WorldWideScience

Sample records for artillery guns

  1. Gun Propellant Residues Dispersed from Static Artillery Firings of LG1 Mark 2 and C3 105-mm Howitzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    exercices de tir comme données complémentaires selon une approche composite pour être statistiquement représentatifs. Les analyses des matériaux...performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and metal analyses were performed at Bodycote Testing Group in Montreal only for soil samples. This work...de tirs émis à la bouche de deux types d’armes, les obusiers LG1 Mark II et C3 105-mm, étude réalisée lors d’un exercice d’artillerie qui a eu lieu

  2. Spanish Naval Artillery on 1890–1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent R. Crawford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish naval artillery in the late XIX cen. had features such as artillery great maritime states and the countries of the second world. On the one hand, in Spain, developed and put into service the original artillery systems of national development, on the other - export versions of the world's leading manufacturers. And often when applying for a variety of weapons could be made is not in favor of cheaper and more advanced foreign models. But we should not downplay the role of Spanish designers: often implements its development could outpace similar foreign solutions. All this predetermined the extraordinary diverse nature and diversity of nomenclature, both the guns and ammunition. The proposed work –is the first attempt to bring together a variety of eclectic details, often contradict each other, the Spanish artillery of the period.

  3. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  4. Gun Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Biology and the particular gun culture of the United States come together to explain the persistent and powerful attraction of American boys to both real guns and toy guns. The 1990s saw adults begin to conflate "the gun problem" with "the boy problem," sparking attempts (largely failed) to banish toy guns from homes and…

  5. Analysis of the design concept of 'Nora' family artillery weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas L. Paligorić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the NORA family started as far as back to 1976 at the Military Technical Institute of the Yugoslav's People's Army. The programme covered development of several types of the main artillery weapon: the 152 mm NORA-A towed gun-howitzer, the 152 mm NORA-B self-propelled gun-howitzer and the 152 mm gun-howitzer with APU. Under the same programme, the conversion of the Russian 130 mm towed gun M46 into the 155 mm M46/84 gun (for export needs and the 152 mm M46/86 gun respectively (for the needs of the YPA was completed. Only the 152 mm M84 (NORA-A towed howitzer was introduced in service, while the development of the NORA-B and NORA-C weapons was carried on until 1992. After it had been suspended for many years, the development of the NORAB weapon was continued in 2003, followed by serial production of the 155 mm NORA-B52 self-propelled system for the export needs.

  6. Tactical Responses to Concentrated Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    aerial artillery at General Heinz Guderian’s crossing of the Meuse in May 1940 is indicative of the operational effect of tactical concentration at the...of maneuver they wished to fight. Another former tsarist artilleryman, General Golovin , argued in a 1925 article that artillery was even more...important in maneuver warfare. According to Golovin , it is necessary in order to preserve one’s freedom to maneuver and to deny it to the enemy: "The initial

  7. Gun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

  8. Field Artillery Doctrine Development 1917-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    Tactics and Tecnique , (Washington: War Department, 1940) 111. 27War Department, General Notes on the Use of Artillery, (Washington: Office of the Adjutant...artillery managed to implement one of its longstanding desires. During World War I, aerial observers were simply detailed from observation squadrons to...the World War I Artillery Information Service, established to manage the sound and flash ranging sections formerly controlled by the corps A.I.S

  9. Electromagnetic Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 14th century,Europeons used guns in battle for the first time. The secret was gunpowder,a volatile mixture of chemicals that exploded when lit. Since then,all guns have relied on gunpowder or other chemical propellants.

  10. Automated Gun Laying System for Self-Propelled Artillery Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-30

    since it is not synchronous with the XENON channel. The time gates established by the phase locked loop eliminate approximately 80% of any spurious...MB 3 02940 0070 0002 FIOLDX RUB 20 242c 0021 OMul DISEL R4B 102950 0072 0002 TIZX RUB 2,2430 , G2C 0001 DISAL RUB 1 02960 0074 0002 STORX RUB 2_2440 2...A039 J41lO * READ AZ AND EL GACS 04710 4101 7E 4023 imp A,2 0’"’) 4099 7F 0028 CLR DISEL 0410 41SET 0U JLAG0: 1 409C 868 D 5VN04720 ’*SET RU FLAGS

  11. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  12. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  13. Mechanical Self-shrinkage of Artillery Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ciorba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to define what self-shrink artillery barrel is. She is considered to be a compound barrel like as a thick-walled tube (k>2, in his wall being introduced a state of stress and strain using specific technological proceeds. This type of treatment is aimed to increase the artillery barrel load capacity and wear resistance in operation. The experimental part was realized using an industrial plant at Mechanical Factory of Resita. This part presents a comparative study between mechanical self-shrinkage on artillery head barrel, first using a mandrel and seconds a ball.

  14. Numerical Calculation of Artillery-Fuze System Dynamic Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-bin; LIU Ming-jie; TAN Hui-min

    2007-01-01

    A numerical calculation method based on the finite element analysis of dynamic characteristics of artillery-fuze system is discussed in detail. Pretension element is used to mesh the couple structure between artillery and fuze to analyze the change of dynamic characteristics of artillery-fuze system when pre-tightening force varies between artillery and fuze. Numerical calculation of the finite element analysis and actual hammering test of a artillery-fuze system are carried out with the same input to verify the accuracy of numerical calculation. The results show that the finite element model of artillery-fuze system is credibl e and the calculation accuracy is perfect.

  15. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  16. Union Artillery at the Battle of Chickamauga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Captain William E. Standart in the Second Division was the only division Chief of Artillery in the corps not also serving as a battery commander...battery in reserve. Major General Palmer seemed to allow Standart quite a bit of leeway in positioning artillery and the division did not always fight...more ordnance to Negley’s stockpile by recovering some abandoned pieces. Captain Standart reported that he found and recovered three Parrotts, one

  17. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Gun Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Gun Safety Print A ... unloaded, and the ammunition should be stored separately. Guns and Pretend Play Allowing kids to play with ...

  18. AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF SOUTH AFRICAN ARTILLERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.

  19. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA.

  20. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  1. ION GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  2. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  3. A Checklist of Artillery Organizational Histories; A Compilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-08

    history. 1. Roag, John A. , 1886- . 2. Camp Buchanan, Puerto Rico. D769.27 U.S. Army. 26th Field Artillery. (2nd) A42 U.S. Army. II Corps Artillery...EIIEIIEIIIIEEE EIIIIIIIIIIIII 11 _ 1316 ’ Ii -NK III I MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NAI A .0P Il J IANOARI . ... . D769.27 U.S. Army. 133rd Field Artillery

  4. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  5. Teen Suicide and Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect Your Teenager Many ... American teenagers commit suicide every day. Does a gun in the home increase the chance of suicide? ...

  6. Electron gun for SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A 100 kV triode-electron-gun has been designed and manufactured for the Linac of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). In this paper the performance of the gun and some key components are described.

  7. Artillery is Here to Stay - For Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    vulnerable to threat actions. General Donn Starry, TRADOC Commander, defined key tenets of ALB as initiative, agility, depth, and synchronization.23...General Staff College, 2011. Kolessar, John M. MAJ U.S. Army. What’s the 411 for the U.S. Army Operational Level Fires. Fort Leavenworth, KS...McGrath, John J. Fire for Effect: Field Artillery and Close Air Support in the US Army. Ft Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2008

  8. Pursuit of Precision in the Field Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    artillery created cries for reform in the early 1890s. The War Department “tested steel carriages, smokeless powder, pneumatic and hydraulic recoil brakes ...advantages of creating these hybrid battalions are two-fold. First, for training and planning purposes, each maneuver brigade will have its own organic non...capability to the maneuver battalions, enhancing predictability for training and deployment. iii Table of Contents Introduction

  9. UXO Discrimination Study Former Spencer Artillery Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    SIG Signal Innovations Group, Inc. SLO San Luis Obispo Demonstration Site Spencer Former Spencer Artillery Range SVD Singular Value Decomposition...include: physics-based target/sensor models, subspace denoising , automated and efficient feature extraction, data selection for classifier training...any scaling in order to be appropriate for the feature extraction software. • Subspace Denoising - The anomaly data is denoised to ensure robust

  10. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 57, Number 4, October 1922

    Science.gov (United States)

    1922-10-01

    to which the surplus population could migrate, or to seek resources with which to sustain their overpopulated areas. So, indirectly, over-population...Memorial del Estado Mayor General del Eiercito do Colombia Dansk Artilleri-Tidsskrift Le Genie Civil Revue d’Artillerie Journal de la Marine, Le

  11. Survey of SRF guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  13. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 74, Number 6, September-October 1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    1931-10-01

    Dedication of ’Yilson Park-The Coast Artillery School-C’orregidor Swimming Pool-The 61st Coast Artillery (AA )-The 62d Coa"t Artillery (AA )-Fort Barrancas ...An In- fantQ’man at Barrancas -69th Coast Artillery (AA) -ThE’ 243th Coal’t Artillery (::’{.Y. X G.)-Thp 246th Coast Artillery (Va. ::’{.G.)-The 202d...upon this four-company infantry bat- talion a three-company coast artillf’rY formation and has changed the course of instruction from one suit- able for

  14. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  15. Investigation on modeling and controability of a magnetorheological gun recoil damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongsheng; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jiong; Qian, Suxiang; Li, Yancheng

    2009-07-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluid as a new smart material has done well in the vibration and impact control engineering fields because of its good electromechanical coupling characteristics, preferable dynamic performance and higher sensitivity. And success of MRF has been apparent in many engineering applied fields, such as semi-active suspension, civil engineering, etc. So far, little research has been done about MR damper applied into the weapon system. Its primary purpose of this study is to identify its dynamic performance and controability of the artillery recoil mechanism equipped with MR damper. Firstly, based on the traditional artillery recoil mechanism, a recoil dynamic model is developed in order to obtain an ideal rule between recoil force and its stroke. Then, its effects of recoil resistance on the stability and firing accuracy of artillery are explored. Because MR gun recoil damper under high impact load shows a typical nonlinear character and there exists a shear-thinning phenomenon, to establish an accurate dynamic model has been a seeking aim of its design and application for MR damper under high impact load. Secondly, in this paper, considering its actual bearing load, an inertia factor was introduced to Herschel-Bulkley model, and some factor's effect on damping force are simulated and analyzed by using numerical simulation, including its dynamic performance under different flow coefficients and input currents. Finally, both of tests with the fixed current and different On-Off control algorithms have been done to confirm its controability of MR gun recoil damper under high impact load. Experimental results show its dynamic performances of the large-scale single-ended MR gun recoil damper can be changed by altering the applied currents and it has a good controllability.

  16. Guns at College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David; Wechsler, Henry

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed undergraduate students nationwide concerning firearm possession. About 3.5% possessed working firearms. Students with guns were more likely to be male, White, or Native American; binge drink; live off-campus; and live with a spouse or significant other. Students with guns were more likely to engage in activities that put themselves and…

  17. Analysis of Historical Artillery Expenditures (AHART) Study - CY 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-30

    centers is required to be approved by Mr. Richard Ware before use in the WARRAMP process. Historical comparisons have been made in the past but...War," LTG Van Alfred Muther , The Field Artillery Journal, The Field Artillery Association, Washington, CC, July - August 1935. An attempt to provide...Casualties Republic of Vietnam Military Forces, 1962, Richard W. Parker Jr., Research Analysis Corporation, RAC-TP- 167(FOV), August 1965 (AD366296

  18. Force Structure Matters: The US Field Artillery in Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    Force Structure Matters: The US Field Artillery in Operational Art A Monograph by MAJ Alex A. Aquino United States Army...The US Field Artillery in Operational Art 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Alex A. Aquino... art . First, the monograph evaluates the fires capability requirements outlined in the US Army capstone concepts and assesses the effectiveness of the

  19. The Missing Gun The Missing Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ma Shan, a criminal poljceman in a remotesmall town in the southwestern Yunnan province,gets drunk at his sister’s wedding and has his three-bullet gun lost, He tries to find it stealthily but endsup in vain. He has tno choice but to report the

  20. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  1. Gun Control Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    issue for the 111th Congress has been gun trafficking and smuggling across the Southwest border from the United States to Mexico .4 Several...committees have held hearings on gun trafficking and smuggling across the Southwest border from the United States to Mexico . In the Consolidated...emerging technology by which a firearm’s serial number is engraved microscopically with a laser onto the breech face or firing pin of a firearm. When

  2. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 75, Number 5, September-October 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    1932-10-01

    Activities 390 The Coast Artillery School-Summer Training at Fort Barrancas --250tll Coast Artillery (C.X.G.) Has Good Year-202d Coast Artillery (IIlS.G.) Field...Training-’With the 970th AA Regiment at Ft. Barrancas -The 516th Coast Artillery (AA). Coast Artillery Orders 396 Book Reviews 398 ’,"orld States of...RUBSiain Siberl.a. >:r:urk.estanand the Caucasus. The formation of the 31 infantrY divislOns of the seoond line to reinforce the regular troops wall

  3. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  4. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys.

  5. 基于传感技术的火炮复进机故障检测仪的设计%Research for Fault Diagnosis of Artillery Counter-Recoil Mechanism Based on Sensing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡灿伟; 陈翠华; 张百顺; 胡朝根; 许小明

    2016-01-01

    The artillery anti-recoil mechanism is the key component of the gun,and the property is important to gun battle force. According to the problem that in the artillery anti-recoil mechanism,the incorrect sair and liquid quan-tity in the counter-recoil mechanism is one of the most common failure,the fault diagnosis of artillery counter-recoil mechanism that the law of the pressure in the gun counter-recoil mechanism with time can be collected and trans-ferred and displayed real-time by using modern sensor technology and wireless transmission technology and SCM technology. The operational principle and structure composition and software design is introduced in paper,and fault mode and causes of artillery counter-recoil mechanism is analyzed based on the given the pressure curve by this test. The result showed that the research is simple and practical,it agrees with actual firing condition,and it can lay a solid foundation for the artillery anti-recoil mechanism fault diagnosis.%反后坐装置作为火炮的"心脏",其性能好坏直接影响到火炮战斗力.基于复进机气液量不正确是反后坐装置最常见故障之一,设计了一种利用现代传感技术、无线传输技术以及单片机技术采集、传输和实时显示火炮复进机内压力随时间变化规律的故障检测仪.文中介绍了故障检测仪的工作原理、组成部分和软件设计,并在试验曲线基础上分析了复进机故障模式及原因.试验结果表明该设计可靠实用,符合火炮射击过程,为反后坐装置后续故障诊断奠定了基础.

  6. Electromagnetic Guns versus Conventional Guns - a performance comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, N.M. de; Weijden, J. van der

    1993-01-01

    Performance improvement is one of the key issues of Electromagnetic gun systems compared to conventional gun systems. Due to higher muzzle velocities, the gun's fire control computer will be able to predict the target's future position more accurately because prediction time will be smaller. In this

  7. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  8. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  9. Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

  10. Serbian society and gun culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions whether one characteristic of Serbian society is a gun culture. The first part of the paper deals with some theoretical concerns and closer explanation of what is understood by the term gun culture. Few different approaches to the issue are analyzed. The concept used has three main components of the gun culture: system of positive beliefs; social symbols embodied by the gun; agent "bearers" of gun culture. The second part of the paper presents results from Small Arms and Light Weapons survey conducted in 2004 in Serbia. The results were analyzed within the theoretical framework proposed in the first part of the paper.

  11. The Rail Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

  12. Radar gun hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  13. E-Gun Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    AD E-GUN TECHNOLOGY N FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT J. E. Eninger , H. W. Friedman and K. E. Williams AVCO EVERETT RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC. Contract No...Report J.E. Eninger , H.W. Friedman and K.E. Williams AVCO EVERETT RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC. A Subsidiary of Avco Corporation 2385 Revere Beach Parkway

  14. Giving Up the Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a model lesson from the book "Science/Technology/Society: Model Lessons for Secondary Social Studies Classes." Outlines Japan's campaign in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to rid itself of guns and return to swords. Provides background information and student handouts. (RW)

  15. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 58, Number 3, March 1923

    Science.gov (United States)

    1923-03-01

    amplification. Parts recommended.- Tube sockets, General Radio, $1.50; Amplify- ing transformer, Acme , $5.00; Rheostats, Fada, $1.00 (transmitting) or...Revue d’Artillerie Revue Militaire Generale Revista del Ejercito y Marina Norsk Militaert Tidsskrift Memorial de Artilleria Army Quarterly UK-8

  16. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 74, Number 1, January 1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    1931-01-01

    sen!!t’l’s are transported hy gasoline scooter , {’liminating the difficult trawl throu~h Januar~-, 1931 Coast Artillery Activities 67 the sand of...last appointment. In such cafier; neithrr profesfiional E’xamination nor vacancy ,yill be required and suspension .of appointments in the particular

  17. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 66, Number 3, March 1927

    Science.gov (United States)

    1927-03-01

    for obtaining the direction of the splash from the target. The next consideration is 282 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL to obtain the lineal deviation. It...the actor, after a performance of Mr. Hackett’s in a Shakesperian role had aroused the President’s admiration. The note expressed regret that he (Mr

  18. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 64, Number 1, January 1926

    Science.gov (United States)

    1926-01-01

    Fort Barrancas , Florida 89 Fort Casey, WashingtOD- 41 Totel 434 e. Citizens Military Training Camps. Coast Artillery C. M. T. Camps were held during...aircraft formations enough to enable the defense fighters to attack with advantage. In peace time antiaircraft defense units are trained and operated by the

  19. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 62, Number 3, March 1925

    Science.gov (United States)

    1925-03-01

    fact, that even the best protected structures that can furnish full shelter against splinter projectiles, may become untenable against gas fire if they...cannot be hermetically sealed against it. ’Yhen all enemy battery positions are simultaneously overwhelmed by the attacking artillery with gas fire , there

  20. 155-MM Artillery Rearm Module 2, Unicharge. Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    the press fit at assembly. It was later diagnosed as the polysulfone roller being exposed to an incompatible cleaning fluid (MEK) used when bonding on...inert) to the self-propelled Howitzer; 6. Demonstrated that automted artillery amnition handling rate can be increased by improving the magazine

  1. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 77, Number 2, March-April 1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    1934-04-01

    Colonel was a master of critical and humorous sarcasm . Then we became vita- mine conscious and all became expert cooks and bakers both on the post in l...will include parades, reviews. demonstrations of antiaircraft artillery, and perhaps a trip to Fort Hancock to witness artillery firing. In addition...artillery defense against aerial attack, with and with- out the cooperation of pursuit aviation. 2. To investigate the use of a distant intelligence net in

  2. United States Army Field Artillery and the Hybrid Threat: Is it Time to Get Smart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Today, they constitute the only alternative to high explosive area munitions or “ dumb ” artillery rounds. However, precision guided munitions have...supplant high explosive ‘ dumb round’ area suppression as the traditional role of the artillery” (Waters 2006, iii). The author argues that this would...Source: George A. Durham, “Who Says Dumb Artillery Rounds Can’t Kill Armor?” Field Artillery (November-December 2002): 11. 51 Doctrinally, the

  3. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  4. Design of Gun Counter-recoil Mechanism Pressure Monitoring System%火炮复进机压力监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝根; 张晓龙; 王强; 刘闯; 蔡灿伟

    2016-01-01

    The artillery counter-recoil mechanism is the key component of the gun anti-recoil mecha-nism,and its property is important to gun battle force. According to the practical engineering problem of the close relationship between work reliability of gun anti-recoil mechanism and the pressure in the gun counter-recoil mechanism,a pressure monitoring system is designed so that the artillery counter-re-coil pressure value and variation curve can be displayed in real time. The pressure system is designed by using modern sensor technology and wireless transmission technology and SCM technology with the digital and informational monitoring and management of artillery counter-recoil mechanism pressure achieved based on this system and a convenient and digital management platform provided for the nor-mality checkout and maintenance and repairing of the gun anti-recoil mechanism. The experimental re-sults show that the design is reliable and practical and agrees with actual firing condition,laying a solid foundation for the artillery anti-recoil mechanism fault diagnosis.%复进机作为火炮反后坐装置的重要组成部分,其性能好坏直接影响到火炮战斗力。针对火炮反后坐装置工作可靠性与复进机内部压力密切相关这一工程实际问题,设计了一种可以实时反映火炮复进机内部压力变化规律的压力监测系统。该系统利用了现代传感技术、无线传输技术以及单片机技术,实现了建制规模火炮复进机压力数字化检测与管理,为火炮反后坐装置常态化检测、维护和保养提供了便捷的信息化管理平台。试验结果表明:该设计可靠实用,符合火炮射击过程,为反后坐装置后续故障诊断奠定了基础。

  5. Friction in rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  6. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  7. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun' most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The battery was built because of fears of war with Russia and had been armed with two 9- inch Rifled Muzzle Loading guns by 1891. Lion Battery was remodelled in 1911.

  8. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  9. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  10. The Method of Analysis Derived Coefficients of Database as a New Method of Historical Research (for Example, a Database of Ballistic Parameters of Naval Artillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In paper there is proposed a new method of historical research, based on analysis of derivatives coefficients of database (for example, the form factor in the database of ballistic data. This method has a much greater protection from subjectivism and direct falsification, compared with the analysis obtained directly from the source of the numerical series, as any intentional or unintentional distortion of the raw data provides a significant contrast ratio derived from the average sample values. Application of this method to the analysis of ballistic data base of naval artillery allowed to find the facts, forcing a new look at some of the events in the history data on the German naval artillery before World War I, probably overpriced for disinformation opponents of the Entente; during the First World War, Spain, apparently held secret talks with the firm Bofors ended purchase of Swedish shells; the first Russian naval rifled guns were created obvious based on the project Blackly, not Krupp as traditionally considered.

  11. Weight of RCL Guns in Comparison to Conventional Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Sirpal

    1956-07-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made of the weight of ordnance and equipment for a given performance. The comparative weights of the RCL and the orthodox equipments have been studied and it has been found that for the same muzzle energy the weight of RCL gun is 1/4th that of orthodox gun.

  12. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 63, Number 3, September 1925

    Science.gov (United States)

    1925-09-01

    1847. The city of Puebla was en- tered without resistence May 15, 1847. A was stopped at Perote and I took its place in the battalion, it having...artillery was present at Huamantla, October 9, 1847, at Atlixco. October 19, 1847, and at Matamoras, near Puebla , Novem- ber 23, 1847. These were the...at large who through supineness and lack of vision are indifferent to the necessities of a national defense program in peace as well as in war. An

  13. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 67, Number 4, October 1927

    Science.gov (United States)

    1927-10-01

    THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL Volume 67 OCTOBER, 1927 Number 4 The Beginnings of Coast Fortifications By EDGAR B. WESLEY THE general policy of...the time were withdrawing from l\\ew York to Boston to reinforce the troops there, Marinus Willett, aided by John Morin Scott and others, seized the...Long Island. On September 15, the battalion, as part of General John Morin Scott’s brigade, participated in the retreat from l\\ew York. In October and

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 65, Number 4, October 1926

    Science.gov (United States)

    1926-10-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 65, Number 4, October 1926 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...have ordered tl].e new, position consolidated and held from the outset, especially ,as so mucl ~ stress had been laid on its importance in connection...means of conduct of com- bined naval and aerial war against commerce without disregard of international law will be by means of agreements or contracts

  15. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 67, Number 5, November 1927

    Science.gov (United States)

    1927-11-01

    empire, and the extent of his success may be learned from Marco Polo who pictures for us the empire in the time of Kublai Khan . Son of a minor...Christians, and Jews which he built up endured and reached its greatest glory in the reign of his grandson, Kublai Khan . Continued and overwhelming...Attaches-Glory in Rags-Maintain American Ideals. COAST ARTILLERY BOARD NOTES .453 BOOK REVIEWS 458 Genghis Khan -Cannibal Nights-Book Revieldng-The Writers

  16. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 65, Number 2, August 1926

    Science.gov (United States)

    1926-08-01

    PROFESSIONAL !’OOTES ••You’re in the Army Now" By CAPTAINA. C. M. Azov , JR. COQ$l Anillny Rej. 187 So sang appropriately the hugles of the 62d Coasl Artillery...of the batteries to take part in a war film , several scenes of which were taken at the fort. These included night firing, and using the search. lights

  17. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 71, Number 4, October 1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-10-01

    harbor defense commander. The in- formation as to courses,angles of approach, and safety angles will be indi- cated upon a chart for all antiaircraft...Unfortunately, the peace-time strength permits the formation of only one survey and one wire party and no separate computing section. Means have been devised...Whites and twenty-fivo Blue,;. The 13thCoastArtillery (HD) Fort Barrancas The most successful Training Camp of Fort Barrancas ’ history was brought to a

  18. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 62, Number 1, January 1925

    Science.gov (United States)

    1925-01-01

    one column. THE I~FANTRY DIVISION 17 Division in Two Columns.-The division in advance guard formation in two columns may be taken as follows, for each...government was carried so far as to permit the organization of the National Volunteers, some of whom drilled, marched in mass formation , wore uniform, and...mm__C. D. Potomac, Fort Washington, Md. 13TH COAST ARTILLERY (HARBOR DEFENSE) Headquarters Battery m mmmC. D. Pensacola, Fort Barrancas , Fla. Battery A

  19. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 72, Number 5, May 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-05-01

    warming of motors, taking off, assuming formation , climbing to the altitude of the hostile planes and covering the distance in order to meet the attack...the Navy because the rul- ings and decisionsof umpires can not becomeeffectiveuntil the completion of a phase. Air formations ruled out many miles from...replace. The whole command regrets his leaving." The 13th Coast Artillery (HD), Fort Barrancas Our correspondent informs us that he is now 1st Lieut

  20. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 71, Number 3, September 1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-09-01

    equip- ment for units of all branches that will participate in the formation of our future mechanized di,’isions. Suitable superstructure would conyert...between the peace and the war formation of the army, ought to be in the increased magnitude of the latter, and the only change in passing from the...Stubbs, C. A. C. The 13th oast Artillery (HD) Fort Barrancas The summer training camps conductedby the regiment during tne past summer were the

  1. The Airborne Field Artillery: From Inception to Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in 1940--1941 and “by the summer of 1942 the German Empire extended from the Pyrenees to the outskirts of Moscow and . . . from the Mediterranean to...promised the Soviet government it would open a second front in the west to relieve some of the pressure on the Soviets in the Eastern Front since they...airborne doctrine governing parachute operations, as well as look at how the parachute and glider field artillery nested within the over-arching War

  2. King of Battle: A Branch History of the U.S. Army’s Field Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the difficulties of massing artillery on the tactical offensive, especially in wooded, bro- ken terrain, and the relative ease of concentrating...Official ecords, Vol. 38, part 1, p. 496; RAt Cpt Wilber P. Coodnpeed, Battery A, 1st Ohio Light Artillery, 7 Sep 1864, Official Records, VoL 38, pan !, p

  3. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  4. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  5. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  6. Guns and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Gun deaths are a problem in America. Irrespective of one’s position on gun control, the statistics do not lie. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, there were 11,208 deaths caused by firearms in 2013 (1. The recent high profile cases in Cincinnati, OH, Lafayette, LA and Memphis, TN further highlight the issue. Obviously, each case of death by a firearm had its own set of underlying factors that contributed to the final fatal outcome, but one wonders whether sleep deprivation can be implicated in some of them. Sleep duration in adults over the past approximately 30 years has been declining in the United States (2. A variety of reasons can be cited as underlying causes such as greater use of artificial lighting, an expanding 24 hour non-stop society, promotion of a work ethic that values “burning the midnight oil”, and use of electronic devices before bedtime ...

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Friction Contact Master Belt with the Gun Mount Barrel During the Process of High-Speed Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezulinsky Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction in the gun mount barrel at sliding speeds of artillery projectile 500 - 700 m/s is not sufficiently studied. The main problem is to increase the efficiency of the master belt with a significant increase of the interaction parameters of the barrel with the projectile. To determine the effect of heating on the change of physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer and friction coefficient on the surface of the master belt were made mathematical modeling of heat transfer.

  8. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  9. Guns as a Symbol of American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous gun violence, Americans' crazy love for guns has always been attacked home and abroad. Americans' passion for guns derives from individualism through the development of American history. They consider guns as a means to guarantee independence and freedom, and therefore as a symbol of American individualism.

  10. Calculating effective gun control policies

    CERN Document Server

    Wodarz, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Following recent shootings in the USA, a debate has erupted, one side favoring stricter gun control, the other promoting protection through more weapons. We provide a scientific foundation to inform this debate, based on population dynamic models that quantify the dependence of firearm-related death rates of people on gun policies. We assume a shooter attacking a single individual or a crowd. Two strategies can minimize deaths in the model, depending on parameters: either a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. In particular, the outcome depends on the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, on the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and on the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it with them when attacked, parameters that can be estimated from statistical data. With the measured parameters, the model suggests that if the gun law is enforced at a level similar to that in the United Kingdom, g...

  11. Gun barrel erosion - Comparison of conventional and LOVA gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Leurs, O.

    2006-01-01

    The research department Energetic Materials within TNO Defence, Security and Safety is involved in the development and (safety and insensitive munitions) testing of conventional (nitro cellulose based) and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based gun propellants. Recently our testing capabilities have be

  12. Temporal association between federal gun laws and the diversion of guns to criminals in Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vittes, Katherine A

    2012-02-01

    The practices of licensed gun dealers can threaten the safety of urban residents by facilitating the diversion of guns to criminals. In 2003, changes to federal law shielded gun dealers from the release of gun trace data and provided other protections to gun dealers. The 14-month period during which the dealer did not sell junk guns was associated with a 68% reduction in the diversion of guns to criminals within a year of sale by the dealer and a 43% increase in guns diverted to criminals following sales by other dealers. The laws were associated with a 203% increase in the number of guns diverted to criminals within a year of sale by the gun store, which was the focus of this study. Policies which affect gun dealer accountability appeared to influence the diversion of guns to criminals.

  13. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  14. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  15. The Biggest Stick: The Employment of Artillery Units in Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Guerrilla Warfare, trans. by Samuel B. Griffith (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1961), 44-45. 21Ibid., Tables 1-4. At times, Mao‘s works were...Organic Fires?‖ Field Artillery (March-June 2004): 13-18. Beckett , Ian. ―The British Counter-insurgency Campaign in Dhofar, 1965-1975.‖ In...44-85. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1980. Mao Tse-Tung. On Guerrilla Warfare. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith. Chicago: University of Illinois

  16. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 71, Number 1, July 1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-07-01

    Haussimont And THAT LAIR whence the Oozlefinch shall rise And smite our foeman betwixt the eyes Should they e’er dare their faces to show! ABRAIIAM B...Artillery Reserve. As a result, a large share of it was handled by members of the regiments and the activities of the detachment were largely confined to the...and technical schools, in order to secure concentration of effort and economy , it is recommended that the number of units be limited to one, or at most

  17. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 73, Number 2, August 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-08-01

    Royal Navy and sea power, upon which, in the issue, the future of the Empire rests. EDITORIAL The United States Coast Artillery Association THE formation ...62nd, Fort Totten. 1st Lieut. Felix N. Parsons, 13th, Fort Barrancas , to Panama, sailing New York, September 11. 1st Lieut. John H. Pitzer, from...George E. Keeler, Jr., 62nd, Fort Totten, to Panama, sailing New York, October 23. 2nd Lieut. John H. Kochevar, from Panama, to 13th, Fort Barrancas . 2nd

  18. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 70, Number 1, January 1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-01-01

    when we started. The value Qf O’urpeace insurance WQuid nQt have been changed, since we had changed neither Qur will- tQ-peace nQr Qur military PQwer...5495 2085’ 2842 1206 40 Actual strength, Phil. Scouts I I I I I I April 30, 1928 •..... I 1531 1531 Total April 30, 1928 .. I I I I I I 13,199 d...The enlisted strength of the Coast Artillery Corps (not including Philippine Scouts ) actually on duty with units of the arm has been reduced from

  19. The case for moderate gun control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrazia, David

    2014-03-01

    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call "moderate gun control." The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this general approach to gun policy. The section that follows presents a positive case for moderate gun control that emphasizes safety in the home and society as well as rights whose enforcement entails some limits or qualifications on the right to bear arms. A final section shows how the recommended gun regulations address legitimate purposes, rather than imposing arbitrary restrictions on gun rights, and offers concluding reflections.

  20. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  1. Galois Got his Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Brechenmacher, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    This paper appeals to the figure of \\'Evariste Galois for investigating the gates between mathematics and their "publics." The figure of Galois draws some lines of/within mathematics for/from the outside of mathematics and these lines in turn sketch the silhouette of Galois as a historical figure. The present paper especially investigates the collective categories that have been used in various types of public discourses on Galois's work (e.g. equations, groups, algebra, analysis, France, Germany etc.). In a way, this paper aims at shedding light on the boundaries some individuals drew by getting Galois his gun. It is our aim to highlight the roles of authority some individuals (such as as Picard) took on in regard with the public figure of Galois as well as the roles such authorities assigned to other individuals (such as the mediating role assigned to Jordan as a mediator between Galois's "ideas" and the public). The boundary-works involved by most public references to Galois have underlying them a long-ter...

  2. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  3. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. November - December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    other fire team members during his visit with Soldiers after their successful joint live-fire exercise held July 30, on McGregor Range, N.M. (Photo...to successfully conduct a rapid deployment. In April of 2011, A-4 ADA deployed their equipment to Tactical Site 19 at McGregor Range, N.M., for...Detachment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma The Marine Artillery Detachment, Fort Sill, Okla., commanded by Col. Douglas P. Thomas, is home to all artillery

  4. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. January - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    designing pre-deployment training events for a mixed field artillery battalion By MAJ Corey Landry and MAJ Jon B. Fausnaugh 64 Electronic Warfare: The...Ky. Alexander Hamilton Award B Battery, 1st Battalion, 623rd Field Artillery Regiment, Kentucky Army National Guard BG Edmund L. Gruber Award SFC...Corey Landry and MAJ Jon B. Fausnaugh Combat Training Center and training unit partnership: Supporting and designing pre-deployment training events

  5. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 81, Number 4, July-August 1938

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-08-01

    COAST ARTILLERY ACTIVITIES 311 Notes from the Chief’s Office-Fort Monroe- Panama - Hawaii - Corregidor - New York National Guard-Fort Barrancas ...each airplane in a formation . Offensive tactics arc designed solely to exploit bombing accuracy. Since the World \\Var, bomb sicrht. n development has...predicted point in space. In the face of hostile antiaircraft artillery, bombardment tactics also include operation in dispersed formations . An

  6. Journal of the United States Artillery. Volume 56, Number 4, March 1922

    Science.gov (United States)

    1922-03-01

    formation required for its particular duties. Much confusion has arisen from a failure to understand Mr. Cal- houn’s plan. As the Coast Artillery was a...Trumbull, Schuyler, Hamilton, McHenry, Washington, Moultrie, Sumter, Pickens, Barrancas , Morgan, and Monroe. (Ibid. pp.330-339.) The old works at Fort...arsenals. The wise rule of Mr. Calhoun looking to the formation of a reserve of field artillery officers was followed, however, and nearly all

  7. ATA injector-gun calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.C.

    1981-08-03

    ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached.

  8. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Gun Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    8217s HY80 and HY130 steels were checked for the critical hydrogen concentrations which were determined to be 6 ppm for HY8O steel 8 and 3 ppm for HY130...JOTC FILE COPY AD-A188 972 AD 1 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-87030 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF GUN STEEL F’ GERALD L. SPFNCER DTIC DEC 1 5 1987 NOVEMBER...PtEtIOC COVERED HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEHENT OF GUN STEEL Final OG EOTNME 6. PERFORMINGORO EOTNME 7. A*JTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Gerald L

  9. Liquid Propellants for Advanced Gun Ammunitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Rao

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available With constant improvements, the conventional solid propellants for guns have almost reached their limit in performance. Liquid gun propellants are promising new comers capable of surpassing these performance limits and have numerous advantages over solid propellants. A method has been worked out to predict the internal ballistics of a liquid propellant gun and illustrated in a typical application.

  10. Advances in light-gas gun technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, P. L.; Murphy, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    Constant-area accelerator used with light-gas guns increases the velocity of accelerating projectiles. A disposable accelerator on the muzzle of the gun uses the energy and momentum of a primary projectile, launched by the gun, to achieve high velocities of a light secondary projectile accelerated from rest in the accelerator.

  11. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  12. 一种高炮武器系统射击准备精度综合检测方法%An Integrated Test Method Based on Accuracy of Fire Preparation for Antiaircraft Artillery Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永鸿; 张文红

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the fire preparation accuracy of antiaircraft artillery weapon system, put forward an integrated test method for accuracy of fire preparation based on CCD camera. The checkout equipment includes cold gun correction sighting telescope, the single chip application system, display equipment and storage battery and so on. Through the calculation of ballistic correction and the picture deviating techniques of interpretation based on muzzle aiming direction in linkage, realize the integrated test for error of fire preparation based on antiaircraft artillery weapon system.The application results show that the executed device has these characteristics of simple structure and high check precision etc.%为提高高炮武器系统射击准备精度,提出一种基于CCD摄像的射击准备精度综合检测方法.检测装置由冷炮校正器、单片机应用系统、显示器和蓄电池等构成,通过弹道修正量计算和联动状态下炮口指向的图像偏差判别方法,实现高炮武器系统射击准备误差的综合检测.应用结果表明,该实施装置具有结构简单、检测精度高等特点.

  13. Study of Trajectory of Spin-Stabilised Artillery Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krishnamurthy

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Equations of motion for conventional spin-stabilised artillery projectile have been derived using a pseudo-stability axes system in addition to body-fixed and space-fixed axes systems. The aerodynamic forces and moments have been represented by their respective coefficients and the effects of Mach number and Reynolds number have been suitably accounted. The magnus terms which are significant at high rates of spin are estimated using a simple model. The set of equations have been partly linearised and solved numerically for a typical projectile using NAG system routines. Various trajectory parameters are computed and compared with the range-table data for the projectile. A parametric study had been carried out varying the aerodynamic coefficients to understand the sensitivity of the results obtained.

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 61, Number 1, June 1924

    Science.gov (United States)

    1924-07-01

    were dispatched for the post. In order to test airbrakes , exercise trucks and otherwise insure that an gun cars were ready to take the road, the...armament consists of eight M1896 mortars mounted on M1918 railway cars with narrow gauge trucks. The armament began to arrive in January, 1922. It was un...poles. After lashing on large branches and brush these ladders were leaned up against the gun and car . They could be raised in a few minutes and thrown

  15. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 68, Number 1, January 1928

    Science.gov (United States)

    1928-01-01

    During the year a revision of the plans and estimate for the 16- inch gun installation at Bruja Point, Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal, was...COMMANDINGOFFICER, Fort Amador, Canal Zone. October 27, 1927. GENERALORDERS NUMBER29. 1. On October 17, 1927, a party of observers was sent to Bruja Point. In a

  16. Research on the test-fired precision analysis method of single tube guns by measuring distance-direction error%单管舰炮测量距离方向法试射精度分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向宏志

    2012-01-01

    单管舰炮与双管舰炮测量距离和方向法试射的方法近似相同,单管舰炮一般以最大发射率连续发射k发炮弹作为1组进行射击,以形成近似双管舰炮齐射的效果.本文充分考虑1组射击中几发弹着的时间间隔所造成的误差,系统地提出了单管舰炮测量距离和方位法试射精度分析的方法和步骤.%Approximately the same single-tube guns with double-barreled guns by measuring distance-direction error,single tube guns generally continuous firing k artillery shells by maximum emission rate as a group of shooters,to form an approximate double-barreled guns salvo. This article fully consider the error caused by the time interval of the shells placement in a group shooting, systematically proposing the methods and procedures of the test-fired precision analysis method of single tube guns by measuring distance-direction error.

  17. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  18. Effects of a gun dealer's change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2006-09-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called "Saturday night specials." The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupted time-series design with comparisons to test for changes in the number of guns that police recovered from criminals within a year of retail sale following the gun dealer's new sales policy. The dealer's changed sales policy was associated with a 96% decrease in recently sold, small, inexpensive handguns use in crime in Milwaukee, a 73% decrease in crime guns recently sold by this dealer, and a 44% decrease in the flow of all new, trafficked guns to criminals in Milwaukee. The findings demonstrate the substantial impact that a single gun store's sales practices can have on the supply of new guns to criminals. Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets.

  19. A two-Frequency RF Photocathode Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, D.H. E-mail: dowell@slac.stanford.edu; Ferrario, M.; Kimura, T.; Lewellen, J.; Limborg, C.; Raimondi, P.; Schmerge, J.F.; Serafini, L.; Smith, T.; Young, L

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we resurrect an idea originally proposed by Serafini (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 318 (1992) 301) in 1992 for an RF photocathode gun capable of operating simultaneously at the fundamental frequency and a higher frequency harmonic. Driving the gun at two frequencies with the proper field ratio and relative phase produces a beam with essentially no RF emittance and a linear longitudinal phase space distribution. Such a gun allows a completely new range of operating parameters for controlling space charge emittance growth. In addition, the linear longitudinal phase space distribution aids in bunch compression. This paper will compare results of simulations for the two-frequency gun with the standard RF gun and the unique properties of the two-frequency gun will be discussed.

  20. 77 FR 37834 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION... use with toy guns and toy guns not intended for use with caps, which were included in the regulations... revoke our existing banning regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns and toy...

  1. 78 FR 66840 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION...-producing toys. Existing CPSC regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns refer to... intended for use with toy guns and toy guns not intended for use with caps. The final rule is...

  2. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry O'Brien

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  3. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  4. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FOR OFFICIAL USE ONYLFGFF ARL-CR-0771 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development...return it to the originator. ARL-CR-0771 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development...COVERED (From - To) 12 January 2014–1 January 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ORISE 1120

  5. Research on Hot Gunning Repairing in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; LONG Shigang; MENG Qingmin; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2003-01-01

    The lining of blast furnace may be damaged partly,so that gunning repair is needed. The bonding strength of boundary surface between the repairing layer and remained lining of blast furnace has been studied by thermal simulation.The factors influencing the bonding strength are the ingredient gunning repair temperature,remained lining condition and water content of gunning refractory.The bonding strength decreases with the increases of remained lining temperature.

  6. Small barium rail gun for plasma injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwamoto, Y

    1980-03-01

    A small rail gun with a barium electrode can be operated at higher than one shot per second to produce more than 2x10(16) barium ions with energy 10-20 eV. The operation of the gun takes advantage of the external magnetic field for cross-field plasma injection into a trap. Up to 7 kG of the magnetic field examined, the gun performance improves with the increased magnetic field strength.

  7. New Image Operator and Its Application in the Inner Surface Detection of Artillery Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 徐春广; 肖定国; 张建民

    2003-01-01

    Aimed at the image detection on the ablation wearing, scrape wearing and rifling angle of the artillery body pipe, the character of the inner surface image of the pipe is discussed, the model for rifling, ablation wearing and scrape wearing is brought up, and a new image operator is proposed for these detection. This operator can detect the rifling angle in a high precision, and tell the ablation wearing from scrape wearing in the image, therefore the degree of ablation wearing and scrape wearing can be detected efficiently. This is useful for the artillery body pipe's producing process and life evaluation.

  8. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 76, Number 5, September-October 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    1933-10-01

    Artillery Brigade News Letter-Secretary of War Visits Fort MacArthur- Fort Barrancas Notes-Coast Artillery Activities in Panama-Fort H. G. Wright Holds an...Mustafa’s own artillerists in the trenches could not fire over the heads of the massed formation that tried the assault. , Mustafa had to have his...the division reserve. The first three cars started at 9 :00 A.M. on October 9, 1918, from a point south of Serain to secure in- formation on the

  9. Community gun safety in Central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Christina; Erdman, Deborah A; Smith, Jill Gray; Widom, Kenneth; Reardon, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Firearm-related injuries are a public health issue in the United States. In rural Pennsylvania, it is a familiar way of life to have a gun or guns in the home. Safety behaviors along with gun storage in the home, specifically where there are young children (aged 6 years and younger), are a concern for this level I regional resource center in rural Pennsylvania. Head Start families were surveyed regarding gun safety habits before and after safety educational activities. A noteworthy number of families reported changing behaviors regarding better safety habits for storing and use of firearms in the home postsurvey.

  10. Conceptual Design for CLIC Gun Pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Tao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposed future electron-positron collider, designed to perform collisions at energies from 0.5 to 5 TeV, with a nominal design optimized for 3 TeV (Dannheim, 2012). The Drive Beam Accelerator consists of a thermionic DC gun, bunching section and an accelerating section. The thermionic gun needs deliver a long (~143us) pulse of current into the buncher. A pulser is needed to drive grid of the gun to generate a stable current output. This report explores the requirements of the gun pulser and potential solutions to regulate grid current.

  11. Ball driven type MEMS SAD for artillery fuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Oh; Jeong, Ji-hun; Eom, Junseong; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Chun Jae; Ryu, Sung Moon; Oh, Jong Soo

    2017-01-01

    The SAD (safety and arming device) is an indispensable fuse component that ensures safe and reliable performance during the use of ammunition. Because the application of electronic devices for smart munitions is increasing, miniaturization of the SAD has become one of the key issues for next-generation artillery fuses. Based on MEMS technology, various types of miniaturized SADs have been proposed and fabricated. However, none of them have been reported to have been used in actual munitions due to their lack of high impact endurance and complicated explosive train arrangements. In this research, a new MEMS SAD using a ball driven mechanism, is successfully demonstrated based on a UV LIGA (lithography, electroplating and molding) process. Unlike other MEMS SADs, both high impact endurance and simple structure were achieved by using a ball driven mechanism. The simple structural design also simplified the fabrication process and increased the processing yield. The ball driven type MEMS SAD performed successfully under the desired safe and arming conditions of a spin test and showed fine agreement with the FEM simulation result, conducted prior to its fabrication. A field test was also performed with a grenade launcher to evaluate the SAD performance in the firing environment. All 30 of the grenade samples equipped with the proposed MEMS SAD operated successfully under the high-G setback condition.

  12. From gun politics to self-defense politics: a feminist critique of the great gun debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jennifer D

    2014-03-01

    This article calls attention to a problematic binary produced by public debates surrounding gun rights and gun control-namely, that women must choose armed self-protection or no self-protection at all. I argue that both anti- and pro-gun discourses, drawing on and reproducing race and class privileges, use assumptions about women's physical inferiority to further their agendas. I highlight how both sides have used guns as the proxy for self-defense and conclude by calling for a shift in public discourse to focus on the broader question of the right to self-defense rather than the narrower question of gun rights.

  13. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  14. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  15. The Xygra gun simulation tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Lamppa, Derek C.; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Shirley, David Noyes; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Russo, Thomas V.

    2008-12-01

    Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as a point-mass lumped circuit element simulation tool for modeling coilgun behavior for design and verification purposes. This code has shortcomings in terms of accurately modeling gun performance under stressful electromagnetic propulsion environments. To correct for these limitations, it was decided to attempt to closely couple two Sandia simulation codes, Xyce and ALEGRA, to develop a more rigorous simulation capability for demanding launch applications. This report summarizes the modifications made to each respective code and the path forward to completing interfacing between them.

  16. Concepts for a short wavelength rf gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Shchelkunov, S.; Vikharev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Three concepts of an rf gun to be operated at 0.1-10 mm wavelengths are considered. In all the concepts, the rf system exploits an accelerating traveling wave. In comparison with a classical decimeter standing-wave rf gun, we analyze the advantages of new concepts, available rf sources, and achievable beam parameters.

  17. On the theory of photocathode rf guns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a set of analytical formulae to describe the characteristics of photocathode rf guns at any rf frequencies, such as energy, energy spread, bunch length, out going current, and emittance etc.as functions of the laser injection phase, which are useful in the design and practical operation of rf guns.

  18. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  19. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. January - February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    beyond No. 1, if necessary. This operation goes on as long as desired. Great economy in the use of these scouts may be obtained by messages left with...Revue uber die gesamten Armeen und Flotten, April, 1910, by Captain Oliver L. Spaulding Jr., 6th Field Artillery.] H22 sill-www.army.mil/firesbulletin

  20. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  1. New Electron Gun System for BEPCII

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bo; Long Chi, Yun; Zhang, Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The new electron gun system for BEPCII has been put into operation since Nov. 2004. The article describes the design, experiment and operation of this new system. The design current of the gun is 10 A for the pulse lengths of 1 ns, 2.5 ns and 1 μs with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun is operated with a pulsed high voltage power supply which can provide up to 200 kV high voltage. Computer simulations have been carried out in the design stage, including simulation of the gun geometry and beam transportation. Some important relation curves are obtained during the experiment. Two-bunch operation is available and some elementary tests have been performed. New scheme of the gun control system based on EPICS is also presented. The real operation shows that the design and manufacturing is basically successful.

  2. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways.

  3. ERLP Gun Commissioning Beamline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, D J; Hannon, F E

    2004-01-01

    The 4GLS project is a novel next-generation solution for a UK national light source. It is based on an energy recovery linac (ERL) operating at high average beam currents up to 100 mA and with compression schemes producing pulses in the 10 - 100 fs range. This challenging accelerator technology, new to Europe, necessitates a significant R&D programme and a major part of this is a low-energy prototype, the ERLP, which is currently under construction at Daresbury Laboratory, in the north-west of England. The first components of ERLP to be built will be the DC photocathode gun and low-energy beam transport and diagnostics. The gun will initially be operated with a diagnostic beamline in order to measure the properties of the high-brightness beams generated as fully as possible. This will allow comparison of its performance with the results of multi-particle tracking codes, prior to its integration into the ERLP machine. The diagnostic beamline will include diagnostics for measuring the transverse and longitu...

  4. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 71, Number 2, 1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-08-01

    the guns are emplaced in a square, it is sometimes possible to distinguish the same square formation in the ap- pearance or the bursts around the... Barrancas , Fla.: 2d Lieut. L. Me!. Guyer. 20. Lieut. W. F. McKee. To the 14th C. A. (Hd.) Fort Worden, Wash. 2d Lieut. J. T. Barber. To the 51st C. A. (Tr. Dr...place in the autumn of the conscript’s 22nd year, as follows:- years’ training. (a) In regular formations - ~:~~;:i

  5. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations.

  6. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  7. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  8. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  9. Homopolar Gun for Pulsed Spheromak Fusion Reactors II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T

    2004-06-14

    A homopolar gun is discussed that could produce the high currents required for pulsed spheromak fusion reactors even with unit current amplification and open field lines during injection, possible because close coupling between the gun and flux conserver reduces gun losses to acceptable levels. Example parameters are given for a gun compatible with low cost pulsed reactors and for experiments to develop the concept.

  10. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.

  11. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  12. Texas youth stage rally against guns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary; Alice; Robbins; 李小平

    2000-01-01

    Young Texans Against Gun Violence rallied atthe State Capitol on Monday and called for the Legisla-ture to pass laws that would make it more difficult toget guns.“It is time for our state Legislature to pass laws tohelp protect us,”Marianne Moreno,a high school se-nior from the Dallas area,told a crowd of about 125students who attended the“Packing Peace Rally.”“As Texas law stands today,anyone—even acriminal—can walk into a gun show and purchase asemi-automatic weapon or any other type of firearm,...

  13. "Is there a gun in the home?" Assessing the risks of gun ownership in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinholt, Ellen M; Mitchell, Joshua D; Butler, Jane H; Kumar, Harjinder

    2014-06-01

    An important ethical and safety concern that geriatricians, primary care providers, and home health professionals need to address is gun ownership by elderly adults. Those aged 65 and older now have the highest rate of gun ownership in America, and they also have a high prevalence of depression and suicide. Dementia can add additional layers of risk. Even older gun owners who are otherwise intellectually intact may benefit from information about gun safety with the increasing numbers of children being cared for by grandparents. Health professionals should ask patients, "Is there a gun in the home?" in the clinic and during home visits. Healthcare professionals must have knowledge and skills to address safe gun ownership in elderly adults. The 5 L's (Locked, Loaded, Little children, feeling Low, Learned owner) will assist professionals in addressing all aspects of safe ownership.

  14. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  15. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  16. Arc-driven rail gun research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively-driven rail gun are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. The effect of frictional heat dissipation on the bore of the gun is calculated. The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a dc rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  17. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey of the submergent and emergent aquatics growing in the marsh on the Canvasback Gun Club in Nevada. The marsh portion of the...

  18. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about an investigation that was done to determine the quantity and species of submergent vegetation in the marsh area on the Canvasback Gun Club in...

  19. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since the last vegetative survey in 1965, the marsh at Canvasback Gun Club has remained virtually unchanged. The Arthur-Johnson Ponds produced most of the waterfowl...

  20. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey of the submergent and emergent aquatics growing in the marsh on the Canvasback Gun Club in Nevada. The marsh portion of the...

  1. Uudised : Guns N' Roses Soomes. Valmis ulmeraadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika hard-rock-bändi Guns N' Roses kontserdist 5. juulil Hartwall Areenal Soomes. Kord kuus on Ulmeplaatide kodulehekülel www. ulmeplaadid.ee võimalus kuulata ulmeraadiot, kus esitusel eesti kergemuusika

  2. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey of the submergent and emergent aquatics growing in the marsh on the Canvasback Gun Club in Nevada. As stated in previous years of...

  3. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  4. Detonator assembly for oil well perforating gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regalbuto, J.A.

    1981-02-18

    A safe/arm detonator assembly for use with an oil well perforating gun assembly has 2 housing members isolated from well-bore fluid which are rotatable from a safe position wherein a detonator and a booster are held out of alignment, to an armed position wherein the detonator and booster are moved into alignment. The detonator assembly is further arranged to be installed in a well perforating gun assembly such that the gun assembly may be transported with the detonator assembly in the safe position, and rotated to the armed position at the well site without disassembling the gun assembly. A safety pin may protrude from one of the housing members across a cavity between the members to cover and protect the booster from accidental detonation when the detonator assembly is in the safe position. The detonator and booster cavities may be held aligned by a detent ball. 16 claims.

  5. RF Electron Gun with Driven Plasma Cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    It's known that RF guns with plasma cathodes based on solid-state dielectrics are able to generate an intense electron beam. In this paper we describe results of experimental investigation of the single cavity S-band RF gun with driven plasma cathode. The experimental sample of the cathode based on ferroelectric ceramics has been designed. Special design of the cathode permits to separate spatially processes of plasma development and electron acceleration. It has been obtained at RF gun output electron beam with particle energy ~500 keV, pulse current of 4 A and pulse duration of 80 ns. Results of experimental study of beam parameters are referred in. The gun is purposed to be applied as the intense electron beam source for electron linacs.

  6. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  7. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    are presented in Section 5. 2. Materials and methods The composition of the cobalt -base alloy (CBA) is presented in Table 1. The production of this... Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials

  8. Modelling Effectiveness of Machine Gun Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, D.; S. Sabhanval

    2002-01-01

    Machine gun is an effective infantry weapon which can cause heavy damage to enemy targets, if sited in a tactically favourable position. It can be engaged effectively against both static and moving targets. The paper deals with the determination of target vulnerability under effective machine gun fire considering relevant tactical parameters, eg, target aiming point, trajectory of fire, sweep angle, target frontage, posture, direction of attack, etc.

  9. Modelling Effectiveness of Machine Gun Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dutta

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Machine gun is an effective infantry weapon which can cause heavy damage to enemy targets, if sited in a tactically favourable position. It can be engaged effectively against both static and moving targets. The paper deals with the determination of target vulnerability under effective machine gun fire considering relevant tactical parameters, eg, target aiming point, trajectory of fire, sweep angle, target frontage, posture, direction of attack, etc.

  10. Mathematical Model to Simulate the Trajectory Elements ofan Artillery Projectile Proof Shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Chand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In external ballistics of a conventional spin-stabilised artillery projectile, there are a numberof trajectory models developed for computing trajectory elements having varying degrees ofcomplexity. The present study attempts to propose a single mathematical model, viz., simplifiedpoint-mass/simple particle trajectory model to simulate the trajectory elements of a typical spin-stabilised flat-head artillery projectile proof shot. Due to difficulties in the projectile shape andsize, and the complicated nature of air resistance, an accurate mathematical prediction of thetrajectory is difficult. To simplify the computations, the governing equations of motion of theprojectile have been simplified and assumed that the projectile is a particle and the only forcesacting on the projectile are drag and gravity. With this model, trajectory elements have beengenerated and compared with experimental results obtained in the field test. The measuringinstrument used in this case is a Doppler radar.

  11. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 77, Number 6, November-December 1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    1934-12-01

    BENVENUTO CEL- LINI. Translated by John Addington Symonds. New illustrated edition. 488 pp. Published by Garden City Publishing Co. Garden City, N. Y. Price...1.00. Reviewed by John Stanley The bravest man in all Italy, the greatest artist, the finest swordsman and the most accomplished lover was Benvenuto ...Cellini. He tells us so himself. He admits too that in artillery he is without peer. Benvenuto Cellini was born in Florence in 1500. He lived at a

  12. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 75, Number 3, May-June 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    1932-06-01

    Manchuria -Die Marne- Deutschlands Schicksal? The Ears of the Army __ , 200 By P. R. Bassett The Song of Lieutenant Hiawatha 205 - Coast Artillery Orders...than in the use of other arms. -Deutsche 1Vehr,-J anuary 22, 1932. ".J apanese-American Incidents in Manchuria ." Arrest of an American officer in uniform...and the maltreatment of the American vice-consul at Harbin indicate the impossibility of continued denial or ignor- ing of the existence of an actual

  13. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 81, Number 2, March-April 1938

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-04-01

    Chief’s Office- Fort Monroe- Hawaii - Panama - Corregidor - Washington -:-Fort Barrancas - Schenectady. COAST ARTILLERY BOARD NOTES 148 CONTRIBUTORS...in perfectly spaced formation , and went into action-with shrapnel. They might just as well have thrown ripe tomatoes! After about fifteen minutes...the Ranks of the neighboring formations . Yet the determining feature of the battle was not there; it was back at the creek-side,where Thomas had

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 79, Number 5, September-October 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    1936-10-01

    formations equally linear and homo- geneous with no plan of maneuver and no possibility of it. Here, in words written the year before 1914, lies the...practices, one will see a renewed interest in service target practices in Panama. Fort Barrancas Notes COLONEL ROBERT ARTHL’R, C.A.C., Commanding By...available for dut.\\". Naturally this means more work for even’one and ə doubling up on assignments.. Fort Barrancas , the Coast Artillery’ training area fm

  15. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  16. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  17. Progress of the Rossendorf SRF Gun Project

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Büttig, H; Janssen, D; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Möller, K; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Xiang, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. The project aims at several issues: improvement of the beam quality for the ELBE superconducting electron linac, demonstration of feasibility of this gun type, investigation of critical components, and parameter studies for future application (BESSY-FEL, 4GLS). In 2005, a substantial progress has been made. The two 3.5-cell niobium cavities for the gun have been delivered from the company ACCEL. The main parts for gun cryostat like vacuum vessel, cryogenic and magnetic shields are ready. Test benches for the cathode cooling system and the cavity tuner are being assembled. The photo cathode preparation lab has been arranged, and the diagnostic beam line has been designed (see T. Kamps et al., this conference). After delivering the gun cavities, their rf properties are being measured at room temperature and the warm tuning is being carried out. The set-up for this treatment and measurement as well as...

  18. Top-down Structural Design Method of Large-caliber Naval Gun Based on UG/WAVE%基于UG/WAVE的大口径舰炮结构自顶向下设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚忠; 夏方超

    2016-01-01

    A top-down design method was applied to design the structure of large-caliber naval gun in accordance with the structural feature of large-caliber naval gun. Based on the analysis of structure differences,large-caliber naval guns were classified according to ammunition loading paths and laun-ching-feeding. Taken the complex loading large-caliber naval gun for example,the skeleton and para-metric solid models were established according to the top-down design method. The method can effec-tively achieve quantitative,parametric design of large-caliber naval gun,and also has a measure of reference value in improving the efficiency of artillery engineering design.%针对大口径舰炮结构特点,将自顶向下设计方法应用于大口径舰炮的结构设计中。按大口径舰炮弹药装填路径和扬供弹方式的不同,对大口径舰炮进行了类别划分。以复合装填大口径舰炮为设计实例,进行大口径舰炮结构自顶向下设计研究。建立了某复合装填大口径舰炮的顶层骨架模型和参数化实体模型。该设计方法能够有效实现大口径舰炮定量化、参数化设计,对提高火炮工程设计效率有一定的参考价值。

  19. The Adhesion and Formation Mechanism of Blast Furnace Gunning Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Basing on the study of the equilibrium relationship of interfacial tension among gunning particles, repaired surface and atmosphere, this test is in a position to draw a conclusion concerning the adhesion mechanism of the gunning refractory and the repaired surface, which illustrates the formation of the bottom gunning layer by moist fine gunning particles on the repaired surface. Also involved within the scope of discussion and probe are the patterns formed under this contacting effect and the formation mechanism of gunning layer. The analytic research regarding the behavior of gunning interface has ascribed the influence upon adhesion intensity to the quality of furnace gunning refractory, the state of the repaired surface and the gunning techniques.

  20. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  1. Research Artillery Automatic Machine Fault Diagnosis%火炮自动机故障诊断研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武春林; 潘宏侠

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the authors narrated the significance of the automatic mechanism of artillery fault diagnosis, analyzed the normal faults , and introduced the methods about automatic mechanism of artillery work status monitoring and fault diagnosis in common use, and its principle and characteristics. The difficulties and the developing direction of the automatic mechanism of artillery fault diagnosis were put for⁃ward in the end.%  叙述了火炮自动机故障诊断的意义,对火炮自动机常见的故障进行了分析,并介绍了国内外一些常见的火炮自动机状态监测与故障诊断的方法及其原理和特点,最后提出了火炮自动机的故障诊断的难点和发展方向。

  2. The Real Costs of Gun Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Philip J. (Duke University)

    2001-03-14

    I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

  3. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kewisch, Jorg; Chang, Xiangyun

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  4. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  5. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  6. Dynamic Simulation of the Tank Gun Recoil Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Jun-wen; WANG Liang-xi; SHI Yan; CHEN Chun-liang

    2005-01-01

    By using the ATV module of MSC. ADAMS, the dynamic simulation of recoil response of tank gun is analyzed.How the recoil force affects the bodywork and the suspension during gun firing, as well as the changing status of the gun muzzle's velocity are gained. All results and analyzing methods are offered for the designing basis of optimizing tank vehicle-gun match. The constructive exploration is beneficial to improving the general capability of tank.

  7. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  8. Guns N’ Arenas黑枪事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄艾

    2010-01-01

    奇才队"零号探员"阿里纳斯(Gilbert Arenas)和知名摇滚乐团"枪和玫瑰(Guns N’Roses)"同样发迹于美国加州,但当"枪和阿里纳斯(Guns N’Are nas)"连结在一起时,代志就大条了!先前名气直逼摇滚巨星的阿里纳斯,恐怕将因去年12月的"黑枪事件"身败名裂!

  9. OCULAR INJURIES CAUSED BY BB GUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Farahvash

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available in ordere to determine the prognosis of perforating eye injuries caused hy BB guns in our patients, the"nvisual and anatomic results of 14 patients with gun injuries seen between September 1996 and February 1998 in Farafti Hospital and private office in Tehran were reviewed. Five patients liad nonn erf orating eye injuries. All perforated eyes underwent scleral buckling, tenseclomy, vitrectomy ami silicone injection. All injured iyes had a visual acuity of light perception or better at presentation. Among 9 cases of perforating injuries. 7 had doable and 2 had single perforation. All patients had a final.

  10. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  11. Should Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools? Perspectives of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gun-related injuries and deaths among children occur at disproportionately high rates in the United States. Children who live in homes with guns are the most likely victims. This study describes teachers' views on whether gun safety should be taught to children in the preschool and elementary years. Methods: A total of 150 survey…

  12. Demand Analysis of Informational Shipboard Gun Weapon System Interface Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hui-chuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to development demand of informational shipboard gun weapon system, design concept of shipboard gun weapon system interface is proposed. System composition is put forward and function demand of interface is analyzed from combat, training and detection aspects. General principle need to be followed in design process. A new concept is provided for development of shipboard gun weapon system interface.

  13. Study of Control Grid Thermionic Cathode RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Jin; Ming, Li; Xinfan, Yang; Xumin, Shen; Yanan, Chen; Zhou, Xu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the beam loading effect of RF Gun was analyzed. To minimize the energy spread, the grid control RF Gun was introduced. The result shows that the grid congrol RF Gun can increase electron beam within 1% energy spread.

  14. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... of Justice Programs Review of Gun Safety Technologies AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, JPO, DOJ...) is conducting a review of existing and emerging gun safety technologies and plans to issue a report... to help inform its technology assessment and market research of existing and emerging gun...

  15. Index to the Field Artillery Journal, Author and Subject Index, January 1977 - December 1981. Volumes 45-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    DISTINCTIVE INSIGNIA [ LaSalle College] Article. 48:49 Mr-Ap 󈨔 FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALIONS OF THE U.S. ARMY, by James A. Sawicki LT (Ret). Review of. I: 45...1941- 206th Anniversary of the Field Artillery. Letter 49:5 N-D 181 LARSON, DAVID W. Letter. 47:7 N-D 󈨓 LASALLE COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PA ROTC...TYSON, WILLIAM E. 1942- A Combined Arms ARTEP - It’s Not Impossible. 46:16-20 Se-O 󈨒 U UNGER, FERDINAND T. 19i3- Kudos for Colonel Stegmaier. Letter

  16. Performance of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; King, Todd T.; Bis, Rachael A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Herrero, Federico; Lynch, Bernard A.; Roman, Patrick; Mahaffy, Paul

    2007-04-01

    A cold cathode field emission electron gun (e-gun) based on a patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) film has been fabricated for use in a miniaturized reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF MS), with future applications in other charged particle spectrometers, and performance of the CNT e-gun has been evaluated. A thermionic electron gun has also been fabricated and evaluated in parallel and its performance is used as a benchmark in the evaluation of our CNT e-gun. Implications for future improvements and integration into the RTOF MS are discussed.

  17. Fired Models of Air-gun Source and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Guichun; Ge Hongkui; Wang Baoshan; Hu Ping; Mu Hongwang; Chen Yong

    2008-01-01

    Air-gun is an important active seismic source. With the development of the theory about air-gun array, the technique for air-gun array design becomes mature and is widely used in petroleum exploration and geophysics. In order to adapt it to different research domains,different combination and fired models are needed. At the present time, there are two firedmodels of air-gun source, namely, reinforced initial pulse and reinforced first bubble pulse.The fired time, space between single guns, frequency and resolution of the two models are different. This comparison can supply the basis for its extensive application.

  18. Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. Ronny; Nanni, Emilio A.; Ravi, Koustuban; Hong, Kyung-Han; Fallahi, Arya; Wong, Liang Jie; Keathley, Phillip D.; Zapata, Luis E.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond electron bunches with keV energies and eV energy spread are needed by condensed matter physicists to resolve state transitions in carbon nanotubes, molecular structures, organic salts, and charge density wave materials. These semirelativistic electron sources are not only of interest for ultrafast electron diffraction, but also for electron energy-loss spectroscopy and as a seed for x-ray FELs. Thus far, the output energy spread (hence pulse duration) of ultrafast electron guns has been limited by the achievable electric field at the surface of the emitter, which is 10 MV/m for DC guns and 200 MV/m for RF guns. A single-cycle THz electron gun provides a unique opportunity to not only achieve GV/m surface electric fields but also with relatively low THz pulse energies, since a single-cycle transform-limited waveform is the most efficient way to achieve intense electric fields. Here, electron bunches of 50 fC from a flat copper photocathode are accelerated from rest to tens of eV by a microjoule THz pulse with peak electric field of 72 MV/m at 1 kHz repetition rate. We show that scaling to the readily-available GV/m THz field regime would translate to monoenergetic electron beams of ~100 keV. PMID:26486697

  19. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  20. Nerf Guns Strike a Nerve on Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Killing zombies on campus just isn't as much fun as it used to be. Students at Bowling Green State University once carried Nerf guns for a week each semester, shooting the zombies before the creatures could tag them. Participants were seen by most bystanders as nerdy but harmless kids who liked role-playing. These days, bright plastic Nerf guns…

  1. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Chris Hedeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self-inflicted or a criminal act.

  2. Safety Plan for Schools: No Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    In a pre-emptive move against a school safety proposal from the National Rifle Association that is expected to include a call for more people trained and approved to carry guns at schools, a coalition of civil rights and education groups unveiled its own safety plan last week. It seeks the creation of positive school climates, thoughtful and…

  3. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...

  4. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    Source of Narco Syndicates Rising Firepower,” Narcosphere, March 29, 2009. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border Congressional Research...50 years old, of museum interest, or derive a substantial amount of their value from the fact that they are novel , rare, bizarre, or because they

  5. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  6. College Students Opinions on Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rhonda K; LoCurto, Jamie; Brown, Kyrah; Stowell, David; Maryman, J'Vonnah; Dean, Amber; McNair, Thoi; Ojeda, Debbie; Siwierka, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence and control issues have become serious public health problems. This study gathered the opinions from 419 college students from a Midwestern University. Participants were asked about beliefs about purchasing assault weapons, beliefs about bringing handguns to college campuses and beliefs about contributing factors that lead to gun violence. Participants completed surveys online. The findings showed that overall 54 % of respondents believed that military assault weapons should be banned and 53 % agree that teachers should be allowed to carry a registered handgun on campus. There were statistically significant differences between males and females on these issues. For instance, females believed military assault weapons and high capacity magazines should be banned more than 1.9 times (p = .004) p gun violence were decline in parenting and family values (17 %), gang involvement (14 %), bullying (13.8 %) and guns being easy to obtain (13.8 %). Limitations and implications for policy work are discussed.

  7. Microwave electron gun theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.

    1992-01-01

    A general microwave electron gun (rf gun) theory and some new ideas about further reducing the emittance of electron beams are reviewed and introduced briefly. Experimental results are presented from a thermionic cathode rf gun which has been developed for Beijing Free-Electron Laser Project (BFELP) at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Academia Sinica as the injector of 30 MeV constant gradient linac. LaB6 is used as the thermionic emitter with 100 crystal surface and the temperature around 1620 °C. Back bombardment heating effect and another effect connected with the cathode surface temperature was observed. An electron beam with macropulse length 4 μs, repetition rate 12.5 Hz, greater than 500 mA beam current during macropulse and around 1 MeV maximum energy has been obtained. In the last section of this article, two useful formulas used to determine electric field distribution near the cathode surface and coupling coefficient β of a rf gun are introduced.

  8. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  9. Green plasticizers for multibase gun propellants (Lecture)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, C.; Driel, C.A. van; Zebregs, M.

    2007-01-01

    TNO Defence, Security and Safety has a long history of research on gun propellants. Areas investigated are formulating (new ingredients, optimization), manufacturing, charge design and lifetime assessment [1,2,3,4,5]. In conventional propellants inert plasticizers are used to alter performance, proc

  10. Grip-Pattern Recognition for Smart Guns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Bazen, A.M.; Gerez, S.H.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a user-verification system for a smart gun, which is based on grip-pattern recognition. An existing pressure sensor consisting of an array of 44 x 44 piezoresistive elements has been used. An interface has been developed to acquire pr

  11. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2017-01-03

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided by a cavitating venturi that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated.

  12. RF Gun Photocathode Research at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongewaard, E.; Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Grouev, K.; Hering, P.; P.Krejcik,; Lewandowski, J.; Loos, H.; Montagne, T.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stefan, P.; Vlieks, A.; Weathersby, S.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2012-05-16

    LCLS is presently operating with a third copper photocathode in the original rf gun, with a quantum efficiency (QE) of {approx}1 x 10{sup -4} and projected emittance {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub x,y} = 0.45 {micro}m at 250 pC bunch charge. The spare LCLS gun is installed in the SLAC Accelerator Structure Test Area (ASTA), fully processed to high rf power. As part of a wider photocathode R and D program, a UV laser system and additional gun diagnostics are being installed at ASTA to measure QE, QE lifetime, and electron beam emittance under a variety of operating conditions. The near-term goals are to test and verify the spare photocathode production/installation sequence, including transfer from the final holding chamber to the rf gun. Mid- and longer-term goals include development of a rigorous understanding of plasma and laser-assisted surface conditioning and investigation of new, high-QE photocathode materials. In parallel, an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy station is nearing completion, to analyze Cu photocathode surface chemistry. In this paper we review the status and anticipated operating parameters of ASTA and the spectroscopy test chamber.

  13. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 77, Number 3, May-June 1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    1934-06-01

    the clothing, or of rubber, be procured for test. The ordinary blue denim hat (just as apt to be brown) is far from satisfactory in wet weather...34 "Red- Blue conflict ends Sector warfare," "All troops of the Isthmus Defend the Atlantic entrance," "Second Field Artillery starts march from Ocean to...Union may attempt or what China may plot." Minister of War Araki in a speech at Tokio , April 22, 1932. "International relations are quite unlike

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 81, Number 3, May-June 1938

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-06-01

    BRADSHAW, JR., C.A.C., Editor~ VOLUME LXXXI NUMBER 3 CONTENTS PICTURES 200 FRONTISPIECE 162 PHOTO-ELECTRIC EyE 188 By Lieutmant Milan G. lVeber HAPPY NEW...concept of the war of the f"t"re as shown in the MGM film, "lVest Point of the Air." THE PHOTO-ELECTRIC EYE By lieutenant Milan G. WeberJ Coast...Commanding 92d Coast Artillery (PS) (TD) By Major R. E. Phillips An official edict of the Commonwealth Government says the hot season has arrived and

  15. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 82, Number 3, May-June 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    1939-06-01

    300 400 500 Map]; Nm’al strategy during tbe lj/’orld lr?ar bruU"oe and Ostend were connected bv canal to Bruges 00 ’ and the latter to Ghent and other...the Armv Extension Courses. It is not an es- sential, though it i;, of course, important. The time de- voted to military history and policy (sixteen...traffic jam in the history of the Peninsula. So also have come the other usual changes. Batteries B, C. and D, 2d Coast Artillery and the Coast Artillerv

  16. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  17. A History of the Organizational Development of the Continental Artillery during the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    second is that organizational cultures are relatively stable. By nature, they rarely change. Normally, cultural change is an evolutionary process that...direct support to the infantry battalion. Battalion guns rarely consisted of more than two guns concentrated at any one firing point. Commanders might...he apprenticed to William Goddard as a printer in Philadelphia. Later, he was a journeyman printer in the town of Basse Terre on St. Christopher

  18. Determining Point of Burst of Artillery Shells using Acoustic Source Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanapalli Sreeramamurthy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Source localisation is a method to estimate position of a source. In case of acoustic source localisation (ASL, the location of sound source is estimated using acoustic sensors such as a microphone. In case of ASL, time difference of arrival (TDOA from each pair of microphones is estimated. For any pair of microphones, the surface on which the TDOA is constant is a hyperboloid of two sheets. Then the source location is estimated at the point where all associated hyperboloids most nearly intersect. This concept has been used in our range in finding the point-of-burst of artillery shell using an array of sensors. In this paper, a simulation model has been developed to examine the applicability of acoustic source localisation for determining point-of-burst of artillery shells. The randomness in the model has been incorporated in terms of gustiness of downrange sea wind. The result of the simulation has been validated with trajectory data of projectiles tracked by radar. Finally, an acoustic sensor array-based setup has been developed and used for localising point-of-bursts.Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 6, November 2014, pp.517-523, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.8112

  19. Projectile Impact Point Prediction Based on Self-Propelled Artillery Dynamics and Doppler Radar Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any trajectory calculation method has three primary sources of errors, which are model error, parameter error, and initial state error. In this paper, based on initial projectile flight trajectory data measured using Doppler radar system; a new iterative method is developed to estimate the projectile attitude and the corresponding impact point to improve the second shot hit probability. In order to estimate the projectile initial state, the launch dynamics model of practical 155 mm self-propelled artillery is defined, and hence, the vibration characteristics of the self-propelled artillery is obtained using the transfer matrix method of linear multibody system MSTMM. A discrete time transfer matrix DTTM-4DOF is developed using the modified point mass equations of motion to compute the projectile trajectory and set a direct algebraic relation between any two successive radar data. During iterations, adjustments to the repose angle are made until an agreement with acceptable tolerance occurs between the Doppler radar measurements and the estimated values. Simulated Doppler radar measurements are generated using the nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom trajectory model using the resulted initial disturbance. Results demonstrate that the data estimated using the proposed algorithm agrees well with the simulated Doppler radar data obtained numerically using the nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom model.

  20. Hall effect degradation of rail gun performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witalis, E. A.; Gunnarsson, Patrik

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the Hall effect and shows it to be significant in the low-density and high-field trailing part of a plasma armature. Without the Hall effect a simple armature model is derived. It exhibits properties expected from classical MHD theory and shows that the purely relativistic electric charge buildup on the rails is a fundamental gun property, leading to V(breech) = 1.5 V(muzzle). The mathematics involved in accounting for Hall effect phenomena is described. These are of two types: the Hall-skewing of the armature current and the superimposed plasma flow rotation. For decreasing gun current the two effects efficiently combine to eject armature plasma rearwards, thus creating conditions for arc separation and parasitic arcs.

  1. High Impetus Cool Burning Gun Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Dames

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of reducing the flame temperature (Tf without decrease in impetus of RDX-NC matrix-based high energy gun propellants by partial replacement of RDX with triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN. Compositions containing TAGN as an energetic oxidiser with varying percentage of RDX have been formulated. Glycidyl azide polymer was incorporated as an energetic plasticiser to achieve the higher level of impetus. Performance in terms of ballistic parameters (theoretical/experimental sensitivity, thermal characteristics, stability and mechanical properties was evaluated and compared with the basic composition containing RDX as a single oxidiser. Experimental data indicates that the partial replacement of RDX by TAGN in gun propellant compositions decreases Tf significantly with only marginal decrease in impetus. "

  2. Electrical parameters of projectile stun guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Wayne C; Benwell, Andrew; Kovaleski, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Projectile stun guns have been developed as less-lethal devices that law enforcement officers can use to control potentially violent subjects, as an alternative to using firearms. These devices apply high voltage, low amperage, pulsatile electric shocks to the subject, which causes involuntary skeletal muscle contraction and renders the subject unable to further resist. In field use of these devices, the electric shock is often applied to the thorax, which raises the issue of cardiac safety of these devices. An important determinant of the cardiac safety of these devices is their electrical output. Here the outputs of three commercially available projectile stun guns were evaluated with a resistive load and in a human-sized animal model (a 72 kg pig).

  3. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  4. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    . The forensic examination showed lesions of intracranial surgery and minor bruises on the arms. No sign of defense injuries was found. There were no signs of malfunction of the nail gun-wielding robot. On the side of the machine, there were a handheld nail gun and the police investigated the case as a possible......-inflicted or a criminal act. Case presentation A 43-year-old male worker was brought to the emergency department after his coworkers had found him on the floor in the cafeteria at work. He was admitted to the hospital due to a possible apoplexy. The CT scan revealed a nail in his skull and acute surgery was performed...

  5. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  6. Statistics tolerances on built up guns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Sirpal

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available The strength of built up guns depends on the shrinkages allowed between cylinders and therefore for a given strength, the assembly is either selective or the nominal sizes are so chosen as to give the required shrinkage for a worst combination, it can be seen from the analysis that with little disadvantage tolerances can be greatly increased assuming random assemblies of parts whose sizes follow a normal pattern. This can bring down production costs considerably.

  7. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession.

  8. Beam-Based Procedures for RF Guns

    CERN Document Server

    Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Grabosch, H J; Hartrott, Michael; Hui Han, Jang; Miltchev, Velizar; Oppelt, Anne; Petrosyan, Bagrat; Staykov, Lazar; Stephan, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A wide range of rf photo injector parameters has to be optimized in order to achieve an electron source performance as required for linac based high gain FELs. Some of the machine parameters can not be precisely controlled by direct measurements, whereas the tolerance on them is extremely tight. Therefore, this should be met with beam-based techniques. Procedures for beam-based alignment (BBA) of the laser on the photo cathode as well as solenoid alignment have been developed. They were applied at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) and at the photo injector of the VUV-FEL at DESY Hamburg. A field balance of the accelerating mode in the 1 ½ cell gun cavity is one of the key beam dynamics issues of the rf gun. Since no direct field measurement in the half and full cell of the cavity is available for the PITZ gun, a beam-based technique to determine the field balance has been proposed. A beam-based rf phase monitoring procedure has been developed as well.

  9. Overview of Plasma Guns for PLX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Bomgardner, Richard; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Brockington, Samuel; Wu, Linchun; Elton, Raymond; Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Gilmore, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Plasma guns are being developed for use on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) located at LANL. The collapsing plasma liner will be formed via merging of 30-60 dense, high Mach number plasma jets (n˜10^16-17 cm-3, M˜10--35, v˜50--70 km/s, rjet˜5 cm) in a spherically convergent geometry. Small parallel-plate railguns are being developed for this purpose. Each gun will operate at ˜300-600 kA peak current, and launch up to ˜8000 μg of high-Z plasma (Ar, Xe) using a ˜50 kJ pfn. We are now successfully operating with very fast gas valve injection of Ar, and have already achieved good performance of 1200 μg at 42 km/s, and 4000 μg at 20-25 km/s at low current. Work is underway to increase both the mass and velocity using higher current. We describe experimental development of the minirailguns and their present and projected performance. We also discuss options for modest size coaxial guns that might achieve the same performance and provide additional control of the plasmoid structure.

  10. Microcracks repairing technique for gun barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; SU Bing; WANG Cheng-tao

    2004-01-01

    When a gun fires the diffusion of chemical species from the propellant gas, such as CO, CO2, H2, H2O and N2, into the hot surface through the microcracks forms reaction products and speeds up the erosion process.Therefore, crack repairing and healing can be a possible measure for protecting against erosion of gun bore. The present study develops a novel nanocomposite with the size of 30 - 150 nm to repair and heal the microcracks so that the propellant gas can be prevented from reacting with the steel. Sample of gun steel 40CrNiMoV plate (10 mm× 10 mm × 2 mm) is prepared and a fishtail crack is generated through a repeated plastic deformation process. The crackrepairing results show that the fishtail crack become shorter and narrower. A new phase is formed, which is found to have the elements, such as Ca, La, from the raw materials of nanocomposite by energy spectrum analysis.

  11. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W. (Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B-dot probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models.

  12. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Kamps; V. Durr; K. Goldammer; D. Kramer; P. Kuske; J. Kuszynski; D. Lipka; F. Marhauser; T. Quast; D. Richter; U. Lehnert; P. Michel; J. Teichert; P. Evtushenko; I. Will

    2005-08-22

    A superconducting radio-frequency photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies between 5 ps and 50 ps, two schemes using electro-optical sampling and Cherenkov radiation are detailed. The beam energy and energy spread is measured with a 180-degree spectrometer.

  13. Vaccination Using Gene-Gun Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S; Leitner, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccines against infection with Plasmodium have been highly successful in rodent models of malaria and have shown promise in the very limited number of clinical trials conducted so far. The vaccine platform is highly attractive for numerous reasons, such as low cost and a very favorable safety profile. Gene gun delivery of DNA plasmids drastically reduces the vaccine dose and does not only have the potential to make vaccines more accessible and affordable, but also simplifies (a) the testing of novel antigens as vaccine candidates, (b) the testing of antigen combinations, and (c) the co-delivery of antigens with molecular adjuvants such as cytokines or costimulatory molecules. Described in this chapter are the preparation of the inoculum (i.e., DNA plasmids attached to gold particles, coating to the inside of plastic tubing also referred to as gene gun "bullets" or cartridges), the gene gun vaccination procedure, and the challenge of mice with Plasmodium berghei parasites to test the efficacy of the experimental vaccine.

  14. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kamps, T; Goldammer, K; Krämer, Dietrich; Kuske, P; Kuszynski, J; Lipka, D; Marhauser, F; Quast, T; Richter, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration between BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of an CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 pi mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies be...

  15. A projectile for a rectangular barreled rail gun

    OpenAIRE

    Juanche, Francisco M.

    1999-01-01

    The Physics Department at the Naval Postgraduate School is developing a concept to overcome the problems that keep present rail guns from being practical weapons. The rails must be replaced often if the rail gun operation is to be continuous. Replacing the rails in present rail gun configurations is time consuming. The Physics Department's design concept uses a rectangular barrel as part of the solution to the problem of replacing the rails. The projectile will require flat surfaces to mainta...

  16. Structural Optimization of Machine Gun Based on Dynamic Stability Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-jian; WANG Rui-lin; ZHANG Ben-jun

    2008-01-01

    Improving the firing accuracy is a final goal of structural optimization of machine guns. The main factors which affect the dispersion accuracy of machine gun are analyzed. Based on the concept of dynamic stability, a structural optimization model is built up, and the sensitivity of dispersion accuracy to design variables is analyzed. The optimization results of a type of machine gun show that the method is valid, feasible, and can be used as a guide to the structural optimization of other automatic weapons.

  17. Pneumatic capillary gun for ballistic delivery of microparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Rinberg, D; Groisman, A; Rinberg, Dmitry; Simonnet, Claire; Groisman, Alex

    2005-01-01

    A pneumatic gun for ballistic delivery of microparticles to soft targets is proposed and demonstrated. The particles are accelerated by a high speed flow of Helium in a capillary tube. Vacuum suction applied to a concentric, larger diameter tube is used to completely divert the flow of Helium from the gun nozzle and prevent it from hitting the target. Depths of penetration of micron-sized gold particles into agarose gels and their speeds of ejection from the gun nozzle are measured.

  18. Behavioral Indicators of Legal and Illegal Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    access to the gun by simply reaching under the shirt or lifting up the shirt. Depending on the size of the gun and how it is secured, it will sometimes...person runs, the more the gun will wiggle. Depending upon the type of clothes a person is wearing and the size of the gun, there is likely to be a...the mass and size of the weapon and how it is carried. Second, those related to the situational and environmental awareness of the individual

  19. A flow cryostat for cooling of eight independent pipe guns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Hansen, J.E.; Sass, B.

    1991-01-01

    A flow cryostat allowing independent cooling of eight pipe guns in a multishot deuterium pellet injector is described. The pipe guns are placed symmetrically around the flow cryostat and with a liquid helium consumption of 4-5 l/h the cooling is sufficient for simultaneous formation of eight...... pellets at 8-9 K with a diameter of 2.1 mm containing up to 8 x 10(20) atoms/pellet. The thermal interaction between the eight pipe guns is sufficiently low to allow successive firing of the guns with time intervals of up to 1 s....

  20. Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases the Bias to See Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.; Brockmole, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypes, expectations, and emotions influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action-perception interactions, however, there is another unexplored factor that may be critical: The action choices available to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another…

  1. Cyclic Gun--Human Evolution: Soldiers, Guns, Machine Logic, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Guns, slug-throwing weapons, have evolved as humans have increased their grasp of the mechanical arts. In the near future, however, it seems likely that soldiers' rifles operating at punishing cyclic rates of fire face the limits of physics and materials science--heat and speed will cost accuracy and distance. This article considers not only the…

  2. Design of PID Controllers of Anti-aircraft Artillery Servo System with Multiple Performance Specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin-ya; SHENG An-dong; WANG Yuan-gang

    2007-01-01

    A novel design method for determining the proportional-integral-derivative(PID) controller gains of an anti-aircraft artillery servo system with multiple performance specifications based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. First, a performance criterion evolution function combined with the system maximum displacement settling time, rise time, overshoot, steady state error, constant velocity tracking error and sine wave tracking error is defined. Second, the optimization problem of PID controller parameters and the searching procedure of PSO algorithm are constructed. Finally, the optimal or near optimal PID controller parameters are fast and easily obtained by solving the above optimization problem on the given controller parameter space following the PSO searching procedure. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  3. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  4. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  5. Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code (EGCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolader, Glenn E.; Thornhill, Lindsey D.; Batteh, Jad H.; Scanlon, James J., III

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a system engineering code that simulates the performance of a railgun/power supply system. The code, named EGCAC (Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code), accounts for many performance degrading effects including viscous drag on the armature, viscous drag on the gas being pushed in front of the projectile, entrained gas that must be accelerated in front of the projectile, time-dependent rail resistance, armature resistance, system resistance, and ablation drag. EGCAC has been utilized to predict railgun performance up to a velocity of approximately 4 km/s for experiments at several laboratories. In this paper, the theory of EGCAC is described, and sample calculations are presented.

  6. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  7. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  8. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly V Ruggles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  9. A 3 GHz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Dehler, M; Godot, J C

    1996-01-01

    For the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) at CERN a new rf gun with a laser driven photocathode is under construction. The new rf gun will replace the present 11/2 cell gun and will consist of 21/2 cells accelerating the beam to a momentum of 7.0 MeV/c with an electric field strength of 100 MV/m. The strong space-charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches are contained by radial and longitudinal rf focusing in the gun. The rf gun under construction has been optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating rf structure and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 21/2 cell gun. The beam loading of the rf gun, by a train of 48 bunches with 21 nC charge each, causes a strong energy decay accompanied by an increase of the flight time for the bunches with lower energy. These effects can be corrected by slightly shifting the acceleration frequency of the gun. The experimental results...

  10. Gunning Mix or Converter and Electric Arc Furnace in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJie-hua; ZHANGYong-fang

    1996-01-01

    The increase of steel output by converter and electric are furnace has imposed a critical demand in quality and quantity on gunning mix in functioning a longer life of those de-vices linings.The paoer describes the consump-tion of gunning mix for converter and EAF and its recent development in variety and quality in China.

  11. Everyday Engineering: What Makes a Squirt Gun Squirt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    You may not think of engineering and squirt guns in the same sentence. However, like many examples of engineering design, the squirt gun pump mechanism is uncomplicated, yet elegant, and very inexpensive to manufacture. The design is widely used because of its simplicity and low cost. With only a few moving parts, it is able to deliver a stream of…

  12. NASCAP simulation of laboratory charging tests using multiple electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    NASCAP calculations have been performed simulating exposure of a spacecraft-like model to multiple electron guns. The results agree well with experiment. It is found that magnetic field effects are fairly small, but substantial differential charging can result from electron gun placement. Conditions for surface flashover are readily achieved.

  13. Guns and Fear: A One-Way Street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Will; Kleck, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Surveys show that more than one half of gun owners report owning their firearm for self-protection. Although research has examined the effect of fear of crime on gun ownership, the issue of reciprocity and temporal order has been largely ignored. Furthermore, the effect of firearm acquisition and relinquishment on fear has not been evaluated…

  14. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  15. Preventing Clogging In A Vacuum Plasma Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotz, Phillip D.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Davis, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Modification of powder-injection ports enables lengthy, high-temperature deposition operations. Graphite inserts prevent clogging of ports through which copper powder injected into vacuum plasma spray (VPS) gun. Graphite liners eliminate need to spend production time refurbishing VPS gun, reducing cost of production and increasing productivity. Concept also applied to other material systems used for net-shape fabrication via VPS.

  16. Changing of ballistic parameters from aged gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Driel, C.A. van

    2003-01-01

    The various properties of an SB and a DB gun propellant were investigated before and after artificial ageing. It was found that the decrease of nitrocellulose (NC) molecular weight, due to ageing of gun propellants, leads to a decrease of the mechanical integrity of the propellant grains. The effect

  17. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  18. Compact electron gun based on secondary emission through ionic bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Babacar; Bonnet, Jean; Schmid, Thomas; Mohamed, Ajmal

    2011-01-01

    We present a new compact electron gun based on the secondary emission through ionic bombardment principle. The driving parameters to develop such a gun are to obtain a quite small electron gun for an in-flight instrument performing Electron Beam Fluorescence measurements (EBF) on board of a reentry vehicle in the upper atmosphere. These measurements are useful to characterize the gas flow around the vehicle in terms of gas chemical composition, temperatures and velocity of the flow which usually presents thermo-chemical non-equilibrium. Such an instrument can also be employed to characterize the upper atmosphere if placed on another carrier like a balloon. In ground facilities, it appears as a more practical tool to characterize flows in wind tunnel studies or as an alternative to complex electron guns in industrial processes requiring an electron beam. We describe in this paper the gun which has been developed as well as its different features which have been characterized in the laboratory.

  19. Cardiac stimulation with high voltage discharge from stun guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Massé, Stephane; Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Dorian, Paul; Sevaptsidis, Elias; Waxman, Menashe

    2008-05-20

    The ability of an electrical discharge to stimulate the heart depends on the duration of the pulse, the voltage and the current density that reaches the heart. Stun guns deliver very short electrical pulses with minimal amount of current at high voltages. We discuss external stimulation of the heart by high voltage discharges and review studies that have evaluated the potential of stun guns to stimulate cardiac muscle. Despite theoretical analyses and animal studies which suggest that stun guns cannot and do not affect the heart, 3 independent investigators have shown cardiac stimulation by stun guns. Additional research studies involving people are needed to resolve the conflicting theoretical and experimental findings and to aid in the design of stun guns that are unable to stimulate the heart.

  20. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence?

  1. Status and running experience of the SRF gun at HZDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Rong; Arnold, Andre; Lu, Pengnan; Murcek, Petr; Teichert, Jochen; Vennekate, Hannes [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In order to achieve a high average current up to 1 mA with a low emittance of 1 mm mrad at 77 pC, an improved SRF gun has been installed and commissioned at HZDR since 2014. This new gun replaces the first 3.5-cell SRF gun at the superconducting linear accelerator ELBE which had been in operation since 2007. The new gun has been tested first with a Cu photocathode. The RF performance of the niobium cavity has been evaluated, the transverse and longitudinal beam parameters for low charge bunches have been measured, and the first beam has been guided into the ELBE beamline. The photocathode transfer system is also installed for the first high current beam test in 2015. In this contribution the status of the gun and the results of this first measurement period will be presented in detail.

  2. Status of the SRF Gun Operation at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Xiang, R; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I; Staufenbiel, F

    2010-01-01

    The superconducting RF photo-injector (SRF gun) at FZD is the first operating electron injector of its kind. The gun with a 3½-cell cavity and a frequency of 1.3 GHz produces an electron beam of 3 MeV with a maximum bunch charge of about 400 pC. Also the design values for the acceleration gradient could not be reached with the cavity which is in use at present, the SRF gun will improve the beam quality for ELBE users. In the winter shutdown of 2009/10 the beam line was installed which connects the SRF gun with the ELBE accelerator. The paper reports on the first tests and on the progress in applying the SRF gun for ELBE operation.

  3. American preferences for "smart" guns versus traditional weapons: Results from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey Nicole

    2016-12-01

    This study examines Americans' preferences regarding smart guns. The study builds on prior research by including previously unexamined factors, specifically victimization and comfort sharing gun ownership status with a doctor. Further, this study examines differences in preference patterns among gun owners and non-owners. Data were obtained from a nationwide online survey with 524 respondents in February 2016. The study finds that, among non-owners, older respondents and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns to traditional firearms. Among gun owners, those with moderate political views, those with a history of victimization, and those residing in the Northeast are all more likely to prefer smart guns. Males and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns. Education, income, race, marital status, presence of children in the home, and comfort discussing gun ownership with a doctor had no significant association with smart gun preference. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 79, Number 2, March-April 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    1936-04-01

    avoided the mistakes that Lincoln had made during the Civil War by giving Pershing a virtual carte blanche . He was allowed to choose his own officers...prevent the gun £lashes from blinding the men matching the pointers, each pointer case was "hooded" with a fatigue blouse . It is believed that the hoods

  5. 车载炮操瞄精度分析与检验%Analysis and Examination on Aiming at Accuracy of Truck-mounted Artillery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宁; 王晓锋; 徐亚栋

    2012-01-01

    针对车载炮操瞄过程中的精度问题,重点分析了车载炮刚度、炮耳轴倾斜传感器的测量、炮耳轴与身管轴线不垂直3个方面的因素引起的误差,并给出了基于激光膛轴仪的车载炮操瞄精度检验方法,为车载炮操瞄系统设计提供了参考依据.%As to the aiming accuracy of truck-mounted artillery, the factor analysis on the stiffness of artillery, measurement error for the inclining sensor of artillery trunnion, the vertical error between barrel axis and trunnion axis is conducted. And the examination method is studied for the aiming accuracy of truck-mounted artillery based on the laser device. The results are provided for the aiming system design of the truck-mounted artillery.

  6. Pelapisan Alloy FeNiAl Menggunakan Metode Detonation Gun (D-Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.T. Siregar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pelapisan material alloy Fe38Ni10Al dilakukan dengan metode D-Gun untuk meningkatkan kekerasan material Stainless Steel AISI 316 L. Analisis parameter proses dilakukan dengan perangkat statistik ANOVA (Analysis of Variance – Taguchi untuk memperoleh ukuran kristal, ketebalan dan tingkat kekerasan yang optimum. Lapisan paling tebal dimiliki oleh sampel SS03 sebesar 280 mikron, sedangkan sampel SS02 memiliki ketebalan paling rendah, 97 mikron. Ketebalan lapisan sangat dipengaruhi oleh laju aliran gas pembawa serbuk dengan rasio kontribusi sebesar 82, 7%. Kekerasan optimum diperoleh sampel SS08 dengan tingkat kekerasan sebesar 281,6 HV yang jauh lebih besar dari tingkat kekerasan Stainless Steel tanpa lapisan (195,0 HV. Analisis struktur dan ukuran kristal dilakukan dengan menggunakan XRD dan Metode Scherrer yang menghasilkan struktur kristal Taenite (γ-(Fe,Ni dengan ukuran kristal pada orde nanometer (nanokristal pada kisaran 27,5 hingga 37,7 nm. Ukuran kristal sangat dipengaruhi oleh parameter rasio gas asetilene – oksigen dengan rasio kontribusi 60,4 %. Kata kunci: Detonation Gun (D-Gun, ANOVA –Taguchi, XRD, Nanokristal, Metode Scherer, Tingkat Kekerasan (Hardness

  7. Smart Gun Technology project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    The goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user form firing a law officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing (or {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes}) surety technologies. This project was funded by the National Institute of Justice. This report lists the findings and results of the project`s three primary objectives. First, to find and document the requirements for a smart firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. Second, to investigate, evaluate, and prioritize technologies that meet the requirements for a law enforcement officer`s smart firearm. Third, to demonstrate and document the most promising technology`s usefulness in models of a smart firearm.

  8. Quantitative Testing of Defect for Gun Barrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chang-long; JI Feng-zhu; WANG Jin; CHEN Zheng-ge

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method is commonly used in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of gun barrels. The key point of MFL testing is to estimate the crack geometry parameters based on the measured signal. The analysis of magnetic leakage fields can be obtained by solving Maxwell's equations using finite element method (FEM).The radial component of magnetic flux density is measured in MFL testing. The peak-peak value, the separation distance between positive and negative peaks of signal and the lift-off value of Hall-sensor are used as the main features of every sample. This paper establishes the multi-regression equations related to the width (the depth) of crack and the main characteristic values. The regression model is tested by use of the magnetic leakage data. The experimental results indicate that the regression equations can accurately predict the 2-D defect geometry parameters and the MFL quantitative testing can be achieved.

  9. Projectile Balloting Attributable to Gun Tube Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse motion of a projectile during launch is detrimental to firing accuracy, structural integrity, and/or on-board electronics performance of the projectile. One manifest contributing factor to the undesired motion is imperfect bore centerline straightness. This paper starts with the presentation of a deterministic barrel model that possesses both vertical and lateral deviations from centerline in accordance with measurement data, followed by a novel approach to simulating comprehensive barrel centerline variations for the investigation of projectile balloting^1 motions. A modern projectile was adopted for this study. In-bore projectile responses at various locations of the projectile while traveling through the simulated gun tubes were obtained. The balloting was evaluated in both time and frequency domains. Some statistical quantities and the significance were outlined.

  10. Gun culture and symbolism among U.K. and U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, C A; Puddifoot, J E

    2000-08-01

    The authors explored attitudes of young women in the United Kingdom (n = 108) and the United States (n = 91) toward (a) the possession and use of guns through the Attitude to Guns Scale (N. R. Branscombe, J. A. Weir, & P. Crosby, 1992) and (b) guns' perceived functional and symbolic significance through the Symbolic Nature of Guns Scale (C. A. Cooke & J. E. Puddifoot, 1997). There were significant differences in beliefs concerning the right to own a gun and the protective effect of guns but not in the perceived contribution of guns to crime. Although neither group strongly equated guns symbolically with power or control, the U.S. women were more likely to perceive guns as expressions of freedom or independence, and the U.K. women were more likely to view guns as expressions of danger and violence. The findings were contextualized by comparison with samples of male control participants of similar ages.

  11. Energy partitioning in an inductively driven rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, K. K.; Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. It is found that only 15 percent of energy delivered by the inductor to the gun is transformed into the kinetic energy of the projectile. This study provides an insight into the nature of nonlinear coupling involved in the electromechanical interactions in a rail gun.

  12. The internal ballistics of a high: low pressure gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kapur

    1957-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the system of equations for the Non-Isothermal Model for a H/L gun has been developed and from this, the systems of equations for Isothermal and Non-isothermal models for orthodox gun and solid fuel rockets have been deduced. The Non-Isothermal Model for H/L gun has been integrated for a tubular charge. For isothermal model, reduction to an equivalent non-leaking problem has been discussed and the partially non-isothermal model has been integrated for the linear law. After all-burnt modification needed in Corner's energy equation is obtained.

  13. Development of Subcaliber Projectiles for the Hispano-Suiza Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-11-01

    SUBOALIBER PRO JECTILES FOR THE HISPANO- SUIZA GUN 𔃺TECMEPUC-lT, TJ 0 ABERDEEN P 𔃺i7 CiiTDM. ST~lU-TL A T, 1?7,, by CTa * UG r C. L. Critchfield I P I, 2...FOR THE HISPANO- SUIZA GUN by C. L. Critchfield and J. McG. Millar TECiN•IcAr LITPP.py ABERDE " , :PT’- , Approved on November 12, 1943 for submission...Hispano- Suiza gun ....... 6 2. 20-ram sabot-projectiles of Series B and C ......... ... 12 3. Type C2 at h ft from the muzzle . .......... . 13 h. The 20

  14. Ultra-low emittance X-band photocathode RF gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Chuan-Xiang; LIU Xiao-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we present the simulation results of a 1.6 cell X-band photocathode RF gun for ultra-low emittance electron beams.It will work at 9.3 GHz.The emittance,bunch length,electron energy and energy spread at the gun exit are optimized at bunch charge of 1pC using PARMELA.Electron bunches type coupler is adopted in this gun and an initial simulation by MAFIA is also given in this paper.

  15. Dynamic Response and Fracture of Composite Gun Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome T. Tzeng

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracture behavior due to dynamic response in a composite gun tube subjected to a moving pressure has been investigated. The resonance of stress waves result in very high amplitude and frequency strains in the tube at the instant and location of pressure front passage as the velocity of the projectile approaches a critical value. The cyclic stresses can accelerate crack propagation in the gun tube with an existing imperfection and significantly shorten the fatigue life of gun tubes. The fracture mechanism induced by dynamic amplification effects is particularly critical for composite overwrap barrels because of a multi-material construction, anisotropic material properties, and the potential of thermal degradation.

  16. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  17. DAN PIENAAR GUN PARK LAUNCHES MUSEUM INTO 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Monick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On 14 February 1992 there occurred the official opening of the Dan Pienaar Gun Park at the South African National Museum of Military History. The Gun Park is a newly completed exhibition area created by roofing and repairing the central courtyard between the exhibition's main halls. Lt Gen G L Meiring, SSA, SO, officially opened the Dan Pienaar Gun Park. The statue of Maj Gen D H ('Dan' Pienaar was officially unveiled by his widow (now Mrs Norma Seuffert. Maj Gen Pienaar's children, Fay, Barry and Nelia, were also present, in addition to a very wide representation of the Pienaar family.

  18. 火炮身管直线度的定义及误差评定方法%Artillery Barrel Straightness Definition And Error Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, The reason of artillery barrel curl is analysed. The definition of artillery barrel straightness is advanced. Finally, The error assessment method of artillery barrel straightness is elaborated in detail. It includes the two points link line law, the least square law and the minimum contain regional law.%首先分析了火炮身管弯曲原因,提出了火炮身管直线度的定义,最后详细阐述了火炮身管直线度误差评定方法,包括两端点连线法、最小二乘法和最小包容区域法。

  19. The Evolution of the American Modern Light Field Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-09

    1897), pp. 106-11. 4 Jay Luvaas, (ed. and trans.), Frederick_ the Greaton the Art ofI War, (Now York: The Free Press, 1966), pp. 59-63 an 176-200...War (Londont Asher and Co,, 1873), pp. 578-652, 7 8 4 effect of massed artillery fire left a lasting impression on the French int I tIry mInd. At tht1...1917. Rorbstaedt, A. and Dwyer, F. The Franco-German War. London: Asher and Co., 187 -. Chandler, David G. (ed. and trans.) The Campai

  20. Brief use of a specific gun in a violent game does not affect attitudes towards that gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the question of whether violent video games increase aggressive behaviour, little attention has been paid to how such games might encourage antecedents of gun violence. In this study, we examined how product placement, the attractive in-game presentation of certain real-world firearm brands, might encourage gun ownership, a necessary antecedent of gun violence. We sought to study how the virtual portrayal of a real-world firearm (the Bushmaster AR-15) could influence players' attitudes towards the AR-15 specifically and gun ownership in general. College undergraduates (N = 176) played one of four modified video games in a 2 (gun: AR-15 or science-fiction control) × 2 (gun power: strong or weak) between-subjects design. Despite collecting many outcomes and examining many potential covariates and moderators, experimental assignment did little to influence outcomes of product evaluations or purchasing intentions with regard to the AR-15. Attitudes towards public policy and estimation of gun safety were also not influenced by experimental condition, although these might have been better tested by comparison against a no-violence control condition. By contrast, gender and political party had dramatic associations with all outcomes. We conclude that, if product placement shapes attitudes towards firearms, such effects will need to be studied with stronger manipulations or more sensitive measures. PMID:28018611

  1. Design of a Compact Coaxial Magnetized Plasma Gun for Magnetic Bubble Expansion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    COAXIAL MAGNETIZED PLASMA GUN FOR MAGNETIC BUBBLE EXPANSION EXPERIMENTS Y. Zhang1, A. G. Lynn1, S. C. Hsu2, M. Gilmore1, C... coaxial magnetized plasma gun and its associated hardware systems are discussed in detail. The plasma gun is used for experimental studies of...and coaxial plasma guns - which is the method employed in this work. The first coaxial plasma gun experiment was performed five decades ago by

  2. 基于LabVIEW的火炮振动测试分析系统%Artillery Vibration Measurement and Analysis System Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 管红根; 桂成兵

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the influence problem of traditional artillery vibration test system to various interference factor under adverse launch environment, a vibration testing analysis system based on LabVIEW is designed. Adopt virtual programming software LabVIEW, based on the process vibration signal acquisition and processing technology, supplemented by the virtual instrument technology and computer technology, design the virtual vibration test and analysis of artillery system constitution and software constitution, and use hammer hitting method to make hammer hitting test for artillery's pipeline. The experimental results indicate that the virtual artillery vibration test system is well of artillery running, with higher precision and stability, can reduce the cost of artillery vibration test.%针对在恶劣的发射环境下,各种干扰因素对火炮的传统测试系统影响较大等问题,设计一种基于LabVIEW的振动测试分析系统.采用虚拟编程软件LabVIEW,以工程振动信号采集和处理技术为基础,辅以虚拟技术和计算机技术,对虚拟火炮振动测试分析系统的构成及软件构成进行设计,并用锤击法对火炮身管进行锤击测试验证.实验结果表明:该虚拟火炮振动测试分析系统运行结果良好,具有较高的测试精度和稳定性,能降低火炮振动测试成本.

  3. 轮式车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估方法研究%Research on the Evaluation of the Matching Performance of the Fire and the Chassis System of the Wheeled Vehicle Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘川; 薛德庆; 贾长治

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at the limitation of the gun and vehicle matching used in the tank gun,the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is applied to the evaluation of the matching performance of the chas-sis and the fire system of the truck-mounted artillery. Through an analysis of the matching evaluation factors,the corresponding evaluation system is established. AHP method is used to calculate the weight coefficient of each evaluation factor with the evaluation model established based on the fuzzy compre-hensive evaluation method,and with the expert experience taken into account to confirm the member-ship function of each evaluation factor so as to achieve the qualitative evaluation of matching perfor-mance of the chassis and the fire system of the truck-mounted artillery. The result of the example indi-cates the feasibility of the evaluation of the matching performance of the chassis and the fire system of the truck-mounted artillery.%针对轮式车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估难的问题,将模糊综合评判法引入到火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估中。通过分析车载火炮火力与底盘系统的匹配评价因素,建立了相应的匹配评价体系。应用 AHP法获得各评价因素权重系数,基于模糊综合评判法建立评估模型,综合专家经验确定各评价因素的隶属度函数,实现了对车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能的定量化评估。计算结果表明了车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估的可行性。

  4. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  5. Cold Test Measurements on the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierman, S.M.

    2010-12-03

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. Based on longitudinal phase space measurements showing a correlated energy spread the gun was removed and re-characterized in 2002. The low power RF measurements performed on the gun are described below. Perturbative bead measurements were performed to determine the field ratio in the two-cell gun, and network analyzer measurements were made to characterize the mode structure. A second probe was installed to monitor the RF field in the first cell, and a diagnostic was developed to monitor the high-power field ratio. Calibration of the RF probes, a model for analyzing RF measurements, and Superfish simulations of bead and RF measurements are described.

  6. Canvasback Gun Club : Submerged aquatic plant survey : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Flood waters which impacted the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area for the past several years also had their effect on the northern portions of the Canvasback Gun...

  7. Refractory Gunning Material for Inner Lining Maintenance of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of refractory gunning material for inner lining maintenance of blast furnace .

  8. Alternating Current All-electrical Gun Control System in Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang Kemao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The ac all-electrical gun control system is composed of permanent magnetic synchronous machine-drive control systems and the ball-screw by replacing the complicated electrohydraulic systems. At the same time, the variable-structure system with sliding modes makes the gun control systems to have higher performances using the only rate flexure gyroscope. Thereby, vehicle hull gyroscope and angular gyroscope are left out.The new ac all-electrical gun control systems developed are reduced by 40 per cent in weight, decreased by 30 per cent in volume, increased by 35 per cent in efficiency, and enhanced by three times in service life as compared to the current gun control systems.

  9. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 80, Number 4, July-August 1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    1937-08-01

    Barrancas - Fort Hancock-Fort Tilden. NEWS AND COMMENT 346 Subscription Increase-No One Knows It All- Air Raid Precautions-Intermediate Caliber AA Gun...de- ~Ivered m double rank, a departure from the normal Brit- Ish three-rank formation . In each wing a support line followed the assault wave but...Colonists. The mass end ?f .the siege, the Provincialsnever again attempted to formation in which the British attacked and the close rega1ll1t. range at

  10. Cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This is a summer internship presentation by the Hydro Working Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and goes into detail about their cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison. Specifically, the gas gun experiment is detailed along with applications, the cylinder expansion test is detailed along with applications, there is a comparison of the methods with pros and cons and limitations listed, the summer project is detailed, and future work is talked about.

  11. Efficiency of guns from the technical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baranski

    1953-01-01

    Full Text Available From the engineering point of view, a gun or machine gun is a heat engine very similar to a Diesel or petrol engine. It has to do work when-operated by a soldier. A fuel is burnt, namely the propellant, and certain power (energy per unit time is obtained, namely the kinetic energy of the projectile for each interval of rounds fired.

  12. RF gun for an intense THz radiation source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qiang; ZHAO Zhen-Tang; TONG De-Chun; CHEN Li-Fang; XU Xiu-Min

    2008-01-01

    A new facility is under construction at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,to generate femto-second electron bunches and intense coherent THz radiation pulses.A thermionic RF-gun is used to be the electron source of the linac,which is 1.6 cell,π/2,side coupled in design.In the following of this paper,the design,manufacture and beam operation of this gun are presented.

  13. Plasma gun with coaxial powder feed and adjustable cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved plasma gun coaxially injects particles of ceramic materials having high melting temperatures into the central portion of a plasma jet. This results in a more uniform and higher temperature and velocity distribution of the sprayed particles. The position of the cathode is adjustable to facilitate optimization of the performance of the gun wherein grains of the ceramic material are melted at lower power input levels.

  14. Nitramine-Based High Energy Propellant Compositions for Tank Guns

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Damse; Haridwar Singh

    2000-01-01

    Six different RDX-based gun propellant compositions have been formulated and studied to select the most suitable composition for tank gun ammunition in terms of higher force constant at relatively lower flame temperature (T). Ballistic'performance of the compositions was evaluated on the basis of closed vessel test. JIea(energy was determined using a bomb calorimeter. Sensitivity, thermal characteristics, stability and mechanical properties of the compositions were studied for assessing their...

  15. Resistance Spot Welding with Middelfrequency-Inverter Weling Gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun......The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun...

  16. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  17. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  18. Engineering design of the PLX- α coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Edward; Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Luna, Marco; Witherspoon, Douglas; Langendorf, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    We describe the engineering and technical aspects of the coaxial gun designed for the 60-gun scaling study of spherically imploding plasma liners as a standoff driver for plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion. Each coaxial gun incorporates a fast, dense gas injection and triggering system, a compact low-weight pfn with integral sparkgap switching, and a contoured gap designed to suppress the blow-by instability. Alpha1 and Alpha2 guns are compared, with emphasis on the improvements on Alpha2, which include a faster more robust gas valve, an improved electrode contour, a custom 600- μF, 5-kV pfn, and a set of six inline sparkgap switches operated in parallel. The switch and pfn configurations are mounted directly to the back of the gun, and are designed to reduce inductance, cost, and complexity, maximize efficiency and system reliability, and ensure symmetric current flow. We will provide a detailed overview of the design choices made for the PLX- α coaxial gun. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  19. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darnse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before such systems are in regular use in the battlefield. Hence, solid gun propellants containing novel energetic ingredients (binders, plasticisers, and oxidisers would continue to be used in the near future and are expected to meet the requirements of the futuristic gun ammunition.

  20. Study of Electro-Optical Measuring System for Measuring the Swaying of Rocket Launcher and Artillery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; YAN Yu-feng; CAI Li-juan; LIU Zhen-bo

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is proposed, of that the axis of directional barrel is simulated by a laser beam and an electro-optical axial angle encoder is using to measure the swaying of rocket Muncher or artillery. The measuring principle is stated, and an electro-optical measuring system is designed, including automatic force-applying device, angle-measurement device and photodetecting screen. The measurement accuracy of the system is analyzed. The measuring error of system is less then 17.3"(0.08 mil).

  1. Index to the Field Artillery Journal, Author and Subject Index, January 1982 - December 1986. Volumes 50-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Letter John D. Spengler 50:3 SE-O 󈨖. BARBARA , SAINT (PATRON SAINT OF ARTILLERY) Feature. 52:33 SE-O 󈨘. Order of Saint Barbara . Feature 51:20-3 N...D 󈨗. Saint Barbara Guards, The 59th Brigade. Article 52:48 N-D 󈨘. Wear of the Award of the Order of Saint Barbara . Feature 52:31 JL-AG 󈨘...Korean capers . 53:26-8 MY-JE 󈨙. DAYTON, KEITH W., 1949- We Can’t Shoot What We Don’t Have. 54:26-30 MR-AP 󈨚. DEEP BATTLE The Soviet Showdown: A

  2. Age, Poverty, Homicide, and Gun Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Males

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theories of “adolescent risk taking” have not been validated against recent research indicating that youthful traffic crash, violent crime, felony crime, and firearms mortality rates reflect young people’s low-socio-economic status (SES compared with older adults’, not young age. Aside from a small number of recent, conflicting studies, the literature gap on this key issue remains. The present study examines the 54,094 homicide deaths, including 41,123 gun homicides, victimizing California residents ages 15 to 69 during 1991 to 2012 by poverty status. Without controlling for poverty, homicide rates display the traditional age-curve peaking at 19, then declining. When poverty is controlled, the traditional age-curve persists only for high-poverty populations, in which young people are vastly over-represented, and homicide rates are elevated for all ages. This finding reiterates that “adolescent risk taking” may be an artifact of failing to control for age-divergent SES.

  3. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Dragoş E., E-mail: dragos.constantin@varian.com; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T

  4. Rheological and Adhesive Behavior of Gunning Mix for Blast Furnace Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; LONG Shigang; WU Xingrong; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the rheological and adhesive performance of gunning mix suspensions. The results of rheological tests indicate that:the rheological curve of gunning mix bonded by high-alumina cement (HACG) is Bingham type; the rheological curve of low cement gunning mix (LCG) bonded by microsilica is characterized by pseudo-plasticity fluid with yielding stress; and the rheological property of low-cement gunning mix bonded by microsilica is proved to be better than that of gunning mix bonded by cement. Meanwhile as indicated by the adhesive tests: the better the rheological properties of gunning mix suspension, the better the repair effect would be.

  5. Gun availability and use of guns for suicide, homicide, and murder in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Kunselman, Julie C

    2004-04-01

    A reliability check of Lester's (2000b) 1970-1995 time series that examined associations between the availability of firearms and their use for homicide and suicide in Canada. For the period 1974 to 1999, the relative availability of firearms as measured by the rate of accidental death from firearms and the average of the percentages of suicides + homicides using firearms was positively associated with the rate of homicide by firearms but not negatively associated with the rate of homicide by all other methods, and positively associated with the rate of suicide by firearms and negatively associated with the rate of suicide by all other methods. Correlations for the homicide versus murder rates, homicide rate using guns versus murder rate using guns, and homicide rate by all other methods versus murder rate by all other methods were very similar. There was a decrease over time of total suicide and homicide rates and firearm suicide and homicide rates, and with a slight indication of substitution of other methods for suicide.

  6. Study of a laser-heated electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. K.; Moon, A.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Fujita, M.; Imasaki, K.; Yamanaka, C.; Yasuda, E.; Watanabe, T.; Ohigashi, N.; Okuda, Y.; Tsunawaki, Y.

    1996-12-01

    A method of cathode heating using a laser was studied for an electron gun. In order to observe the practicality of the heating system, the characteristics of the laser-heated gun with a dispenser and LaB6 thermionic cathodes have been experimentally investigated. The direct laser irradiation is so efficient that the gun is equipped without heat shielding, a cooling system, or an electrical circuit in the gun chamber for cathode heating. Modeling, based on the experimental data, indicates that the cathode temperature is proportional to one-fourth power of the laser power and that laser power loss and conduction loss of heat in the gun assembly are negligible. An electron beam current density 0.48 A/cm2 was measured with 26 W laser power for a dispenser cathode of 0.06 cm2 emission area. Current density 0.16 A/cm2 with 25 W was recorded for a LaB6 cathode of area 0.12 cm2. Electron beam emittance has been measured by using the typical pepper-pot technique. It was observed that the growth of electron beam emittance was very small in the laser heating.

  7. Operation of the superconducting RF photo gun at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Xiang, R; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2012-01-01

    As the first superconducting RF photo-injector (SRF gun) in practical operation, the SRF gun has been successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE at Forschungzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The injection with this new gun will improve the beam quality for the users of the radiation source. The SRF gun contains a 3½ cell superconducting accelerating cavity with a frequency of 1.3 GHz. The design is for use of normal conducting photocathodes. At present, caesium telluride photocathodes are applied which are illuminated by an ultraviolet laser beam. The kinetic energy of the produced electron beam is 3 MeV which belongs to a peak electric field of 16 MV/m in the cavity. The maximum bunch charge which is obtained and measured in a Faraday cup is about 400 pC (20 μA average current at a repetition rate of 50 kHz). The SRF gun injector is connected to the ELBE accelerator via a dogleg with two 45° deflection magnets. This connection beam line was commissioned in January 2010. A first beam injection into...

  8. Operation of the superconducting RF photo gun at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Xiang, R; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2011-01-01

    As the first superconducting RF photo-injector (SRF gun) in practical operation, the SRF gun has been successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE at Forschungzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The injection with this new gun will improve the beam quality for the users of the radiation source. The SRF gun contains a 3½ cell superconducting accelerating cavity with a frequency of 1.3 GHz. The design is for use of normal conducting photocathodes. At present, caesium telluride photocathodes are applied which are illuminated by an ultraviolet laser beam. The kinetic energy of the produced electron beam is 3 MeV which belongs to a peak electric field of 16 MV/m in the cavity. The maximum bunch charge which is obtained and measured in a Faraday cup is about 400 pC (20 µA average current at a repetition rate of 50 kHz). The SRF gun injector is connected to the ELBE accelerator via a dogleg with two 45° deflection magnets. This connection beam line was commissioned in January 2010. A first beam injection into...

  9. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Mattia; Citterio, Alessandro; Craievich, Paolo; Reiche, Sven; Stingelin, Lukas; Zennaro, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL) machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least) double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  10. The Selection of a Marine Artillery Battery Fire Direction Computer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    movement, lone gun operations, hi shoots), the calcu- lator can provide -he primary sour z-e i cf: data.. It also expedites and simolifies HS/ MPI :eg...readiness of battery owned F7ADAC.- i53 percent. The averags FADA- lownt:4me zs reaz’r !a- sixty days. This is consi- stent wit the data lprovi ed ly...marner that is cons stent with other 3ystem re-quir-ements and by minim- K -zing support resources required. 152 addresses the system’s ability to

  11. An Implicit Three-Dimensional Meteorological Message for Artillery Trajectory Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Calculation Procedures The message’s MET Datum Plane ( MDP ) corresponds to the model terrain height at the gun location. The message’s 32 zones (0–31) are...then set up with respect to the MDP in the same way as in a conventional METCM, so for example, zone 0 is the surface, 0–200-m above ground level (AGL...where ground level is defined as the MDP ) is zone 1, 200–500-m AGL is zone 2, and zones 3–11 are all 500 m thick extending from 500- to 5000-m AGL

  12. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 79, Number 3, May-June 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    1936-06-01

    Corregidor News Letter - Panama Canal De- partment News Lette-r-Hawaiian News Lette-r-Fort Barrancas Notes - News from Fort MaeArthur- Notes from the Harbor...proud of the fact that the 25 Ist is a part of his command. After the presentation ceremonies the regiment, in mass formation , took part in the...machine-gun battalion, which in turn reduces the number of rounds that can be I1red on a particular formation of attacking airplanes. ’The

  13. Study on Mechanism of Water-projectile Motion in Water-projectile Test After Gun Repaired%火炮修后水弹试验水弹运动机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅建平; 张泽峰; 韦有民; 刘昆仑

    2016-01-01

    针对部队火炮水弹试验工程实践多、机理研究少,新型火炮水弹试验难的现状,基于火炮修后水弹试验原理和水弹试验工程实践经验,借鉴基于低速连续射流的消防水炮研究成果,综合运用火炮内、外弹道学与流体力学理论,阐述了火炮水弹试验时水弹膛内加速运动与膛外惯性运动机理,建立了火炮修后水弹试验水弹运动计算模型,计算得到某大口径、高初速火炮的射程、射高及其运动轨迹。计算结果表明,水弹试验并不需要很大场地,为火炮水弹试验靶场空间确定提供理论参考。%The army artillery has much more practice of water-projectile test,and the mechanism research is few,and it is difficult to carry out the test of new-type gun.Aiming at the present situation ,the research results from the low-speed continuous jet of fire gun were applied as well as the interior and exterior ballistics and fluid mechanics theory .The acceleration of water-projectile in the bore and the mechanism of external inertia motion of the gun were described based on the theory of water-projectile test and the practical experience of water-projectile test project .The calculation model of the motion of water-projectile was established ,and the range ,shoot height and trajectory of high-speed gun with large cabiber were cal-culated.The calculation results show that the water-projectile test does not require large field ,and it offers theoretical reference for determining the water-projectile test range space .

  14. A pulsed electron gun for the Plane Wave Transformer Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, S; Nandedkar, R V

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed diode electron gun delivering 500 mA current at 40 kV is described. The gun geometry is optimized using the Electron Trajectory Program EGUN at higher scaling factors by choosing the closest converging starting surface. The effect of an annular gap between cathode and focusing electrode on beam behaviour is compensated by using a suitable focusing electrode. The estimated perveance is 0.065 mu perv and the normalized emittance is within 5 pi mm mrad. The variation in current density at the cathode has been limited to within 10% across the face of the cathode. Salient features of the pulsed power supply and an insight of its interconnection with the gun are presented. The current measured at the Faraday cup is in agreement with the designed perveance.

  15. Longitudinal jitter analysis of linear accelerator electron gun

    CERN Document Server

    Mingshan, Liu; Iqbal, Munawar

    2015-01-01

    We present measurement and analyses of longitudinal timing jitter of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear accelerator electron gun. We simulated longitudinal jitter effect of the gun using PARMELA about beam performance including beam profile, average energy, energy spread, longitudinal phase of reference particle and XY emittance. The maximum percentage difference of the beam parameters are calculated to be; 100%, 13.27%, 42.24%, 7.79% and 65.01%, 86.81%, respectively due to which the bunching efficiency is reduced to 54%. The simulation results are in agreement with test and are helpful to optimize the beam parameters by tuning the trigger timing of the gun during the bunching process.

  16. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws.

  17. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  18. Emittance Measurements of the SSRL Gun Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Michael; Clendenin, James; Fisher, Alan; Miller, Roger; Palmer, Dennis; Park, Sam; Schmerge, John; Weaver, Jim; Wiedemann, Helmut; Winick, Herman; Yeremian, Dian; /SLAC; Meyerhofer, David; Reis, David; /Rochester U.

    2011-09-01

    A photocathode RF gun test stand is under construction in the injector vault of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. The goal of this facility is to produce an electron beam with a normalized emittance of 1-3[mm-mr], a longitudinal bunch duration of the order of 10[ps] FWHM and approximately 1[nC] of charge per bunch. The beam will be generated from a laser driven copper photocathode RF gun developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL and UCLA. The 3-5[MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section. The emittance of the electron beam will be measured through the use of quadrupole scans with phosphor screens and also a wire scanner. The details of the experimental setup will be discussed, and first measurements will be presented and compared with results from PARMELA simulations.

  19. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  20. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence.

  1. Dual Feed RF Gun Design for the LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Liling; Dowell, David; Li, Zenghai; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Schmerge, John

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove the dipole field introduced by the coupler in existing S-band BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell rf gun, a dual feed design for the LCLS RF gun is proposed together with several significant changes. The improvements include adopting Z-coupling instead of ?-coupling for easier machining and reducing heating, increasing the 0-and ?-mode separation from 3.4 to 15 MHz to reduce the amplitude of the 0 mode, incorporating race-track cavity shape to minimize the quadruple fields, increased cooling for operation at 120Hz and other small changes to improve performance and diagnostic capabilities. The new design has been modeled with the parallel finite element eigenmode solver Omega3P to provide the desired RF parameters and to generate the gun cavity dimensions needed for fabrication.

  2. Gene gun delivery systems for cancer vaccine approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindaram, Kandan; Yang, Ning Sun

    2009-01-01

    Gene-based immunization with transgenic DNA vectors expressing tumor-associated antigens (TAA), cytokines, or chemokines, alone or in combination, provides an attractive approach to increase the cytotoxic T cell immunity against various cancer diseases. With this consideration, particle-mediated or gene gun technology has been developed as a nonviral method for gene transfer into various mammalian tissues. It has been shown to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in both small and large experimental animals. A broad range of somatic cell types, including primary cultures and established cell lines, has been successfully transfected ex vivo or in vitro by gene gun technology, either as suspension or adherent cultures. Here, we show that protocols and techniques for use in gene gun-mediated transgene delivery system for skin vaccination against melanoma using tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human gpl00 and reporter gene assays as experimental systems.

  3. Characterization of a Dielectric Barrier Plasma Gun Discharging at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-Qiu; GE Yuan-Jing; ZHANG Yue-Fei; CHEN Guang-Liang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We develop a plasma gun based on dielectric barrier discharge and working at atmospheric pressure. A theoretical model to predict the gun discharge voltage is built, which is in agreement with the experimental results. After investigating the characterization of discharging gun and utilizing it for polymerization, we find that the gun can be used as a source to generate a stable uniform plasma for different plasma-processing technologies.

  4. The Army Needs a Strategic Armored Gun System--Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-05

    the AGS ROC. IVECO- Fiat, The Italian firm o4 IVECO- Fiat has proposed three variants as candidates for the AGS! - The Centauro 9x8 wheeled light...armored vehicle with OTO Melana, i05mm turret. - The Centauro SxO with the Cadillac-Gage 105mm turret mounting the Royal Ordnance L-7 105mm gun. - The... Centauro 6x6 with the LAV-i10mm turret and EX-35 gun. The three systems cannot meet many of the AGE requirements# primarily weightp since the heaviest

  5. Beta II plasma-gun mechanical design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, L.; Deis, G.; Wong, R.; Calderon, M.; Chargin, A.; Garner, D.

    1979-11-12

    The magnetized coaxial plasma gun (located on the east end of the Beta II facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory) will be used to test a new method of initiating a field reversed mirror plasma. The field-reversed mirror is expected to improve the mirror-fusion reactor by enhancing the ratio of fusion power to injected power. This paper concentrates on the mechanical design and construction of the magnetized coaxial plasma gun and also discusses the diagnostic devices necessary to demonstrate the formation of field-reversed rings.

  6. Analysis on Venting Time of Rarefaction Wave Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-ze; ZHANG Xiao-bing; YUAN Yax-iong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the operation principle of rarefaction wave gun, the selection and calculation methods for venting opportune moment are invastigated. Considering property of the rarefaction wave, taking the center of muzzle section as initial calculation point, supposing that at the moment projectile arrives to the muzzle, the rarefaction wave arrives to the base of projectile, the rarefaction wave velocity along the barrel can be obtained by fitting calculation of the interior ballis-tic data of the same closed gun and reverse deduction. And then, the optimal venting time can be found out correctly based on the rarefaction wave velocity.

  7. Internal Ballistics of High Velocity Special Purpose Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Gupta

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more conventional guns are being utilized as special purpose guns to achieve very high velocity by using unconventionally high C/W ratios. The existing methods of internal ballistics give satisfactory results only for low (less than one C/W ratios. In the present paper the basic internal ballistic equations have been modified to cater for non-linear rate of burning, cubical form function and a realistic pressure gradient between breech face and the projectile base. The equations have been numerically solved. The results for low and high C/W ratios have been compared with those obtained by using conventional methods.

  8. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Academichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  9. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  10. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  11. A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bing; YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore was investigated, which was combined with the merits such as anti-erosion wear, damage-repairing, and etc. It was accomplished by adhering a special rare earth nanocom posite evenly to the micro-surface of gun bore. The effectiveness of this technique was approved by the target-firing using a domestic automatic rifle with chromium-coated bore. Its characteristics were discussed based on the surface analyses of the rifle bore by secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  12. The system of RF beam control for electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. M.; Chernousov, Yu. D.; Ivannikov, V. I.; Levichev, A. E.; Shebolaev, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    The system of RF control of three-electrode electron gun current is described. It consists of a source of microwave signal, coaxial line, coaxial RF switch and RF antenna lead. The system allows one to get the electron beam in the form of bunches with the frequency of the accelerating section to achieve the capture of particles in the acceleration mode close to 100%. The results of calculation and analysis of the elements of the system are presented. Characteristics of the devices are obtained experimentally. The results of using RF control in three-electrode electron gun at electron linear accelerator are described.

  13. Gun laws and the involuntarily committed: a California road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Sohrab; Burchuk, Robert; Stone, David C; Kopelowicz, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 incident at Virginia Tech brought the question of gun ownership by the mentally ill to the forefront of public attention. Moreover, it underscored the potentially devastating consequences of the imperfect connection between federal and state laws that apply to the right of gun ownership by a psychiatric patient. The laws are complex, and, as demonstrated in this article, conflicting. We present a case report of an involuntarily committed patient in the state of California, and discuss details of state and federal laws that applied to him.

  14. Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

  15. Electron-beam-controlled laser with a grid-controlled electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesyan, V.S.; Dutov, A.I.; Lakhno, Y.V.; Malkhov, L.N.

    1977-08-01

    An experimental investigation was made of an electron-beam-controlled carbon dioxide laser with an electron gun in which the beam current was modulated by a control grid. The design features of the electron gun and laser are described and their performance is reported. Observations of instabilities of the electron beam in the gun are reported and methods for eliminating them are suggested.

  16. 78 FR 55014 - Machine Guns, Destructive Devices and Certain Other Firearms; Background Checks for Responsible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives 27 CFR Part 479 RIN 1140-AA43 Machine Guns... the dealing in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. \\1\\ Provisions of the... section 922(g)(5)(B) of the Gun Control Act, 18 U.S.C. 922(g)(5)(B), it generally is unlawful for...

  17. 27 CFR 479.105 - Transfer and possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 479.105 Section 479.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Registration and Identification of Firearms Machine Guns § 479.105...

  18. 27 CFR 478.36 - Transfer or possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 478.36 Section 478.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.36 Transfer or possession of machine guns. No person shall transfer or possess a machine gun except: (a) A transfer to or by, or possession by or under the...

  19. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects thousands... strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun violence and the successful efforts in place...

  20. Sources of guns to dangerous people: what we learn by asking them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Parker, Susan T; Pollack, Harold A

    2015-10-01

    Gun violence exacts a lethal toll on public health. This paper focuses on reducing access to firearms by dangerous offenders, contributing original empirical data on the gun transactions that arm offenders in Chicago. Conducted in the fall of 2013, analysis of an open-ended survey of 99 inmates of Cook County Jail focuses on a subset of violence-prone individuals with the goal of improving law enforcement actions. Among our principal findings: *Our respondents (adult offenders living in Chicago or nearby) obtain most of their guns from their social network of personal connections. Rarely is the proximate source either direct purchase from a gun store, or theft. *Only about 60% of guns in the possession of respondents were obtained by purchase or trade. Other common arrangements include sharing guns and holding guns for others. *About one in seven respondents report selling guns, but in only a few cases as a regular source of income. *Gangs continue to play some role in Chicago in organizing gun buys and in distributing guns to members as needed. *The Chicago Police Department has a considerable effect on the workings of the underground gun market through deterrence. Transactions with strangers and less-trusted associates are limited by concerns over arrest risk (if the buyer should happen to be an undercover officer or a snitch), and about being caught with a "dirty" gun (one that has been fired in a crime).

  1. 27 CFR 70.442 - Taxes relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. 70.442 Section 70.442 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. Part 179 of title 27 CFR... importers of and dealers in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other types of firearms,...

  2. Production of Dioxins and Furans from the Burning of Excess Gun Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Chemical composition of M1 gun propellant Constituents Proportions (weight/weight %) Nitrocellulose 85 ± 2 2,4-dinitrotoluene 10 ± 2...Production of dioxins and furans from the burning of excess gun propellant Isabelle Poulin Sonia Thiboutot Sylvie Brochu DRDC Valcartier Defence...excess gun propellant Isabelle Poulin Sonia Thiboutot Sylvie Brochu DRDC Valcartier Defence R&D Canada – Valcartier

  3. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the many…

  4. Crime, Culture Conflict, and the Sources of Support for Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether attitudes towards gun control are influenced primarily by exposure to high crime rates, prior victimization, and fear of crime, or result from membership in social groups hostile to gun ownership. Maintains that support for gun control is more a product of culture conflict than a response to crime. (MJP)

  5. Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link; a multi- level analysis of victimisation survey data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The link between gun ownership victimisation by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and a

  6. Calibration Apparatus for Artillery Chamber Pressure Test Device Based on Environmental Factors%基于环境因子的火炮膛压测试仪校准装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 祖静; 张红艳; 马铁华

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome the disadvantage of the simulation chamber calibration apparatus, such as complex structure,inconvenience and pressure range is too small, we improved the existing apparatus and established a new calibration system, The calibration system consisted of simulation chamber calibration apparatus, standard testing system, high and low temperature test equipment The artillery chamber pressure testing device could be calibrated by adopting environmental factors. The improved calibration apparatus could simulate the environment of high temperature and high pressure in gun chamber, the amplitude of the pressure signal generated by the apparatus was between 80~800 MPa, the pulse width of the pressure signal was between 10~20 ms,the rising time was less than 2 ms. Theory analysis and contrast test results showed that the calibration method for simulating application environment of it was reasonable. The sensitivity coefficients obtained by static calibration and calibration of simulation application environment were different The practical firing results showed that the data from the testing device after simulation environment calibration had better stability and high confidence level.%针对现有模拟膛压校准装置存在的结构复杂、操作不便及压力量程小等缺点,对现有装置进行了改进,建立了校准系统.校准系统由模拟膛压校准装置、标准检测系统及高低温实验箱组成,采用环境因子校准方法,可对火炮膛压测试仪实施校准.改进后的校准装置能模拟火炮膛内高温高压环境,产生的压力信号幅值在80~800 MPa,脉宽在10~20 ms,上升时间小于2 ms.理论分析与对比试验结果表明:火炮膛压测试仪在模拟应用环境下校准的方法是合理的,静态标定方法和模拟应用环境校准方法获得的测压器灵敏度系数不同,实炮测试数据表明经模拟应用环境校准后的测压器测试数据稳定性好,置信度高.

  7. Chromium Elimination and Cannon Life Extension for Gun Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    Ta is refractory, ductile, strong, relatively corrosion and erosion resistant , Minimal thermal variation W adds hardness, strength...completely soluble in Ta MO adds hardness, corrosion and embrittlement resistance properties, substitute for tungsten to increase hardness is an...erosion- resistant chrome cobalt alloy matrix with 15% tungsten. Stellite is used as M60 machine gun barrel liner. Tantalum Cobalt Tungsten

  8. A Brief Journey Through the History of Gun Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Simplified schematic of electromagnetic gun – coilgun concept. ...............................17 Figure 23. Simplified schematic of electromagnetic...benefited from the use of rigid case assemblies. Performance has been the paramount issue , and the quest for maximizing propellant energy, loading... coilgun concept. Prime Power Pulsed Power Supply Projectile Drive Coils 18 Figure 23. Simplified schematic of

  9. Configuration optimization of high velocity arc spraying gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-xiong; ZHU Zi-xin; LIU Yan; XU Bin-shi

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve the in-flight characteristics of the atomizing droplets during high velocity wire arc spraying (HVAS), some changes have been operated on the original design of the HVAS gun configuration. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the microstructure and properties of the coatings produced by the original design spraying gun and the modified one, using 3Cr13 wires of 3 mm in diameter. The characteristics of their jets were examined during spraying. The results indicate that, the included angle between the two wires and the distance from the nozzle to the meeting point of the two vires may have a strong influence on the characteristics of the in-flight droplets and then the coatings. The jet divergence is found to be lower than that of the original one (about 12° against 25°). By modified gun, the adhesion strength, the microhardness and porosity of the coating deposited by modified gun are increased by 39% and 9% respectively. And the porosity of the coatings is decreased by 57%.

  10. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  11. Terahertz-driven, all-optical electron gun

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, W Ronny; Wu, Xiaojun; Cankaya, Huseyin; Calendron, Anne-Laure; Ravi, Koustuban; Zhang, Dongfang; Nanni, Emilio A; Hong, Kyung-Han; Kärtner, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort electron beams with narrow energy spread, high charge, and low jitter are essential for resolving phase transitions in metals, semiconductors, and molecular crystals. These semirelativistic beams, produced by phototriggered electron guns, are also injected into accelerators for x-ray light sources. The achievable resolution of these time-resolved electron diffraction or x-ray experiments has been hindered by surface field and timing jitter limitations in conventional RF guns, which thus far are 96 fs, respectively. A gun driven by optically-generated single-cycle THz pulses provides a practical solution to enable not only GV/m surface fields but also absolute timing stability, since the pulses are generated by the same laser as the phototrigger. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical THz gun yielding peak electron energies approaching 1 keV, accelerated by 300 MV/m THz fields in a novel micron-scale waveguide structure. We also achieve quasimonoenergetic, sub-keV bunches with 32 fC of charge, which ca...

  12. More Fun and Curiosity with Magnetic Guns in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittasirinuwat, O.; Kruatong, T.; Paosawatyanyong, B.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic gun was chosen as a hands-on activity for our high school students. When conducting this activity in the classroom, we found some interesting points were raised following difficulties encountered by the students. Some students proposed that during the collision, the magnet changed its pole then it pushed the last ball out of the…

  13. Community College Faculty: Attitudes toward Guns on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Patricia P.; Bonham, Gene, Jr.; Reddington, Frances P.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory research surveyed faculty who instruct in community colleges from 18 states about their attitudes toward the concealed carry gun policies that allow appropriately licensed citizens to carry a handgun in public places such as college campuses. Building upon previous research involving 4-year institutions, we surveyed 1,889…

  14. Guns on Campus: A Current Debate. E-Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Almost all U.S. college campuses ban concealed weapons. But in the aftermath of the tragic shooting deaths at Virginia Tech in 2007, the debate on whether guns should be permitted at colleges and universities has intensified. Dozens of states have considered proposals to lift bans on concealed weapons at colleges and universities, but so far none…

  15. Modeling Gun Dynamics with Three-Dimensional Beam Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    34 Sixth U.S. Army Symposium on Gun Dynamics, 14-17 May, 1990. Shames, Irving, and Clive Dym. Energy and Finite Element Methods in Structural Mechanics. New...Group ATIN: Mr. G. Barker Mr. A. E. Chambers Mr. J. Hoyle Mr. N. D. Manners Mr. S. E. Powell Dr. D. N. Bulman Shrivenham, Swindon, Wilts SN6 8LA

  16. High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M; Titkova, I

    2000-01-01

    The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 mu A/V sup 3 sup / sup 2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual).

  17. Proposed Federal Gun-Control Amendment. Student Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Gayle; Mertz, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents an outline for a student-run forum on a proposed federal gun control amendment. Procedures include mandatory reading assignments and researching the issue. Students role-play fictional representative characters and later facilitate discussions. Concludes with a vote on the amendment. (MJP)

  18. Note: Thermal analysis of the long line source electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Wasy, A.; Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2013-05-01

    We performed thermal analysis for our previously reported [M. Iqbal, K. Masood, M. Rafiq, M. A. Chaudhry, and F. Aleem, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4616 (2003), 10.1063/1.1614852], long linear filament electron gun assembly using ANSYS software. The source was set under a thermal load of 3000 °C, to evaluate temperature distribution, thermal strain, and heat flux at various components of the gun. We calculated the maximum heat flux (9.0 W/mm2) that produced a thermal strain of 0.05 at the focusing electrodes. However, the minimum value of the heat flux (0.3 W/mm2) was at the anode electrodes which correspond to a negligible thermal strain. The gun was validated experimentally showing a uniform cross section of the beam at the molybdenum work plate comparable to the size of the filament. Our experimental and theoretical results are in agreement. The gun had been in continuous operation for several hours at high temperatures without any thermal run-out.

  19. First beam commissioning at BNL ERL SRF Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Deonarine, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gupta, R. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hahn, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hammons, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Ho, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Jamilkoski, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Kankiya, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Kayran, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Kellerman, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Laloudakis, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Liaw, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mahler, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Masi, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; McIntyre, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Philips, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Seda, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Sheehy, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Steszyn, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tallerico, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tuozollo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Weiss, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Wiliniski, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    The 704 MHz SRF gun successfully generated the first photoemission beam in November of 2014. The configurations of the test and the sub-systems are described.The latest results of SRF commissioning, including the cavity performance, cathode QE measurements, beam current/energy measurements, are presented in the paper.

  20. Algorithm design for grip-pattern verification in smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Ganzevoort, W.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The Secure Grip project1 focuses on the development of a hand-grip pattern recognition system, as part of the smart gun. Its target customer is the police. To explore the authentication performance of this system, we collected data from a group of police officers, and made authentication simulations

  1. Registration of hand-grip pattern in smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Secure Grip1 focuses on the development of a hand-grip pattern recognition system, as part of a smart gun. It is intended for use by the police. We collected the hand-grip data from police officers in three sessions in a row with time intervals in between. If data for training and testing come from

  2. Development of biopsy gun for aspiration and drug injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2015-04-01

    Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Design of a high repetition rate S-band photocathode gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jang-Hui; Cox, Matthew; Huang, Houcheng; Pande, Shivaji

    2011-08-01

    Photocathode RF guns have been developed in many laboratories for generating high quality electron beams for free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators. Such guns can generate electron beams with an exceptionally high peak current as well as a small transverse emittance. Their applications have been recently expanded for ultrafast electron diffraction, coherent terahertz radiation, and X-ray or γ-ray radiation by Compton scattering. In this paper, we design an S-band normal-conducting gun with capabilities of high quality beam generation and high repetition rate operation. The RF design and thermal analysis of the gun cavity and coupler are introduced. Optimal position of the gun focusing solenoid for low emittance beam generation is found by performing particle tracking simulations. Then, the gun system is designed to be able to afford the optimal solenoid position. The cooling-water channel surrounding the gun cavity and coupler is designed and analyzed numerically. The pressure in the gun is simulated with a vacuum model containing the detailed inner structure of the gun. An injector for a free-electron laser application is designed by using this gun and the beam dynamics simulation is shown. A cold test with a prototype gun for confirmation of the RF design is reported.

  4. Analysis of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.; Raparia, Deepak; Ritter, John

    2016-11-01

    Electron diode guns, which have strongly varying magnetic or electric fields in a cathode-anode gap, were investigated in order to generate laminar electron beams with high current density using magnetically immersed guns. By creating a strongly varying radial electric field in a cathode-anode gap of the electron gun, it was demonstrated that the optical properties of the gun can be significantly altered, which allows the generation of a laminar, high-current electron beam with relatively low magnetic field on the cathode. The relatively high magnetic compression of the electron beam achieved by this method is important for producing electron beams with high current density. A similar result can be obtained by inducing a strong variation of the magnetic field in a cathode-anode gap. It was observed that creating a dip in the axial magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap of an adiabatic electron gun has an optical effect similar to guns with strong variation of radial electric field. By analyzing the electron trajectories angles and presenting the results in a gun performance map, different geometries of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields are compared with each other and with a more traditional adiabatic electron gun. Some advantages and limitations of guns with non-adiabatic fields are outlined. The tests' results of a non-adiabatic electron gun with modified magnetic field are presented.

  5. American preferences for “smart” guns versus traditional weapons: Results from a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacey Nicole Wallace

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Americans' preferences regarding smart guns. The study builds on prior research by including previously unexamined factors, specifically victimization and comfort sharing gun ownership status with a doctor. Further, this study examines differences in preference patterns among gun owners and non-owners. Data were obtained from a nationwide online survey with 524 respondents in February 2016. The study finds that, among non-owners, older respondents and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns to traditional firearms. Among gun owners, those with moderate political views, those with a history of victimization, and those residing in the Northeast are all more likely to prefer smart guns. Males and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns. Education, income, race, marital status, presence of children in the home, and comfort discussing gun ownership with a doctor had no significant association with smart gun preference. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. New Gas Gun Helping Scientists Better Understand Plutonium Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    One of the most daunting scientific and engineering challenges today is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear arsenal. To effectively meet that challenge, scientists need better data showing how plutonium, a key component of nuclear warheads, behaves under extreme pressures and temperatures. On July 8, 2003, Lawrence Livermore researchers performed the inaugural experiment of a 30-meter-long, two-stage gas gun designed to obtain those data. The results from a continuing stream of successful experiments on the gas gun are strengthening scientists' ability to ensure that the nation's nuclear stockpile is safe and reliable. The JASPER (Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research) Facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is home to the two-stage gas gun. In the gun's first test, an unqualified success, Livermore scientists fired a projectile weighing 28.6 grams and traveling about 5.21 kilometers per second when it impacted an extremely small (about 30-gram) plutonium target. This experiment marked the culmination of years of effort in facility construction, gun installation, system integration, design reviews, and federal authorizations required to bring the experimental facility online. Ongoing experiments have drawn enthusiastic praise from throughout DOE, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and the scientific community. NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said, ''Our national laboratories now have at their disposal a valuable asset that enhances our due diligence to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear weapons testing.''

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  8. 炮兵团集成化模拟训练系统需求分析%Requirement Analysis on Integrative Simulation Training System of Artillery Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书敏; 韩朝阳

    2011-01-01

    The scientific ascertain of requirement of integrative simulation training system of artillery group is an important content that the system top layer designs. It is also the chief link and basis that the integrative simulation training system builds. The definitions of integration, integrative and integrative simulation training system of artillery group are described in this thesis, the objects, contents and methods of integrative training of artillery group are analyzed, the function requirement of integrative simulation training system of artillery group is put forward, the primary constitute, interface relationship and communication structure are described applying architecture frame, the software architecture are construct for the realization of system integration. It will be good basic for the design and realization of the system.%科学地确定炮兵团集成化模拟训练系统需求,是系统研制顶层设计的重要内容,也是集成化模拟训练系统建设的首要环节和依据.界定了集成、集成化和炮兵团集成化模拟训练系统的概念,分析了炮兵团集成训练受训对象、训练内容和方法步骤,提出了炮兵团集成化模拟训练系统的功能需求,应用体系结构框架描述了系统的主要组成、接口关系和通信结构,满足系统集成的需要,构建了系统软件体系结构,为系统的设计和实现奠定了良好的基础.

  9. Foreign Artillery Suppressed Weapon Equipment Developing Situation Analysis%国外炮兵压制武器装备发展态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚章锋; 刘娟; 刘慧玲

    2013-01-01

    野战炮兵的压制火力作为战场综合火力体系中必不可少的部分,是整个陆军赖以生存的重要手段,为增强炮兵武器在现代信息化战场的作战能力,各国普遍对现役装备进行改造、更新,使其作战效能有突破性的提高。典型介绍了美、俄、英三国炮兵压制武器装备的发展现状,并说明在高新技术兴起的今天,世界各国军队的建设和炮兵压制武器装备的发展呈现出由数量规模型转向质量效益型、由人力密集型转向技术密集型的总体趋势。%The field artillery suppressed fire, as an essential part of integrated battlefield fire system, is an important survival means of the whole army, in order to enhance combat capability of artillery weapon in modern information battlefield, all countries generally modifies, updates the servicing equipment, and makes a breakthrough improvement in the operational effectiveness. This article typically describes the development situation of artillery suppression weapon in United States, Russia, Britain, and explains that the overall trend of world army building and artillery suppressed weapon development is from quantity-scale type to quality efficiency type, and from a manpower-intensive to technotogy-intensive as high-technology development in the world today.

  10. Development of S-band photocathode RF guns at Tsinghua University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lianmin; Du, Yingchao; Zhang, Zhe; Qian, Houjun; Yan, Lixin; Shi, Jiaru; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Wu, Xiaowei; Su, Xiaolu; Wang, Dong; Tian, Qili; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Huaibi; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to explain the development of S-band photocathode RF guns at Tsinghua University, with especial attention on the progress of guns developed after 2011. Two types of RF guns were developed based on the BNL/SLAC/UCLA gun prior 2011. These guns have been operated as electron sources for Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source (TTX), MeV ultrafast electron diffraction, and Shanghai deep ultraviolet FEL test facility. Based on our operation experiences and other gun modifications worldwide, numerous improvements have been proposed, and seven third-type guns have been designed and fabricated since 2011. Cold tests of all third-type guns have been completed, confirming a significantly improved quality factor and mode separation. The first third-type gun has been installed on TTX and operated for four years, demonstrating high gradient, low dark current, stable quantum efficiency, and small emittances. The optimal transverse emittance was εx = 0.56 mm mrad , εy = 0.66 mm mrad for 200 pC with a peak current of 25 A, and εx = 0.78 mm mrad , εy = 0.92 mm mrad for 500 pC with a peak current of 62.5 A under a 110 MV/m gun gradient.

  11. Joe Camel with Feathers. How the NRA with Gun and Tobacco Industry Dollars Uses Its Eddie Eagle Program To Market Guns to Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Susan; Sugarmann, Josh

    The National Rifle Association (NRA) has developed its Eddie Eagle program as a school-based curriculum that claims to teach gun safety to children in preschool through grade six. The program uses a four-part message for children to follow when they see a gun, admonishing them to stop, not touch it, leave the area, and tell an adult. The NRA has…

  12. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  13. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  14. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  15. Emotion guided threat detection: expecting guns where there are none.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Jolie; Desteno, David

    2010-10-01

    Five experiments examine whether the ability of emotions to influence judgments of threat extends to a very basic process inherent in threat detection: object recognition. Participants experiencing different emotions were asked to make rapid judgments about whether target individuals were holding guns or neutral objects. Results across 4 experiments supported the hypothesis that anger increases the probability that neutral objects will be misidentified as ones related to violence, but not the converse. Of import, the findings demonstrate that this bias is not a simple function of the negative valence of an emotional state, but stems from specific threat-relevant cues provided by anger. Direct manipulation of participants' expectancies for encountering guns in the environment is shown not only to remove the bias among angry individuals when set to be low but also to produce a corresponding bias among neutral participants when set to be high. A 5th study demonstrates that the bias is amenable to correction given sufficient ability.

  16. Electron gun for diffraction experiments on controlled molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Nele L M; Długołecki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    A dc electron gun, generating picosecond pulses with up to $8\\times10^{6}$ electrons per pulse, was developed. Its applicability for future time-resolved-diffraction experiments on state- and conformer-selected laser-aligned or oriented gaseous samples was characterized. The focusing electrodes were arranged in a velocity-map imaging spectrometer configuration. This allowed to directly measure the spatial and velocity distributions of the electron pulses emitted from the cathode. In combination with electron trajectory simulations, this permitted the characterization of the electron beam in terms of coherence length and pulse duration. Electron diffraction data of a thin aluminum foil illustrated the diffraction capabilities of the electron-gun setup.

  17. Comparison of Shock Response Spectrum for Different Gun Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Cordes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soft Catch Gun at Picatinny Arsenal is regularly used for component testing. Most shots contain accelerometers which record accelerations as a function of time. Statistics of accelerometer data indicate that the muzzle exit accelerations are, on average, higher than tactical firings. For that reason, Soft Catch Gun tests with unusually high accelerations may not be scored for Lot Acceptance Tests (LAT by some customers. The 95/50 Normal Tolerance Limit (NTL is proposed as a means of determining which test results should be scored. This paper presents comparisons of Shock Response Spectra (SRS used for the 95/50 scoring criteria. The paper also provides a Discussion Section outlining some concerns with scoring LAT results based on test results outside of the proposed 95/50 criteria.

  18. Characterization of Cable Gun Plasma with a Charge Collector Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉兰; 曾正中; 孙凤举; 蒯斌; 邱爱慈; 尹佳辉; 丛培天; 梁天学

    2003-01-01

    The density, drift velocity and reproducibility of the plasma produced by a cableplasma gun array have been measured with a charge collector array. The plasma is used to prefilla coaxial plasma-opening switch with a conducting time approaching 0.4μs. The reproducibilityof the plasma source in subsequent shots is better than 5%. Near the gun nozzle and the oppositeelectrode, the plasma density amounts to 1015cm-3, which is 2 times to 3 times that in the gapbetween the two coaxial electrodes. A plasma drift velocity of about 2.4 cm/μs is observed fromthe time of flight of the charged particles. Both plasma density and drift velocity increase almostlinearly with the rise in charge voltage.

  19. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Actively Cooled Compound Gun Barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; XIA Wei

    2005-01-01

    when a gun fires, a large amount of heat is brought in the barrel. Erosion/wear and security problems(self ignition of the propellant) associated with this high thermal energy have to be solved owing to the use of higher combustion gas temperature for improved cannon performance and firing at the sustained high rates. Barrel cooling technologies are the effective measures for addressing this issue. In view of the importance of having knowledge of the heat flux, an approach to calculate heat flux based on measurements was presented and validated. The calculated heat flux is used as the inner boundary condition for modeling heat transfer in a 155 mm mid-wall cooled compound gun barrel. Theoretical analysis and simulated results show that natural air cooling is dramatically slower than the forced liquid mid-wall cooling, accordingly wear life of actively cooled barrel is increased and barrel overheating is prevented.

  20. Air gun injury with deadly aftermath--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Jakovski, Zlatko; Pavlovski, Goran; Muric, Nedzat; Dwork, Andrew J; Cakar, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    In Republic of Macedonia the use of air guns is quite widespread. They are used mainly for target practice. They are regulated by the Law of Arms, where they are defined as pneumatic weapons. There is no legal limit on type or quantity of ammunition that one may possess. Our Institute performs at least 90% of the forensic autopsies in Macedonia. In this report we describe the only fatality by pneumatic weapon to come to our attention over the past 10 years. A 6-year-old girl was accidentally wounded by her brother when he and his father were trying a new air gun, a 4.5mm single shot, break barrel, spring piston air rifle manufactured in China under the brand "Westlake". She died within minutes. Autopsy showed cardiac tamponade due to penetration of the aorta. A 0.5g metal projectile, 4.5mm in diameter, with a pointed, conical shape, was recovered from the pericardial sac.

  1. Insulating castable refractories used for wet gunning installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, H.; Sugahara, M.; Yahiro, S. [Taiko Refractories Co., Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan); Abe, Y.; Amano, M.; Terashima, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    For thermal insulating castable used as a coating material of skid pipe and support pipe in a billet reheating furnace, excellent heat-resistant and insulating properties are necessary. And, the consistency in furnace was also important, for example, when it coats on the skid pipe by the casting method, conveying of castable mix or form-working by hand power were very hard labor and complicated. Until now, as pumpable thermal insulating castable, ceramic fibers (CF) or lightweight alumina aggregates containing castable are applied. However, CF scatters in the atmosphere at kneading time, deteriorate the environment, and there was a problem of clogging in the pumping at long distance by the material segregation. We studied the anti-segregation and the shape retention of the lightweight aggregate containing castable for the gunning installation state. So, we developed the improved insulating castable with long distance pumpability and gunning ability, and reported following this paper. (orig.)

  2. The Properties of Normal Conducting Cathodes in FZD Superconducting Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2009-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) is one of the latest applications of SC technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting cathodes with high QE are not available up to now, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for the SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the cathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. The SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In this paper, some experience gained in the gun commissioning will be concluded. The results of the properties of Cs2Te photocathode in the cavity will be presented, such as the Q.E., the life time, the dark current and the thermal emittance.

  3. Calculation of Electron Beam Potential Energy from RF Photocathode Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wan Ming; Power, John G; Wang, Haitao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the contribution of potential energy to beam dynamics as simulated by PARMELA at low energies (10 - 30MeV). We have developed a routine to calculate the potential energy of the relativistic electron beam using the static coulomb potential in the rest frame (first order approximation as in PARMELA). We found that the potential energy contribution to the beam dynamics could be very significant, particularly with high charge beams generated by an RF photocathode gun. Our results show that when the potential energy is counted correctly and added to the kinetic energy from PARMELA, the total energy is conserved. Simulation results of potential and kinetic energies for short beams (~1 mm) at various charges (1 - 100 nC) generated by a high current RF photocathode gun are presented.

  4. Experimental Simulation for Fracture of Gun Propellant Charge Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI Xiao-ting; YUN Lai-feng; WANG Hao; HUANG Ming; CHEN Jian-zhong; CHEN Tao; LIU Jun

    2005-01-01

    The simulation of compression and fracture of charge bed in chamber is one of the key problems in the study of launch safety of gun propellant charge. A new kind of experimental device that can be used for simulation is given. Its structure and operational principle are introduced. Using a semi-closed vessel as a source of compression force, the device can simulate any kind of dynamic environment in a gun propellant charge. Using the low temperature inert gas (N2) as the compression medium, the device can not only ensure that the simulation is real, but also protect the fragmentized propellant from combustion after experiment. Using the device, many simulation experiments have been accomplished, and dynamic environment of propellant fracture is acquired. With the experiments, fragmentized propellant for the compression and fracture of charge bed is obtained. Results of experiments show that the new device can be used to study the principle of the compression and fracture of charge bed.

  5. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G. U.; Misbah, I.; Iqbal, O.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-06-01

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm2, respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm2, at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters.

  6. Design and numerical simulation of thermionic electron gun

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinzadeh, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the simulation of an electron gun. The effects of some parameters on the beam quality were studied and optimal choices were identified. It gives numerical beam qualities in common electrostatic triode gun, and the dependences on design parameters such as electrode geometries and bias voltages to these electrodes are shown. An electron beam of diameter 5 mm with energy of five kilo electron volt was assumed for simulation process. Some design parameters were identified as variable parameters in the presence of space charge. These parameters are the inclination angle of emission electrode, the applied voltage to focusing electrode, the gap width between the emission electrode and the focusing electrode and the diameter of the focusing electrode. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software (for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that the inclination angle ...

  7. Blower Gun pellet injection system for W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibon, M., E-mail: mathias.dibon@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Baldzuhn, J.; Beck, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cardella, A. [Lehrstuhl für Nukleartechnik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Köchl, F. [Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kocsis, G. [Wigner RCP, RMI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Macian-Juan, R. [Lehrstuhl für Nukleartechnik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Szepesi, T. [Wigner RCP, RMI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Weisbart, W. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Operational principle of the ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun. • Guiding tube properties for pellet guiding according to the requirements of W7-X. • Diagnostics for the characterization of the injection system. • Experimental procedure to investigate the performance of the Blower Gun. • Results concerning pellet speeds, mass loss, delivery efficiency and exit angle. - Abstract: Foreseen to perform pellet investigations in the new stellarator W7-X, the former ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun was revised and revitalized. The systems operational characteristics have been surveyed in a test bed. The gun is designed to launch cylindrical pellets with 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, produced from frozen deuterium D{sub 2}, hydrogen H{sub 2} or a gas mixture consisting of 50% H{sub 2} and 50% D{sub 2}. Pellets are accelerated by a short pulse of pressurized helium propellant gas to velocities in the range of 100–250 m/s. Delivery reliabilities at the launcher exit reach almost unity. The initial pellet mass is reduced to about 50% during the acceleration process. Pellet transfer to the plasma vessel was investigated by a first mock up guiding tube version. Transfer through this S-shaped stainless steel guiding tube (inner diameter 8 mm; length 6 m) containing two 1 m curvature radii was investigated for all pellet types. Tests were performed applying repetition rates from 2 Hz to 50 Hz and propellant gas pressures ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa. For both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, low overall delivery efficiencies were observed at slow repetition rates, but stable efficiencies of about 90% above 10 Hz. About 10% of the mass is eroded while flying through the guiding tube. Pellets exit the guiding tube with an angular spread of less than 14°.

  8. Implementation of single-shot ellipsometry on gas gun experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sean; Ao, Tommy; Bernstein, Aaron; Ditmire, Todd; Dolan, Dan; Lin, Jung-Fu; Seagle, Chris; Davis, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    We have built and implemented a time-resolved ellipsometry diagnostic for dynamic material properties experiments at Sandia National Laboratories. This diagnostic measures the complex dielectric value of a sample experiencing dynamic compression, with a time resolution of a few nanoseconds. We show and discuss the dynamic ellipsometry measurements taken from shock loading experiments on a gas gun. This work is relevant to geophysical materials at high pressure-temperature conditions.

  9. Ballistic evaluationof LOVA propellant in high calibre gun

    OpenAIRE

    A.G.S. Pillai; R. R. Sanghavi; C. R. Dayanandan; M. M. Joshi; J. S. Karir

    2001-01-01

    'This paper presents the data obrained on dynamic firing of a cellulose acetate binder-based low vulnerability ammunition (LOV A) propellant using 120 mm fin-stabilised armour piercing discarding sabot (FSAPDS) kinetic energyammunition. An optimised propellant composition formulated ~sing fine RDX as an energetic ingredient and a mixture of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose as binder was qualified fit for firing in a high calibre gun by its successful static evaluation for absolute...

  10. A Low Velocity 0.30-cal. Gun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    creating a pressure seal. Figure 2 shows deformation and carbon trails caused by chamber gas leaking around the cartridge case during an FSP shot...launch FSPs Carbon trails caused by gas leakage along outside of case. Neck region on brass case showing damage caused by gas leakage...passed through a steel resizing die to achieve a more consistent and uniform flare diameter, thus reducing variation of fit within the bore of the gun

  11. Going ballistic:dealing with guns, gangs and knives

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Murders involving knives and firearms never fail to grab the headlines, yet they are relatively rare. Gun crime represents only 0.4% of all recorded crime in England and Wales. The public are often sceptical, however, when they read figures such as this – and they have reason to be so. Going Ballistic's findings support four primary arguments: that official crime figures do not reflect the experiences of many communities in England and Wales; that information and intelligence sharing between ...

  12. Head Injury by Pneumatic Nail Gun: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Shim, Yu Shik; Oh, Se Yang; Hyun, Dong Keun; Park, Hyeon Seon; Kim, Eun Young

    2014-10-01

    A 56-year-old man had five nail gun-shots on his skull due to attempted suicide and was transferred to the emergency room. Because the nail head played a role as a brake, the launched nail made a hole in the skull but did not entirely pass through it. If major artery or sinuses are not involved, cautious retrieval after a small scalp incision can be performed and prophylactic antibiotics be administered for treatment.

  13. Ballistics of space launch by a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    The idea of using a big gun to launch objects to space has been around for years -- even Isaac Newton considered the concept. However the technology of accelerating a payload with a gun only recently began approaching orbital velocity (8 km/sec). NASA is currently experimenting with a rail gun which utilizes a magnetic field powered by electricity to accelerate a projectile along a set of rails, similar to train rails. Velocities up to 3 km/sec have been reported for small projectiles, and it seems that orbital velocities can soon become a reality too. We model a launch of various projectiles from Earth surface into the elevation corresponding to the low Earth orbit (about 200-250 km above Earth's surface). The goal of this modeling is to study feasibility of such launch (and accelerations induced), and the ballistics of the flight via Earth's atmosphere (the trajectory, air drag induced, pressure and temperature generated by air drag, etc) and thus the requirements for a mass, size, strength, heat shield, and general design of a payload capsule.

  14. Tailored ramp wave generation in gas gun experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotton Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas guns are traditionally used as platforms to introduce a planar shock wave to a material using plate impact methods, generating states on the Hugoniot. The ability to deliver a ramp wave to a target during a gas gun experiment enables access to different regions of the equation-of-state surface, making it a valuable technique for characterising material behaviour. Previous techniques have relied on the use of multi-material impactors to generate a density gradient, which can be complex to manufacture. In this paper we describe the use of an additively manufactured steel component consisting of an array of tapered spikes which can deliver a ramp wave over ∼ 2 μs. The ability to tailor the input wave by varying the component design is discussed, an approach which makes use of the design freedom offered by additive manufacturing techniques to rapidly iterate the spike profile. Results from gas gun experiments are presented to evaluate the technique, and compared with 3D hydrodynamic simulations.

  15. An unusual zip gun suicide--medicolegal and ballistic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Petr; Safr, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Home-made guns are imitations of typical firearms and usually have handgun characteristics. This article presents an unusual case of a suicide carried out by means of a fatal gunshot wound to the head using a home-made zip gun. A 49-year-old male, with a history of paranoid psychosis was found dead in the dwelling place of a family house. The investigation at the crime scene did not lead to suspicion of a gunshot wound because of the unusual nature of the firearm used. A medical examiner diagnosed an opened head injury as the primary cause of the victim's death. The autopsy findings provided immediate grounds for further inspection of the crime scene. Subsequently, a simple zip gun, which had been overlooked during the scene investigation, was discovered. An undeformed projectile recovered from the victim's head was consistent with the use of the home-made firearm. Following the completion of the investigations and autopsy, the death was classified as a suicide.

  16. Guns and High Gas Output Devices Panel: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ronald L.; Kaste, Pamela J.

    2000-01-01

    A new panel known as the Guns and High Gas Output Panel was organized in 1999 under the auspices of the JANNAF Propellant and Characterization SubCommittee (PDCS). This is an introduction to our first meeting, purpose of the panel, and the scope of activities to be covered. The primary purpose of the panel is very simple: to provide a single focal point for interfacing Government Laboratories (Department of Defense and Department of Energy) and commercial industry researchers to share R&D activities and findings (i.e. facilitate the exchange of information) specifically aimed at gun-launched propulsion and high-gas output devices (gas generators and air bag inflators). Specific areas of interest included in the Panel's scope (and the Technical Data Base) are the following: (1) new propellant formulations and chemistry, (2) new ingredients, (3) ballistic effects of the new formulations and ingredients, (4) new processing methods unique to gun propellants, (5) thermochemistry of new ingredients, (6) unique physical and mechanical properties, (7) burning rates of new propellants and small scale closed bomb testing, (8) plasma effects on the propellant, and (9) unique safety and insensitive munitions properties.

  17. Thermomechanical Impact of Polyurethane Potting on Gun Launched Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Haynes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronics packages in precision guided munitions are used in guidance and control units, mission computers, and fuze-safe-and-arm devices. They are subjected to high g-loads during gun launch, pyrotechnic shocks during flight, and high g-loads upon impact with hard targets. To enhance survivability, many electronics packages are potted after assembly. The purpose of the potting is to provide additional structural support and shock damping. Researchers at the US Army recently completed a series of dynamic mechanical tests on a urethane-based potting material to assess its behavior in an electronics assembly during gun launch and under varying thermal launch conditions. This paper will discuss the thermomechanical properties of the potting material as well as simulation efforts to determine the suitability of this potting compound for gun launched electronics. Simulation results will compare stresses and displacements for a simplified electronics package with and without full potting. An evaluation of the advantages and consequences of potting electronics in munitions systems will also be discussed.

  18. Emittance minimization at the ELBE superconducting electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.; Arnold, A.; Lu, P.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Vennekate, H.; Xiang, R.

    2014-07-01

    The transverse emittance is one of the most important quantities which characterize the quality of an electron source. For high quality experiments low beam emittance is required. By means of theoretical considerations and simulation calculations we have studied how the emittance of the Rossendorf superconducting radio-frequency photoelectron source (SRF gun) can be minimized. It turned out that neither a solenoid magnet nor the effect of space charge forces is needed to create a pronounced emittance minimum. The minimum appears by just adjusting the starting phase of the electron bunch with respect to the RF phase of the gun in a suitable way. Investigation of various correlations between the properties of the beam particles led to an explanation on how the minimum comes about. It is shown that the basic mechanism of minimization is the fact that the longitudinal properties of the particles (energy) are strongly influenced by the starting phase. Due to the coupling of the longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom by the relativistic equation of motion the transverse degrees of freedom and thereby the emittance can be strongly influenced by the starting phase as well. The results obtained in this study will be applied to minimize the emittance in the commissioning phase of the SRF gun.

  19. Gun Violence Restraining Orders: Alternative or Adjunct to Mental Health-Based Restrictions on Firearms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McGinty, Emma E; Barnhorst, Amy; Greenberg, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    The gun violence restraining order (GVRO) is a new tool for preventing gun violence. Unlike traditional approaches to prohibiting gun purchase and possession, which rely on a high threshold (adjudication by criminal justice or mental health systems) before intervening, the GVRO allows family members and intimate partners who observe a relative's dangerous behavior and believe it may be a precursor to violence to request a GVRO through the civil justice system. Once issued by the court, a GVRO authorizes law enforcement to remove any guns in the respondent's possession and prohibits the respondent from purchasing new guns. In September 2014, California's governor signed AB1014 into law, making California the first U.S. state to enact a GVRO law. This article describes the GVRO and the rationale behind the concept, considers case examples to assess the potential impact of the GVRO as a strategy for preventing gun violence, and reviews the content of the California law.

  20. Fatalities caused by spherical bullets fired from blank cartridge guns in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzün, Ibrahim; Büyük, Yalçin; Erkol, Zerrin; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Kir, Ziya

    2009-09-01

    Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and are not considered to be firearms in the legal sense in most countries. To show the danger of these guns upon simple modifications, we report 59 fatalities resulting from these simply modified blank cartridge guns in Istanbul, Turkey. The great majority of the victims were males and the age of those ranged from 11 to 61 years. In 55.9% of these cases, homicide was the origin followed by suicide (39%). The right temporal region was detected to be the preferred region in suicidal shots by blank cartridge guns with a frequency of 56.5%. In trial shots, all these guns were detected to discharge steel or lead spherical objects, generally 4 or 5 mm in diameter, successfully. Our findings strongly suggest that these guns should also be considered as handguns in the legal sense.

  1. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  2. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  3. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study's objective was to explore national news media's reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles.

  4. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn; Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  5. The Need for a Permanent Gun System On the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    5. 9. Emmanuel Gustin and Anthony G Williams, Flying Guns: The Development of Aircraft Guns, Ammunition and Installations 1933-1945 (Airlife...Checking Six Not Enough, 23. 33. Ibid., 24. 34. Ibid., 24. 35. Todd E. Denning, A Case for the Joint Strike Fighter Gun (Army General Command and...Washington DC, 20 October 2006. 38. Ibid 39. Todd E. Denning, A Case Joint Strike Fighter, 56. 40. David R. Mets, Checking Six Not Enough, 41

  6. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012©. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  7. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimjaem, S., E-mail: sakhorn.rimjaem@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012{sup ©}. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  8. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2007-10-02

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  9. Development of a linear piston-type pulse power electric generator for powering electric guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The development of a linear piston-type electric pulse-power generator capable of powering electric guns and EM (rail and coil) guns and ET guns, presently under development, is discussed. The pulse-power generator consists of a cylindrical armature pushed by gases from the combustion of fuel or propellant through an externally produced magnetic field. An arrangement of electrodes and connecting straps serves to extract current from the moving armature and to send it to an external load (the electric gun).

  10. Study of Brass Obturator Design for Combustible Cartridge Case for 105mm Tank Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Syal

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Brass cartridge case provides rearward obturation in the tank gun ammunition where the gun systedt has a sliding breech mechanism. In the case of semi-combustible cartridge case (SCCC ammunition, obturation is provided by a smal1 metal stub. The mechanism of obturation and obturator design for kinetic energy and high explosive squash heat (HESH, SCCC ammunition of 105mm tank gun have been studied. The dynamic firing results for SCCC ammunition for 105 mm tank gun reveal height 115 mm provides perfect obturation. The ballistic performance of SCCC ammunition is comparable with that of the brass-cartridged round in the pressure range 150-450 MPa.

  11. Guns, testosterone, and aggression: an experimental test of a mediational hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinesmith, Jennifer; Kasser, Tim; McAndrew, Francis T

    2006-07-01

    We tested whether interacting with a gun increased testosterone levels and later aggressive behavior. Thirty male college students provided a saliva sample (for testosterone assay), interacted with either a gun or a children's toy for 15 min, and then provided another saliva sample. Next, subjects added as much hot sauce as they wanted to a cup of water they believed another subject would have to drink. Males who interacted with the gun showed significantly greater increases in testosterone and added more hot sauce to the water than did those who interacted with the children's toy. Moreover, increases in testosterone partially mediated the effects of interacting with the gun on this aggressive behavior.

  12. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  13. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rahman, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sheehy, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pietz, J. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Ackeret, M. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Yeckel, C. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Miller, R. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dobrin, E. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Thompson, K. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  14. Archaeological Survey of 73 Artillery Firing Points: Fort Bragg Training Area, Cumberland and Hoke Counties, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    period cultures of southeastern California (Campbell et al. 1937), the term "Lake Mohave" should be struck from descriptions of bifacial tools and...work is recommended. 31HK684 The prehistoric Wildflower Occurrence was recorded and investigated during the LRAM survey of gun position AA-2 10. The...of 1998 (FBCRMP Project #1998-1.25) and no cultural materials were recovered at that time. The general area of the Wildflower occurrence shows

  15. Imperial Gun Foundaries of İstanbul and Their Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Ceylan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Guns had proved to be very effective in the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 AD. This is the reason why Sultan Mehmed the Second, also named briefly “Fatih” (The Conqueror had built these gun foundries directly after the conquest of the city, out of the Genoese city walls in front of the Galata Gate. The first foundry had to be extended at the end of the XV. Century during the reign of Sultan Bayezıd the Second. Only 20 years after this extension, in the time of Sultan Süleyman the First, known as “Süleyman the Magnificient”, the foundries could not meet the requirements of the Empire any longer. Only two foundry buildings remained from the whole complex to our days. The large building with a row of five domes and two aisles covered with barrel-vaults is dated back to the XVIII. Century. The domesrest on arches and pendentives supported by eight columns. The smaller building having a square plan had been built by the “Conqueror”, in the middle of the XV. Century. It has a single dome as a roof, again with a lantern at its apex. The restoration of the existing buildings took place in 1958-1959 and in the years from 1973 to 1984. The buildings were used as “Gun Museum” until they were left to Mimar Sinan University in 1992.The rearrangement of the interior was carried out by the specialists of the University. Since1998 the buildings are in use as “Cultural And Exhibition Center of Mimar Sinan University”.

  16. Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S.

  17. Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and Hang onto Your Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inside NIDCD Newsletter » Spring 2006 Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and ... in the skeet event, would never fire a gun without them. Likewise, Dave Henderson, a nationally recognized ...

  18. CEBAF 200 kV Inverted Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grames, J M; Clark, J; Hansknecht, J; Poelker, M; Stutzman, M L; Suleiman, R; Surles-Law, K.E.L.; BastaniNejad, M

    2011-03-01

    Two DC high volt­age GaAs pho­to­guns have been built at Jef­fer­son Lab based on a com­pact in­vert­ed in­su­la­tor de­sign. One pho­to­gun pro­vides the po­lar­ized elec­tron beam at CEBAF and op­er­ates at 130 kV bias volt­age. The other gun is used for high av­er­age cur­rent life­time stud­ies at a ded­i­cat­ed test fa­cil­i­ty and has been op­er­at­ed at bias volt­age up to 225 kV. The ad­van­tages of high­er DC volt­age for CEBAF in­clude re­duced space-charge emit­tance growth and the po­ten­tial for pro­longed pho­to­cath­ode life­time. How­ev­er, a con­se­quence of op­er­at­ing at high­er volt­ages is the in­creased like­li­hood of field emis­sion or break­down, both of which are un­ac­cept­able. High­lights of the R&D stud­ies lead­ing to­ward a pro­duc­tion 200keV GaAs pho­to­gun for CEBAF will be pre­sent­ed.

  19. A high current, high gradient, laser excited, pulsed electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, K.; Farrell, J.P.; Dudnikova, G. [Brookhaven Technology Group, Inc., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Yakimenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a pulsed electron gun that can be used as an FEL, as an injector for electron linear accelerators or for rf power generation. It comprises a 1 to 5 MeV, 1 to 2 ns pulsed power supply feeding a single diode, photoexcited acceleration gap. Beam quality of a {approximately}1nC charge in {approximately}1 GV/m field was studied. Computations of the beam parameters as a function of electrode configuration and peak electron current are presented together with descriptions of the power supply, laser and beam diagnostics systems.

  20. Ways to Increase Launch Velocities of 2-Stage Gas Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The amount of space debris is rapidly increasing and the debris is distributed over a wide variety of orbits. Satellites, manned space vehicles and space stations will have to pay increasing attention to the dangers of impacts with space debris. Various armoring techniques (i.e., double or triple layer armor) will have to tested extensively to determine the most effective armor per unit weight. Intersecting near-earth orbits can lead to impact velocities up to 15 km/sec. Conventional two-stage light gas guns can launch intact, controlled-shape projectiles with a density of 1.2 gm/cc and length- to-diameter ratios of 0.5-1.0 at velocities up to 8-9 km/sec. Higher velocities (10-11 km/sec) can be obtained' for very light projectiles. The higher launch velocities tend to be very severe on the high pressure coupling and barrel of the gun and lead to short component lifetimes. Clearly, the ability to raise the launch velocity of a gun (for reasonably massive projectile shapes) from 8-9 km/sec to 11-13 km/sec (or higher), without reduction of component lifetimes, would have significant benefits. This would allow much better simulation of the higher velocity debris impacts as well as better simulation of high speed re-entry into planetary atmospheres. Several techniques for increasing the launcher muzzle velocity above 8-9 km/sec have been studied using CFD simulations and appear to offer the potential for significant gains. The first technique is to use multiple compressions, instead of a single compression, in the pump tube of the light gas gun. In a sense, this is a kind of pre-heating of the gas in the pump tube; other types of pre-heating have yielded disappointing results in the past. The dynamics of the multiple compression pump tube is very different, however, from the earlier techniques, where the pump tube was typically heated ohmically before the gun 2 cycle was started. In this paper, we present CFD calculations that show that significant increases in muzzle

  1. HIGH VELOCITY THERMAL GUN FOR SURFACE PREPARATION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gorlach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many surface preparation and treatment processes utilise compressed air to propel particles against surfaces in order to clean and treat them. The effectiveness of the processes depends on the velocity of the particles, which in turn depends on the pressure of the compressed air. This paper describes a thermal gun built on the principles of High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF and High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF processes. The designed apparatus can be used for abrasive blasting, coating of surfaces, cutting of rocks, removing rubber from mining equipment, cleaning of contaminations etc.

  2. Compact THz radiation source based on photocathode RF gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    URAKAWA; JunJi

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) science and technology have already become the research highlight at present. In this paper, we put forward a proposal to generate THz radiation at tens of MW peak power. As a result of the ultrafast laser and the high accelerating field of photocathode RF gun, we can generate and accelerate an electron beam to several MeV, of which the bunch length is less than sub-ps. When the short electron bunches are injected into the wiggler, THz radiation based on Coherent Synchrotron Radiation could be achieved with tens of MW peak power. The whole THz FEL facility can be scaled to the size of a tabletop.

  3. Simulated Performance of the Wisconsin Superconducting Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Bosch, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    The Wisconsin superconducting electron gun is modeled with multiparticle tracking simulations using the ASTRA and GPT codes. To specify the construction of the emittance-compensation solenoid, we studied the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the solenoid's strength and field errors. We also evaluated the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the bunch's initial emittance and the size of the laser spot on the photocathode. The results suggest that a 200-pC bunch with an emittance of about one mm-mrad can be produced for a free-electron laser.

  4. Experimental investigation of electron guns for THz microwave vacuum amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtsev, A. A.; Grigor'ev, Yu. A.; Navrotsky, I. A.; Rogovin, V. I.; Sakhadzhi, G. V.; Shumikhin, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    Single-sheet and multiple beam electron emitters based on thermionic minicathodes for terahertz traveling-wave tubes have been studied. Data are presented for impregnated blade thermionic cathode with dimensions 0.1 × 0.7 mm and a maximum current density of 114 A/cm2 in a pulsed mode. A variant of the five-beam electron gun with 0.25-mm-diameter cylindrical minicathodes in cells of a control grid is proposed that provides a current density of 85.5 A/cm2 at a grid potential of 900-1000 V.

  5. Simulation of Naval Guns' Breechblock System Dynamics Based on ADAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Liu, Hui-Min; Liu, Kai

    In order to study the dynamical characteristics of the breechblock system during gun firing, a virtual prototype model was established based on ADAMS, in which motion and force transmission among mechanisms are realized by collision. By simulation, kinematics and dynamics properties of main components are obtained, and the relationships between the motion of breechblock and the position of breechblock opening plate are analyzed. According to the simulation results, the collision among the breechblock opening plate and the roller is discontinuous, which may make the breechblock system fail to hitch the breechblock reliably. And within allowable scope of the structure, the breechblock opening template should be installed near the upside as much as possible.

  6. Effects of Seismic Air Guns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N; Carlson, Thomas J; Gross, Jackson A; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David; Powell, Lynwood; Young, John

    2016-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon and paddlefish were placed at different distances from a seismic air gun array to determine the potential effects on mortality and nonauditory body tissues from the sound from a single shot. Fish were held 7 days postexposure and then necropsied. No fish died immediately after sound exposure or over the postexposure period. Statistical analysis of injuries showed no differences between the experimental and control animals in either type or severity of injuries. There was also no difference in injuries between fish exposed closest to the source compared with those exposed furthest from the source.

  7. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  8. Prehospital intraosseus access with the bone injection gun by a helicopter-transported emergency medical team.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the use of the bone injection gun to obtain vascular access in the prehospital setting by an Helicopter-Transported Emergency Medical Team. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study to assess the frequency and success rate of the use of the bone injection gun in prehospital care

  9. Status of High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun at Mit-Bates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsentalovich, E.; Bessuille, J.; Tiunov, M.

    2011-01-01

    MIT-Bates, in collaboration with BNL, has developed a high intensity polarized electron gun for the eRHIC project. The gun implements large area cathode, ring-shaped beam and active cathode cooling. The paper describes the current status of the project.

  10. Bifurcation and Solitary Solution of a Transient Temperature Field Along Axis of Gun Muzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangrong Xu; Fan Ge; Jianwei Zhong

    2001-01-01

    Based on non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory, a temperature field model of gun muzzle is setup. We obtain not only a solitary solution, but also a bifurcation solution. The physical picture of the solutions is corresponding to the center flame and secondary flame of the gun muzzle.

  11. Just Scan It!-Weapon Reconstruction in Computed Tomography on Historical and Current Swiss Military Guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Binder, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen G

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography, has been increasingly implemented in both historic and recent postmortem forensic investigations. It aids in determining cause and manner of death as well as in correlating injuries to possible weapons. This study illuminates the feasibility of reconstructing guns in computed tomography and gives a distinct overview of historic and recent Swiss Army guns.

  12. A Course Arms Students with Facts in the Debate over Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a new syllabus offered at University of Toledo that focuses on guns and gun policy. The course provides students with learning opportunities on how to arm themselves with propaganda from both sides of the debate over how to apply the Second Amendment, the act that establishes "the right of the people to keep and bear…

  13. Electric energy gun technology: status of the french-german-netherlands programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, W.J.; Jamet, F.

    1999-01-01

    Research and technology development is being performed jointly in six subprograms. Next to operational aspects and system studies, railgun, coilgun and electrothermal gun launch is investigated. To power these future gun weapon systems, research on both energy storage, switching, pulse forming netwo

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns of gun violence in Syracuse, New York 2009-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sandra; Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Haygood-El, Arnett; Brundage, Kim; Rubinstein, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence in the United States of America is a large public health problem that disproportionately affects urban areas. The epidemiology of gun violence reflects various aspects of an infectious disease including spatial and temporal clustering. We examined the spatial and temporal trends of gun violence in Syracuse, New York, a city of 145,000. We used a spatial scan statistic to reveal spatio-temporal clusters of gunshots investigated and corroborated by Syracuse City Police Department for the years 2009–2015. We also examined predictors of areas with increased gun violence using a multi-level zero-inflated Poisson regression with data from the 2010 census. Two space-time clusters of gun violence were revealed in the city. Higher rates of segregation, poverty and the summer months were all associated with increased risk of gun violence. Previous gunshots in the area were associated with a 26.8% increase in the risk of gun violence. Gun violence in Syracuse, NY is both spatially and temporally stable, with some neighborhoods of the city greatly afflicted. PMID:28319125

  15. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  16. Modelling and design of high compression electron guns for EBIS/T charge breeders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087190; Zschornack, G.; Lettry, J.; Wenander, F.

    In this thesis the optimization of the REXEBIS charge breeder at the ISOLDE facility is presented. REXEBIS in its current state provides a current density of 200A/cm² inside the trapping region at 2 T and will be optimized to the physical limit of its design. To overcome this limit a new electron gun, the HEC² gun, was designed in collaboration with the BNL and is in commission at TestEBIS. This electron gun promises a current density of >10 kA/cm², which decreases the charge breeding time significantly. This thesis presents novel simulation techniques supporting the commissioning phase by explaining the sources of occurring loss current and, in addition, evaluate the currently installed collector for compatibility with the HEC2 gun operating at its design limit. The experience gained from the commission of the HEC² gun and the established numerical techniques lead to the development of a smaller high-compression electron gun for medical purposes, the MEDeGUN. This electron gun should provide a high-quali...

  17. "We've Got a Gun?": Comparing Reports of Adolescents and Their Parents about Household Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Cook, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Firearms are a leading cause of mortality among adolescents, and the guns that adolescents use to harm themselves or others often come from their own homes. In this statewide, multilanguage, community-based survey of 5,704 coresiding pairs of adolescents and their parents, we asked about guns in the home and compared their responses. The…

  18. Guns on Campus: The Architecture and Momentum of State Policy Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Andrew; Sisneros, Lauren; Perez, Zeke; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    "Guns on Campus: The Architecture and Momentum of State Policy Action" offers a detailed summary of state legislative action and higher education system policy decisions that have occurred in two specific categories: (1) States that have permitted or are seeking to permit guns on campus; and (2) States that have prohibited or are seeking…

  19. Devlopment of Refractory Gunning Mixes and Their Applications in Iron & Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShouye; WANGZhanmin; 等

    1998-01-01

    The development and application of gunning mixes based on various material systems for repairing BOF,EAF,ladel and BF trough linings,using Chinese abundant natural refractory resources,have been reviewed,The effects of binders and additives on properties of different gunning mixes are discussed.Their application results are also introduced.

  20. Internal ballistics of recoilless high-low pressure guns using hepta-tubular powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gupta

    1960-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the theory of recoilless high-low pressure guns has been discussed by taking the form function and the results have been applied to the case of hepta-tubular powders. The results for high-low pressure guns follow as a particular case.

  1. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  2. ENVIORNMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ANEST IWATA CORPORATION LPH400-LV HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Enviornmental Technology Verification reports on the characteristics of a paint spray gun. The research showed that the spray gun provided absolute and relative increases in transfer efficiency over the base line and provided a reduction in the use of paint.

  3. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms.

  4. Edge shadow projection method for measuring the brightness of electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheolsu; Sul, Inho; Cho, Boklae

    2017-02-01

    The performance of an electron gun is evaluated in terms of the gun brightness. The brightness of an electron gun is typically measured by dividing the angular current density by the virtual source area. An electron gun brightness measurement system was constructed without an electron lens. The system consists of movable apertures (∅ 30, 50, 100, 200 μ m ), a Faraday cup, and a phosphor screen. The Faraday cup is employed to measure the angular current density. The electron beam passes through an aperture and its shade is projected onto the phosphor screen. The virtual source position is determined by measuring the displacement of the aperture shade made by the movement of the aperture. The blurring width of the edge of the shadow on the screen is measured by a charged-coupled device camera to calculate the virtual source size. Brightness values of a tungsten filament electron gun were obtained and compared to reported values.

  5. Improved multiple-shot gun for use as a combustion stability rating device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop and experimentally evaluate an improved version of a modified machine gun for use as a device for rating the relative combustion stability of various rocket combustors. Following the results of a previous study involving a caliber .30 machine gun, a caliber .50 machine gun was modified in order to extend the charge-size range of the device. Nitrocellulose charge sizes ranging from 1.004 to 9.720 grams were fired at rates up to four shots per second. Shock pressures up to 25,512 kN/sq m were measured near the end of a shortened gun barrel. A minimal resistance type of check valve permitted the gun to fire into pressurized regions; back pressures up to 3448 kN/sq m abs were tested. The final modified assembly was evaluated during combustion stability tests on rocket combustors burning a FLOX-methane propellant combination.

  6. Electron bunch structure in energy recovery linac with high-voltage dc photoelectron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Y. M.; Jackson, F.; Jones, J. K.; McKenzie, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    The internal structure of electron bunches generated in an injector line with a dc photoelectron gun is investigated. Experiments were conducted on the ALICE (accelerators and lasers in combined experiments) energy recovery linac at Daresbury Laboratory. At a relatively low dc gun voltage of 230 kV, the bunch normally consisted of two beamlets with different electron energies, as well as transverse and longitudinal characteristics. The beamlets are formed at the head and the tail of the bunch. At a higher gun voltage of 325 kV, the beam substructure is much less pronounced and could be observed only at nonoptimal injector settings. Experiments and computer simulations demonstrated that the bunch structure develops during the initial beam acceleration in the superconducting rf booster cavity and can be alleviated either by increasing the gun voltage to the highest possible level or by controlling the beam acceleration from the gun voltage in the first accelerating structure.

  7. 40 CFR 63.5755 - How do I demonstrate compliance with the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? 63.5755... surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? You must demonstrate compliance with the aluminum coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards by meeting the requirements of paragraph (a)...

  8. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides.

  9. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. Evaluation of Energetic Plasticisers for Solid Gun Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the evaluation of four different energetic plasticisers, viz., glycidyl azidepolymer (GAP, MW = 390, 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane (DANPE, ethylene-glycol-bis-azido-acetate (EGBAA and N-n-butyl-N-(2 nitroxyethyl nitramine (n-Bu-NENA separately into highenergy gun propellant containing 28 per cent NC (13.1 N %, 65 per cent RDX, 6 per cent di-octyl-phthahate (DOP and 1 per cent carbamite.  Four different propellant compositions based on theenergetic plasticiser have been formulated separately with the replacement of non-energeticplasticiser, DOP. The propellants were processed by standard solvent method and evaluatedexperimentally along with the control composition to determine the ballistic parameters, cal-val,sensitivity, thermal characterisation, thermal stability and mechanical properties. The performanceof the propellants containing the energetic plasticiser has  been compared with that of thecontrol composition containing the non-energetic plasticiser, DOP so as to assess the suitabilityof the energetic plasticiser for the futuristic gun propellant formulations. It has been found outthat n-Bu-NENA is the superior plasticiser among the four energetic plasticisers evaluated inthis study.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(1, pp.86-93, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1627

  11. An angular selective electron gun for the KATRIN experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacher, Michael; Ortjohann, Hans-Werner; Steinbrink, Nicholas; Josten, Lorenz; Hannen, Volker; Weinheimer, Christian; Winzen, Daniel [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment aims for a measurement of the electron anti-neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2} (95% C.L.) by analysing the endpoint region of the tritium β-decay. The main spectrometer (MAC-E filter type, 23m length) is one of the central parts of the experiment, featuring an energy resolution of Δ E<1 eV. For commissioning of the spectrometer a well defined electron source is needed that allows to determine the transmission characteristics and compare the electromagnetic properties to simulations. For this purpose an angular selective electron gun was developed. A pulsed UV-Laser produces electrons via the photo-electric effect, which are then accelerated electrostatically in a magnetic field. It features a small energy spread, a sharp selectable emission angle and covers the whole magnetic flux tube of KATRIN. By that, the characteristics of the spectrometer can be investigated with high precision. The time structure of the electron pulses allows time of flight measurements, offering enhanced sensitivity. The talk gives an overview about the e-gun design and its properties.

  12. Blower Gun pellet injection system for W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibon, Mathias; Baldzuhn, Juergen; Beck, Michael; Lang, Peter; Ploeckl, Bernhard; Weisbart, Wolfgang [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cardella, Antonio; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Lehrstuhl fuer Nukleartechnik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Koechl, Florian [Association EURATOM-OeAW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kocsis, Gabor; Szepesi, Tamas [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary)

    2014-07-01

    Foreseen to serve for the new stellarator W7-X for pellet investigations, the former ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun was revised and revitalized in a test bed. The gun is able now to launch cylindrical pellets of 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, produced from frozen Deuterium (D{sub 2}) or Hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Pellets are accelerated by a short pulse of pressurized helium propellant gas to velocities in the range of 100-250 m/s. Delivery reliabilities at the launcher exit close to unity are achieved. For pellet transfer to the plasma vessel a first mock up guiding tube version was investigated. Transfer through this S-shaped (inner diameter 8 mm; length 6 m) stainless steel guiding tube containing two 1 m curvature radii was investigated for both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} pellets. Tests were performed applying repetition rates from 2 Hz to 50 Hz and propellant gas pressures ranging from 1 bar to 6 bar. For both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, low overall delivery efficiencies were observed at slow repetition rates, but stable efficiencies of about 90% above 10 Hz.

  13. Fiber-interferometric detection of gun-launched projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Peter M.; Marshall, Bruce R.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Lang, John M.; Pacheco, Adam H.; Loomis, Eric N.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a new diagnostic useful for the non-invasive detection of projectile passage in the launch tube of a gas gun. The sensing element consists of one or more turns of single-mode optical fiber that is epoxy-bonded around the external circumference of the launch tube. The hoop strain induced in the launch tube by the passage of the projectile causes a momentary expansion of the fiber loop. This transient change in path length is detected with high sensitivity using a fiber optic-based interferometer developed by the NSTec Special Technologies Laboratory. We have fielded this new diagnostic, along with fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) strain gauges we previously used for this purpose, on a variety of gas guns used for shock compression studies at Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories. We anticipate that, when coupled with a broad-range analog demodulator circuit, the fiber optic interferometer will have improved dynamic range over that of the FBG strain gauge approach. Moreover, in contrast to the FBG strain gauge which is somewhat temperature sensitive, the interferometric approach requires no alignment immediately prior to the experiment and is therefore easier to implement. Both approaches provide early, pre-event signals useful for triggering high-latency diagnostics.

  14. Numerical modeling of deflagration mode in coaxial plasma guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed coaxial plasma guns have been used in several applications in the field of space propulsion, nuclear fusion and materials processing. These devices operate in two modes based on the delay between gas injection and breakdown initiation. Larger delay led to the plasma detonation mode where a compression wave in the form of a luminous front propagates from the breech to the muzzle. Shorter delay led to the more efficient deflagration mode characterized by a relatively diffuse plasma with higher resistivity. The overall physics of the discharge in the two modes of operation and in particular the latter remain relatively unexplored. Here we perform a computational modeling study by solving the non-ideal Magneto-hydrodynamics equations for the quasi-neutral plasma in the coaxial plasma gun. A finite volume formulation on an unstructured mesh framework with an implicit scheme is used to do stable computations. The final work will present details of important species in the plasma, particle energies and Mach number at the muzzle. A comparison of the plasma parameters will be made with the experiments reported in ref. [1]. [4pt] [1] F. R. Poehlmann et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 123508 (2010)

  15. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm3) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm3) right after the shock.

  16. Construction and Test of a Novel Superconducting RF Electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2014-04-16

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison has completed installation of a superconducting electron gun. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility with multiple megahertz repetition rate end stations. This VHF superconducting configuration holds the promise of the highest performance for CW injectors. Initial commissioning efforts show that the cavity can achieve gradients of 35 MV/m at the cathode position. With the cathode inserted CW operation has been achieved at 20 MV/m with good control of microphonics, negligible dark current, and Q0 > 3×109 at 4 K. Bunch charges of ~100 pC have been delivered, and first simple beam measurements made. These preliminary results are very encouraging for production of 100s pC bunches with millimeter-milliradian or smaller normalized emittances. Plans are in place to carry out more definitive studies to establish the full capabilities. However, since the grant was not renewed, the electron gun is currently mothballed, and without supplemental fund the opportunity for further work will be lost.

  17. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  18. Thermal Safety Study on TEGDN/NG/NC Gun Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, J. H.; Zhao, F. Q.; Hu, R. Z.; Xue, L.; Xu, S. Y.

    2010-10-01

    The self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT), critical temperature of thermal explosion (Tb), adiabatic time to explosion (tTIad), 50% drop height of impact sensitivity (H50), critical temperature of hot spot initiation caused by impact (Tcr,hotspot), safety degree (Sd), critical thermal explosion ambient temperature (Tacr), and thermal explosion probability (PTE) of the gun propellant composed of triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN), nitroglycerin (NG), and nitrocellulose (NC) were studied. The results of thermal safety evaluation on the gun propellant were obtained: (1) T00 = 433.4 K, TSADT = Te0 = 441.1 K, Tb = Tbp0 = 468.4 K; (2) when Ek = 205.3 × 103 J mol -1 and Ak = 1020.62 s -1, tTIad = 48.3 s, H50 = 17.93 cm, Tcr, hotspot = 634.9 K; for a sphere sample, TS(T)max = 369.0K, Tacr = 364.2 K, Sd = 65.03%, PTE = 34.96%.

  19. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  20. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 1017 cm-3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  1. Phase II Final Report Computer Optimization of Electron Guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Thuc Bui; Hien Tran; Michael Read; Adam Attarian; William Tallis

    2011-04-15

    This program implemented advanced computer optimization into an adaptive mesh, finite element, 3D, charged particle code. The routines can optimize electron gun performance to achieve a specified current, beam size, and perveance. It can also minimize beam ripple and electric field gradients. The magnetics optimization capability allows design of coil geometries and magnetic material configurations to achieve a specified axial magnetic field profile. The optimization control program, built into the charged particle code Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) utilizes a 3D solid modeling package to modify geometry using design tables. Parameters within the graphical user interface (currents, voltages, etc.) can be directly modified within BOA. The program implemented advanced post processing capability for the optimization routines as well as the user. A Graphical User Interface allows the user to set up goal functions, select variables, establish ranges of variation, and define performance criteria. The optimization capability allowed development of a doubly convergent multiple beam gun that could not be designed using previous techniques.

  2. Identification and molecular characterization of the second Chlamydomonas gun4 mutant, gun4-II [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1id

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip B Grovenstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The green micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an elegant model organism to study oxygenic photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (Chl and heme are major tetrapyrroles that play an essential role in photosynthesis and respiration. These tetrapyrroles are synthesized via a common branched pathway that involves mainly enzymes, encoded by nuclear genes. One of the enzymes in the pathway is Mg chelatase (MgChel. MgChel catalyzes insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, proto to form Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX (MgPPIX, Mgproto, the first biosynthetic intermediate in the Chl branch. The GUN4 (genomes uncoupled 4 protein is not essential for the MgChel activity but has been shown to significantly stimulate its activity. We have isolated a light sensitive mutant, 6F14, by random DNA insertional mutagenesis. 6F14 cannot tolerate light intensities higher than 90-100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. It shows a light intensity dependent progressive photo-bleaching. 6F14 is incapable of photo-autotrophic growth under light intensity higher than 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. PCR based analyses show that in 6F14 the insertion of the plasmid outside the GUN4 locus has resulted in a genetic rearrangement of the GUN4 gene and possible deletions in the genomic region flanking the GUN4 gene. Our gun4 mutant has a Chl content very similar to that in the wild type in the dark and is very sensitive to fluctuations in the light intensity in the environment unlike the earlier identified Chlamydomonas gun4 mutant. Complementation with a functional copy of the GUN4 gene restored light tolerance, Chl biosynthesis and photo-autotrophic growth under high light intensities in 6F14. 6F14 is the second gun4 mutant to be identified in C. reinhardtii. Additionally, we show that our two gun4 complements over-express the GUN4 protein and show a higher Chl content per cell compared to that in the wild type strain.

  3. Moms,Families Rally for U.S.Gun Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joanne; Kenen; 蒋允治

    2000-01-01

    今年五月十四日,是母亲节。这一天,美国沸腾了!尤其是首都华盛顿,百万妈妈走出家庭,外出集会游行。Million Mom March(注意头韵)罕见且壮观的场面被本文活龙活现地刻画出来。母亲节,本应是子女给母亲赠贺卡、送鲜花、并好好“款待”母亲的日子。可是,今年的母亲节,美国成千上万的母亲再也无法在家中坐享那份悠闲。她们从全国各地来到了首都华盛顿,举行活动、参加游行,向政府请愿: Children are Not Bullet Proof! Guns Don’t Die,People Do! 百万妈妈的游行队伍浩浩荡荡,巍为壮观。然而,此刻也会冒出与之不协调 的声音: Gun control increases violent crime by shifting the balance of power from thelaw-abiding(守法的)to the criminal. 此句的大意是:控制枪支只会使暴力犯罪增加,因为平衡将被打破,犯罪分子将拿到更多比例的枪支,而守法者却拿到更少。 有的言辞更加激烈: You will never disarm the American people.This is not Nazi Germany. 本文还透露了一个美国官方发布的信息,令人震惊: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,more than 32,000 people die from gun-related accidents,suicides and murders each year in theUnited States.Of those,more than 4,

  4. The Noble Train of Artillery: A Study Comparison of Current Doctrinal Concepts of the Mission Command Philosophy in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    teamsters were allowed to develop a plan on getting the heavy guns up and down the rugged hillside using a rope and pulley system.244 Knox did not...openly communicate on tasks and plans , it fosters a common picture to be developed . No one wants to be the one to ask the stupid question, but...my daughters Kaeli and Trinity for agreeing to place Disney Jr. on a low volume so I could write this thesis over the past year. Also to Mr. Greg

  5. Stagnation and Change in Military Thought: The Evolution of American Field Artillery Doctrine, 1861-1905--An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-11

    LIST OF FIGURES-Oonlinued Figure Page 23. 3.6- Inah Mortar. , , , ..... . , , . s a a , 213 24. Sight@ for the 7-Inch Howitzer . . . . . 1 214 25. 5...announced that prototypes of the 5-inch sioge gun • and 7- inah howitzer had been manufactured at Watertown Arsenal and sent 205 to a proving ground...too complicated for use by inexperierced militia. He made the point that although the 3-inch projectile would be smaller than the 3.2- inah round, it

  6. GUN1, a Jack-Of-All-Trades in Chloroplast Protein Homeostasis and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Tadini, Luca; Peracchio, Carlotta; Ferrari, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The GENOMES UNCOUPLED 1 (GUN1) gene has been reported to encode a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, which acts to integrate multiple indicators of plastid developmental stage and altered plastid function, as part of chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde communication. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying signal integration by GUN1 have remained elusive, up until the recent identification of a set of GUN1-interacting proteins, by co-immunoprecipitation and mass-spectrometric analyses, as well as protein–protein interaction assays. Here, we review the molecular functions of the different GUN1 partners and propose a major role for GUN1 as coordinator of chloroplast translation, protein import, and protein degradation. This regulatory role is implemented through proteins that, in most cases, are part of multimeric protein complexes and whose precise functions vary depending on their association states. Within this framework, GUN1 may act as a platform to promote specific functions by bringing the interacting enzymes into close proximity with their substrates, or may inhibit processes by sequestering particular pools of specific interactors. Furthermore, the interactions of GUN1 with enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TPB) pathway support the involvement of tetrapyrroles as signaling molecules in retrograde communication. PMID:27713755

  7. Development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, James; Jensen, Brian

    2009-06-01

    Past fundamental work at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) U1a complex has been performed using explosively-driven flyer plates which provide high-pressure loading at the expense of some shock. In contrast, plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocity for impact experiments at NTS. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt. This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results of the qualification testing of the large-bore gun, the confinement system, and the explosively driven valve will be presented.

  8. Developing of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esparza, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5-inches or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  9. Coaxial-gun design and testing for the PLX- α Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Cruz, Edward; Luna, Marco; Langendorf, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    We describe the Alpha coaxial gun designed for a 60-gun scaling study of spherically imploding plasma liners as a standoff driver for plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF). The guns operate over a range of parameters: 0.5-5.0 mg of Ar, Ne, N2, Kr, and Xe; 20-60 km/s; 2 × 1016 cm-3 muzzle density; and up to 7.5 kJ stored energy per gun. Each coaxial gun incorporates a fast dense gas injection and triggering system, a compact low-weight pfn with integral sparkgap switching, and a contoured gap designed to suppress the blow-by instability. The latest design iteration incorporates a faster more robust gas valve, an improved electrode contour, a custom 600- μF, 5-kV pfn, and six inline sparkgap switches operated in parallel. The switch and pfn are mounted directly to the back of the gun and are designed to reduce inductance, cost, and complexity, maximize efficiency and system reliability, and ensure symmetric current flow. We provide a brief overview of the design choices, the projected performance over the parameter ranges mentioned above, and experimental results from testing of the PLX- α coaxial gun. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  10. 多指标炮兵火力分配模型%Optimal Assignment Model of Artillery Firepower with Multi-index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇平; 杨晓段; 李元左

    2013-01-01

    为解决炮兵火力分配方案选择的随意性和盲目性,建立了基于0-1规划的多指标优选模型,并通过实例分析说明了模型在炮兵火力分配计划中的应用,结论表明该分配优选模型的实用性与有效性,为炮兵火力分配与优选提供了一种定量和定性相结合的可行方法。%To solve the subjectiveness and blindness in the assignment plan of artillery firepower, a multi-index optimizational model based on 0-1 programming is established. At last, the paper illustrates the application of the model in the fire plan scheme, the practical case demonstrates satisfactory practicality and effectiveness. It provides a new way which combines qualtitative and quantitative methods to assign and optimize the plan of artillery firepower.

  11. Effect of Rheological Behavior of Particle-Water Suspensions on Properties of Gunned Refractory for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; MENG Qing-min; LONG Shi-gang; SUN Jia-lin; HONG Yan-ruo

    2006-01-01

    Study on rheological properties of gunned refractory is an effective way to optimize the quality of repaired layer and gunning operation. The fluidity of refractory was quantitatively evaluated as well as the rheological behavior of refractory particle-water suspensions. The relationship between the fluidity of refractory particle-water suspension and that of gunned refractory, and the relationship between the fluidity and adhesion ability of gunned refractory were studied. The experiments were carried out with a special rheometer and gunning machine. The results show that there is strong influence of some parameters on the rheological behavior of gunned refractory and gunning process. Interactions between particles and water that lead to the formation of gelatinous structures in this suspension are discussed.

  12. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Wodarz

    Full Text Available In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  13. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  14. Pressure versus current scaling in a blocked bore rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, B. D.; Eubank, Eric; Nunnally, W. C.

    1993-07-01

    The paper presents experimental results from a blocked bore plasma armature rail gun. A piezoelectric transducer mounted in the bore blocking structure recorded time-resolved pressures over a range of input currents from 50 to 150 kA. The bore block is located at four positions where peak current occurs for the four respective charging voltages to power the system. Problems associated with obtaining these measurements and the solutions employed are discussed. Average distances from the block face to the armature current centroid are estimated assuming a pressure balance between the magnetic and neutral pressures. The averages of the measured pressures were found to be proportional to the input current raised to the power of 1.655.

  15. Air gun injuries of the abdomen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J C; Turner, C S; Pennell, T C

    1984-12-01

    From July 18, 1978 to Sept 15, 1982, four boys were treated for air gun injuries of the abdomen at the North Carolina Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem. Three patients had wounds of one or more of the hollow viscera, and one patient had an injury only of the liver. There was no morbidity or mortality following repair. Some present-day air (pneumatic) weapons have muzzle velocities that equal or exceed those of common civilian handguns, and they are frequently used by unsupervised children. These weapons are not restricted and regulated as are other firearms, and are believed to be incapable of serious injury other than to the eye. These cases and others in the literature dispute that belief.

  16. Coaxial carbon plasma gun deposition of amorphous carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, D. M.; Gulino, D. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique plasma gun employing coaxial carbon electrodes was used in an attempt to deposit thin films of amorphous diamond-like carbon. A number of different structural, compositional, and electrical characterization techniques were used to characterize these films. These included scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and absorption, spectrographic analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were also performed. The films were determined to be primarily amorphous, with poor adhesion to fused silica substrates. Many inclusions of particulates were found to be present as well. Analysis of these particulates revealed the presence of trace impurities, such as Fe and Cu, which were also found in the graphite electrode material. The electrodes were the source of these impurities. No evidence of diamond-like crystallite structure was found in any of the film samples. Details of the apparatus, experimental procedure, and film characteristics are presented.

  17. Repetitive Bunches from RF-Photo Gun Radiate Coherently

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Geer, C A J; Van der Geer, S B

    2004-01-01

    We consider to feed the laser wake field accelerator of the alpha-X project by a train of low charge pancake electron bunches to reduce undesired expansion due to space-charge forces. To this purpose the photo excitation laser of the rf-injector is split into a train of sub-pulses, such that each of the produced electron bunches falls into a successive ponderomotive well of the plasma accelerator. This way the total accelerated charge is not reduced. The repetitive photo gun can be tested, at low energy, by connecting it directly to the undulator and monitoring the radiation. The assertions are based on the results of new GPT simulations.

  18. Ballistic evaluationof LOVA propellant in high calibre gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.S. Pillai

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper presents the data obrained on dynamic firing of a cellulose acetate binder-based low vulnerability ammunition (LOV A propellant using 120 mm fin-stabilised armour piercing discarding sabot (FSAPDS kinetic energyammunition. An optimised propellant composition formulated ~sing fine RDX as an energetic ingredient and a mixture of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose as binder was qualified fit for firing in a high calibre gun by its successful static evaluation for absolute ballistics using high pressure closed vessel technique. Dynamic firing of the propellant processed in heptatubular geometry was undertaken to assess the propellant charge mass. This propellant achieved higher muzzle velocity as compared to the standard NQ/M119 triple-base propellant while meeting the non-vulnerability characteristics convincingly.

  19. Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile Gas Exposure from A Novelty Personal-Protection Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile (CS tear-gas exposure from the unwitting discharge of a personal-protection handgun loaded with CS gas. The gun was in a bag of toys purchased from a local thrift store and was discharged by a child. The responding paramedic presumptively identified the substance as CS based solely on personal experience. This recognition led to suboptimal field management of the incident with the paramedic failing to follow the standard operating procedures for an unknown chemical exposure. As this was a benign agent, there were no serious consequences. This case highlights the pre-hospital and emergency department challenges associated with the management of an unknown chemical exposure and the potential consequences if the chemical is a toxic substance. A methodical approach following established protocols can reduce the potential for negative outcomes. Review of the literature found no other report of CS gas exposure from such a personal-protection weapon.

  20. Beam dynamics in rf guns and emittance correction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Luca

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a general review of beam dynamics in a laser-driven rf gun. The peculiarity of such an accelerating structure versus other conventional multi-cell linac structures is underlined on the basis of the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem, which is found to give a theoretical background for the well known Kim's model. A basic explanation for some proposed methods to correct rf induced emittance growth is also derived from the theorem. We also present three emittance correction techniques for the recovery of space-charge induced emittance growth, namely the optimum distributed disk-like bunch technique, the use of rf spatial harmonics to correct spherical aberration induced by space charge forces and the technique of emittance filtering by clipping the electron beam. The expected performances regarding the beam quality achievable with different techniques, as predicted by scaling laws and simulations, are analyzed, and, where available, compared to experimental results.

  1. Commissioning Results of the 2nd 3.5 Cell SRF Gun for ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A [HZDR, Dresden, Germany; Freitag, M [HZDR, Dresden, Germany; Murcek, Petr [HZDR, Dresden, Germany; Teichert, Jochen [HZDR, Dresden, Germany; Vennekate, H [HZDR, Dresden, Germany; Xiang, R [HZDR, Dresden, Germany; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Turlington, Larry D, [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    As in 2007 the first 3.5 cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) gun was taken into operation, it turned out that the specified performance has not been achieved. However, to demonstrate the full potential of this new type of electron source, a second and slightly modified SRF gun II was built in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). We will report on commissioning and first results of the new gun, which includes in particular the characterization of the most important RF properties as well as their comparison with previous vertical test results.

  2. Low cycle fatigue behavior of high strength gun steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maoqiu Wang; Han Dong; Qi Wang; Changgang Fan

    2004-01-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of two high strength steels, with nominal chemical compositions (mass fraction, %)of 0.40C-1.5Cr-3Ni-0.4Mo-0.2V (PCrNi3MoV) and 0.25C-3Cr-3Mo-0.8Ni-0.1Nb (25Cr3Mo3NiNb), was investigated by using the smooth bar specimens subjected to strained-controlled push-pull loading. It is found that both steels show cyclic softening, but 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel has a lower tendency to cyclic softening. 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel has higher fatigue ductility, and its transition fatigue life is almost three times that of PCrNi3MoV. 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel also shows higher LCF life either at a given total strain amplitude above 0.5% or at any given plastic strain amplitude, despite its lower monotonic tensile strength than that of PCrNi3MoV.It also means that 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel can endure higher total strain amplitude and plastic strain amplitude at a given number of reversals to failure within 104. 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel is expected to be a good gun steel with high LCF properties because only several thousand firings are required for gun barrel in most cases.

  3. Drill Trainer’s Guides for Assault Gun Crews and Platoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    simulator and Trainer’s report of enemy contact ("four sMPs, two o’clock, one click .") (3) Unit: From tactical halt position at begin- ing of lane, deliver...machinegun, with or without MILES, firing blanks. b. Artillery simulator and Trainer’s report of enemy contact, ("four BMPs, two o’clock, one click .") (3...o’clock, one click .") (3) Unit: From tactical halt position at beginning of lane, deliver FRAGO covering situation, assigned route, and limits. (4

  4. JAERI 200 kV Electron Gun with an NEA-GaAs Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Nishitani, Tomohiro; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; John Minehara, Eisuke; Nagai, Ryoji; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Sawamura, Masaru; Yamauchi, T

    2004-01-01

    The GaAs photocathode with negative electron affinity surface (NEA-GaAs) has been expected to be low emittance (<0.5 πmm・mrad) electron beam source. In order to generate low emittance electron beam required from ERL-FEL, we have started the developmental program of a 200keV electron gun with the NEA-GaAs photocathode for the first time in JAERI. An NEA surface has the problem that lifetime is limited by gun vacuum condition and by ion back bombardment between anode- and cathode-electrode. In order to long an NEA surface lifetime, the JAERI 200keV electron gun system consists of a 200kV DC-gun chamber on extreme high vacuum condition and an NEA activation chamber with load-lock system.

  5. Numerical Simulation on Supersonic Flow in High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi KATANODA; Hideki YAMAMOTO; Kazuyasu MATSUO

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behaviour of coating particles as well as the gas flow both inside and outside of the High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun by using a quasi-one-dimensional analysis and a numerical simulation. The HVOF gun in the present analysis is an axially symmetric convergent-divergent nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0. From the present analysis, the distributions of velocity and temperature of the coating particles flying inside and outside of the HVOF gun are predicted. The velocity and temperature of the coating particles at the exit of the gun calculated by the present method agree well with the previous experimental results. Therefore, the present method of calculation is considered to be useful for predicting the HVOF gas and particle flows.

  6. Self-inflicted Cardiac Injury with Nail Gun Without Hemodynamic Compromise: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Feranec, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Pneumatically powered nail guns have been used in construction since 1959. Penetrating injuries to the heart with nail guns have a wide range of presentations from asymptomatic to cardiac tamponade and exsanguination. Mortality related to cardiac nail gun injuries is similar to knife injuries, estimated at 25%. Surgical exploration is the treatment of choice. We describe a case of self-inflicted nail gun injury to the chest without hemodynamic compromise in a 51-year-old man. Computed tomography (CT) imaging confirmed nail penetrating the right ventricle, with the tip adjacent to but not violating the abdominal aorta. The patient was successfully treated with thoracotomy and foreign body removal. PMID:28191375

  7. A ferroelectric electron gun in a free-electron maser experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Einat, M; Rosenman, G

    2002-01-01

    An electron-gun based on a ferroelectric cathode is studied in a free-electron maser (FEM) experiment. In this gun, the electrons are separated from the cathode surface plasma, and are accelerated in two stages. The electron energy-spread is reduced sufficiently for an FEM operation in the microwave regime. A 14 keV, 1-2 A e-beam is obtained in a 0.1-2.1 mu s pulse width. The pulse repetition frequency attains 3.1 MHz in approx 50% duty-cycle. This gun is implemented in an FEM oscillator experiment operating around 3 GHz. The paper presents experimental results and discusses the applicability of ferroelectric guns in free-electron laser devices.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, SHARPE MANUFACTURING TITANIUM T1-CG SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, the pollution prevention capabilities of a high transfer efficiency liquid spray gun was tested. This ...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ANEST IWATA CORPORATION W400-LV SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, the pollution prevention capabilities of a high transfer efficiency liquid spray gun was tested. This ...

  10. Pulsed Mode Operation and Longitudinal Parameter Measurement of the Rossendorf SRF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Xiang, R; Klemz, G; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Will, I

    2011-01-01

    The Rossendorf SRF gun with a 3½ cell cavity has been operated since 2007. It has produced CW beam with the electron energy of 3 MeV and the average current up to 16 μA. The electron beam of the gun has been successfully injected into the ELBE superconducting linac since 2010. The Nb cavity has shown constant quality during the operation and for the Cs2Te photocathode life time of months could be obtained. Recently the gun started to run in the pulsed mode with higher gradient. The longitudinal Parameters have been measured in this mode. The dark current arose from the high gradient is studied. The main field emission source has been found to be the half cell. In this paper the new status of the SRF gun will be presented, and the latest results of the beam experiments will be discussed.

  11. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, J L; McCauley, R D

    2012-05-01

    In this study various species of captive marine fish and one species of squid were exposed to the noise from a single air gun. Six trials were conducted off the coast of Western Australia with each trial using a different noise exposure regime. Noise levels received by the animals ranged between 120 and 184 dB re 1 μPa(2).s (SEL). Behavioural observations of the fish and squid were made before, during and after air gun noise exposure. Results indicate that as air gun noise levels increase, fish respond by moving to the bottom of the water column and swimming faster in more tightly cohesive groups. Significant increases in alarm responses were observed in fish and squid to air gun noise exceeding 147-151 dB re 1 μPa SEL. An increase in the occurrence of alarm responses was also observed as noise level increased.

  12. Control of the Helicity Content of a Gun-Generated Spheromak by Incorporating a Conducting Shell into a Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Jun'ichi; Asai, Tomohiko

    In the formation of magnetized plasmoid by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the magnetic helicity content of the generated plasmoid is one of the critical parameters. Typically, the bias coil to generate a poloidal flux is mounted either on the outer electrode or inside the inner electrode. However, most of the flux generated in the conventional method spreads even radially outside of the formation region. Thus, only a fraction of the total magnetic flux is actually exploited for helicity generation in the plasmoid. In the proposed system, the plasma gun incorporates a copper shell mounted on the outer electrode. By changing the rise time of the discharge bias coil current and the geometrical structure of the shell, the magnetic field structure and its time evolution can be controlled. The effect of the copper shell has been numerically simulated for the actual gun structure, and experimentally confirmed. This may increase the magnetic helicity content results, through increased poloidal magnetic field.

  13. The effects of pulse pressure from seismic water gun technology on Northern Pike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Shields, Patrick A; Fox, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of sound pressure pulses generated from a water gun for controlling invasive Northern Pike Esox lucius. Pulse pressures from two sizes of water guns were evaluated for their effects on individual fish placed at a predetermined random distance. Fish mortality from a 5,620.8-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 252 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m) was assessed every 24 h for 168 h, and damage (intact, hematoma, or rupture) to the gas bladder, kidney, and liver was recorded. The experiment was replicated with a 1,966.4-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 244 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m), but fish were euthanized immediately. The peak sound pressure level (SPLpeak), peak-to-peak sound pressure level (SPLp-p), and frequency spectrums were recorded, and the cumulative sound exposure level (SELcum) was subsequently calculated. The SPLpeak, SPLp-p, and SELcum were correlated, and values varied significantly by treatment group for both guns. Mortality increased and organ damage was greater with decreasing distance to the water gun. Mortality (31%) by 168 h was only observed for Northern Pike exhibiting the highest degree of organ damage. Mortality at 72 h and 168 h postexposure was associated with increasing SELcum above 195 dB. The minimum SELcum calculated for gas bladder rupture was 199 dB recorded at 9 m from the 5,620.8-cm3 water gun and 194 dB recorded at 6 m from the 1,966.4-cm3water gun. Among Northern Pike that were exposed to the large water gun, 100% of fish exposed at 3 and 6 m had ruptured gas bladders, and 86% exposed at 9 m had ruptured gas bladders. Among fish that were exposed to pulse pressures from the smaller water gun, 78% exhibited gas bladder rupture. Results from these initial controlled experiments underscore the potential of water guns as a tool for controlling Northern Pike.

  14. Generation and measurement of sub-picosecond electron bunch in photocathode rf gun

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weiwei; He, Zhiagng; Jia, Qika

    2013-01-01

    We consider a scheme to generate sub-picosecond electron bunch in the photocathode rf gun by improving the acceleration gradient in the gun, suitably tuning the bunch charge, the laser spot size and the acceleration phase, and reducing the growth of transverse emittance by laser shaping. A nondestructive technique is also reported to measure the electron bunch length, by measuring the high-frequency spectrum of wakefield radiation which is caused by the passage of a relativistic electron bunc...

  15. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  16. CFD Modelling of Bore Erosion in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    A well-validated quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of the internal ballistics of two-stage light gas guns is modified to explicitly calculate the ablation of steel from the gun bore and the incorporation of the ablated wall material into the hydrogen working cas. The modified code is used to model 45 shots made with the NASA Ames 0.5 inch light gas gun over an extremely wide variety of gun operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical piston velocities (maximum errors of +/-2% to +/-6%) and maximum powder pressures (maximum errors of +/-10% with good igniters). Overall, the agreement between the experimental and numerically calculated gun erosion values (within a factor of 2) was judged to be reasonably good, considering the complexity of the processes modelled. Experimental muzzle velocities agree very well (maximum errors of 0.5-0.7 km/sec) with theoretical muzzle velocities calculated with loading of the hydrogen gas with the ablated barrel wall material. Comparison of results for pump tube volumes of 100%, 60% and 40% of an initial benchmark value show that, at the higher muzzle velocities, operation at 40% pump tube volume produces much lower hydrogen loading and gun erosion and substantially lower maximum pressures in the gun. Large muzzle velocity gains (2.4-5.4 km/sec) are predicted upon driving the gun harder (that is, upon using, higher powder loads and/or lower hydrogen fill pressures) when hydrogen loading is neglected; much smaller muzzle velocity gains (1.1-2.2 km/sec) are predicted when hydrogen loading is taken into account. These smaller predicted velocity gains agree well with those achieved in practice. CFD snapshots of the hydrogen mass fraction, density and pressure of the in-bore medium are presented for a very erosive shot.

  17. On the jets, kinks, and spheromaks formed by a planar magnetized coaxial gun

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the various plasma configurations produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun provide insight into the magnetic topology evolution resulting from magnetic helicity injection. Important features of the experiments are a very simple coaxial gun design so that all observed geometrical complexity is due to the intrinsic physical dynamics rather than the source shape and use of a fast multiple-frame digital camera which provides direct imaging of topologically complex shapes and dy...

  18. Design and Analysis of an Electron Gun/Booster and Free Electron Laser Optical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA DISSERTATION DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN ELECTRON GUN/BOOSTER AND FREE ELECTRON LASER OPTICAL THEORY by...298-102 September 2010 Dissertation Design and Analysis of an Electron Gun/Booster and Free Electron Laser Optical Theory Niles, Sean P. Naval...motor attached to a spool for adjusting the bead’s position in the cavity. The bead is a small piece of stainless steel hypodermic needle threaded

  19. An ultrafast nanotip electron gun triggered by grating-coupled surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Benjamin; Sivis, Murat; Bormann, Reiner; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate multiphoton photoelectron emission from gold nanotips induced by nanofocusing surface plasmons, resonantly excited on the tip shaft by a grating coupler. The tip is integrated into an electron gun assembly, which facilitates control over the spatial emission sites and allows us to disentangle direct grating emission from plasmon-triggered apex emission. The nanoscale source size of this electron gun concept enables highly coherent electron pulses with applications in ultrafast electron imaging and diffraction.

  20. An ultrafast nanotip electron gun triggered by grating-coupled surface plasmons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Benjamin; Sivis, Murat; Bormann, Reiner; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus, E-mail: cropers@gwdg.de [4th Physical Institute - Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate multiphoton photoelectron emission from gold nanotips induced by nanofocusing surface plasmons, resonantly excited on the tip shaft by a grating coupler. The tip is integrated into an electron gun assembly, which facilitates control over the spatial emission sites and allows us to disentangle direct grating emission from plasmon-triggered apex emission. The nanoscale source size of this electron gun concept enables highly coherent electron pulses with applications in ultrafast electron imaging and diffraction.