with water deficit.

  5. Accumulation of Phosphorus-Containing Compounds in Developing Seeds of Low-Phytate Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Shunmugam, Arun S.K.; Cheryl Bock; Arganosa, Gene C.; Fawzy Georges; Gray, Gordon R.; Warkentin, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Low phytic acid (lpa) crops are low in phytic acid and high in inorganic phosphorus (Pi). In this study, two lpa pea genotypes, 1-150-81, 1-2347-144, and their progenitor CDC Bronco were grown in field trials for two years. The lpa genotypes were lower in IP6 and higher in Pi when compared to CDC Bronco. The total P concentration was similar in lpa genotypes and CDC Bronco throughout the seed development. The action of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) (EC 5.5.1.4) is the first and rate-...

  6. Spatial location of photosystem pigment-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts of Pisum sativum studied by chlorophyll fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrastructure of plant chloroplasts was studied by a single-molecule spectroscopy setup at a temperature of 77 K exploring spatial location of photosystems. Two chloroplast thylakoid membrane regions were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and detected at different wavelengths. The size of these regions and the spatial resolution of the microscope allowed us to measure their chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra of these membrane domains. While the grana regions are characterized by a predominant presence of Photosystem II pigment-protein complexes emitting at 685 nm, Photosystem I complexes are localized in stroma regions and emit at 730 nm

  7. Soil and foliar zinc biofortification in field pea (Pisum sativum L.): Grain accumulation and bioavailability in raw and cooked grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblaciones, M J; Rengel, Z

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the potential of cooked field peas to be used in Zn biofortification programs, all combinations of soil Zn application of 0, 4 and 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) and foliar Zn application of 0 and two sprays of 0.25% or 0.5% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O before flowering and at early grain-filling stage were tested. Soil Zn application increased Zn-DTPA concentration 3.7- to 5.6-times depending on the Zn soil treatments. Grain Zn concentrations higher than 60mgZnkg(-1) were obtained with all foliar Zn applications, alone or in combination with soil Zn applications, and grain Zn bioavailability was adequate (phytate:Zn ratios lower than 15). Processing (freezing and cooking) caused a decrease of about 30% in grain Zn concentration and a 17%-increase in phytate:Zn ratios (to ⩽9.5). The combined application of 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) soil+0.25% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O foliarly could be a good option for biofortifying field peas. PMID:27374552

  8. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  9. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  10. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM- REVIEW OF ADVANCES IN PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidhusen H. Momin*, Sawapnil S. Acharya and Amit V. Gajjar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum Sativum family Umbelliferae is highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as the Dhanya. It is a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, small sized tree growing throughout India, Italy, Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe, China and Bangladesh. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The different parts of this plant contain monoterpenes, α-pinene, limpnene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, borneol, citronellol, camphor, geraniol, coriandrin, dihydrocoriandrin, coriandrons A-E, flavonoids and essential oils. Various parts of this plant such as seed, leaves, flower and fruit, possess antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti-mutagenic activity, anti-helmintic activity, sedative-hypnotic activity, anticonvulsant activity , diuretic activity, cholesterol lowering activity, protective role against lead toxicity, antifungal activity, anti-feeding activity, anticancer activity, anxiolytic activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-protozoal activity, anti-ulcer activity, post-coital anti-fertility activity, heavy metal detoxification. Various phytopharmacological evaluations have been reported in this literature for the important potential of the Coriandrum sativum.

  11. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organ...

  12. Inhibition and stimulation of root respiration in pisum and plantago by hydroxamate : its consequences for the assessment of alternative path activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, R; Blacquière, T

    1984-07-01

    The contribution of the alternative pathway in root respiration of Pisum sativum L. cv Rondo, Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. ssp major was determined by titration with salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) in the absence and presence of cyanide. SHAM completely inhibited the cyanide-resistant component of root respiration at 5 to 10 millimolar with an apparent K(i) of 600 micromolar. In contrast, SHAM enhanced pea root respiration by 30% at most, at concentrations below 15 millimolar. An unknown oxidase appeared to be responsible for this stimulation. Its maximum activity in the presence of low SHAM concentrations (1-5 millimolar) was 40% of control respiration rate in pea roots, since 25 millimolar SHAM resulted in 10% inhibition. In plantain roots, the maximum activity was found to be 15%. This hydroxamate-activated oxidase was distinct from the cytochrome path by its resistance to antimycin. The results of titrations with cyanide and antimycin indicated that high SHAM concentrations (up to 25 millimolar) block the hydroxamate-activated oxidase, but do not affect the cytochrome path and, therefore, are a reliable tool for estimating the activity of the alternative path in vivo. A considerable fraction of root respiration was mediated by the alternative path in plantain (45%) and pea (15%), in the latter because of the saturation of the cytochrome path.

  13. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  14. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, S.; Gibbs, R. A.; Gerardo, N. M.;

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first...... published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we...... include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired...

  15. Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nagdy, Sohair A.; Abdel-Rahman, M. O.; Heiba, H. I. [حلمي اسماعيل هيبة

    1988-01-01

    Homogenized garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) was extracted successively with organic solvents and the prostaglandin-rich fraction separated. Fractionation of the extract with column chromatography was performed. TLC of the extract indicated that prostaglandin like materials could be present. GC analysis detected prostaglandins A2 and F1? in the extract. This conclusion was confirmed by enrichment procedures using GC. Wiley Online Library

  16. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  17. Biological activities of Allium sativum essential oil against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaubey Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Allium sativum was isolated and investigated for its repellent, insecticidal, ovipositional and egg hatching inhibition activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). A. sativum essential oil repelled bruchid adults at a very low concentration in choice oviposition assay. A. sativum essential oil caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults in a concentration dependent manner. Oviposition potency of C. chinensis adults...

  18. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene Family of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-peng; LIN Ke-jian; LIU Yang; GUI Fu-rong; WANG Gui-rong

    2013-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) are cholinergic receptors that form ligand-gated ion channels by ifve subunits in insect and vertebrate nervous systems. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Here, we identiifed and cloned 11 candidate nAChR subunit genes in Acyrthosiphon pisum using genome-based bioinformatics combined modern molecular techniques. Most A. pisum nAChRs including α1, α2, α3, α4, α6, α8, and β1 show highly sequence identities with the counterparts of other insects examined. Expression proifles analysis showed that all subunit genes were expressed in adult head. At least two subunits have alternative splicing that obviously increase A. pisum nicotinic receptor diversity. This study will be invaluable for exploring the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid-like insecticides in sucking pests, and for ultimately establishing the screening platform of novel insecticides.

  19. The role of malate in the synthesis of glutamate in Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dorosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo and in vitro activities of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase in excised Pisum arvense roots increased several-fold under the influence of malate while pyruvate oxaloacctate. citrate and succinate inhibited this entyme. The plastids isolated from Pisum arvense root,. ahen incubated with glutamine and α-ketoglutarate, released glutamate into the medium Malate clearly stimulated this process. Albizziin (25 mM completely reduced the presence of glutamate in the incubation mixture. These results indicate that reduced pyridine nucleotides arising in P. arvense root plastids during oxidation of malic acid may constitute the indispensable source of electrons for glutamic acid synthesis.

  20. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (L. is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic.

  1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Parađiković; Tomislav Vinković; Ivna Štolfa; Monika Tkalec; Elizabeta Has-Schön; Iva Andračić; Lea Parađiković; Jasna Kraljičak

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L.), have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cult...

  2. Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A review of potential therapeutic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae), one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase), sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacter...

  3. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Alka Mukne

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various b...

  4. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez; Sahily Rojas Pérez; Nilvia Norma Agüero Batista

    2016-01-01

    Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los ...

  5. Medicago truncatula, an intergenomic vehicle for the map-based cloning of pea (Pisum sativum) genes. Comparative structural genomic studies of the pea Sym2-Nod3 region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualtieri González-Latorre, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of M. truncatula as intergenomic vehicle for the positional cloning of pea genes it was studied whether these legumes are microsyntenic. These studies were focused on the pea Sym2 and Nod3 genomic regions. The M. truncatula orthologous genomic regions have been cloned and

  6. Medicago truncatula, an intergenomic vehicle for the map-based cloning of pea (Pisum sativum) genes. Comparative structural genomic studies of the pea Sym2-Nod3 region

    OpenAIRE

    Gualtieri González-Latorre, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of M. truncatula as intergenomic vehicle for the positional cloning of pea genes it was studied whether these legumes are microsyntenic. These studies were focused on the pea Sym2 and Nod3 genomic regions. The M. truncatula orthologous genomic regions have been cloned and it was shown that these regions of the two legumes are microsyntenic. Both Sym2 and Nod3 play a key role in the pea- Rhizobium symbiosis, controlling Nod factor-structure dependent infection and a...

  7. Aspectos da tolerância salina em Pisum sativum L.: influência da nutrição azotada

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Etelvina Maria de Almeida Paula

    2000-01-01

    Os habitats salinos são caracterizados pela presença de quantidades de sais solúveis que são prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento da maioria das plantas. Cerca de 7% da superfície total de terra contém solos afectados pela salinidade. A tolerância salina das plantas baseia-se na manutenção de baixas concentrações citoplasmáticas, uma vez que o seu metabolismo é afectado pela presença de iões de Na+ e Cl- em excesso. Os mecanismos que as plantas utilizam para manterem as con...

  8. Utjecaj agroekoloških uvjeta i starosti sjemena na prinos i kakvoću zrna stočnog graška (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rapčan, Irena; Bukvić, Gordana; Grljušić, Sonja; TEKLIĆ, Tihana; Jurišić, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    Tijekom dvije godine istraživan je utjecaj agroekoloških uvjeta uzgoja i starosti sjemena na poljsko nicanje, prinos zrna, formiranje nadzemne vegetativne mase, količinu suhe tvari nadzemne vegetativne mase, masu 1 000 zrna i prinos sirovih bjelančevina u zrnu stočnog graška. Poljski pokus postavljen je na dvije lokacije (Osijek i Vinkovci) eutričnog smeđeg tla istočne Hrvatske po shemi slučajnog bloka u četiri ponavljanja. Za sjetvu je korišteno sjeme jarog češkog kultivara "Zekon" različite...

  9. The effect of calcium and pH on nickel accumulation in and rhizotoxicity to pea (Pisum sativum L.) root-empirical relationships and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yonghong, E-mail: yonghong.wu@mail.mcgill.c [Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada); Hendershot, William H. [Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The accumulation and rhizotoxicity of Ni to pea were investigated. Calcium, H, and Ni competed for root-binding sites with high pH and low Ca favoring more Ni accumulation. At low pH, Ca accumulation is the key factor determining root growth, while at medium to high pH, root elongation is more sensitive to Ni concentration. The tissue concentration of Ni and Ca ([Ni]t or [Ca]t, mumol g{sup -1} dry root) can be predicted from total dissolved Ni ([Ni]{sub T}, muM), pH, and total dissolved Ca ([Ca]{sub T}, mM) by two approaches. Approach 1 is the empirical equations [Ni]t = (0.361 pH-0.695[Ca]{sub T})*[Ni]{sub T} and [Ca]t = 8.29 pH + 10.8 [Ca]{sub T}. The second approach involves a two-step model. The surface-bound Ni and Ca are estimated from a surface adsorption model with binding constants derived from independent ion adsorption experiments. Then transfer functions are used to predict internal root Ni and Ca accumulation. - Root accumulation of Ni and its effect on root elongation are mediated by H{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} in solution.

  10. Highly Potent Extracts from Pea (Pisum sativum) and Maize (Zea mays) Roots Can Be Used to Induce Quiescence in Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Hiltpold, Ivan; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-09-01

    Root exudates can play an important role in plant-nematode interactions. Recent studies have shown that the root cap exudates obtained from several plant species trigger a state of dormancy or quiescence in various genera of nematodes. This phenomenon is not only of fundamental ecological interest, but also has application potential if the plant-produced compound(s) could be used to control harmful nematodes or help to prolong the shelf-life of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The identification of the compound(s) involved in quiescence induction has proven to be a major challenge and requires large amounts of active material. Here, we present a high-throughput method to obtain bioactive root extracts from flash-frozen root caps of green pea and maize. The root cap extract obtained via this method was considerably more potent in inducing quiescence than exudate obtained by a previously used method, and consistently induced quiescence in the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis, even after a 30-fold dilution. Extracts obtained from the rest of the root were equally effective in inducing quiescence. Infective juveniles (IJs) of H. megidis exposed to these extracts readily recovered from their quiescent state as soon as they were placed in moist soil, and they were at least as infectious as the IJs that had been stored in water. Excessive exposure of IJs to air interfered with the triggering of quiescence. The implications of these results and the next steps towards identification of the quiescence-inducing compound(s) are discussed from the perspective of applying EPN against soil-dwelling insect pests.

  11. Relations between the crude protein content and the amino acid profile of organically produced field beans (Vicia faba L.) and field peas (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Organic Farming, grain legumes are important protein feedstuffs. There are hints indicating that the amino acid (AA) profile is affected by factors associated with varying crude protein (CP) contents of crops. The knowledge on this relationship between CP and AA profile needs to be extended to optimize feeding strategies for monogastrics as well as the selection of cultivars and varieties in fodder crop cultivation. Therefore, samples of 67 field beans (Vicia faba L.) and 86 field peas (Pi...

  12. Effect of phosphate and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas ( Pisum sativum ) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Lars; Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of inorganic phosphate levels and the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on disease severity of Aphanomyces euteiches in pea roots were studied. Disease severity on roots and epicotyl as well as the oospore number within infected root tissue were correlated with the phosphorus (P) level...... in the growth medium. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices increased P uptake and the P concentration in the plant but reduced disease development in peas. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by densitometry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase specific to A.euteiches was used...... to measure the activity of the pathogen in roots. The enzyme activity increased with disease severity and disease incidence, except in plants supplemented with P at the highest level, where a peak in activity was seen 12 days after inoculation with the pathogen, followed by a decrease in activity...

  13. LATHYROIDES, Encoding a WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox1 Transcription Factor, Controls Organ Lateral Growth, and Regulates Tendril and Dorsal Petal Identities in Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Zhuang; Mike Ambrose; Catherine Rameau; Lin Weng; Jun Yang; Xiao-He Hu; Da Luo; Xin Li

    2012-01-01

    During organ development,many key regulators have been identified in plant genomes,which play a conserved role among plant species to control the organ identities and/or determine the organ size and shape.It is intriguing whether these key regulators can acquire diverse function and be integrated into different molecular pathways among different species,giving rise to the immense diversity of organ forms in nature.In this study,we have characterized and cloned LATHYROIDES (LATH),a classical locus in pea,whose mutation displays pleiotropic alteration of lateral growth of organs and predominant effects on tendril and dorsal petal development.LATH encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox1 (WOX1) transcription factor,which has a conserved function in determining organ lateral growth among different plant species.Furthermore,we showed that LATH regulated the expression level of TENDRIL-LESS (TL),a key factor in the control of tendril development in compound leaf,and LATH genetically interacted with LOBED STANDARD (LST),a floral dorsal factor,to affect the dorsal petal identity.Thus,LATH plays multiple roles during organ development in pea:it maintains a conserved function controlling organ lateral outgrowth,and modulates organ identities in compound leaf and zygomorphic flower development,respectively.Our data indicated that a key regulator can play important roles in different aspects of organ development and dedicate to the complexity of the molecular mechanism in the control of organ development so as to create distinct organ forms in different species.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST FROM KITCHEN WASTE ON THE YIELD-ENHANCING CHARACTERISTICS OF PEAS PISUM SATIVUM L. VAR. SACCHARATUM SER. BAJKA VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Pączka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W and (10W – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5. Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out to be useful in the cultivation of peas. No significant differences in the impact of all the analysed substrates on the sprouting of this plant were found. A 10% vermicompost addition (10W was shown to be the most favourable substrate. Its positive influence was shown in the impact on the increase of total average mass (by 33%; p<0.001 and height of the plants (by 12%; p<0.05 and average mass (by 39%; p<0.001 and length (by 12%; p<0.05 of stems.

  15. Modulation by phytochrome of the blue light-induced extracellular acidification by leaf epidermal cells of pea (Pisum sativum L.) : a kinetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    2000-01-01

    Blue light induces extracellular acidification, a prerequisite of cell expansion, in epidermis cells of young pea leaves, by stimulation of the proton pumping-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. A transient acidification, reaching a maximum 2.5-5 min after the start of the pulse, could be induce

  16. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS CONTENT IN COLOURED PEAS (PISUM SATIVUM L. IN RELATION TO CULTIVAR’S DEPENDENCE AND STORAGE DURATION UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Vollmannová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  Our attention is being given especially to four representative flavonoids: kaempherol, apigenin, genistein and daidzein. These flavonoids were studied in the seeds of colored varieties of dry pea. Isocratic HPLC analysis with DAD detection after acid hydrolysis of samples was performed. The differences of flavonoid contents in individual pea varieties were not significant. The determined values of  flavonoids in green peas were: daidzein 1,746-2,688 mg.kg-1, genistein  0,412-0,706 mg.kg-1, kaempherol 0,621-1,484 mg.kg-1, apigenin 0,261-0,479 mg.kg-1. Yellow varieties of pea contained between 0,375-0,779 mg.kg-1 daidzein, 0,115-0,158 mg.kg-1 genistein, kaempherol 0,742-1,314 mg.kg-1, apigenin  0,462-0,698 mg.kg-1. Also the changes in content of chosen flavonoids in pea in the dependence on variety in dried legumes stored under natural conditions were surveyed. From the results it came out that in interval 7 month the content of all observed flavonoids declined in dry material (in some cases even to non-detectable levels.  doi:10.5219/70 

  17. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS CONTENT IN COLOURED PEAS (PISUM SATIVUM L.) IN RELATION TO CULTIVAR’S DEPENDENCE AND STORAGE DURATION UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Vollmannová; Mária Timoracká

    2010-01-01

     Our attention is being given especially to four representative flavonoids: kaempherol, apigenin, genistein and daidzein. These flavonoids were studied in the seeds of colored varieties of dry pea. Isocratic HPLC analysis with DAD detection after acid hydrolysis of samples was performed. The differences of flavonoid contents in individual pea varieties were not significant. The determined values of  flavonoids in green peas were: daidzein 1,746-2,688 mg.kg-1, genistein  0,412-0...

  18. Proteomic analysis of embryonic axis of Pisum sativum seeds during germination and identification of proteins associated with loss of desiccation tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is an important stage in life cycle of higher plants. The germination processes and its associated loss of desiccation tolerance, however, are still poorly understood. In present study, pea seeds were used to study changes in embryonic axis proteome during germination by 2-DE and...

  19. Cloning of genes whose expression is correlated with mitosis and localized in dividing cells in root caps of Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H H; Hawes, M C

    1997-12-01

    Removal of border cells from pea roots synchronizes and induces root cap cell division, wall biogenesis and differentiation. Three messages which are expressed differentially in such induced root caps have been cloned. Sequence analyses showed that the PsHRGP1-encoded protein has high homology with a homology with a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein. The PsCaP23-encoded protein has high homology with an alfalfa callus protein or translationally controlled human or mouse tumor protein P23. The PsRbL41-encoded protein has high homology with a highly basic 60S ribosomal protein L41. In situ hybridization showed that PsHRGP1. PsCaP23 and PsRbL41 messages are localized within dividing cells of the root cap. PsHRGP1 is highly expressed in uninduced root caps, but its message is repressed by 10-11 times as soon as cell division and differentiation begin. Expression of PsHRGP1 recovers to higher than (180%) its initial level in 30 min. PsHRGP1 is root-specific. PsCaP23 and PsRbL41 messages increase ca. 3-fold within 15 min after root cap induction. All three genes represent small families of 3-5 closely related genes in the pea genome.

  20. Lipid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L. and maize (Zea mays L. root plasma membrane and membrane-bound peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukavica Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane was isolated from roots of pea and maize plants and used to analyze POD and SOD isoforms, as well as lipid composition. Among lipids, phospholipids were the main lipid class, with phosphatidylcho­line being the most abundant individual component in both pea and maize plasma membranes. Significant differences between the two plant species were found in the contents of cerebrosides, free sterols, and steryl glycosides. Most maize POD isoforms were with neutral and anionic pI values, but the opposite was observed in pea. While both anionic and cationic SOD isoforms were isolated from maize, only two anionic SOD isoforms were detected in pea.

  1. The effect of the application of the biological control agent EM1 on gas exchange parameters and productivity of Pisum sativum L. infected with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Okorski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment on different methods of EM 1 application was conducted in the period 2002-2004. The study was carried out under controlled growth conditions. The experimental factor was the method of EM1 application. Before application, the biological preparation EM1 was propagated as recommended by the manufacturer (Greenland. The health status of the aboveground parts of 'Ramrod' pea plants was estimated at the flowering stage. The assessment of pea leaf gas exchange parameters (An, E, Gs, and Ci was made using a LI-Cor 6400 Portable Photosynthesis System. Soil application of EM1 combined with chemical control contributed to inhibiting Fusarium wilt of pea. Foliar application of EM1 combined with chemical control increased all gas exchange rates of pea leaves. Fusarium wilt of pea insignificantly decreased all gas exchange rates of pea leaves and the number of seeds per pod. The best method of EM1 application was soil treatment combined with chemical control, which increased all yield-related morphometric parameters of pea.

  2. Can sucrose content in the phloem sap reaching field pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) be an accurate indicator of seed growth potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential.

  3. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  4. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.;

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... acquisition AM decreased rhizosphere respiration and number of protozoa but did not affect bacterial number suggesting top-down regulation of bacterial number by protozoan grazing. In contrast, during flowering and pod formation AM stimulated rhizosphere respiration and the negative effect on protozoa...

  5. Sensitive Concentration of Al~(3+) to Root Tip of Pea(Pisum sativum)%豌豆根尖铝毒的敏感浓度探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽烂; 喻敏; 王惠珍; 刘家友; 刘莉莉

    2010-01-01

    以不同浓度Al~(3+)处理豌豆幼根根尖,24 h后通过测定幼根的相对伸长率、不同根段的胼胝质含量、POD活性同时结合苏木精染色,探讨不同浓度Al~(3+)对豌豆根尖生长的影响.结果表明:幼根伸长明显受到抑制,苏木精染色的颜色也随Al~(3+)浓度上升而加深;不同根段的胼胝质含量明显增加,当Al~(3+)浓度大于50μmol/L后,差异达到显著;幼根的POD活性显著降低.说明Al~(3+)抑制豌豆幼根的生长,其敏感浓度为50μmol/L.

  6. 引进豌豆品种的比较与评价%Comparison and Evaluation on Introduced Peas (Pisum sativum L.)Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞; 彭昭欣; 陈禅友

    2015-01-01

    为筛选适宜武汉地区种植的豌豆新品种,对引进国外的9份豌豆品种资源与3个本地品种(对照组),开展品种比较试验。通过观测田间生产性能和营养品质,进行综合分析评价,选出综合性状优良品种3个,可入选开展区域试验;同时选出生长习性和荚色具有特异性状的品种2个,可作种质资源加以利用。%To screen new peas cultivars whichare suitable for Wuhan district ,a field trial was conducted with 9 introduced pea cultivars from abroad and 3 local cultivars as a control group. The author Analyzed the data of field performance and nutrient ingredients,three cultivars with excellent comprehensive characters can be selected into next regional test ,two cultivars with special traits in growth habit and pod color were considered as useful germplasm resources.

  7. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was soil. Significant reduction in galling, egg production and population density of M. incognita observed when furfural was applied at rates >0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides. PMID:27133267

  8. Zoospore Homing and Infection Events: Effects of the Biocontrol Bacterium Burkholderia cepacia AMMDR1 on Two Oomycete Pathogens of Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Heungens, K; Parke, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia AMMDR1 is a biocontrol agent that protects pea and sweet corn seeds from Pythium damping-off in field experiments. The goal of this work was to understand the effect of B. cepacia AMMDR1 on Pythium aphanidermatum and Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore homing events and on infection of pea seeds or roots. In vitro, B. cepacia AMMDR1 caused zoospore lysis, prevented cyst germination, and inhibited germ tube growth of both oomycetes. B. cepacia AMMDR1 also reduced the attractive...

  9. Zoospore homing and infection events: effects of the biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia AMMDR1 on two oomycete pathogens of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heungens, K; Parke, J L

    2000-12-01

    Burkholderia cepacia AMMDR1 is a biocontrol agent that protects pea and sweet corn seeds from Pythium damping-off in field experiments. The goal of this work was to understand the effect of B. cepacia AMMDR1 on Pythium aphanidermatum and Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore homing events and on infection of pea seeds or roots. In vitro, B. cepacia AMMDR1 caused zoospore lysis, prevented cyst germination, and inhibited germ tube growth of both oomycetes. B. cepacia AMMDR1 also reduced the attractiveness of seed exudates to Pythium zoospores to nondetectable levels. However, when present at high levels on seeds, B. cepacia AMMDR1 had little net effect on zoospore attraction, probably because it also enhanced seed exudation. Seed-applied B. cepacia AMMDR1 dramatically reduced the incidence of infection by Pythium zoospores in situ compared with an antibiosis-deficient Tn5 mutant strain. This mutant strain also decreased Pythium infection incidence to some extent, but only when the pathogen inoculum potential was low. B. cepacia AMMDR1 did not affect attraction of Aphanomyces zoospores or Aphanomyces root rot incidence. These results suggest that B. cepacia AMMDR1 controls P. aphanidermatum largely through antibiosis, but competition for zoospore-attracting compounds can contribute to the effect. Differences in suppression of Aphanomyces and Pythium are discussed in relation to differences in the ecology of the two pathogens. PMID:11097889

  10. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P electron flow through nitrogenase, which is not wasted in H2 production but used...... for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P electrons to H2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation...... that the (C2H2-H2)/N2 conversion factor tended to be lower than 3, suggests that the C2H2reduction assay underestimates the total electron flow through nitrogenase....

  11. Sėjamojo žirnio (Pisum sativum L.) grybinių ligų žalingumas, jų prevencija ir kontrolė

    OpenAIRE

    Česnulevičienė, Rūta

    2012-01-01

    Research objective and experimental tasks. The study was designed to explore the incidence and severity of root and foot rots and ascochyta blight in field pea crops and to identify the measures and practices for the prevention and control of the diseases caused by the pathogens of Ascochyta complex. Experimental tasks: - To identify the susceptibility of various field pea varieties to root and foot rots and ascochyta blight under different agro-ecological conditions. - To establish the effec...

  12. Hormone interactions and regulation of Unifoliata, PsPK2, PsPIN1 and LE gene expression in pea (Pisum sativum) shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fang; DeMason, Darleen A

    2006-07-01

    The Unifoliata (Uni) gene plays a major role in development of the compound leaf in pea, but its regulation is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of plant hormones on the expression of Uni, PsPK2 (the gene for a pea homolog of Arabidopsis PID, a regulator of PIN1 targeting), PsPIN1 (the major gene for a putative auxin efflux carrier) and LE (a gibberellin biosynthesis gene, GA3ox), and also examined mutual hormonal regulation of these genes, in pea shoot tips, including a number of mutants. The Uni promoter possessed putative auxin and gibberellin response elements. The PsPIN1 mRNA levels were increased in afila, which replaces leaflets with branched tendrils; and reduced in tendrilless, which replaces tendrils with leaflets, compared with the wild type (WT). In contrast, mRNA levels of LE were increased in uni and tendrilless and decreased in afila compared with the WT. Uni, PsPK2 and PsPIN1 are positively regulated by gibberellin and auxin, and were induced to higher levels by simultaneous application of auxin and gibberellin. Auxin induction of Uni, PsPK2 and PsPIN1 did not require de novo protein synthesis. LE was positively regulated by auxin and cytokinin. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis that auxin and gibberellin positively regulate Uni, which controls pea compound leaf development. Also, Uni, PsPIN1, PsPK2 and LE are expressed differentially in the leaf mutants, suggesting that mutual regulation by auxin and gibberellin promotes compound leaf development. PMID:16760220

  13. Influence of gibberellic acid on the growth and flowering initiation of two types of peas (Pisum sativum L. differing in photoperiod response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Łukasik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that GA3 (0.03 mg per one plant caused significant delay of the flowering of two different genotypes of peas under conditions of an increasing natural day length (March - May. It was expressed both in a greater number of vegetative nodes and in a greater number of days to the first flower. Under conditions of a decreasing day length (August - November most of G type plants treated with GA3 reacted with complete inhibition of the flowering. In K type pea, GA3 treatment in the discussed conditions affected only the number of days from the sowing time to the appearence of the first flower. This stage was greater in treated plants in comparison with the control ones.

  14. Fungi isolated from soil before the seeding and after harvest of pea (Pisum sativum L. after application of bio-control product EM 1 TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Okorski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed during the years 2003- -2005. An influence of EM (Effective Microorganisms on the composition and number of fungi isolated from soil was found in the experiment. A total of 18111 fungal cultures were isolated from the roots of pea at flowering stage. The highest amount and the lowest diversity of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere of pea treated with pesticides (3257 colonies. The greatest diversity of fungi was found in the case of rhizosphere and rhizoplane, where EM was used in soil with the supplement of pesticides. The greatest amount and diversity of fungi were found from the plant roots of the control object. During the flowering stage, the fungi most frequently isolated from soil belonged to the genus Penicillium (40.78% of all isolates and Fusarium (33.37% of all isolates.

  15. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was furfural. The same furfural concentrations after 12 h caused 57.25% loss of viability in J2. Moreover, the penetration rate of juveniles to pea roots was suppressed when furfural was even applied at low rates. In pot experiments, furfural was applied as liquid (direct) or vapor (indirect) treatments at rates of 0-1.5 ml/kg soil. Significant reduction in galling, egg production and population density of M. incognita observed when furfural was applied at rates >0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides.

  16. RED AND BLUE LIGHT-STIMULATED PROTON EFFLUX BY EPIDERMAL LEAF-CELLS OF THE ARGENTEUM MUTANT OF PISUM-SATIVUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAAL, M; ELZENGA, JTM; VANELK, AG; PRINS, HBA; VANVOLKENBURGH, E

    1994-01-01

    Light stimulates leaf expansion in dicotyledons by increasing apoplastic acidification, cell wall loosening and solute accumulation for turgor maintenance. Red and blue light enhance growth via different photosystems, but the cellular location and modes of action of these systems is not known. Here,

  17. Spatial variation of N-2-fixation in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the field scale determined by the N-15 natural abundance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Holdensen, Lars; Wulfsohn, D.;

    2010-01-01

    pea dry matter production and humus content, potassium content (collinear with humus) and total N in the 0–25 cm topsoil. No correlation was found between any individual soil property and %Ndfa or kg N fixed ha−1. It was not possible to create a satisfactory global multi-regression model for the field...

  18. The intracellular localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dorosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria and plastids were isolated from Pisum arvense root cells by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The individual subcellular fractions so obtained were subjected to isoelectric focusing on cellulose acetate strips. Mitochondria and plastids each contained one NAD -malate dehydrogenase, while three isoenzymes were associated with the supernatant.

  19. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only mean

  20. Genome sequence of vanilla distortion mosaic virus infecting Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, I P; Rai, S; Deka, M; Harju, V; Hodges, T; Hayward, G; Skelton, A; Fox, A; Boonham, N

    2014-12-01

    The 9573-nucleotide genome of a potyvirus was sequenced from a Coriandrum sativum plant from India with viral symptoms. On analysis, this virus was shown to have greater than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to vanilla distortion mosaic virus (VDMV). Analysis of the putative coat protein sequence confirmed that this virus was in fact VDMV, with greater than 91 % amino acid sequence identity. The genome appears to encode a 3083-amino-acid polyprotein potentially cleaved into the 10 mature proteins expected in potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that VDMV is a distinct but ungrouped member of the genus Potyvirus.

  1. Genome sequence of vanilla distortion mosaic virus infecting Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, I P; Rai, S; Deka, M; Harju, V; Hodges, T; Hayward, G; Skelton, A; Fox, A; Boonham, N

    2014-12-01

    The 9573-nucleotide genome of a potyvirus was sequenced from a Coriandrum sativum plant from India with viral symptoms. On analysis, this virus was shown to have greater than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to vanilla distortion mosaic virus (VDMV). Analysis of the putative coat protein sequence confirmed that this virus was in fact VDMV, with greater than 91 % amino acid sequence identity. The genome appears to encode a 3083-amino-acid polyprotein potentially cleaved into the 10 mature proteins expected in potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that VDMV is a distinct but ungrouped member of the genus Potyvirus. PMID:25252813

  2. STUDY OF ANTIDEPRESSANT LIKE EFFECT OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM AND INVOLVEMENT OF MONOAMINONERGIC AND GABANERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naikwade Nilofer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine possible mechanism of action of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed central nervous system of mice. We investigated the antidepressant-like mechanism of Coriandrum sativum by the combination of the Sulpiride (a selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, Prazosin (a α1 adrenoceptor antagonist, and Baclofen (GABA agonist. The results show that Coriandrum sativum (200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg, p.o., significantly reduced the immobility time during Tail Suspension Test (TST. We also investigated the antidepressant-like mechanism of Coriandrum sativum by the combination of Sulpiride (a selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, Prazosin (a α1 adrenoceptor antagonist, and Baclofen (GABA agonist. The immobility time after treatment with Coriandrum sativum (200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg, p.o. in TST was augmented by Sulpiride, Baclofen, Prazosin. Our findings support the view that Coriandrum sativum exerts antidepressant-like effect. And the mechanism of action of Coriandrum sativum may be related to the increase in Nor adrenaline and serotonin levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.

  3. Linkages in Pisum L. Pt. 7. Locus for the sterile gene calf (cabbage leaf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recessive, pleiotropic gene calf, artificially induced was described by Sharma in 1975. An identical mutant gene at the same locus was isolated in this research. Two lines were included in the Pisum gene bank - the type line for the gene calf - Wt 15873 and the representative line - Wt 16024. In linkage studies the representative line was crossed with tester lines bearing gene markers. Analyses of dihybrid segregation in F2 generations revealed linkages of the gene calf with chromosome 2 markers. Two isozymic markers helped to reveal the calf locus on chromosome 2 with the following order: Orp - Calf - K Pgm-p Fum. This is agriment with the current Pisum linkage map

  4. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    OpenAIRE

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis; Thany, Steeve H.; Tricoire-Leignel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and ...

  5. Sources of reducing equivalents for nitrite reductase in Pisum arvense roots

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna Kłobus

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate and NADP+ as well as malic acid and NADP+ present in the incubation mixture enhanced nitrite reductase (EC 1.6.6.4) activity in Pisum arvense roots. This was manifested by a depression of the nitrite level in the tissues and an increased reduction of nitrites by plastids isolated from P. arvense roots. A marked stimulation of plastid malate dehydrogenase was also observed under the influence of nitrates present in the medium. These results suggest that pyridin nucleotides ...

  6. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26036599

  7. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2011-09-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.

  8. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H. D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only means available for expansion of the genetic variability with regard to yield, quality, tolerance to biotic and abiotic traits, as well as flowering and possibly fertility restoration. A large number o...

  9. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. Th...

  10. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Leon Rubi; Vera-Ku Marina; Peraza-Sanchez Sergio R.; Ku-Chulim Carlos; Horta-Baas Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo...

  11. Protective Effect of Allium sativum against Liver Injury Induced by Anti-Tubercular Drugs in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, B; A.M. Wudil

    2012-01-01

    Allium sativum has been reported to have a lot of therapeutic potentials such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial and hypocholesterolemic. This study has investigated its effect on anti-tubercular drugs hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were pretreated and co-administered orally with aqueous solution of Allium sativum. Eighteen rats were divided into six groups of three rats each. Group 1 were normal, while Group 2 were test control administered with anti-tubercular drugs; isoniazid (27 mg/kg...

  12. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  13. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. PMID:26901781

  14. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer. PMID:25776008

  15. In vitro investigation of the toxic effects of extracts of Allium sativum bulbs on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus

    OpenAIRE

    F. Nchu; S.R. Magano; Eloff, J N

    2005-01-01

    The toxic effects of the extracts of Allium sativum (Garlic) were evaluated against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus using three types (Types A, B and C) of contact toxicity bioassays. A. sativum bulbs were extracted with acetone, ethanol and dichloromethane (DCM) solvents. Among these three solvents, it is the DCM extract of A. sativum that appears to have anti-tick activity. In the Type A contact toxicity bioassay, DCM extracts of A. sativum demonstrated a ...

  16. Coriander(Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: chemistry and biological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada; Mandal; Manisha; Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum L.(C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in dif erent parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in dif erent ways, viz., in foods(like l avoring and preservatives) and in pharmaceutical products(therapeutic action) as well as in perfumes(fragancias and lotions). The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientii c research published in dif erent web-based journals.

  17. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. against acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Adult male NMRI mice were used. They were orally administered soft extracts of the plants at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg for three consecutive days before inducing hepatotoxicity. Clinical signs of toxicity and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated; in addition, the morphological analysis of the liver was performed. Results: the biochemical parameters showed highly significant differences, but only three groups had results similar to the untreated control group. No macroscopic changes in the liver were confirmed. Microscopically, the absence of histopathological changes prevailed in the groups treated with Ocimum basilicum L. at both doses and Allium sativum L. at 200mg/kg; slight damage was observed by administering 400mg/kg of Allium sativum L., with significant differences from the untreated control group. Conclusions: soft extracts of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. at a dose of 200mg/kg have greater hepatoprotective activity against the toxic action of acetaminophen.

  18. Studies on the mitotic chromosome scaffold of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJIAN; SHAOBOJIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    An argentophilic structure is present in the metaphase chromosomes of garlic(Allium sativum),Cytochemical studies indicate that the main component of the structure is non-histone proteins(NHPs).The results of light and electron microscopic observations reveal that the chromosme NHP scaffold is a network which is composed of fibres and granules and distributed throughout the chromosomes.In the NHP network,there are many condensed regions that are connected by redlatively looser regions.The distribution of the condensed regions varies in individual chromosomes.In some of the chromosomes the condensed regions are lognitudinally situsted in the central part of a chromatid while in others these regions appear as coillike transverse bands.At early metaphase.scaffolds of the sister chromatids of a chromosome are linked to each other in the centromeric region,meanwhile,they are connected by scafold materials along the whole length of the chromosome.At late metaphase,however,the connective scaffold materials between the two sister chromatids disappear gradually and the chromatids begin to separate from one another at their ends.but the chromatids are linked together in the centromeric region until anaphase.This connection seems to be related to the special structure of the NHP scaffold formed in the centromeric region.The morphological features and dynamic changes of the chromosome scaffold are discussed.

  19. Prevalence of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum disliking among different ethnocultural groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauer Lilli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilantro, the leaf of the Coriandrum sativum plant, is an herb that is widely consumed globally and has purported health benefits ranging from antibacterial to anticancer activities. Some individuals report an extreme dislike for cilantro, and this may explain the different cilantro consumption habits between populations. However, the prevalence of cilantro dislike has not previously been reported in any population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cilantro dislike among different ethnocultural groups from a population of young adults living in Canada. Subjects (n = 1,639 between the ages of 20 and 29 years were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Individuals rated their preference for cilantro on a 9-point scale from ‘dislike extremely’ to ‘like extremely’. Subjects also had the option to select ‘have not tried’ or ‘would not try’. Subjects who selected 1 to 4 were classified as disliking cilantro. Results The prevalence of dislike ranged from 3 to 21%. The proportion of subjects classified as disliking cilantro was 21% for East Asians, 17% for Caucasians, 14% for those of African descent, 7% for South Asians, 4% for Hispanics, and 3% for Middle Eastern subjects. Conclusions These findings show that the prevalence of cilantro dislike differs widely between various ethnocultural groups.

  20. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  3. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  4. Uji Efek Repellent Nabati Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) Terhadap Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Yanti

    2016-01-01

    Repellent is a substance used as a repellent or insect or other pest deterrent. Repellent is one part of the pesticide.Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill or control pests. In fact, the use of chemical pesticides that are not rational cause negative effects in terms of the environment, especially in terms of human health. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a natural substance that has many benefits and rewards. Bulb of garlic (Allium sativum L.) contain substances that are toxic to ins...

  5. Atividade antioxidante de extratos de coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. Antioxidant activity of coriander extracts (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayde de Almeida Melo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antioxidante de diferentes extratos de coentro (Coriandrum sativum L., isolados, associados entre si e com o BHT foi investigada. A ação antioxidante, exercida pelos extratos etéreo, etanólico e aquoso, obtidos por processo de extração seqüencial, foi avaliada através de sistema modelo b-caroteno/ácido linoléico e os compostos responsáveis por esta ação identificados. O efeito sinergista entre os extratos aquoso e etéreo foi avaliado utilizado o planejamento fatorial 2 ² . Os extratos aquoso, etéreo e etanólico exibiram 69,83%, 61,89% e 40,50%, respectivamente, de proteção contra a oxidação. Compostos fenólicos foram detectados nos dois primeiros extratos e constatada a presença de carotenóides no etéreo. Ao combinar os dois extratos, em diferentes concentrações, o percentual de inibição da oxidação foi inferior ao dos extratos isolados, demonstrando não haver sinergismo entre eles. Associações de diferentes concentrações de BHT com o extrato aquoso exibiram elevada ação antioxidante, enquanto com o extrato etéreo esta ação foi levemente superior a do extrato isolado. A habilidade dos extratos aquoso e etéreo em retardar a oxidação pode ser atribuída, respectivamente, aos seus constituintes fenólicos e carotenóides. O extrato aquoso pode ser considerado como um potencial antioxidante, cuja ação pode ser intensificada ao ser empregado juntamente com BHT.The antioxidant activity of different extracts of coriander (Coriandrum sativum, isolated and/or combined with itself and BHT, was investigated. The etheric, ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained by sequential extraction were evaluated for antioxidant action in a b-carotene/acid linoléico model system and the active compounds identified. The antioxidant synergistic effect between aqueous and etheric extracts was evaluated using factorial 2² plan. The antioxidant action of the extracts aqueous, etheric and ethanolic was 69.83%, 61

  6. Comparative phloem Mobility of nickel in nonsenescent plants. [Pisum sativa L. ; Pelargonium zonale L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, P.M.; Chamel, A.

    1986-06-01

    /sup 63/Ni was applied to nonsenescent source leaves and found to be transported to sink tissues in pea (Pisum saativum L.) and geranium plants (Pelargonium zonale L.). The comparative mobilities (percent tracer transported out of source leaf division % /sup 86/Rb transported) for /sup 63/Ni in peas was 2.12 and in geranium 0.25. The value for the phloem mobile /sup 86/Rb was 1.00. By contrast, the comparative mobility of /sup 45/Ca, which is relatively immobile in the phloem, was low (0.05 in peas, 0.00 in geranium). Interruption of the phloem pathway between source and sink leaves by steam girdling almost completely inhibited /sup 63/Ni accumulation in the sink leaves of both species. The authors conclude that Ni is transported from nonsenescent source leaves to sink tissues via the phloem of leguminous and nonleguminous plants.

  7. Sources of reducing equivalents for nitrite reductase in Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Kłobus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate and NADP+ as well as malic acid and NADP+ present in the incubation mixture enhanced nitrite reductase (EC 1.6.6.4 activity in Pisum arvense roots. This was manifested by a depression of the nitrite level in the tissues and an increased reduction of nitrites by plastids isolated from P. arvense roots. A marked stimulation of plastid malate dehydrogenase was also observed under the influence of nitrates present in the medium. These results suggest that pyridin nucleotides utilised by NiR during nitrite reduction may be formed not only in processes of glucose-6-phosphate oxidation in the pentosephosphate cycle, but also of malic acid by NADP+-dependent malate dehydrogenase.

  8. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD) were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts) were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC) of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day) were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p ...

  9. Evaluation of the susceptibility of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, to a selection of novel biorational insecticides using an artificial diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-01-01

    An improved technique was developed to assay the toxicity of insecticides against aphids using an artificial diet. The susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) was determined for a selection of novel biorational insecticides, each representing a novel mode of action. Flonicamid, a novel systemic insecticide with selective activity as feeding blocker against sucking insects, showed high toxicity against first-instar A. pisum nymphs with an LC50 of 20...

  10. Volatiles from Coriandrum sativum: comparation of in vitro and ex vitro grown plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Dias, I; Sousa, Maria João; Figueiredo, A. Cristina; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, Luís G.

    2010-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (coriander) is commonly used, raw or cooked, in Portuguese Gastronomy. Coriander is also used in traditional medicine as a carminative and as a digestive aid. The fruits essential oil is used in food flavouring and in perfumery and is also responsible for the digestive and stimulant effect as well as for fungicide and bactericidal activity.

  11. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, L E; Shen, J K; Cai, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Commercial Allium sativum (garlic) extract was given intravenously to two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and three patients with other types of meningitis. Plasma titers of anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity rose twofold over preinfusion titers. Anti-C. neoformans activity was detected in four of five cerebrospinal fluid samples but not in pooled normal cerebrospinal fluid.

  12. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Furletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  13. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models

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    Poonam Mahendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn. using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.

  14. Effects of steam distillation on extraction, composition, and functional properties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual plant commonly used as fresh green herb, spice, or for its essential oil. A newly-developed process combined steam distillation and mechanical pressing to recover the essential oil and edible oil, respectively, from dehulled coriander seeds. The c...

  15. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  16. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  17. Epigenetic histone marks of extended meta-polycentric centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel eNeumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented towards the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. High resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes.

  18. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  19. Impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on cilantro ( Coriandrum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria Isabel

    Studies have shown that plants exposed to ENPs suffer different types of stress. Other studies have revealed that plants can take up and accumulate CeO2 NPs without modification. Thus, these NPs could enter the food chain through edible plants, posing a threat for human health. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) is a worldwide culinary and medicinal plant consumed either as a fresh herb or a spice. In this research, cilantro plants were germinated and cultivated for 30 days in organic soil treated with CeO2 NPs at concentrations varying from 0 to 500 mg kg -1. Subsequently, plant organs were analyzed by using spectroscopic techniques and biochemical assays. Results indicate that at 125 mg kg -1, the CeO2 NPs significantly increased the root size compared with the other treatments. The ICP-OES results showed that plants exposed to 500 mg kg-1 had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more Ce in shoots and roots compared to the other treatments. Results from the biochemical assays showed that at 125 mg kg-1, catalese activity significantly increased in shoots and ascorbate peroxidase in roots (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the FTIR analyses revealed that at 125 mg kg-1, the CeO2 NPs changed the chemical environment of the carbohydrates within the cilantro shoots, for which changes in the area of the stretching frequencies were observed. Moreover, analyses of antioxidant compounds showed a significant ( p ≤ 0.05) reduction on total phenolic content in shoots of cilantro plants treated with 500 mg CeO2 NPs kg-1 . This suggests that the CeO2 NPs have the potential to diminish the ability of cilantro plants to scavenge reactive oxygen species. The multi-elemental analysis showed that plants treated with CeO2 at the 500 mg kg-1 treatment had a significant ( p ≤ 0.05) reduction in shoots' sulfur, silicon, and zinc accumulation. The results of this research indicate that the CeO2 NPs at 500 mg CeO2 kg-1 concentration cause a reduction in the antioxidant ability and nutritional properties

  20. Diuretic and hipotensive activity of aqueous extract of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) in rats Atividade diurética e hipotensora do extrato aquoso da semente de salsa (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber Eduardo de Campos; Ana Paula Coelho Balbi; Maria José Queiroz de Freitas Alves

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: the vegetal specie, Petroselinum sativum Hoff., known as parsley, is widely used in the Brazilian folk medicine as diuretic. The objective of this study is to verify if Brazilian use of parsley aqueous extract has similar effects with investigations that show a diuretic effect of P. sativum in rats. METHODS: 19 rats were anesthetized and we cannulated the trachea, left carotid artery (for arterial pressure measurement) and urinary bladder (to collect urine). After 40 minutes of adapt...

  1. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    OpenAIRE

    Rausch, Michael A.; Nanasaheb P Chougule; Deist, Benjamin R.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathep...

  2. Tubulin cytoskeleton during microsporogenesis in the male-sterile genotype of Allium sativum and fertile Allium ampeloprasum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Tchórzewska, Dorota; Deryło, Kamil; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Winiarczyk, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Key message Microsporogenesis in garlic. Abstract The male-sterile Allium sativum (garlic) reproduces exclusively in the vegetative mode, and anthropogenic factors seem to be the cause of the loss of sexual reproduction capability. There are many different hypotheses concerning the causes of male sterility in A. sativum; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been comprehensively elucidated. Numerous attempts have been undertaken to understand the causes of male sterility...

  3. Pengaruh Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum) Terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Mencit (Mus Musculus L. Strain DDW) yang Diinduksi Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Borhan, Siti Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes changes in glucose homeostasis above normal. Diabetes causes various metabolic complication such as hyperlipidemia. So for the management is not for hyperglycemia but also for hyperlipidemia. One alternative by herbal remedy for treating diabetes is garlic (Allium Sativum.) Aim of Study:This study is about the effect of garlic (Allium Sativum) on cholesterol levels in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Metode: T...

  4. Experimental chemotherapy with Allium sativum (Liliaceae) methanolic extract in rodents infected with Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani

    OpenAIRE

    Byrum W. Wabwoba, Christopher O. Anjili, Moses M. Ngeiywa, Peter K. Ngure, Elizabeth M. Kigondu, Johnstone Ingonga & Judith Makwali

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several plant products have been tested and found to possess antileishmanialactivity. The present study was undertaken to establish whether methanolic extract ofAllium sativum Linn has antileishmanial activity in comparison to standard drugs.Methods: Methanolic extract of A. sativum bulbs was screened for in vitro and in vivo antileishmanialactivity against Leishmania major strain (NLB 145) and L. donovani strain (NLB 065). Pentostam®and Amphotericin B® were used as s...

  5. Pharmaceutical and chemical analysis of the components carrying the antiplatelet activity of extracts from allium ursinum and allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Sabha, Dina Talat Tawfiq

    2012-01-01

    Allium sativum has a long tradition in medicine. While much is known about its potential healthy effects, nearly nothing is known about wild garlic (allium sativum, ramson), which is very common in the area of Leipzig and has been used as a herbal remedy since centuries. The goal of the present study was to assess a potential anti-platelet activity of these two allium species and to try to identify the chemical active principle. For that purpose various extracts (hydrophilic and lipophil...

  6. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other mola...

  7. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas ...

  8. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding. PMID:27050576

  9. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding.

  10. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Anaeigoudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1 vehicle, (2 PTZ (90 mg/kg, (3 water fraction (WF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, (4 n-butanol fraction (NBF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, and (5 ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg. Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p< 0.01. In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p< 0.001. Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (pConclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.

  11. Osmocondicionamento de sementes de salsa (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) em diferentes potenciais hídricos Osmopriming of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) under different water potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Paula D'Agostini Contreiras Rodrigues; Valdemir Antônio Laura; Katyuce da Silva Chermouth; Juliana Gadum

    2009-01-01

    A germinação de sementes de salsa (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) é lenta e desuniforme, sendo a contagem do teste padrão de germinação recomendada aos 10 e 28 dias e a emergência em campo é relativamente longa, justificando o uso de técnicas que acelerem e uniformizem o processo germinativo: um método promissor é o osmocondicionamento. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos dos diferentes potenciais de osmocondicionamento, com PEG 6000, na germinação de sementes de salsa e ident...

  12. Heavy metal uptake and stress responses of hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cu and Ni) by Allium sativum plants was followed under hydroponic conditions. The toxic metals were applied at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.25 mM). The effects of heavy metals on chlorophyll and carotenoid content, root length and amino acid exudation were examined to evaluate the impact of heavy metal accumulation on plant growth and development. A significant hyperaccumulation of cadmium by garlic roots was observed. Cobalt stimulated carotenoid p...

  13. Efficient transient expression of the $\\beta$-glucuronidase reporter gene in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Esther; Linares, Concha; González, Juan,

    2000-01-01

    International audience A biolistic particle delivery system was used to introduce DNA containing a $\\beta$-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in three different garlic (Allium sativum L.) tissues: embryogenic calli, leaves and basal plate discs. Expression of the reporter gene was assayed histochemically and fluorimetrically when the tissues were bombarded with 1 $\\mu$m diameter gold particles coated with DNA, at a distance of 3 cm from the stopping...

  14. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Three Varieties of Allium sativum L. Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Narendhirakannan, R. T.; K.Rajeswari

    2010-01-01

    Many herbs possess antioxidant ingredients that provide efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Allium sativum L. is a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases, rheumatism and tumors. The antioxidant activities of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of garlic bulb of three varieties were determined by the four assays i.e. DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power ability, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity. Du...

  15. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Musa O. AREKEMASE; David O. ADETITUN; Ganiyu P. OYEYIOLA

    2013-01-01

    Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic) against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as sa...

  16. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic) Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Taji; Hedayatollah Shirzad; Kurosh Ashrafi; Neda Parvin; Soleiman Kheiri; Abdolrasul Namjoo; Azam Asgari; Roya Ansari; Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic).Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-mon...

  17. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum).

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, N; Smith, S M; Eng, R H

    1983-01-01

    A fresh extract of garlic (Allium sativum) was administered orally to human volunteers. At intervals, serum and urine were collected and assayed for antifungal activity. The maximum tolerable dose was determined to be 25 ml of garlic extract. Larger amounts caused severe burning sensations in the esophagus and the stomach and vomiting. After oral ingestion of 25 ml of the extract, anticandidal and anticryptococcal activities were detected in undiluted serum 0.5 and 1 h after ingestion. No det...

  18. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%...

  19. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine Fehri; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Jean-Marc Aiache

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10...

  20. ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) ON GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOPARASITES OF SHEEP- SHORT COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Carlini Cunha Santos; Neventon Ubirajara Moreira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The continuous and indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has caused a growing problem of parasite resistance to conventional treatments. In this context, plant essential oils and active components can be used as alternatives or in association with current anthel¬mintic treatment. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a herbal medicine with various therapeutic properties: immunostimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic. The aim of this experiment w...

  1. Prevalence of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) disliking among different ethnocultural groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mauer Lilli; El-Sohemy Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cilantro, the leaf of the Coriandrum sativum plant, is an herb that is widely consumed globally and has purported health benefits ranging from antibacterial to anticancer activities. Some individuals report an extreme dislike for cilantro, and this may explain the different cilantro consumption habits between populations. However, the prevalence of cilantro dislike has not previously been reported in any population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalen...

  2. Anticancer activity of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and preventive properties of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts are well known, but the anticancer activity of alcoholic extracts and oil of Petroselinum sativum seeds on human breast cancer cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of these extracts against MCF-7 cells. Cells were exposed to 10 to 1000 μg/ml of alcoholic seed extract (PSA) and seed oil (PSO) of Petroselinum sativum for 24 h. Post-treatment, percent cell viability was studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that PSA and PSO significantly reduced cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology of MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Concentrations of 50 μg/ml and above of PSA and 100 μg/ml and above of PSO were found to be cytotoxic in MCF-7 cells. Cell viability at 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA was recorded as 81%, 57%, 33%, 8% and 5%, respectively, whereas at 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml of PSO values were 90%, 78%, 62%, and 8%, respectively by MTT assay. MCF-7 cells exposed to 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA and PSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment with PSA and PSO of Petroselinum sativum induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. PMID:24289568

  3. Novel strategies for optimized delivery of select components of Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash G Phadatare; Vivek Viswanathan; Alka Mukne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Garlic (Allium sativum) has been known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities which are attributed mainly to the organosulfur compounds present in it. Allicin and garlic oil, components obtained from garlic, have been explored and found to be biologically active on various fronts. Allicin is known to have major stability issues due to rapid degradation even at low temperatures, whereas garlic oil, being lipophilic, shows poor bioavailability after oral administratio...

  4. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:; María Boffill Cárdenas; Emoe Betancourt Morgado; Raylen Escobar Román; Ignacio Igualada Correa; Bennia Alonso Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium ...

  5. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 1...

  6. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres; César Soria-Fregozo; Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez; José L. Moreno-Hernández-Duque

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-...

  7. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Tasnim; Parsa Sanjana Haque; Md. Sazzadul Bari; Md Monir Hossain; Sardar Mohd. Ashraful Islam; Mohammad Shahriar; Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan; Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subje...

  8. Diapause in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a slowing but not a cessation of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisk Geoffroy C

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many insects undergo a period of arrested development, called diapause, to avoid seasonally recurring adverse conditions. Whilst the phenology and endocrinology of insect diapause have been well studied, there has been comparatively little research into the developmental details of diapause. We investigated developmental aspects of diapause in sexually-produced embryos of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Results We found that early stages of embryogenesis progressed at a temperature-independent rate, characteristic of diapause, whereas later stages of embryogenesis progressed at a temperature-dependent rate. However, embryos maintained at very high temperatures during the temperature-independent stage showed severe developmental abnormalities. Under no temperature regime did embryos display a distinct resting stage. Rather, morphological development progressed slowly but continuously throughout embryogenesis. Conclusion Diapause in the pea aphid, and perhaps in many other insects, is a temperature-independent slowing but not a cessation of morphological development. This suggests that the mechanisms limiting developmental rate during diapause may be the same as those controlling developmental rate at other stages of growth.

  9. Purification and Properties of Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) in Allium Sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Li-rong; WANG Ya-jun; WU Min; HONG Shui-sheng; CHEN Jia; Meng Qing-fan; LIU Lan-ying

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases(SODs) were purified to homogeneity from Allium Sativum by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography with DEAE-cellulose(DE52) and Sephadex G-75. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-AGE), Allium Sativum is predicted to contain four SODs. The molecular weights of the native SODs are 41.3 kD, 37.0 kD, 35.2 kD and 31.0 kD, which consist of subunits of 20.7 kD, 18.4 kD, 17.7 kD and 15.4 kD respectively. Because of their specific sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, cyanogens potassium and chloroform-alcohol, the SODs in Allium Sativum appear to be Cu, Zn-SOD isoenzymes. The isoelectric analysis indicates that three of the four isoenzymes are acidic proteins with isoelectric points at pH 3.5, 3.7 and 4.0, respectively, and the fourth one is a basic protein with isoeletric point at pH 8.5.

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Papiya Bigoniya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum L. (Liliacea is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 animal each as vehicle control (2 % tragacanth suspension, standard drug frusemide (20 mg/kg, p.o, and n-butanol extract (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o treated. Urine was collected in a graduated cylinder and its volume was measured for next 5 hr. Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations were measured. Phytochemical analysis of A. sativum n-butanol fraction showed presence of steroids, triterpenoidal saponins and carbohydrates. At 20 mg/kg dose onset of diuresis and total volume of urine formed was significantly (P<0.01-0.05 higher. Fifth hour urine volume at 20 mg/kg dose was 9.3 ml as compared to 5.5 ml of control. Extract at 20 mg/kg dose produced 24.57% increase in Na+ excretion against 132.65% increase by frusemide when compared to control signifying natriuretic and aquaretic response. The study confirmed the ethnopharmacological and Ayurvedic use of A. sativum as a diuretic agent.

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of Lepidium sativum (Chandrasur) using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amandeep Kaur; Rakesh Kumar; Suman Rani; Anita Grewal

    2015-01-01

    Lepidium sativum (commonly known as garden cress) belongs to the family Brassicaceae. It is a fast-growing erect, annual herbaceous plant. Its seeds possess significant fracture healing, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, hypoglycemic, nephrocurative and nephroprotective activ-ities. In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversity of various genotypes of L. sativum using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 41 ISSR primers screened, 32 primers showed significant, clear and repro-ducible bands. A total of 510 amplified bands were obtained using 32 ISSR primers, out of which 422 bands were poly-morphic and 88 bands were monomorphic. The percentage of polymorphism was found to be 82. A total of 35 unique alleles ranging insize from 200 to 2,900 bp were observed. Cluster analysis based on unweighted pair-group method, arithmetic mean divided the 18 genotypes into two main clusters, with the first having only HCS-08 genotype of L. sativum and other having all of the other 17 genotypes. The Jaccard similarity coefficient revealed a broad range 32–72%genetic relatedness among the 18 genotypes.

  12. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments. PMID:26043852

  13. Accepted 15 March 2012Available online 20 May 2012%Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balaji Meriga; Ramgopal Mopuri; T MuraliKrishna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts ofAllium sativum(A. sativum).Methods:Dried bulbs ofA. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.Results:Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae ofSpodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coliandKlebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity againstCandida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus andCandida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2’-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity(80%-90% of the standard).Conclusions: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy ofA. sativum againstS. litura, a polyphagous insect.

  14. Cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G51, modulates hydrocarbon production in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Fan, Yong-Liang; Bai, Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Terrestrial insects deposit a layer of hydrocarbons (HCs) as waterproofing agents on their epicuticle. The insect-specific CYP4G genes, subfamily members of P450, have been found in all insects with sequenced genomes to date. They are critical for HC biosynthesis in Drosophila; however, their functional roles in other insects including the piercing-sucking hemipterous aphids remain unknown. In this study, we presented the molecular characterization and a functional study of the CYP4G51 gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). CYP4G51 transcript was detectable across the whole life cycle of A. pisum, and was prominently expressed in the aphid head and abdominal cuticle. Up-regulation of CYP4G51 under desiccation stress was more significant in the third instar nymphs compared with the adults. Also, up-regulation of CYP4G51 was observed when the aphids fed on an artificial diet compared with those fed on the broad bean plant, and was positively correlated with a high level of cuticular HCs (CHCs). RNAi knockdown of CYP4G51 significantly reduced its expression and caused reductions in both internal and external HCs. A deficiency in CHCs resulted in aphids being more susceptible to desiccation, with increased mortality under desiccation stress. The current results confirm that CYP4G51 modulates HC biosynthesis to protect aphids from desiccation. Moreover, our data also indicate that saturated and straight-chain HCs play a major role in cuticular waterproofing in the pea aphid. A. pisum CYP4G51 could be considered as a novel RNAi target in the field of insect pest management. PMID:27425674

  15. Cell wall yield properties of growing tissue: evaluation by in vivo stress relaxation. [Pisum sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1985-06-01

    Growing pea stem tissue, when isolated from an external supply of water, undergoes stress relaxation because of continued loosening of the cell wall. A theoretical analysis is presented to show that such stress relaxation should result in an exponential decrease in turgor pressure down to the yield threshold (Y), with a rate constant given by phi epsilon where phi is the metabolically maintained irreversible extensibility of the cell wall and epsilon is the volumetric elastic modulus of the cell. Stress relaxation was measured in pea (Pisum sativus L.) stem segments using the pressure microprobe technique. From the rate of stress relaxation, phi of segments pretreated with water was calculated to be 0.08 per megapascal per hour while that of auxin-pretreated tissue was 0.24 per megapascal per hour. These values agreed closely with estimates of phi made by a steady-state technique. The yield threshold (0.29 megapascal) was not affected by auxin. A theoretical analysis is also presented to show that the tissue hydraulic conductance may be estimated from the T/sub 1/2/ of tissue swelling. Experimentally, pea stems had a swelling T/sub 1/2/ of 2.0 minutes, corresponding to a relative hydraulic conductance of about 2.0 per megapascal per hour. This value is at least 8 times larger than phi. From these data and from computer modeling, it appears that the radial gradient in water potential which sustains water uptake in growing pea segments is small (0.04 megapascal). This means that hydraulic conductance does not substantially restrict growth. The results also demonstrate that the stimulation of growth by auxin can be entirely accounted for by the change in phi.

  16. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10μgml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration. PMID:22878342

  17. The anti-proliferative effect of TI1B, a major Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor from pea (Pisum sativum L.), on HT29 colon cancer cells is mediated through protease inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alfonso; Carmen Marín-Manzano, M; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Carmen Arques, M; Domoney, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from legumes, such as soyabean, pea, lentil and chickpea, are naturally occurring plant protease inhibitors which have potential health-promoting properties within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. BBI can survive both acidic conditions and the action of proteolytic enzymes within the stomach and small intestine, permitting significant amounts to reach the large intestine in active form to exert their reported anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In a previous study, we reported the ability of a recombinant form of TI1B (rTI1B), representing a major BBI isoinhibitor from pea, to influence negatively the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigate if this effect is related directly to the intrinsic ability of BBI to inhibit serine proteases. rTI1B and a novel engineered mutant, having amino acid substitutions at the P1 positions in the two inhibitory domains, were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rTI1B proved to be active against trypsin and chymotrypsin, showing K i values at nanomolar concentrations, whereas the related mutant protein was inactive against both serine proteases. The proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells was significantly affected by rTI1B in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 31 (sd 7) μm), whereas the inactive mutant did not show any significant effect on colon cancer cell growth. In addition, neither recombinant protein affected the growth of non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. These findings suggest that serine proteases should be considered as important targets in investigating the potential chemopreventive role of BBI during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:22916809

  18. Caractérisation de gènes de pois (Pisum sativum L.) impliqués dans la formation et le fonctionnement de la mycorhize à arbuscules

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Elena

    2010-01-01

    L'association mycorhizienne à arbuscules (AM) est le résultat d'une interaction compatible entre les génomes des deux partenaires symbiotiques. Dans ce contexte, le but de mes recherches a été de mieux caractériser le rôle des gènes de pois liés aux stades tardifs de la symbiose, PsSym36, PsSym33 and PsSym40, dans le fonctionnement de la symbiose MA (i) en étudiant l'effet des mutations de ces trois gènes sur l'expression des gènes de la plante et du champignon, et (ii) en créant les conditio...

  19. Cellular Damages and Accumulation of Pb Polluted Pisum sativum L.: Implication for Phytoremediation%Pb在豌豆幼苗细胞中的超微结构分布与毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延盛; 鲁家米; 周晓阳

    2007-01-01

    伴随日趋严重的重金属环境污染问题,植物修复的可能机制及重金属胁迫下植物的损伤与抗性机理成为研究热点.采用透射电子显微镜和X-射线微区分析技术,研究了中度(50 mg/L)和严重(200 mg/L)pb2+胁迫下豌豆幼苗根叶细胞的超微结构损伤和铅在植物器官和细胞器水平的区域化分布情况.结果显示,重金属对植物的毒害表现为对细胞的膜结构和各种细胞器的整体性伤害,且各细胞器的受损程度不同;豌豆对铅的相对耐性机理可能包括重金属胁迫下不同细胞器的差异反应、根系富集、细胞壁结合和液泡的区隔化作用等.图6参24

  20. Gaseous nitrogen losses from field plots grown with pea (Pisum sativum L.) or spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) estimated by 15N mass balance and acetylene inhibition techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    by the acetylene-inhibition technique were negligible. A substantial amount of fertilizer N was unaccounted for by the N-15 mass balance, especially in the pea plots. The loss took place during the period of grain-filling in which no leaching occurred, and was accompanied by a decrease in N-15 content...... of the plants. Volatilization of ammonia from the aerial parts of the plants is a possible explanation of the observed loss. An estimation of denitrification relying only on the N-15 mass balance would have resulted in an overestimation of denitrification....

  1. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns

  2. 豌豆叶绿体型谷氨酰胺合成酶cDNA的克隆%Cloning of the Chloroplast Glutamine Synthetase cDNA from Pisum Sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏金; 朱汝财; 伍成祥; 方宣钧

    2000-01-01

    @@ 谷氨酰胺合成酶(Glutamine Synthetase,GS,EC 6.3.1.2)是植物和革兰氏阴性微生物中氨同化过程中的关键酶,对植物和微生物的氮素吸收和代谢起着至关重要的作用,同时,GS酶还是植物光呼吸作用的关键酶和除草剂草胺磷(Glufosinate)的靶标酶.

  3. Pea (Pisum sativum) genes involved in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.1.Analysis of the expression of the early nodulin gene ENOD12 using the polymerase chain-reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalenskii, A.O.; Kozik, A.V.; Scheres, B.J.G.; Bisseling, A.; Tikhonovich, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the transcription products of the early nodulin gene in the pea. Single-stranded DNA copies were prepared using a primer corresponding to the terminal part of a previously sequenced cDNA clone and a total RNA isolate. The presence of amplificati

  4. Pea (Pisum sativum) genes involved in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.1.Analysis of the expression of the early nodulin gene ENOD12 using the polymerase chain-reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zalenskii, A.O.; Kozik, A.V.; Scheres, B.J.G.; Bisseling, A.; Tikhonovich, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the transcription products of the early nodulin gene in the pea. Single-stranded DNA copies were prepared using a primer corresponding to the terminal part of a previously sequenced cDNA clone and a total RNA isolate. The presence of amplification products was detected using Southern hybridization. Expression of the ENOD12 gene was found to occur at the earliest developmental stages of the symbiosis between the pea and nitrogenfixing bact...

  5. Full-length de novo assembly of RNA-seq data in pea (Pisum sativum L.) provides a gene expression atlas and gives insights into root nodulation in this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Carvalho, Susete; Aubert, Grégoire; Carrère, Sébastien; Cruaud, Corinne; Brochot, Anne-Lise; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Martin, Chantal; Boucherot, Karen; Kreplak, Jonathan; da Silva, Corinne; Moreau, Sandra; Gamas, Pascal; Wincker, Patrick; Gouzy, Jérôme; Burstin, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies allow an almost exhaustive survey of the transcriptome, even in species with no available genome sequence. To produce a Unigene set representing most of the expressed genes of pea, 20 cDNA libraries produced from various plant tissues harvested at various developmental stages from plants grown under contrasting nitrogen conditions were sequenced. Around one billion reads and 100 Gb of sequence were de novo assembled. Following several steps of redundancy reduction, 46 099 contigs with N50 length of 1667 nt were identified. These constitute the 'Caméor' Unigene set. The high depth of sequencing allowed identification of rare transcripts and detected expression for approximately 80% of contigs in each library. The Unigene set is now available online (http://bios.dijon.inra.fr/FATAL/cgi/pscam.cgi), allowing (i) searches for pea orthologs of candidate genes based on gene sequences from other species, or based on annotation, (ii) determination of transcript expression patterns using various metrics, (iii) identification of uncharacterized genes with interesting patterns of expression, and (iv) comparison of gene ontology pathways between tissues. This resource has allowed identification of the pea orthologs of major nodulation genes characterized in recent years in model species, as a major step towards deciphering unresolved pea nodulation phenotypes. In addition to a remarkable conservation of the early transcriptome nodulation apparatus between pea and Medicago truncatula, some specific features were highlighted. The resource provides a reference for the pea exome, and will facilitate transcriptome and proteome approaches as well as SNP discovery in pea.

  6. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P LTPS. Lambs offered HP diets had increased (P 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P 0.05) on carcass composition except for fat depth, which was greater (P LTPS performed better than those offered GS and that LTPS has a concentrate sparing effect. Additionally, the increased tannin concentration in HTPS did not increase performance over lambs offered either GS or LTPS. PMID:21571892

  7. Yield of Different Green Forage Crops, in Pure Stand and in Mixtures Part 1.: Spring (two roweed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., Pea (Pisum sativum L. and Vetch (Vicia sp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hoffman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Green fodder crops in pure stand and in mixtures have a great potential and will have a great role in the nutrition for ruminants in Hungary. Therefore experiment was carried out to measure the born of green fodder crop production in the present situation of cattle husbandry. The experimental area was situated on the farm of the Department of Botany and Plant Production at the University of Kaposvár, Faculty of Animal Science. The type of the soil was brown forest soil with clay illuvitation. The small plot trials were carried out in four repetitions using conventional random adjustment. After the harvesting the yield of the plots were weighted and the dry matter content, crude protein yield crude fibber was determined by Weendei analysis. The chemical components of the variations were determined in two repetitions. The following species was used in the small plot trial: spring barley, pea and vetch. The highest green and dry matter yield was measured at the barley varieties in pure stand. Between the barley varieties Annabell gave the highest green, DM and crude protein yield. Spring Barley Annabell and pea Rubin in mixture gave the highest yield of crude protein.

  8. Characterization of DNA sequences that mediate nuclear protein binding to the regulatory region of the Pisum sativum (pea) chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80: identification of a repeated heptamer motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, G; García-Hernández, E; Sánchez, M; Gariglio, P; Herrera-Estrella, L; Simpson, J

    1992-05-01

    Two protein factors binding to the regulatory region of the pea chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80 have been identified. One of these factors is found only in green tissue but not in etiolated or root tissue. The second factor (denominated ABF-2) binds to a DNA sequence element that contains a direct heptamer repeat TCTCAAA. It was found that presence of both of the repeats is essential for binding. ABF-2 is present in both green and etiolated tissue and in roots and factors analogous to ABF-2 are present in several plant species. Computer analysis showed that the TCTCAAA motif is present in the regulatory region of several plant genes. PMID:1303797

  9. Genetic Mapping of a Major Resistance Gene to Pea Aphid (Acyrthosipon pisum) in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Guo, Su-Min; Gao, Ling-Ling; Singh, Karam B

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to the Australian pea aphid (PA; Acyrthosiphon pisum) biotype in cultivar Jester of the model legume Medicago truncatula is mediated by a single dominant gene and is phloem-mediated. The genetic map position for this resistance gene, APR (Acyrthosiphon pisum resistance), is provided and shows that APR maps 39 centiMorgans (cM) distal of the A. kondoi resistance (AKR) locus, which mediates resistance to a closely related species of the same genus bluegreen aphid (A. kondoi). The APR region on chromosome 3 is dense in classical nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NLRs) and overlaps with the region harbouring the RAP1 gene which confers resistance to a European PA biotype in the accession Jemalong A17. Further screening of a core collection of M. truncatula accessions identified seven lines with strong resistance to PA. Allelism experiments showed that the single dominant resistance to PA in M. truncatula accessions SA10481 and SA1516 are allelic to SA10733, the donor of the APR locus in cultivar Jester. While it remains unclear whether there are multiple PA resistance genes in an R-gene cluster or the resistance loci identified in the other M. truncatula accessions are allelic to APR, the introgression of APR into current M. truncatula cultivars will provide more durable resistance to PA. PMID:27483247

  10. Revisiting the anatomy of the central nervous system of a hemimetabolous model insect species: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Minoli, Sebastian; Bonhomme, Joël; Homberg, Uwe; Schachtner, Joachim; Tagu, Denis; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    Aphids show a marked phenotypic plasticity, producing asexual or sexual and winged or wingless morphs depending on environmental conditions and season. We describe here the general structure of the brain of various morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This is the first detailed anatomical study of the central nervous system of an aphid by immunocytochemistry (synapsin, serotonin, and several neuropeptides), ethyl-gallate staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions. The study has revealed well-developed optic lobes composed of lamina, medulla, and lobula complex. Ocelli are only present in males and winged parthenogenetic females. The central complex is well-defined, with a central body divided into two parts, a protocerebral bridge, and affiliated lateral accessory lobes. The mushroom bodies are ill-defined, lacking calyces, and only being visualized by using an antiserum against the neuropeptide orcokinin. The antennal lobes contain poorly delineated glomeruli but can be clearly visualized by performing antennal backfills. On the basis of our detailed description of the brain of winged and wingless parthenogenetic A. pisum females, an anatomical map is now available that should improve our knowledge of the way that these structures are involved in the regulation of phenotypic plasticity.

  11. Genetic Mapping of a Major Resistance Gene to Pea Aphid (Acyrthosipon pisum in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars G. Kamphuis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to the Australian pea aphid (PA; Acyrthosiphon pisum biotype in cultivar Jester of the model legume Medicago truncatula is mediated by a single dominant gene and is phloem-mediated. The genetic map position for this resistance gene, APR (Acyrthosiphon pisum resistance, is provided and shows that APR maps 39 centiMorgans (cM distal of the A. kondoi resistance (AKR locus, which mediates resistance to a closely related species of the same genus bluegreen aphid (A. kondoi. The APR region on chromosome 3 is dense in classical nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NLRs and overlaps with the region harbouring the RAP1 gene which confers resistance to a European PA biotype in the accession Jemalong A17. Further screening of a core collection of M. truncatula accessions identified seven lines with strong resistance to PA. Allelism experiments showed that the single dominant resistance to PA in M. truncatula accessions SA10481 and SA1516 are allelic to SA10733, the donor of the APR locus in cultivar Jester. While it remains unclear whether there are multiple PA resistance genes in an R-gene cluster or the resistance loci identified in the other M. truncatula accessions are allelic to APR, the introgression of APR into current M. truncatula cultivars will provide more durable resistance to PA.

  12. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine am...

  13. Cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1, K2, and H1-extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komota, Yusuke; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Saku, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Koki; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Newly identified cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1 (1), K2 (2), and H1 (3)-were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum. Garlicnin H1 (3) demonstrated potential to suppress tumor cell proliferation by regulating macrophage activation. The structures of garlicnins K1 and K2, 3,4-dimethyl-5-allyl-tetrahydrothiophen-2-one-S-oxides, and the structure of garlicnin H1, 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-allylsulfoxide-tetrahydrothiophen-2-(ethane-1,2-diol)-S-oxide were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. PMID:25748782

  14. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Donghua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron microscopy (EM techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification

  15. Eryngium foetidum, Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum: new apiaceae hosts of Oidiopsis taurica in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Reis Ailton; Lopes Carlos A.; Lima Milton L. Paz; Boiteux Leonardo S.

    2004-01-01

    Relata-se a infecção natural de plantas de chicória da Amazônia (Eryngium foetidum), coentro (Coriandrum sativum) e salsa (Petroselinum crispum), cultivados em casas de vegetação e campo na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, DF, por Oidiopsis taurica. A provável fonte de inóculo foram plantas doentes de pimentão (Capsicum annuum) e tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum) na casa de vegetação e pimentão no campo.

  16. Combined effects of ionising gamma radiation and some chemical substances on the Allium sativum growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co 60 - gamma ionising radiations act in different doses and flows on Allium sativum. They accelerate the germination of bulblets with a couple of days by comparison with the sample. The 10 Gy dose stimulates the plants growth. The 30 Gy dose or 'shock dose' related to the radiation flow and with chemicals used in the treatment, produces strong decays or raises of biological parameter values. The growth region which is implied in growing regulators synthesis is perturbed. The calculation of nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes of nucleus-cytoplasm ratio confirms the perturbation at this level. (Author)

  17. Neonicotinoid binding, toxicity and expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Taillebois

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI, thiamethoxam (TMX and clothianidin (CLT. Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16 ± 0.04 nM and 41.7 ± 5.9 nM and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008 ± 0.002 nM and 1.135 ± 0.213 nM. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml. The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies.

  18. Assessment of Anti-Influenza activity and hemagglutination inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Dilip Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. Objective: To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1pdm09. Materials and Methods: Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. Results: A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Conclusions: Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research.

  19. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To validate the use of Allium sativum as a reliable test model for genotoxicity, isoproturon, a substituted phenylalkylurea herbicide, was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system. Method Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24 hr. EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8 ppm for the root growth. In addition to root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discolouration and stiffness of roots. Results Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon (35-280 ppm), including EC50, significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr. Conclusion The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48 hr post exposure, however in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon. Further, present study also suggests that Allium sativum is a sensitive, efficient, and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  20. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.K.S.ChAUHAN; P.N.SAXENA; 等

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To validate the use of Allium sativum sativum as a reliable test model for gentoxicity,isoproturon,a substituted phenylalkylures herbicide,was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system.ethod :Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24hr.EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8ppm for the root growth.In addition on root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discoloruation and stiffness of roots.Results:Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon(35-280ppm),including EC50,significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr.Conclusion:The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48hr post exposure.howerver in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon.Further,present study also suggests that Allium satiuvum is a sensitive,efficient,and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  1. In vitro anthelminthic activity of alcoholic extract of Allivum Sativum against rumen amphistome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Ghangale

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate effect of alcoholic extract of allivum sativum for anthelminthic activity Invitro against rumen amphistome. Mature and healthy worms randomly collected from rumen papillae of freshly slaughtered buffaloes from deonar abattor in normal physiological solution (tyrode solution, having temp (37 0C.The study was conducted at four different dilutions of extracts viz. 5,15,50,75 mg/ml prepared in tyrode solution. Albendazole 5 mg/ml and tyrode solution serves as positive control and negative control respectively. Each of the concentration selected was taken in total volume of 20 ml tyrode solution in a separate clean petridish. Ten vigorously motile worms irrespective of their sex were placed in each petridish and observation were made after every 15 min. for cessation of motility by pinch method mortality was assessed by slightly warming the petridish and observing the movements. The time taken for cessation of motility in alcoholic extract was 3 hour, 1hour, 10min., and instant at 5,15,50,75 mg/ml concentration respectively. Mortality was observed at 4hr, 1.5 hr, 15 min. and instantly respectively in test groups. Time taken for 100% mortality was 6 hour by standard drug.So it was concluded that alcoholic extract of Allivum Sativum is having good activity against worms’ motility Invitro. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 385-386

  2. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p < 0.01). Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p < 0.01) the mentioned parameters in deltamethrin-treated rats. For genotoxic evaluation, deltamethrin treatment showed a significant increase in frequencies of micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Micronucleus formation is an indicator of chromosomal damage which has been increasingly used to detect the genotoxic potential of environmental pests. The present study showed that Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. PMID:26974685

  3. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  4. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  5. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lata S; Saxena K; Bhasin V; Saxena R; Kumar A; Srivastava V

    1991-01-01

    Oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of Commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. All the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.

  6. New insight into the RNA interference response against cathepsin-L gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Duport, Gabrielle; Balmand, Séverine;

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely and successfully used for gene inactivation in insects, including aphids, where dsRNA administration can be performed either by feeding or microinjection. However, several aspects related to the aphid response to RNAi, as well as the influence......-L gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. In order to maximize the possibility of discovering specific phenotypes, the effect of the treatment was analyzed in single individual aphids at the level of five body compartments: the bacteriocytes, the gut, the embryonic chains, the head and the remaining...... body carcass. Our analysis revealed that gene expression knockdown effect in each single body compartment was dependent on the administration method used, and allowed us to discover new functions for the cathepsin-L gene in aphids. Injection of cathepsin-L dsRNA was much more effective on carcass...

  7. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system. PMID:25114344

  8. Scientific basis of use of fruits Coriandrum sativum L. In food technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Frolova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the world recognized the need for environmentally friendly products for a healthy food and quality life. Products with natural ingredients, including flavoring become very popular. Coriander is one of herbs that functions as both, spice as well as herbal medicine. Coriandrum sativum L. is a major aromatic crop in Ukraine. The plants of Coriandrum sativum contain the essential oils and other compounds in the seeds and leaves and have an important role as flavorings. The main objective was to investigate possibility effective utilization of coriander essential oil in national economy of Ukraine. It was necessary to study the chemical compounds of coriander fruits by instrumental analysis and odor by sensory analysis with following creating new aroma compositions. Search had been carried out throughout 2009 - 2014 years. The aerial parts of aromatic plants were harvested at the plots of National Botanical Garden of National Academy of the Sciences of Ukraine. Essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation procedure in National University of food technology. Main and specific components of essential oils from seeds coriander were characterized. Qualitative structure of essential oils was determined by the gas-liquid chromatography method on the chromatograph Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass-spectrometric detector 5973. The run of components was done using Device of Fractional Distillation. Linalool, limonene, geranyl acetate, d-camphor, myrcene and geraniol were found as the major components. In the composition of essential oils each component has its own flavor, the combination of which determines the flavor of the oil. We investigated the possibility of target separation of essential oils of coriander fruits into fractions of different flavor. The article presents the results of research sequential processing fruits Coriandrum sativum to obtain a series of natural flavors. Principles and laws of the vacuum distillation were used for

  9. Role of Topical Cream Extract Garlic (Allium sativum) in Wound Healing Fibroblasts Judging from the Strain Wistar Rats with Acute Injury Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zaenal Zaenal; Suryani As???ad; Veni Hadju; Agussalim Bukhari

    2016-01-01

    Wound will cause problems if handled poorly, causing chronic wounds. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a typical plant of the tropics, including Indonesia, the tubers are often used in traditional medicine, among them to heal wound. This laboratory experimental study using randomized designs Post Test Control Group aims to determine the effect of the use of Topical Cream Extract garlic (Allium sativum) on wound healing in topical administration, with a view histopathologic consisting of fibroblasts...

  10. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF EXTRACT OF BULB OF ALLIUM SATIVUM LINN. USING DPPH AND FRAP ASSAYS WITH EVALUATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Manorma Kumari*; Navi Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The methanolic extracts of Allium sativum were investigated for its antioxidant activity by using 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. This study indicated that Allium sativum L. exhibited the high antioxidant activity and phenolic contents and can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidant. Due to its natural o...

  11. In vitro investigation of the toxic effects of extracts of Allium sativum bulbs on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nchu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of the extracts of Allium sativum (Garlic were evaluated against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus using three types (Types A, B and C of contact toxicity bioassays. A. sativum bulbs were extracted with acetone, ethanol and dichloromethane (DCM solvents. Among these three solvents, it is the DCM extract of A. sativum that appears to have anti-tick activity. In the Type A contact toxicity bioassay, DCM extracts of A. sativum demonstrated a high acaricidal bioactivity against H. m. rufipes with 100 % of ticks killed in less than an hour, and toxicity persisted to the second day. A weak acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of A. sativum was observed in the Type B contact toxicity bioassay. In the Type C contact toxicity bioassay, a concentration of 24 % w/v of DCM extracts of garlic in sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus had killed 100% of H. m. rufipes (LC50= 5.9 % w/v and R. pulchellus (LC50 = 10.3 % w/v by 24 hours post-treatment of ticks. The results obtained from this study suggest that DCM extract of A. sativum is a potential source of novel acaricidal agents.

  12. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells. PMID:27176674

  13. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. PMID:26166823

  14. The effect of Allium sativum on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti Rajbir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum extract on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury has been studied. Hearts from adult albino rats of Wistar strain were isolated and immediately mounted on Langendorff′s apparatus for retrograde perfusion. After 15 minutes of stabilization, the hearts were subjected to four episodes of 5 min ischemia, interspersed with 5 min reperfusion (to complete the protocol of ischemic preconditioning, 30 min global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In the control and treated groups, respective interventions were given instead of ischemic preconditioning. The magnitude of cardiac injury was quantified by measuring Lactate Dehydrogenase and creatine kinase concentration in the coronary effluent and myocardial infarct size by macroscopic volume method. Our study demonstrates that garlic extract exaggerates the cardio protection offered by ischemic preconditioning and per se treatment with garlic extract also protects the myocardium against ischemia reperfusion induced cardiac injury.

  15. A Comprehensive Review on Nickel (II And Chromium VI Toxicities - Possible Antioxidant (Allium Sativum Linn Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusal K.Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity associated with nickel (II and chromium (VI is mainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS with subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. Both nickel and chromium can generate free radicals (FR directly from molecular oxygen in a two step process to produce superoxide anion and in continued process, produce highly toxic hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidative effects are compounded by fact that they also inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione. Garlic (Allium sativum has played an important dietary and medicinal role throughout the history of mankind. Garlic has the potential to enhance the endogenous antioxidant status in nickel as well as hexavalent chromium induced lipid peroxidation in normal and diabetic rats.

  16. Antioxidant activity of garlic essential oil (Allium Sativum) grown in north Indian plains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reena lawrence; Kapil lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil isolated from fresh rhizomes of garlic (Allium sativum) of the family Alliaceae in an yield of 0.2% (v/w). Methods:2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitrogen oxide scavenging, reducing power and毬-carotene bleaching assays were conducted. BHT and gallic acid were kept as standards.Results:IC50 values observed for DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays were 0.5 mg/mL and 50毺g/mL respectively. In reducing power assay absorbance increased linearly with increasing concentration of the oil, in毬-carotene bleaching method also there is 84% bleaching in first one hour and it decreased to 45 % by the completion of second hour. Conclusions: The results clearly indicate garlic essential oil is effective in scavenging free radical and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.

  17. Evidence for differential action of indoleacetic acid upon ion fluxes in single cells of Petroselinum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentrup, F W; Pfrüner, H; Wagner, G

    1973-12-01

    The apparent influx of (36)Cl(-) and (86)Rb(+)/K(+) into cells from the higher plant Petroselinum sativum has been measured during the presence and absence in the culture medium of indolacetic acid (IAA) which is an essential auxin of these cells. While 10(-5) M IAA did not significantly affect the influx of (86)Rb(+)/K(+), it substantially reduced that of (36)Cl(-), i.e. by a factor 0.25 within 30 min. This differential action of IAA, which holds for a reasonable range of external pH, is assumed to bear on current hypotheses that the primary events of auxin action involve plasmalemma functions. PMID:24474466

  18. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donghua Liu; Ingrid Kottke

    2003-06-01

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium sativum L. exposed to three different concentrations of Cd (100 M, 1 mM and 10 mM) for 9 days was carried out. The results showed that Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes – high vacuolization in cytoplasm, deposition of electron-dense material in vacuoles and nucleoli and increment of disintegrated organelles. Data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed that Cd was localized in the electron-dense precipitates in the root cells treated with 10 mM Cd. High amounts of Cd were mainly accumulated in the vacuoles and nucleoli of cortical cells in differentiating and mature root tissues. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of Cd are briefly explained.

  19. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  20. Protective role of coriandrum sativum oily extracts on ehrlich tumour bearing mice subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was planned to evaluate the potency of coriandrum, sativum oily extract [in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight; for six successive doses] as a chemopreventive agent against solid ehrlich tumour transplanted to the thigh of the left leg of mice subjected or not to gamma irradiation. The protective role of coriander oil was assessed through studying the level of serum phosphorus, calcium, prostaglandins, and anti-thyroid antibodies levels. Meanwhile, the content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols both in hepatic and tumor tissues were also measured. The levels of serum calcium ions revealed significant decline in the tested groups as compared with the control ones. Measurements of serum PGE2 and anti-thyroid antibodies levels exhibited significant fluctuated changes as compared with the control levels. Serum phosphorus levels induced only non-significant changes. The contents of cholesterol both in hepatic and tumor tissues induced significant decline in the tested proups as compared with the control ones

  1. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  2. Sperm immobilization activity of Allium sativum L. and other plant extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KausikiChakrabarti; SulagnaPal; AsokK.Bhattacharyya

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To identify possible spermicidal agents through screening a number of edible medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity. Methods: Initial screening was made on the basis of ram cauda epididymal sperm immobiliza-tion immediately after addition of extracts. The most potent extract was selected and was evaluated on both ram and human spermatozoa. To unravel its mode of action several sperm functional tests were carried out, namely viability of cells, hypo-osmotic swelling test for membrane integrity and assays of membrane-bound enzyme 5'-nucleotidase and acrosomal marker enzyme acrosin. Results: The crude aqueous extract of the bulb ofAllium sativum L. Showed the most promising results by instant immobilization of the ram epididymal sperm at 0.25 g/mL and human ejaculated sperm at 0.5 g/mL. Sperm immobilizing effects were irreversible and the factor of the extract responsible for immobilization was thermostable up to 90℃. On boiling at 100℃ for 10 minutes, this activity was markedly reduced. Moreover, this extract was able to cause aggregation of ram sperms into small clusters after 30 minutes of incubation at 37℃. However this property was not found in human spermatozoa. More than 50 % reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling occurred in treated sperm as compared with the controls, indicating the possibility of plasma membrane disintegration which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5''-nucleotidase and acrosomal acrosin. Conclusion: The crude aqueous extract of A. Sativum bulb possesses spermicidal activity in vitro. (Asian J Androl 2003 Jun, 5:131-135 )

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum essential oil and ethanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zouari Chekki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish some nutritional properties of garlic cultivated in Tunisia and to evaluate the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activites of its essential oil and ethanol extract. Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum was characterized for moisture, ash and protein contents which were determined as 66%, 1.4% and 5.2% respectively. In addition, Fe (5.90 mg/kg, Cu (1.61 mg/kg, Mg (15 mg/kg and P (140 mg/kg were reported such as the major minerals in garlic. The fat profile of tunisian garlic was conducted, the main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (49.3% and linoleic acid (20.4%. Essential oil obtained from A. sativum was analysed by capillary GCMS. Diallyl disulfide (49.1% and diallyl trisulfide (30.38% were the main components of the five identified components. The phenolic content of The ethanol extract are analysed for its phenolic profiles, colorimetric analysis revealed that the total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents were respectively 43.63 mg GA/g, 13.18 mg quercetin/g and 24.24 mg of catechin/g. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, essential oil presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to its ethanolic extract. IC50 values observed for the essential oil and ethanol extract were 300 μg/ml and 600 µg/ml respectively. The essential oil and ethanol extract from raw garlic were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms. The results showed that ethanol extract was active against all tested strains: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogene, Yersinia enterocolitica and Bacillus cereus.

  4. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon; Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua; Marina Parissi Accioly; Selene Maia de Morais; Heitor Franco de Andrade-Júnior; Camila Aparecida de Carvalho; Josemar Coelho Lima; Hilton César Rodrigues Magalhães

    2012-01-01

    The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the mu...

  5. Osmocondicionamento de sementes de salsa (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. em diferentes potenciais hídricos Osmopriming of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. under different water potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula D'Agostini Contreiras Rodrigues

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes de salsa (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. é lenta e desuniforme, sendo a contagem do teste padrão de germinação recomendada aos 10 e 28 dias e a emergência em campo é relativamente longa, justificando o uso de técnicas que acelerem e uniformizem o processo germinativo: um método promissor é o osmocondicionamento. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos dos diferentes potenciais de osmocondicionamento, com PEG 6000, na germinação de sementes de salsa e identificar o potencial osmótico ótimo para aumentar a germinação destas sementes. Sementes das cultivares Lisa e Portuguesa de dois lotes, adquiridas no comércio local foram osmocondicionadas pelo método de imersão direta das mesmas em soluções aquosas com potencial hídrico: 0,0, -0,5, -1,0 e -1,5 MPa, obtidos com a adição de PEG 6.000, sob aeração constante a 25ºC por 144 horas, como testemunha utilizaram-se sementes não osmocondicionadas. As variáveis analisadas foram: porcentagem de germinação (10 e 28 dias, velocidade de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. O osmocondicionamento aumenta a porcentagem e a velocidade de germinação de sementes de salsa, sendo que, o potencial osmótico indicado situa-se entre -1,0 e -1,5 MPa.The germination of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. is slow and asynchronous, being that the counting of the test germination standard is recommended on the 10th and 28th day. In field emergence is relatively long; which justifies the use of techniques that increase germination speed and uniformity. A promising method is osmopriming. In the present study, our goal was to evaluate the effect of different potentials of osmopriming, with PEG 6000, in the germination of parsley seeds, and to identify optimum osmotic potential to increase the germination of these seeds. Parsley seeds of the Lisa and Portuguesa cultivars from two lots were bought locally and were primed by the method of

  6. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  7. Detection and thermoluminescence of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) irradiated with {sup 60}Co; Deteccion y termoluminiscencia del cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) irradiado con {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz G, B. [Departamento de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Universidad de Sonora, 083190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, 083190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The fresh and dried coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a spice of high commercial value as food for consumption in Mexico. Their hygienic quality is often poor due to some factors: contaminants present in irrigation water and the cultivation atmosphere, harvesting and post harvest handling, mainly. The process by radiation is an alternative to achieve the sterilization to adequate dose for the hygienic quality for its consumption. However, irradiation also involves food detection exposed to radiation. This paper presents detected results on the dried coriander that was obtained from fresh samples and thermoluminescent properties such as glow curves structure from low doses (0.5 Gy) to high (15 kGy), the dose response, thermoluminescent signal decay, in order to determine the loss of stability during the storage of the poly mineral fraction. We obtained the inorganic fraction separation of the organic part of particle sizes of 10 {mu}m by the Zimmerman method. The samples were exposed at two dose ranges; 0.5-400 Gy and 0.5-15 kGy of gamma radiation with {sup 60}Co. The limit of thermoluminescent detection of the irradiated coriander samples was from 1 Gy. The glow curves were at a broad band of 35-400 C, with a maximum thermoluminescence around 182-196 C, and run at 164 C for high doses of 15 kGy. The range of linear response to dose was 4-25 Gy, whereas higher doses than the kGy order the response increase with the dose. The thermoluminescent properties of the coriander poly mineral fraction, show it can be used to identify irradiated food at gamma doses relatively low and even in doses of commercial interest due to the high stability of thermoluminescent signals. (Author)

  8. The PsENOD12 gene is expressed at two different sites in Afghanistan Pea Pseudonodules induced by Auxin transport inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.; McKhann, H.I.; Zalensky, A.; Löbler, M.; Bisseling, T.; Hirsch, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    A number of early nodulin genes are expressed in specific cell types as pea (Pisum sativum) root nodules develop. The Pisum sativum early nodulin PsENOD2 is detected only in the uninfected cells of the nodule parenchyma, whereas PsENOD12 is expressed at two spatially removed sites: in root hairs and

  9. Role of Bioinoculant (AM Fungi) Increasing in Growth, Flavor Content and Yield in Allium sativum L. under Field Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh BORDE; Mayura DUDHANE; Paramjit Kaur JITE

    2009-01-01

    Present investigation deals with the beneficial effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) fungal species Glomus fasciculatum on growth performance of Allium sativum under field condition. In AM inoculated garlic plant showed significant increase in plant growth parameters like plant height, total biomass and bulb diameters, bulb weight, and yield. There was 21.10 % increment in yield of Allium bulb as compared to non AM inoculated garlic plant. Percentage of AM colonization occurred at all samplin...

  10. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum linn) terhadap Kadar Gula Darah pada Mencit Diabetes yang Diinduksi Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Ajeemah Binti Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disease characterized and diagnosed with a chronic increase in blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. One of the traditional medicine that is believed to have hypoglycemic properties is garlic (Allium sativum). Allisin and alliin compound serves as an anti-diabetic agents through the stimulation of the pancreas to release more insulin. Objective: Assessing the effect ...

  11. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum) Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Saray Quintero-Fabián; Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún; Manuel Vázquez-Carrera; Rocío Ivette López-Roa

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory ef...

  12. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sashank Srivastava; P. H. Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, ...

  13. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic includ...

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Sharma; Veena Sharma; Leena Kansal

    2009-01-01

    Allium sativum (Meaning pungent) belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The ...

  15. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Cichorium intybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vandoorne, Bertrand; Mathieu, Anne-Sophie; Van den Ende, Wim; Vergauwen, Rudy; Périlleux, Claire; Javaux, Mathieu; Lutts, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a cash crop cultivated for inulin production in Western Europe. This plant could be exposed to severe water stress during the three last months of their six months growing period. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a progressive decline in water availability on plant growth, photosynthesis and sugar metabolism and to determine its impact on inulin production. Water stress drastically decreased root fresh and dry weight, leaf nu...

  16. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum) Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Khalil, Nasser S.; Alaa S. Abou-Elhamd; Wasfy, Salwa I. A.; El Mileegy, Ibtisam M. H.; Hamed, Mohamed Y.; Ageely, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxi...

  17. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Rausch

    Full Text Available Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance.

  18. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Michael A; Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Deist, Benjamin R; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance. PMID:27171411

  19. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa O. AREKEMASE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as saponins, tannins, alkaloid steroids and glycosides. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the agent (garlic was determined for both the aqueous and ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous extract, inhibiting all the test organisms. While the aqueous extracts was effective against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Garlic extracts are strictly broad-spectrum with immune boosting phytonutrients from Allium ‘family’. Further research will need to be done to carry out the purification of the active ingredients which have potential for combating human disease. Also, toxicological studies need to be evaluated.

  20. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species. PMID:25987765

  1. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

  2. Genetic divergence and its implication in breeding of desired plant type in coriander -Coriandrum sativum L.-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy germplasm lines of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. of diverse eco-geographical origin were undertaken in present investigation to determine the genetic divergence following multivariate and canonical analysis for seed yield and its 9 component traits. The 70 genotypes were grouped into 9 clusters depending upon the genetic architecture of genotypes and characters uniformity and confirmed by canonical analysis. Seventy percent of total genotypes (49/70 were grouped in 4 clusters (V, VI, VIII and IX, while apparent diversity was noticed for 30 percent genotypes (21/70 that diverged into 5 clusters (I, II, III, FV, and VII. The maximum inter cluster distance was between I and IV (96.20 followed by III and IV (91.13 and I and VII (87.15. The cluster VI was very unique having genotypes of high mean values for most of the component traits. The cluster VII had highest seeds/umbel (35.3 ± 2.24, and leaves/plant (12.93 ± 0.55, earliest flowering (65.05 ± 1.30 and moderately high mean values for other characters. Considering high mean and inter cluster distance breeding plan has been discussed to select desirable plant types.

  3. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit.

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

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    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  5. Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant. PMID:22865357

  6. Novel strategies for optimized delivery of select components of Allium sativum

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    Avinash G Phadatare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic (Allium sativum has been known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities which are attributed mainly to the organosulfur compounds present in it. Allicin and garlic oil, components obtained from garlic, have been explored and found to be biologically active on various fronts. Allicin is known to have major stability issues due to rapid degradation even at low temperatures, whereas garlic oil, being lipophilic, shows poor bioavailability after oral administration. Objective: To develop novel strategies for optimum delivery of allicin and garlic oil so as to achieve effective availability in the physiological system. Materials and Methods: Garlic cloves were lyophilized to obtain allicin-releasing garlic powder (ARGP. This powder was analyzed spectrophotometrically and was used to formulate buccal tablets. Garlic oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of garlic cloves and analyzed by gas chromatography. Self-nanoemulsifying systems (SNS containing garlic oil were prepared using suitable surfactants and cosurfactants. The SNS were adsorbed on Aerosil 200 and filled in hard gelatin capsules. Both the formulations were suitably evaluated. Results: Buccal tablets containing ARGP showed satisfactory physical parameters as well as in vitro drug release, mucoadhesive strength, moisture uptake capacity and drug content. Evaluation of capsules containing SNS of garlic oil also gave satisfactory results. The adsorbed SNS when dispersed in water formed nanoemulsions. Conclusion: Buccal tablets as well as capsules containing garlic oil SNS provide promising strategies to overcome the difficulties associated with formulation of allicin and garlic oil.

  7. Determination of gamma ray doses suitable for mutation induction in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (Control, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 rads). The cloves were planted in 4 replicates at Deer Alhajar station of the Dept. of Radiation Agriculture. Number of surviving plants was recorded at 2 months after planting and at harvest. Length of foliage was measured at harvest time and weight of cloves was taken two weeks after harvest. Visual readings in the field on plant shape and leaf color were also taken. The results indicated a negative effect of gamma radiation on plant survival especially at doses of 750 and 1000 rads where no plants survived until harvest. Plant length and clove weight were reduced even at 500 rad dose. Percentage of yellow and necrotic plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. No stimulation of plant growth was noticed as a result of irradiation with low doses of gamma rays. Treatment with 500 rads of gamma radiation was considered the best among tested doses for garlic mutagenesis (Using cloves) since it gave acceptable rate of survival and morphologic variation. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  8. Inhibitory effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharide on micronucleus of Allium sativum root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Liu, Chongbin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the antimutagenic function of the polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with the micronucleus test of Allium sativum root cells induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet was studied. The concentration-effect relation of the two inducers was firstly evaluated. The results showed that an increase of genotoxicity damage was demonstrated and micronuclei frequency induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet displayed dose dependent increases. All the doses of polysaccharide did affect the micronuclei frequency formation compared with the negative control. And also, the significant increase in inhibition rate of micronuclei frequency was observed with the increase of the dose of polysaccharide. It was showed maximum inhibition of micronuclei frequency cells (71.74% and 66.70%) at a concentration of 200g/mL in three experiments. The low molecular weight polysaccharide showed higher inhibition rate than raw polysaccharide at the higher concentration (50g/mL) in the absence of sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet. It was confirmed to be a good mutant inhibitor. PMID:26927934

  9. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  10. La secuenciación del DNA: consideraciones históricas y técnicas

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    María Teresa Reguero Reza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La secuenciación del DNA: consideraciones históricas y técnicasEs innegable la importancia que tiene la generación de conocimiento alrededor de una molécula  como el DNA en proyectos de investigación, desarrollo e innovación en áreas tan relevantes como la agricultura, la salud o el medio ambiente. Pero este gran avance científico ha sido el resultado de la conjunción de una serie de trabajos, que se inician con la identificación del DNA como una molécula importante, en la que se centra la transmisión de los determinantes genéticos de la herencia.En el jardín de un monasterio, Gregor Mendel realizó sus experimentos de hibridación con plantas de arvejas (Pisum sativum, encontrando que las nuevas características que presentaban las plantas, eran el resultado de la mezcla de los caracteres iniciales que poseían las plantas. Hace 149 años Mendel dictó una conferencia acerca de la importancia de un “factor” de la herencia y ello podría considerarse como el punto de partida para lograr la identificación, aislamiento y caracterización de estos atributos y la forma como podrían ser fijados en una especie. Se le reconoce a Mendel ser el iniciador de las leyes fundamentales de la herencia, que impulsaron  el desarrollo de la biología moderna. 

  11. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L. con intercalamiento de leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Judith Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutricionales se encontraron algunos forrajes, como la morera (Morus alba L., que tiene un alto nivel de proteína, entre otras propiedades nutricionales; pero, alternativas nutricionales como ésta requieren fertilización nitrogenada en elevadas cantidades.Con el interés de generar alternativas amigables con el medioambiente y que además logren mantener o incrementar el volumen de producción y el valor nutricional de la morera, surgió la idea de estudiar la intersiembra de este arbusto con leguminosas, como arveja (Pisum sativum L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L y fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., analizando variables nutricionales y parámetros de crecimiento del cultivo de morera. Además, se trabajó con un grupo de fertilización nitrogenada y un grupo de control (sin modificación alguna del cultivo. Al finalizar el estudio se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 para la mayoría de parámetros, exceptuando la variable altura, que no presentó diferencias importantes (p>0.05.

  12. Effect of Allium sativum and fish collagen on the proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities in cheese and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shori, A B; Baba, A S; Keow, J N

    2012-12-15

    There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23755406

  13. Pemberian Tepung Bawang Putih (Allium Sativum L.) Dalam Ransum Terhadap Performas Itik Peking Umur 1–8 Minggu (The Usage Of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) Powder In Feed On Performance Of Peking Duck 1–8 Weeks Of Age)

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Eniza; Hestiwahyuni, Tri; Saragih, Ganda Parulian

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this experiment was to observe the respon of The Usage of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.) in several levels on feed consumption, average daily gain (ADG) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and income over feed cost (IOFC) of Peking Duck 1–8 weeks of age. This research was conducted by using completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications each replication consist of 5 peking duck. The treatments were T0 = without garlic powder, T1 = 1,25% garlic powder...

  14. The LSD1-Type Zinc Finger Motifs of Pisum sativa LSD1 Are a Novel Nuclear Localization Signal and Interact with Importin Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Shanping He; Kuowei Huang; Xu Zhang; Xiangchun Yu; Ping Huang; Chengcai An

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of the Arabidopsis mutant lsd1 highlight the important role of LSD1 in the negative regulation of plant programmed cell death (PCD). Arabidopsis thaliana LSD1 (AtLSD1) contains three LSD1-type zinc finger motifs, which are involved in the protein-protein interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further understand the function of LSD1, we have analyzed cellular localization and functional localization domains of Pisum sativa LSD1 (PsLSD1), which is a homolog ...

  15. Stable isotope studies reveal pathways for the incorporation of non-essential amino acids in Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haribal, Meena; Jander, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. Given the preponderance of these four amino acids, phloem sap is a nutritionally unbalanced diet for phloem-feeding insects. Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. To investigate the metabolism of the four main transport amino acids by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), and its Buchnera aphidicola endosymbionts, aphids were fed defined diets with stable isotope-labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid (U-(13)C, U-(15)N; U-(15)N; α-(15)N; or γ-(15)N). The metabolic fate of the dietary (15)N and (13)C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. Higher isotopomers (M+2, M+3 and M+4) indicated the incorporation of varying numbers of (13)C atoms into essential amino acids. GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo, most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes. PMID:26632455

  16. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Valles

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV, an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order.

  17. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

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    Denis Costechareyre

    Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera. The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8 cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  18. Zapažanja o infekciji češnjaka (Allium sativum L.) virusom mozaika krastavca

    OpenAIRE

    Štefanac, Zlata; Miličić, Davor

    1992-01-01

    Virus mozaika krastavca (CMV), već prije izdvojen iz nepoznatog kultivara jesenskog češnjaka (Allium sativum L. subsp. sagittatum Kuzn.), prenijeli smo na češnjak cv. Moravan koji je već bio zaražen latentnim nitastim virusima. Prenošenje virusa CMV postizali smo uz pomoć Myzus persicae no samo iz zaraženih primjeraka Nicotiana megálosiphon, N. glutinosa i Chenopodium quinoa, ali ne iz češnjaka. Zaražene biljke koje su rasle na otvorenom pokazivale su malobrojne klorotične pruge na listovima ...

  19. A Study of the Shrinkage Changes and Mathematical Modeling of Garlic (Allium sativumL.) During Convective Drying

    OpenAIRE

    M Rasouli; S Seiiedlou

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativumL.) is one of the most important Allium spice. From an economic point of view, the dried garlic slices are valuable products. In this research, garlic slices as a thin layer were dried in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer, under air flow of 1.5 m/s, air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70˚C and slice thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The mean values of shrinkage of garlic slices obtained 69.8%. In addition, the effects of the drying variables on the shrinkage of dried garlic were e...

  20. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh BORDE; Mayura DUDHANE; Paramjit Kaur JITE

    2010-01-01

    Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl...

  1. The Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Some Quality Properties and Shelf-Life of Set and Stirred Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞDU, Engin; ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; DAĞDEMİR, Elif

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine some properties of set and stirred type yoghurts containing 0.5% and 1% garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage period of 28 days at 4±1 °C. Some microbiological, physical, chemical, and sensory properties of yoghurts were determined in days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the storage period. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all samples during the storage period ( 0.05) and sensory scores of yoghurts decreased during the storage period. It was also shown ...

  2. The effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth and immune responses of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, J.; Ndong, D.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O.aureus) were held in 1000 l fiberglass tanks at 27 ºC supplied with a filter and an aeration system. Garlic (Allium sativum) was incorporated into diets (0 %, 0.5 % and 1 %) of juvenile hybrid tilapia, O. niloticus x O. aureus (25.5 ± 1.0 g). Non-specific cellular and humoral responses were evaluated at the beginning and after 2-4 weeks. Total leucocyte count, respiratory burst, phagyctic activity, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were ...

  3. Respuesta fisiológica de cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) a la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo

    OpenAIRE

    María Sara Mejía de Tafur; Gilberto Eduardo Marín Pimentel; Juan Carlos Menjivar Flores

    2014-01-01

    En casa de malla de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (3° 30' 45.6" N y 76° 18' 29.911" O, 1050 m.s.n.m., 23.5 °C y 77% de HR) se midieron los requerimientos hídricos del cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) variedad Unapal Precoso y se relacionaron con el rendimiento de follaje fresco y materia seca. Las plantas fueron sembradas en macetas con 6 kg de suelo y por ciclo de cultivo se aplicaron láminas de agua de 140, 160, 200 (testigo propuesta por Vallejo y Estrada, 2004), 240 y 2...

  4. Efecto hipotensor del extracto de ajo (Allium sativum) macerado por 18 semanas en un modelo experimental in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    David Chaupis-Meza; Juan Rojas; Manuel Gasco; Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar si el extracto de ajo (Allium sativum) macerado por 18 semanas tiene igual o mejor efecto hipotensor que el captopril en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio experimental in vivo con ratas machos Holtzman, clasificados en cinco grupos: 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg de extracto de ajo, Captopril de 100 mg/kg y un grupo vehículo. El L-NAME (N- -nitro L-arginina-metil-éster) administrado vía intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg desde el inicio del experimento, elevó la presión ar...

  5. Aislamiento e identificación de patógenos de la estirpe silvestre del ajo (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Astorga-Quirós; Claudia Zúñiga-Vega; William Rivera-Méndez

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo del ajo (Allium sativum L.) en Costa Rica se podría convertir en una alternativa rentable para la producción y diversificación de los agricultores de hortalizas. Sin embargo, el tipo de reproducción vegetativa que presenta facilita la transmisión y diseminación de enfermedades, lo que provoca un debilitamiento progresivo de los bulbos. Actualmente, se buscan alternativas de manejo diferentes al control químico, para disminuir el impacto ecológico y ambiental de los patógenos qu...

  6. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  7. Mutagénesis inducida en microbulbos de Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pardo Roldán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un protocolo de mutagénesis en microbulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. clon Boconó cultivado in vitro. Para el efecto se realizaron dos ensayos, uno de radiosensibilidad para establecer la dosimetría apropiada de radiación gamma y otro de mutagénesis para determinar el comportamiento de los materiales hasta la etapa de almacenamiento. En el primero los microbulbos fueron tratados con cuatros dosis de radiación gamma (6, 8, 10 y 12 Krad, más un control. Para establecer la dosis óptima se consideró la sobrevivencia del 50% de los microbulbos (DL50. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En el ensayo mutagénico los microbulbos fueron irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad y almacenados durante 45 días a 10 °C en condiciones de oscuridad En este caso se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos (0, 8 y 10 Krad y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En ambos ensayos, los microbulbos irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad registraron los mayores promedios para peso y diámetro, lo cual permite concluir que estas dosis son adecuadas para favorecer la producción de mutantes con características agronómicas deseables en el clon Boconó

  8. Radioprotective Properties of Allium sativum (Garlic Extract on Cultured Human Lymphocytes against Electron Beam Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama N Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The radioprotective effects of naturally occurring compounds from herbs have been investigated in vitro and in vivo considering their ethnopharmacological role in prevention and treatment of cancer. Allium sativum supplementation in diet has been shown to be beneficial to cancer patients. The present study was designed to detect the radioprotective effect of garlic extract (GE on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Garlic bulbs were extracted using ethanol and water separately followed by assays on antioxidant activities to assess the efficiency of radical scavenging capacity of various extracts. Lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of GE for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr periods. Cell survival was determined by tryphan blue dye exclusion assay, single strand DNA damage by alkaline comet assay and in vitro cytogenetic damages were evaluated by micronucleus assays. Ethanol boiled GE showed highest radical scavenging capacity and reducing property. Treatment of GE to lymphocytes before and after exposure to 4Gy of electron beam radiation (EBR the percentage of tail DNA was reduced from 24.06±3.92 to 2.87±0.18. The elevated micronucleus formation in radiation control group (13.15±0.75 was significantly reduced in various concentrations of GE treated groups (10.35±0.44, 7.05±1.17, 6.42±0.47 respectively. Cells treated with GE at 10µg/mL showed maximum viability after exposure to EBR. Present investigations indicate that ethanol boiled GE shows good radiation protection at 10µg/mL concentration. However, increase in concentration above this dose though resulted in higher protection, increased cell toxicity was also noticed.

  9. Copper nanoparticles/compounds impact agronomic and physiological parameters in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-10-01

    The environmental impacts of Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) are not well understood. In this study, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) was germinated and grown in commercial potting mix soil amended with Cu(OH)2 (Kocide and CuPRO), nano-copper (nCu), micro-copper (μCu), nano-copper oxide (nCuO), micro-copper oxide (μCuO) and ionic Cu (CuCl2) at either 20 or 80 mg Cu per kg. In addition to seed germination and plant elongation, relative chlorophyll content and micro and macroelement concentrations were determined. At both concentrations, only nCuO, μCuO, and ionic Cu, showed statistically significant reductions in germination. Although compared with control, the relative germination was reduced by ∼50% with nCuO at both concentrations, and by ∼40% with μCuO, also at both concentrations, the difference among compounds was not statistically significant. Exposure to μCuO at both concentrations and nCu at 80 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (p≤ 0.05) shoot elongation by 11% and 12.4%, respectively, compared with control. Only μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (26%) the relative chlorophyll content, compared with control. None of the treatments increased root Cu, but all of them, except μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1), significantly increased shoot Cu (p≤ 0.05). Micro and macro elements B, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, and S were significantly reduced in shoots (p≤ 0.05). Similar results were observed in roots. These results showed that Cu-based NPs/compounds depress nutrient element accumulation in cilantro, which could impact human nutrition. PMID:26311125

  10. Detection and thermoluminescence of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) irradiated with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fresh and dried coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a spice of high commercial value as food for consumption in Mexico. Their hygienic quality is often poor due to some factors: contaminants present in irrigation water and the cultivation atmosphere, harvesting and post harvest handling, mainly. The process by radiation is an alternative to achieve the sterilization to adequate dose for the hygienic quality for its consumption. However, irradiation also involves food detection exposed to radiation. This paper presents detected results on the dried coriander that was obtained from fresh samples and thermoluminescent properties such as glow curves structure from low doses (0.5 Gy) to high (15 kGy), the dose response, thermoluminescent signal decay, in order to determine the loss of stability during the storage of the poly mineral fraction. We obtained the inorganic fraction separation of the organic part of particle sizes of 10 μm by the Zimmerman method. The samples were exposed at two dose ranges; 0.5-400 Gy and 0.5-15 kGy of gamma radiation with 60Co. The limit of thermoluminescent detection of the irradiated coriander samples was from 1 Gy. The glow curves were at a broad band of 35-400 C, with a maximum thermoluminescence around 182-196 C, and run at 164 C for high doses of 15 kGy. The range of linear response to dose was 4-25 Gy, whereas higher doses than the kGy order the response increase with the dose. The thermoluminescent properties of the coriander poly mineral fraction, show it can be used to identify irradiated food at gamma doses relatively low and even in doses of commercial interest due to the high stability of thermoluminescent signals. (Author)

  11. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Metwally

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day. Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm burden and ova count. Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT , ­ glutamyltransferase (GGT , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP, acid phosphatase (AP, while a decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL and LDL, triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase and phosphofructokinase (PFK enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count. Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities

  12. Safety evaluation studies on Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L. seeds in Wistar rats

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    P K Datta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.  leaves and seeds are used in India as  food supplement and also in traditional medicine. We have assessed the safety of Garden cress (GC seeds by conducting acute and subchronic toxicity studies in adult Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 0.5 –5.0 g/kg body weight of the GC seed powder was administered through diet to rats and obvious symptoms of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 72 h . Acute doses of GC seed powder did not induce any symptoms of toxicity or mortality of  rats. In subchronic toxicity study, 1.0 – 10.0% of the GC powder was administered to rats through diet for 14 weeks. Dietary feeding of GC seed powder did not produce any mortality, no significant changes in food intake, gain in body weight, relative weight of  organs, hematological parameters, macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organs, were observed between  experimental and control groups.  Clinical enzymes viz., LDH, SGPT were within normal levels, however, the serum ALP and SGOT were significantly increased in male rats receiving 5.0 and 10 % of GC seeds. The results showed that acute and subchronic feeding of GC seed for 14 weeks did not produce any toxic effects in male and female rats and thus can be considered non-toxic and safe.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are very popular and extensively used in the developing countries. Garden cress seeds and leaves are used in food preparations.  GC seeds are given to pregnant and lactating women as natural food supplement to increase milk secretion.  GC seeds are used in herbal based medicinal preparations. The data on the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants are essential to assess its safety to humans, particularly for its use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  13. [Precursors of ribosomal RNA in freely suspended callus cells of parsley (Petroselinum sativum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G

    1973-03-01

    Six high molecular weight, rapidly labelled RNA species were detected in freely suspended callus cells of Petroselinum sativum by means of isotope labelling and electrophoretic separation in agarose-polyacrylamide gels. On the basis of their migration in the latter the RNA species were calculated to have the following molecular weights: 2.9×10(6), 2,4×10(6), 1.9×10(6), 1.4×10(6), 1.0×10(6) and 0.75×10(6) daltons. Thus they can clearly be distinguished from the two ribosomal RNA species (1.3×10(6) and 0.7×10(6) daltons). During incubation of the cells with [(3)H]methyl-methionine as a methyl donator all six components incorporated radioactivity rapidly. With [(3)H]nucleosides or [(3)H]orotic acid as precursors the 2.9×10(6) and the 2.4×10(6) daltons RNA were labelled within 10 min, while the other high molecular weight species appeared after about 20 min of labelling.Prolongation to 45-120 min resulted in accumulation of radioactivity preferentially in the 1.4×10(6) and 0.75×10(6) daltons RNA and in the ribosomal RNA species. The results of cell fractionation experiments provide evidence that these rapidly labelled high molecular weight RNA species are synthesized in the cell nucleus. The kinetics of their synthesis together with the other data obtained strongly support the suggestion that these RNA species function as precursors in the processing of ribosomal RNA. The possible mechanism of this process is discussed. PMID:24468848

  14. Genotoxicity determinations of coriander drop and extract of Coriander Sativum cultured fibroblast of rat embryo by comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay is a quick, simple and sensitive technique for measuring DNA damage in cell nucleus. It is well known that medicinal herbs play an important role in the life of human beings, thus it is essential to determine their safety as public health is concerned. In this study the genotoxicity of Coriander drop, herbal pharmaceutical product, and the extract of Coriander sativum were examined in cultured fibroblast of rat embryo using comet assay. The thirteen to fifteen days old rat embryos were lysed with tripsin and after certain steps it was centrifuged and then cultured. After three to five passages, different concentrations of each product were applied to the fibroblasts. Lysing, electrophoresis, neutralization and staining were carried out. Finally the slides were analyzed with fluorescence microscope. In the test groups the results indicated that coriander drop at different doses showed some fragmentation of DNA but this damage as a result was deemed to be not significant. However, in the case of Coriander sativum extract the results showed no mutagenic effects in comparison with the positive control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, these herbal products did not show any magnetic effect according to our test, but further genotoxicity assays are recommended. (author)

  15. In vitro Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Defatted Ethanolic Extract of the Seeds of Lepidium sativum Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annie Shirwaikar; Bharatkumar Patel; Yogesh Kamariya; Vinit Parmar; Saleemulla Khan

    2011-01-01

    AIM:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the defatted ethanolic extract of the seeds of Lepidium Sativum Linn.METHODS:Different in vitro chemical assays viz.DPPH (1,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging,ABTS (2,2-azinobis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical scavenging,iron chelation,lipid peroxidation,superoxide scavenging and non-enzymatic haemoglobin glycosylation assay were used.The total antioxidant capacity of the extract was determined spectrophotometrically by phosphomolybdic acid method.RESULT & CONCLUSION:The defatted lepidium seed extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity in ABTS and non-enzymatic glycosylation assays,and a moderate activity in all the other assays.IC5o of the extract in the DPPH,ABTS,iron chelation,lipid peroxidation and super oxide scavenging assays were found to be 171.13,38.64,128.94,71.39 and 206.09 μg.mL-1 respectively.The haemoglobin glycosylation assay of the extract showed a percentage scavenging of 46.60% and 74.88%,at 0.5 and 1.0 μg.mL-1,concentrations,respectively.Total antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of L.sativum (10 mg·mL-1) was found to be equivalent to 58.38 μg.mL-1 of ascorbic acid.

  16. Acaricidal activities of apiol and its derivatives from Petroselinum sativum seeds against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha Yun; Yang, Ji Yeon; Suh, Joo Won; Lee, Hoi Seon

    2011-07-27

    The acaricidal effects of an active constituent derived from Petroselinum sativum seeds and its derivatives were determined using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of synthetic acaricide. The acaricidal constituent of P. sativum was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and identified as apiol. On the basis of LD(50) values against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, apiol (0.81 and 0.94 μg/cm(2)) was 12.4 and 10.2 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0 and 9.58 μg/cm(2)), respectively. In acaricidal studies of apiol derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzonitrile (0.04, 0.03, and 0.59 μg/cm(2)) was 250, 319, and 20.7 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0, 9.58, and 12.2 μg/cm(2)) against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae. In structure-activity relationships, the acaricidal activities of apiol derivatives could be related to allyl (-C(3)H(5)) and methoxy (-OCH(3)) functional groups. Furthermore, apiol and its derivatives could be useful for natural acaricides against these three mite species. PMID:21688847

  17. Determination of the Water Requirements of Garlic (Alium Sativum L. and Its Relationship With the Crop's Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Eduardo Castro Franco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of garlic (Allium sativum L., there is not enough information available about the water requirements for garlic crop in the country. The present study is to identify the crop water requirements for each phenological stage and set a watering schedule according to environmental conditions offered in Tunja-Boyacá. This research was conducted during the first half of 2013, on the farm called “La Maria", which is located in the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. The assessment of the phenological stages in garlic was developed through a stratified sampling design and a destructive sampling design, which were carried out every 7 days after transplant. The value of Kc was determined through the FAO-56 methodology, in which the method was used to find the crop evapotranspiration. In order to establish crop water use, two lysimeters of 1 m3 of capacity were installed. The result of ETo was obtained through the weather station data, these data were analyzed with the Penman-Monteith equation, using the Cropwat software. Three phenological stages for growing garlic (Allium sativum L. were established, from the transplant to the harvest. These stages were: vegetative Growth and development, Bulb initiation and Maturation. Kc values for each phenological stage were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.68 respectively.

  18. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  19. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum) en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  20. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the s