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Sample records for artificially elevated intraocular

  1. Visual functional changes during acute elevation of intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-De SHOU

    2006-01-01

    Glaucoma is closely related to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Many studies have done on the effect of chronic elevation of IOP on the retina and optic nerve, but less attention was paid to the effect of acute elevated IOP. Here we briefly review experimental studies on functional changes of the visual system from the retina to the visual cortex under acute elevated IOP condition, which is similar to that of acute primary angle-closure glaucoma.

  2. Causes of elevated intraocular pressure following implantation of phakic intraocular lenses for myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Salem; Abubaker, Abdullah; Alsabaani, Nasser A; Edward, Deepak P

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the causes and visual acuity outcomes in patients with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) following implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation. A chart review identified patients who developed high IOP at any postoperative examination and a minimum follow-up period of 3 months after ICL implantation. Data are reported out to 6 months postoperatively. Outcome measures included causes of elevated IOP, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at last visit, number of glaucoma medications, other interventions, and glaucomatous damage. Elevated IOP occurred in 58 (10.8 %) of 534 eyes that received ICL. The mean age was 28 ± 7.2 years. The preoperative IOP was 16.3 ± 1.2 mmHg. Elevated IOP most commonly occurred on the first postoperative day (23/58 (39.7 %) eyes) due to retained viscoelastic. This was followed by steroid response in 22/58 (37.9 %) eyes at 2-4 weeks postoperatively. IOP elevation in 6 (10.3 %) eyes was related to high ICL vault and pupillary block, and in 4 (6.9 %) eyes due to synechial angle closure. At last visit, BCVA was 20/40 or better in 56/58 (96.6 %) eyes, and 5/58 (8.6 %) eyes remained on glaucoma medications due to persistent steroid response (2 eyes), synechial angle closure glaucoma (1 eye), and other causes (2 eyes). One eye showed glaucomatous damage. Two eyes with high vault and elevated IOP underwent ICL explantation. There is a moderate risk of transiently developing elevated IOP after ICL implantation. Thorough removal of viscoelastic and use of anti-glaucoma medications during steroid use will reduce the majority of cases with postoperative IOP elevation. PMID:26265323

  3. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

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    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Elevated Intraocular Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sahinoglu-Keskek, Nedime; Keskek, Sakir Ozgur; Cevher, Selim; Kirim, Sinan; Kayiklik, Asim; Ortoglu, Gulay; Saler, Tayyibe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intraocular pressure and metabolic syndrome by comparing central corneal thicknesses. Methods: One hundred sixty-two subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, with 89 subjects in a metabolic syndrome group and 73 subjects in a control group. Ophthalmological examinations, including intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness measurements, were performed on each subject. Serum fasting glucose, trigly...

  5. Using the Electroretinogram to Understand How Intraocular Pressure Elevation Affects the Rat Retina

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    Bang V. Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP elevation is a key risk factor for glaucoma. Our understanding of the effect that IOP elevation has on the eye has been greatly enhanced by the application of the electroretinogram (ERG. In this paper, we describe how the ERG in the rodent eye is affected by changes in IOP magnitude, duration, and number of spikes. We consider how the variables of blood pressure and age can modify the effect of IOP elevation on the ERG. Finally, we contrast the effects that acute and chronic IOP elevation can have on the rodent ERG.

  6. Evaulation of Incidence and Risk Factors for Intraocular Pressure Elevation After Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

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    Didar Uçar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA used for the macular edema on intraocular pressure (IOP and to determine the risk factors for IOP elevation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 93 eyes of 85 patients who had 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone injection. Of the 85 patients, 56 (65.8% had diabetic macular edema, 22 (25.8% had branch retinal, and 7 (8.2% had central retinal vein occlusion. IOP changes after injection as well as the relation between IOP elevation and age, sex, lens status, etiology of macular edema, baseline IOP were evaluated. Results: Fourty-six male and 39 female patients with mean age 61.58±9.5 years were evaluated. IOP was recorded to be >24 mmHg in 30 eyes (32.2% at follow-up visit after an average of 7.5 weeks. Normalization of IOP with medication was achieved in all IOP elevated eyes. Fifteen of 29 eyes (51.7% with vein occlusion and 15 of 64 eyes (23.3% with diabetic macula edema had IOP elevation (p=0.01. Twenty-six of 73 phakic (35.6% and 4 of 20 pseudophakic eyes (20% had IOP >24 mmHg (p=0.16. There was no association between IOP elevation and sex (p=0.33. Baseline IOP was 16.47±2.8 mmHg in eyes which had elevated IOP and 14.78±2.4 mmHg in the remaining. There was significant relation between IOP elevation and baseline IOP level (p=0.01. Conclusion: Elevated IOP is common side effect after IVTA, but normalization is usually achieved by topical medication. Patients with baseline IOP ≥15 mmHg and vein occlusion have higher risk for IOP elevation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 86-91

  7. Brinzolamide nanocrystal formulations for ophthalmic delivery: reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomela, Annika; Liu, Peng; Puranen, Jooseppi; Rönkkö, Seppo; Laaksonen, Timo; Kalesnykas, Giedrius; Oksala, Olli; Ilkka, Jukka; Laru, Johanna; Järvinen, Kristiina; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystal-based drug delivery systems provide important tools for ocular formulation development, especially when considering poorly soluble drugs. The objective of the study was to formulate ophthalmic, intraocular pressure (IOP) reducing, nanocrystal suspensions from a poorly soluble drug, brinzolamide (BRA), using a rapid wet milling technique, and to investigate their IOP reducing effect in vivo. Different stabilizers for the nanocrystals were screened (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poloxamer F127 and F68, polysorbate 80) and HPMC was found to be the only successful stabilizer. In order to investigate both the effect of an added absorption enhancer (polysorbate 80) and the impact of the free drug in the nanocrystal suspension, formulations in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and pH 4.5 were prepared. Particle size, polydispersity (PI), solid state (DSC), morphology (SEM) as well as dissolution behavior and the uniformity of the formulations were characterized. There was rapid dissolution of BRA (in PBS pH 7.4) from all the nanocrystal formulations; after 1 min 100% of the drug was fully dissolved. The effect was significantly pronounced at pH 4.5, where the dissolved fraction of drug was the highest. The cytotoxicity of nanocrystal formulations to human corneal epithelial cell (HCE-T) viability was tested. The effects of the nanocrystal formulations and the commercial product on the cell viability were comparable. The intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect was investigated in vivo using a modern rat ocular hypertensive model and elevated IOP reduction was seen in vivo with all the formulations. Notably, the reduction achieved in experimentally elevated IOP was comparable to that obtained with a marketed product. In conclusion, various BRA nanocrystal formulations, which all showed advantageous dissolution and absorption behavior, were successfully formulated. PMID:24680962

  8. Modelling survival after treatment of intraocular melanoma using artificial neural networks and Bayes theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of an artificial intelligence (AI) system for survival prediction from intraocular melanoma. The system used artificial neural networks (ANNs) with five input parameters: coronal and sagittal tumour location, anterior tumour margin, largest basal tumour diameter and the cell type. After excluding records with missing data, 2331 patients were included in the study. These were split randomly into training and test sets. Date censorship was applied to the records to deal with patients who were lost to follow-up and patients who died from general causes. Bayes theorem was then applied to the ANN output to construct survival probability curves. A validation set with 34 patients unseen to both training and test sets was used to compare the AI system with Cox's regression (CR) and Kaplan-Meier (KM) analyses. Results showed large differences in the mean 5 year survival probability figures when the number of records with matching characteristics was small. However, as the number of matches increased to >100 the system tended to agree with CR and KM. The validation set was also used to compare the system with a clinical expert in predicting time to metastatic death. The rms error was 3.7 years for the system and 4.3 years for the clinical expert for 15 years survival. For <10 years survival, these figures were 2.7 and 4.2, respectively. We concluded that the AI system can match if not better the clinical expert's prediction. There were significant differences with CR and KM analyses when the number of records was small, but it was not known which model is more accurate

  9. Modelling survival after treatment of intraocular melanoma using artificial neural networks and Bayes theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taktak, Azzam F. G.; Fisher, Anthony C.; Damato, Bertil E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an artificial intelligence (AI) system for survival prediction from intraocular melanoma. The system used artificial neural networks (ANNs) with five input parameters: coronal and sagittal tumour location, anterior tumour margin, largest basal tumour diameter and the cell type. After excluding records with missing data, 2331 patients were included in the study. These were split randomly into training and test sets. Date censorship was applied to the records to deal with patients who were lost to follow-up and patients who died from general causes. Bayes theorem was then applied to the ANN output to construct survival probability curves. A validation set with 34 patients unseen to both training and test sets was used to compare the AI system with Cox's regression (CR) and Kaplan-Meier (KM) analyses. Results showed large differences in the mean 5 year survival probability figures when the number of records with matching characteristics was small. However, as the number of matches increased to >100 the system tended to agree with CR and KM. The validation set was also used to compare the system with a clinical expert in predicting time to metastatic death. The rms error was 3.7 years for the system and 4.3 years for the clinical expert for 15 years survival. For survival, these figures were 2.7 and 4.2, respectively. We concluded that the AI system can match if not better the clinical expert's prediction. There were significant differences with CR and KM analyses when the number of records was small, but it was not known which model is more accurate.

  10. Managing elevated intraocular pressure in a patient with optic nerve hypoplasia

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    Karina Marcovitch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Karina Marcovitch, Joseph SowkaNova Southeastern University, College of Optometry, Davie, FL, USABackground: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital optic disc anomaly, often manifesting with visual deficits.Case: A 51-year-old woman with a history of bilateral amblyopia was referred for glaucoma evaluation due to elevated intraocular pressure. The patient demonstrated the classic nerve head appearance of bilateral ONH with “double ring sign” and indistinguishable cupping. Despite demonstrating functional and structural measurements consistent with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, it was felt that these deficits were more likely longstanding and secondary to ONH. Additionally, in the absence of any amblyogenic factors, it was also concluded that the patient’s bilateral “amblyopia” was the result of ONH. In that the patient presented with a significant and modifiable risk factor for glaucomatous development and pre-existing retinal nerve fiber layer and visual field defects, the patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications. Conclusion: Diagnosing glaucoma in patients with concurrent anomalies is a clinical conundrum. This report provides a review of ONH with emphasis on the common misdiagnosis of amblyopia in these patients as well as presenting a strategy for diagnosing and managing glaucoma in patients with preexisting, confounding conditions. Keywords: optic nerve hypoplasia, glaucoma, visual field loss, scanning laser polarimetry, threshold automated perimetry

  11. Safety and tolerability of tafluprost in treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Pozarowska

    2010-01-01

    Dorota PozarowskaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical University, Lublin, PolandAbstract: Glaucoma is one of the most common neuropathies of the optic nerve. An elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well documented risk factor for the development and progression of this disease. Until now, IOP reduction is the only well documented successful method of glaucoma treatment. Among the many hypotensive drugs, prostaglandin analogs are proved to be the most potent antiglaucoma agents, with very ...

  12. Safety and efficacy of travoprost solution for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure

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    Quaranta L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Quaranta,1,* Ivano Riva,1,* Andreas Katsanos,2 Irene Floriani,3 Marco Centofanti,4,† Anastasios G P Konstas51Centre for the Study of Glaucoma, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; 2Ophthalmology Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 3Laboratory of Clinical Research, IRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy; 4DSCMT, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 5Glaucoma Unit, 1st University Department of Ophthalmology, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this work; †Dr Centofanti passed away on 1 March 2015Abstract: Travoprost is a prostaglandin analogue widely used for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP in patients affected with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It exerts its ocular hypotensive effect through the prostaglandin FP receptors, located in the ciliary muscle and the trabecular meshwork. Several studies have shown that topical administration of travoprost induces a mean IOP reduction ranging from 25% to 32%, and sustained throughout the 24-hour cycle. When compared with timolol, travoprost is more effective at reducing IOP, while generally no difference has been found in the head-to-head comparison with other prostaglandin analogues. The fixed combination of travoprost and timolol has demonstrated a hypotensive efficacy comparable to the concomitant administration of the two drugs. Recently, a new preservative-free formulation of travoprost 0.004% has been marketed for reducing tolerability-related problems in subjects affected with ocular surface disease. Low rates of topical and systemic adverse reactions, strong ocular hypotensive efficacy, and once-a-day dosing make travoprost a first-line treatment for patients affected with elevated IOP.Keywords: prostaglandin analogue, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  13. Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma

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    Cosma Ioan M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DBA/2J (D2 mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s are necessary for the distinct later stages of disease. We initiated a study of congenic strains to further define the genetic requirements and disease mechanisms of the D2 glaucoma. Results To further understand D2 glaucoma, we created congenic strains of mice on the C57BL/6J (B6 genetic background. B6 double-congenic mice carrying D2-derived Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop a D2-like iris disease. B6 single-congenics with only the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop milder forms of iris disease. Genetic epistasis experiments introducing a B6 tyrosinase mutation into the congenic strains demonstrated that both the single and double-congenic iris diseases are rescued by interruption of melanin synthesis. Importantly, our experiments analyzing mice at ages up to 27 months indicate that the B6 double-congenic mice are much less prone to IOP elevation and glaucoma than are D2 mice. Conclusion As demonstrated here, the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 iris phenotypes are both individually dependent on tyrosinase function. These results support involvement of abnormal melanosomal events in the diseases caused by each gene. In the context of the inbred D2 mouse strain, the glaucoma phenotype is clearly influenced by more genes than just Gpnmb and Tyrp1. Despite the outward similarity of pigment-dispersing iris disease between D2 and the B6 double-congenic mice, the congenic mice are much less susceptible to developing high IOP and glaucoma. These new congenic strains provide a valuable new resource for further studying the genetic and mechanistic complexity of this form of glaucoma.

  14. Surgical lowering of elevated intraocular pressure in monkeys prevents progression of glaucomatous disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nickells, Robert W; Schlamp, Cassandra L; Li, Yan; Kaufman, Paul L.; Heatley, Gregg; Peterson, John C.; Faha, Barbara; Ver Hoeve, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Recent reports from large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in persons with ocular hypertension has a beneficial effect on reducing the progression of glaucomatous disease. Few studies of this effect have been conducted in controlled laboratory settings, however, and none have been conducted using non-human primates, the model of experimental glaucoma considered most similar to the human disease. Using data collected retrospectively from a trab...

  15. Tafluprost once daily for treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma

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    Liu Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu, Weiming MaoDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TXAbstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual loss worldwide. Current antiglaucoma therapy focuses on lowering intraocular pressure to a safe level. In recent years, prostaglandin analogs have become the first-line agents for treating open angle glaucoma. Tafluprost, which was first reported in 2003, is a novel prostaglandin analog, and has been shown to be a potent ocular hypotensive agent in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. Also, its unique preservative-free formulation helps to decrease preservative-associated ocular disorders and improve patient compliance. In this review, studies from 2003 to 2012 focusing on the structure, metabolism, efficacy, and safety of tafluprost are summarized. These studies suggested that application of tafluprost once daily is a safe and effective treatment for patients with open angle glaucoma.Keywords: tafluprost, prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, preservative-free formulation

  16. The Management of a Patient with Elevated Intraocular Pressure Resistant to Medical Treatment: Anterior Chamber Irrigation

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    Abdullah Beyoğlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male patient was medically treated in another center for hyphema which occurred after blunt trauma to his right eye. He was admitted to our clinic when his visual acuity decreased after being discharged. Biomicroscopic examination revealed total hyphema. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 48 mm Hg in the right eye with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Since IOP could not be managed by medical therapy and there was no regression in hyphema, anterior chamber was irrigated. As in our case, it should not be forgotten that re-hemorrhage may occur in the first week of hyphema during childhood. Moreover, surgical treatment should be considered when hemorrhage does not regress with medical treatment, increased IOP persists, and when there is a risk of corneal endothelial staining (corneal blood staining. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 400-2

  17. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

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    Knežević Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in glaucoma. Objective. To evaluate changes of haemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after a decrease of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. Twenty-six patients were examined, 14 men and 12 women, 21 up to 50 years old and 5 below, all with previously diagnosed and treated POAG, and all examined at the Eye Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. IOP was measured both with a Goldmann aplanation tonometer and dynamic contour tonometer. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter. Imaging of the retrobulbar arterial circulation by colour Doppler was performed at the Neurology Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. It involved measuring of haemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary arteries. Peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were measured, and resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were calculated. Results. Haemodynamic arterial parameters PSV and EDV in the ophthalmic and central retinal artery after decrease of IOP were lower, while RI and PI were higher. In the posterior ciliary arteries PSV, EDV and PI were lower, and RI was higher. Conclusion. Changes of the retrobulbar arterial circulation after elevated IOP in POAG patients are important for approach and treatment, while the role of vascular factors in the supplement of the optic disc neuroretinal rim could be a key for progression backlash of glaucoma and the radix of neuroprotection.

  18. Artificial neural networks application in duplex/triplex elevator group control system:

    OpenAIRE

    Imrak, C. Erdem

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks can offer the better solution to the passenger call distribution problem when compared to the conventional elevator control systems. Therefore, the application of neural networks in elevator group control system is discussed. The significance of introducing artificial neural networks is presented. Elevator group control systems with neural networks can predict the next stopping floors to stop by considering what has been learnt by processing the changes in passenger...

  19. Changes in the retrobulbar hemodynamic parameters after decreasing the elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma patients

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    Marjanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ocular blood flow (OBF disturbances could be involved both in the pathogenesis and in progression of glaucomatous damage. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the retrobulbar hemodynamic parameters in the ophthalmic artery (OA, central retinal artery (CRA and short posterior cilliary arteries (SPCA after decreasing the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients by using color Doppler imaging (CDI. Methods. We examined 60 patients (21 male and 39 female with diagnosed and treated POAG. Thirtynine patients had increased IOP (>25 mm Hg. Peak-systolic velocity (PSV, end-diastolic velocity (EDV, Pourcelot resistance index (RI, and pulsatility index (PI were assessed in the OA, CRA, and SPCA. IOP was measured both with the Goldmann Applanation tonometer (GAT and with the Dynamic Contour tonometer (DCT, three times respectively. Ocular pulse amplitude (OPA was measured using DCT. Results. The retrobulbar parameters between the baseline and after IOP reduction showed no difference in measurements. After Bonferroni correction (p≤0.0056, alpha/9 statistical significance was recorded only in the following retrobulbar hemodynamic parameters; DCT (29.8±6.2 vs. 15.5±5.0, GAT (33.8±9.0 vs. 15.0±6.6 and OPA measurements (4.3±1.0 vs. 3.0±1.6, as compared to the baseline. There was no correlation between the changes in IOP measured with either DCT or GAT and changes in the hemodynamic parameters (p>0.05 for all. Pearson correlation coefficient (95% CI showed very good correlation for IOP measurements between DCT and GAT: at baseline 0.83 (0.71 to 0.90 and at the end 0.71 (0.55 to 0.83; p0.05. Conclusion. There was a lack of correlation between the changes in IOP measured with either DCT or GAT and the changes in the hemodynamic parameters.

  20. 超声乳化+人工晶体植入术及整体护理应用%Phacoemulsification + artificial intraocular lens implantation and application of holistic nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛佩琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement advanced phacoemulsification + artificial intraocular lens implantation, improving the cure rate of cataract surgery. Methods Holistic nursing was implemented in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative process, so as to organically integrate phacoemulsification and artificial intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery. The surgery procedures and its relevant nursing have been made specific and operational, fully embodying the principle of patient - centered and holistic nursing which highlighted the principle of "putting people first". Results The application of holistic nursing effectively alleviated the fear and anxiety of patients. After surgery, visual recovery rate of 893 patients was above 97% . Conclusion The integration of phacoemulsification + artificial intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery and holistic nursing can have better effects, higher cure ate and increased satisfaction of medical staff. It is worthy of wider clinical application in eye surgery.%目的 开展先进的超声乳化+人工人工晶体植入术,提高白内障手术的治愈率.方法 运用整体护理于手术的术前、术中、术后全过程,使白内障超声乳化+人工晶体植入术与整体护理有机结合,将手术及护理范围扩展并细化,充分体现一切“以患者为中心”,处处体现以人为本的整体护理.结果 整体护理的运用有效地缓解了患者的恐惧紧张心理,893例患者术后视力恢复良好率达97%以上.结论 白内障超声乳化+人工晶体植入术与整体护理的运用,手术效果好,治愈率高,患者欢迎,医护人员满意,是眼科手术临床运用的好方法.

  1. Responses to elevated carbon dioxide in artificial tropical ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon, nutrient, and water balance as well as key plant and soil processes were simultaneously monitored for humid tropical plant communities treated with CO2-enriched atmospheres. Despite vigorous growth, no significant differences in stand biomass, leaf area index, nitrogen or water consumption, or leaf stomatal behavior were detected between ambient and elevated CO2 treatments. Major responses under elevated CO2 included massive starch accumulation in the tops of canopies, increased fine-root production, and a doubling of CO2 evolution from the soil. Stimulated rhizosphere activity was accompanied by increased loss of soil carbon and increased mineral nutrient leaching. This study points at the inadequacy of scaling-up from physiological baseline to ecosystems without accounting for interactions among components, and it emphasizes the urgent need for whole-system experimental approaches in global-change research

  2. A Case of Sustained Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Multiple Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hisashi; Miyata, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Maki; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Ikesugi, Kengo; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are widely used to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Although these treatments are effective, multiple injections have recently been recommended to ensure that there is a good long-term prognosis. However, sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations have been reported to develop after multiple injections of anti-VEGF agents. We present our findings of a case of uncontrolled and persistent IOP elevation after switching from intravitreal ranibizumab injections to intravitreal aflibercept injections. A 74-year-old Japanese man without a history of glaucoma underwent 22 ranibizumab injections for nAMD and suddenly developed an elevated IOP after the 22nd injection. Although the subsequent medical treatment led to normalization of his IOP, the subretinal fluid under the central fovea remained even after the 25th injection of ranibizumab. Thus, ranibizumab treatment was switched to bimonthly intravitreal aflibercept injections in conjunction with glaucoma medications. His IOP recovered to within the normal range; however, after the 11th aflibercept injection, there was a sudden elevation of his IOP in spite of the continued glaucoma medications. Due to this sustained IOP elevation, his aflibercept injections were suspended for 16 weeks. Because his IOP could not be normalized by a full glaucoma medication regimen, the patient underwent trabeculotomy, which resulted in a lowering of the IOP to normal levels. We conclude that patients who receive serial intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents need to be closely monitored because severe and sustained ocular hypertension can develop.

  3. Roles of PI3K and JAK pathways in viability of retinal ganglion cells after acute elevation of intraocular pressure in rats with different autoimmune backgrounds

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    Wang Ningli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that whereas inhibition of PI3K/akt or JAK/STAT pathway promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival after optic nerve (ON injury in Fischer 344 (F344 rats, the same inhibition resulted in aggravated RGC loss after acute intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in Sprague Dawley (SPD rats. In addition, the responses of macrophages to ON injury and acute IOP elevation were different between F344 and Lewis rats, i.e., different autoimmune profiles. Using an acute IOP elevation paradigm in this study, we investigated 1 whether autoimmune background influences PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT functions by examining the effect of PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathway inhibition on RGC survival in F344 and Lewis rats, and 2 whether differential actions of macrophages occur in PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathways-dependent modulation of RGC survival. IOP elevation was performed at 110 mmHg for 2 hours. PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathway inhibitors were applied intravitreally to block their respective pathway signaling transduction. Because macrophage invasion was seen in the eye after the pathway inhibition, to examine the role of these pathways independent of macrophages, macrophages in the retina were removed by intravitreal application of clodronate liposomes. Viable RGCs were retrogradely labelled by FluoroGold 40 hours before animal sacrifice. Results Similar to what was previously observed, significantly more RGCs were lost in Lewis than F344 rats 3 weeks after acute IOP elevation. As in SPD rats, inhibition of the PI3K/akt or JAK/STAT pathway increased the loss of RGCs in both F344 and Lewis rats. Removal of macrophages in the eye by clodronate liposomes reduced RGC loss due to pathway inhibition in both strains. Conclusion This study demonstrates that following acute IOP elevation 1 PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathways mediate RGC survival in both F344 and Lewis rats, 2 autoimmune responses do not influence the functions of these two pathways

  4. Short-Term Intraocular Pressure Elevations after Combined Phacoemulsification and Implantation of Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents: Prednisolone versus Loteprednol

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    Qianqian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effects of prednisolone and of loteprednol after combined phacoemulsification and trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation (phaco-iStent. Methods. Patients who underwent phaco-iStent between April 2013 and November 2014 were identified by retrospective chart review. Postoperatively, they received either prednisolone (n=38 or loteprednol (n=58. Baseline data was compared. Primary outcomes including intraocular pressure (IOP and number of glaucoma medications (NGM were analyzed at preoperative visit, postoperative day 1, weeks 1-2, weeks 3-4, and months 2-3. Results. Both groups had similar preoperative parameters (p>0.05. The mean IOP spike occurred at postoperative weeks 1-2 with an increase of 2.21 ± 7.30 mmHg in the loteprednol group and 2.54 ± 9.28 mmHg in the prednisolone group. It decreased by weeks 3-4 in both groups and continued to improve at months 2-3. NGM showed significant reduction (p0.05. The proportions of patients needing paracentesis were similar between the two groups. Conclusion. Similar early IOP elevations after combined phaco-iStent occurred with both prednisolone and loteprednol. Facilitated glucocorticoid infusion, altered aqueous humor outflow, and local inflammation may be contributing factors.

  5. Short-Term Intraocular Pressure Elevations after Combined Phacoemulsification and Implantation of Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents: Prednisolone versus Loteprednol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Harasymowycz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of prednisolone and of loteprednol after combined phacoemulsification and trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation (phaco-iStent). Methods. Patients who underwent phaco-iStent between April 2013 and November 2014 were identified by retrospective chart review. Postoperatively, they received either prednisolone (n = 38) or loteprednol (n = 58). Baseline data was compared. Primary outcomes including intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications (NGM) were analyzed at preoperative visit, postoperative day 1, weeks 1-2, weeks 3-4, and months 2-3. Results. Both groups had similar preoperative parameters (p > 0.05). The mean IOP spike occurred at postoperative weeks 1-2 with an increase of 2.21 ± 7.30 mmHg in the loteprednol group and 2.54 ± 9.28 mmHg in the prednisolone group. It decreased by weeks 3-4 in both groups and continued to improve at months 2-3. NGM showed significant reduction (p 0.05). The proportions of patients needing paracentesis were similar between the two groups. Conclusion. Similar early IOP elevations after combined phaco-iStent occurred with both prednisolone and loteprednol. Facilitated glucocorticoid infusion, altered aqueous humor outflow, and local inflammation may be contributing factors. PMID:26266045

  6. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. Dorzolamide Comparison Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, C; Sharpe, E; Laurence, J; Polis, A; Adamsons, I

    1998-01-01

    A multicenter, parallel-design, randomized, double-masked study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide with those of 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (i.o.p). A total of 311 adults with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma were randomly allocated to receive either 2% dorzolamide administered topically TID or 0.5% betaxolol administered topically BID plus placebo administered topically QD for 12 weeks. After the washout of previous ocular hypotensive drugs, patients with IOP > or = 23 mm Hg in at least one eye at 10 AM or 4 PM on study day 1 were randomly allocated to receive one of the study treatments. Throughout the study, IOP was measured 2 and 8 hours after instillation of study medication for the morning peak effect (hour 2) and afternoon trough effect (hour 8). After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean change in IOP was not significantly different between the dorzolamide and betaxolol treatment groups at hour 8 (-3.6 mm Hg in both groups) or hour 2 (-5.4 vs -5.3 mm Hg, respectively). The differences between treatments (and 95% CIs associated with these differences) in mean IOP changes from baseline were 0.02 mm Hg (-0.870 to 0.901) for hour 8 and -0.14 mm Hg (-0.959 to 0.685) for hour 2. The ocular adverse experience (AE) most frequently reported by patients was ocular burning and/or stinging, and the most frequently reported nonocular AEs were taste perversion, upper respiratory infection, and headache. Only the incidence of taste perversion was significantly different between treatment groups (14.6% for the dorzolamide group and 0.0% for the betaxolol group). Two percent of patients in each treatment group discontinued the study due to AEs. This study confirmed the similar IOP-lowering effect of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol. Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and their safety profiles were similar. PMID:9663361

  7. Role of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Beckers, Henny

    2009-01-01

    Henny JM Beckers, Jan SAG Schouten, Carroll AB WebersUniversity Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% is a new fixed-combination for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide/timolol has a favorable safety profile, with an incidence of ocular burning and stinging <5%. Published data show that brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% and dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% have similar efficacies for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP)...

  8. Exploring the Role of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks for Interpolation of Elevation in Geoinformation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, H.; Sadjadi, S. Y.; Sadeghian, S.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most significant tools to study many engineering projects is three-dimensional modelling of the Earth that has many applications in the Geospatial Information System (GIS), e.g. creating Digital Train Modelling (DTM). DTM has numerous applications in the fields of sciences, engineering, design and various project administrations. One of the most significant events in DTM technique is the interpolation of elevation to create a continuous surface. There are several methods for interpolation, which have shown many results due to the environmental conditions and input data. The usual methods of interpolation used in this study along with Genetic Algorithms (GA) have been optimised and consisting of polynomials and the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. In this paper, the Artificial Intelligent (AI) techniques such as GA and Neural Networks (NN) are used on the samples to optimise the interpolation methods and production of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The aim of entire interpolation methods is to evaluate the accuracy of interpolation methods. Universal interpolation occurs in the entire neighbouring regions can be suggested for larger regions, which can be divided into smaller regions. The results obtained from applying GA and ANN individually, will be compared with the typical method of interpolation for creation of elevations. The resulting had performed that AI methods have a high potential in the interpolation of elevations. Using artificial networks algorithms for the interpolation and optimisation based on the IDW method with GA could be estimated the high precise elevations.

  9. Role of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny JM Beckers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Henny JM Beckers, Jan SAG Schouten, Carroll AB WebersUniversity Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% is a new fixed-combination for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide/timolol has a favorable safety profile, with an incidence of ocular burning and stinging <5%. Published data show that brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% and dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% have similar efficacies for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP. There is some evidence that brinzolamide/timolol may be more comfortable. Although patients receiving brinzolamide/timolol may experience more blurred vision on instillation, some data show a preference for brinzolamide/timolol over dorzolamide/timolol. Although available data to assess the role of brinzolamide/timolol in daily clinical practice are still limited, these first results suggest the agent to be a reasonable alternative for patients who do not reach target IOP with monotherapy.

  10. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  11. 玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压临床分析%Clinical analysis of intraocular pressure(IOP) elevation after vitrectomy and silicon oil tamponade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆; 张军军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after vitrectomy. Methods To retrospectively analyze clinical data of thirty-one eyes out of one hundred and sixty patients (one hundred and seventy-eight eyes) which had IOP elevation in early period after vitrectomy from January,2010 to December, 2010. Results The causes of postoperative IOP elevation ate uveitic inflammation (eighteen eyes, 58. 1% ), aphakia (four eyes, 12.9%), steroids ((our eyes, 12.9%), silicon oil tamponade excess (three eyes, 9.7%) and endoph-thalmitis (two eyes, 6.5%). After various treatments such as IOP-lowering medication, stop using of steroids, taken-out part of silicon oil, paracentesis of anterior chamber and change to hign-grade antibiotics, the IOP of all eyes returned to normal. Conclusion The incidence of IOP elevation after vitrectomy is 17.4% and uveitic inflammation is the common cause. Timely prevention and proper measurement can reduce visual damage.%目的 探讨玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压的原因及处理.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月到2010年12月本院160例(178只眼)玻璃体切除硅油填充术后早期发生高眼压31例(31只眼)的临床资料.结果 术后高眼压发生原因如下:葡萄膜炎症反应(18只眼,58.1%)、无晶状体眼(4只眼,12.9%)、激素引发(4只眼,129%)、硅油填充过量(3只眼,9.7%)、眼内炎(2只眼,6.5%).给予降眼压药物、停用激素类药物、硅油部分取出、前房穿刺或换用敏感抗生素等治疗后,眼压均降至正常.结论 玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压在本研究的发生率为17.4%,术后葡萄膜炎症反应为常见原因,及时的预防和处理能减少视功能的损害.

  12. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  13. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  14. How to measure intraocular pressure: applanation tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Astbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unless there is a contraindication (e.g. trauma or corneal ulcer, all adults attending an eye unit should have their intraocular pressure (IOP measured. Many people with glaucoma have no symptoms and do not know they have the condition. All children who have had cataract surgery should also have their IOP measured at every follow-up visit, if possible. Finding glaucoma early allows treatment to be given which will preserve sight. Although elevated IOP is not the only sign of glaucoma, measuring it is simple and quick to do. Applanation tonometry, using a Goldmann tonometer at a slit lamp, is the preferred method (the ‘gold standard’.

  15. Malignant intraocular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the radiation therapist in the management of malignant intraocular tumors is changing. With more active identification of malignant intraocular tumors, and a better recognization of the manner in which one can deal with problems of radiation sensitivity, radiation techniques of all sorts will be more actively employed in the treatment of these tumors. Special techniques must be selected for appropriate circumstances of management in order to diminish to an absolute minimum the impact upon the lens, the impact upon visual acuity and the impact upon the cornea. Cobalt-60 plaques are being used more commonly in the treatment of melanomas of the choroid, and the role for radiation therapy in the management of retinoblastoma is changing markably to where it may be used as the primary treatment program rather than enucleation. In metastatic disease involving the uveal tract, radiation therapy has assumed the most important role for management. Chemotherapy should be considered as an active adjuvant in the management of not only those individuals with retinoblastoma but also in those identified circumstances where metastases to the uveal tract are being treated. The role for chemotherapy or immunotherapy in malignant melanoma is unclear

  16. Intraocular coenurosis: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibechukwu, B. I.; Onwukeme, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    A case of intraocular coenurosis was clinically diagnosed and treated with praziquantel. The drug destroyed the coenurus, but vision was lost through toxic endophthalmitis and retinal detachment. There were no systemic side effects.

  17. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  18. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farhood, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study in...

  19. Cataract surgery to lower intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdahl John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract and glaucoma are common co morbidities. Cataract surgery is frequently performed in patients with glaucoma. In this study, a review of literature with search terms of cataract, glaucoma and intraocular pressure is followed by evaluation and synthesis of data to determine the effect of cataract surgery on intraocular pressure. Cataract surgery seems to lower intraocular pressure on a sustained basis, especially in patients with higher preoperative intraocular pressure. The mechanism of action of these finds remains speculative.

  20. Increased Intraocular Pressure after Extensive Conjunctival Removal: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Rok; Na, Jung Hwa; Kim, Jae Yong; Sung, Kyung Rim

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman, who had undergone extensive removal of conjunctiva on the right eye for cosmetic purposes at a local clinic 8 months prior to presentation, was referred for uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation (up to 38 mmHg) despite maximal medical treatment. The superior and inferior conjunctival and episcleral vessels were severely engorged and the nasal and temporal bulbar conjunctival areas were covered with an avascular epithelium. Gonioscopic examination revealed an o...

  1. Analytical design of intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Briones, Sergio; Marcos Celestino, Susana; Dorronsoro Díaz, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for designing intraocular lenses, comprising: the definition of a pseudoaphakic eye model; the definition of a merit function in multiple dimensions, which analytically connects the quality of the image on the retina to the optical and geometric parameters of the pseudoaphakic eye model; and the algorithm optimisation of the previous merit function using analytical and numerical methods in order to obtain one or more minimum globals which provide the optimal ...

  2. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Isabel Canut Jordana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available M Isabel Canut Jordana1, Daniel Pérez Formigó1, Rodrigo Abreu González2, Jeroni Nadal Reus11Barraquer Ophthalmology Centre, Barcelona, Spain; 2University Hospital of La Candelaria, Tenerife, SpainAims: We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact.Methods: Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment were performed.Results: Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control.Conclusion: Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively.Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma, intraocular lens, optical coherence tomography, laser

  3. The new factors defining variability of circadian’s rhythms of intraocular and perfusion pressure of glaucoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Baranova, N. A.; A. V. Kuroyedov; Yu. V. Ovchinnikov

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the most scientifically based local risk and progressive factors are elevated levels of intraocular pressure and its instability during the day, caused by local hydromechanical disturbances. However, the other factors affecting the circadian changes of intraocular pressure levels are still evaluated. It was found that light is one of the most important factors affecting the intensity of the cyclical fluctuations of various biological processes, including, and fluctuations of intrao...

  4. An artificial neural network to safely reduce the number of ambulance ECGs transmitted for physician assessment in a system with prehospital detection of ST elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forberg Jakob L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG transmission to an expert for interpretation and triage reduces time to acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI. In order to detect all STEMI patients, the ECG should be transmitted in all cases of suspected acute cardiac ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to safely reduce the number of ECGs transmitted by identifying patients without STEMI and patients not needing acute PCI. Methods Five hundred and sixty ambulance ECGs transmitted to the coronary care unit (CCU in routine care were prospectively collected. The ECG interpretation by the ANN was compared with the diagnosis (STEMI or not and the need for an acute PCI (or not as determined from the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty register. The CCU physician's real time ECG interpretation (STEMI or not and triage decision (acute PCI or not were registered for comparison. Results The ANN sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for STEMI was 95%, 68%, 18% and 99%, respectively, and for a need of acute PCI it was 97%, 68%, 17% and 100%. The area under the ANN's receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96 and for predicting the need of acute PCI 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97. If ECGs where the ANN did not identify a STEMI or a need of acute PCI were theoretically to be withheld from transmission, the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could have been reduced by 64% without missing any case with STEMI or a need of immediate PCI. Conclusions Our ANN had an excellent ability to predict STEMI and the need of acute PCI in ambulance ECGs, and has a potential to safely reduce the number of ECG transmitted to the CCU by almost two thirds.

  5. Intravitreal triamcinolone for intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Couch

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Couch, Sophie J BakriMayo Clinic Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Triamcinolone acetonide (TA is a corticosteroid that has many uses in the treatment of ocular diseases because of its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-permeability actions. Intraocular inflammation broadly referred to as uveitis can result from several causes, including the immune system and after ophthalmic surgery. One of the most common reasons for vision loss with uveitis is macular edema. TA has been used for many years as an intravitreal injection for the treatment of ocular diseases. Several case control studies have been reported showing the efficacy of TA in the treatment of intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema caused by Behcet’s disease, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia and white dot syndromes. It has also been shown efficacious in cases of pars planitis and idiopathic posterior uveitis. Some authors have reported its use in postoperative cystoid macular edema. Many of the studies on the use of TA in controlling intraocular inflammation and concomitant macular edema showed its effect to be transient in many patients requiring reinjection. Complications can arise from intravitreal injection of TA including elevated intraocular pressure and cataract. Rarely, it can be associated with infectious and non-infectious endophthalmitis. TA may be useful as an adjuvant in the treatment of uveitis and its associated macular edema, especially in patients resistant or intolerant to standard treatment.Keywords: triamcinolone acetonide, Behcet’s disease, sympathetic ophthalmia, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, white dot syndromes, uveitis, cataract surgery, macular edema, endophthalmitis

  6. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the natural lens of an eye. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification....

  7. Cataract surgery and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancia, Diana; Abegão Pinto, Luis; Marques-Neves, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the most performed surgeries in the developed world. In addition to its significant impact on visual acuity, phacoemulsification has been hailed as a potential intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering procedure. While current evidence suggests an overall significant and sustained decrease in IOP to exist after cataract surgery, the specific ocular characteristics that could help predict which patients are likely to benefit from this IOP-lowering effect remain unclear. This definition is important in glaucoma patients if this surgery is to be used in the treatment for this disease. Our review aims to summarize the literature on the subject, depicting possible mechanisms behind this IOP decrease, which type of patients are more likely to benefit from this surgery for IOP-lowering purposes and ultimately help optimizing disease management for the increasing number of patients with concomitant glaucoma and cataract. PMID:25765255

  8. Cytomegalovirus retinitis mimicking intraocular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gooi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Gooi1, James Farmer2, Bernard Hurley3, Elliott Brodbaker41Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine University of Ottawa and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa Eye Institute and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: We present a case of an unusual retinal infiltrate requiring retinal biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 62-year-old man with treated lymphoma presented with decreased vision in the right eye associated with a white retinal lesion, which extended inferonasally from an edematous disc. Intraocular lymphoma was considered as a diagnosis; thus, the patient was managed with vitrectomy and retinal biopsy. Cytological analysis of the vitreous aspirate could not rule out a lymphoproliferative disorder. The microbial analysis was negative. Histology of the lesion showed extensive necrosis and large cells with prominent nucleoli. To rule out lymphoma, a battery of immunostains was performed and all were negative. However the limited amount of tissue was exhausted in the process. Subsequently, a hematoxylin and eosin (H/E slide was destained, on which a CMV immunostain was performed. This revealed positivity in the nuclei and intranuclear inclusions within the large atypical cells. A diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made. Retinal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis and direct patient care toward intravenous gancyclovir in the case of CMV or toward radiation and chemotherapy for intraocular lymphoma. When faced with a limited amount of tissue, destaining regular H/E slides is a possible avenue to performing additional immunohistochemical studies.Keywords: CMV retinitis, retinal biopsy, immunohistochemistry, destaining

  9. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Samaila Jonathan Badau; Shehu Usman Hassan; Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda; Ikechukwu Onyebuchi Igbokwe

    2015-01-01

    Experimental intraocular (conjunctival) infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, t...

  10. Periocular migration of an intraocular lens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, C.

    1992-01-01

    A woman presented with a painful eye 6 weeks after cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. In the past she had had a sector iridectomy for iris bombé caused by chronic anterior uveitis. On examination the three central corneal sutures were absent, whilst the medial and lateral sutures had broken and were protruding from the section. The eye was quiet and the section intact. Combined clinical and ultrasound examination failed to locate the intraocular lens. Four months postopera...

  11. Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes and macular scarring (1 eye. Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.

  12. Effect of osteotomies during rhinoplasty on intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr N. Rabie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the treatment of deformed nose induces changes in intraocular pressure (IOP. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized study. Setting: University-affiliated medical center. Patients: Thirty patients who underwent rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the nose were prospectively enrolled in this study. Fifteen patients had lateral osteotomies with the external perforating technique, and fifteen with an internal continuous technique with periosteal elevation. We excluded patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glaucoma, previous ocular trauma, history of ocular surgery, and previous use of topical corticosteroid eye drops. Main outcome measures: The intraocular pressure (IOP in each patient was measured by Goldmann tonometry preoperatively and postoperatively on days 1, 2, and 7. Results: 23 women and 7 men with a mean age of 27 years were enrolled in the study. The mean ± SD IOP of the eye was 15.69 ± 2.37 mmHg preoperatively. Postoperatively, the mean ± SD IOPs were 15.96 ± 1.92 mmHg on day 1, 15.45 ± 2.55 mmHg on day 2, and 15.72 ± 2.86 mmHg on day 7 (P = .863. Conclusions: Although osteotomes during rhinoplasty caused variations in the IOP compartment, the changes in IOP were not statistically significant. Therefore, rhinoplasty should be a safe surgical procedure with respect to ocular physiological function, however monitoring IOP peri-operatively is advised. To our best knowledge, this is the first clinical trial to determine the effect of rhinoplasty with osteotomy on intraocular pressure.

  13. Drug-Eluting Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Concheiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Notable advances in materials science and in surgical techniques make the management of cataract by replacement of the opaque crystalline with an intraocular lens (IOL, one of the most cost-effective interventions in current healthcare. The usefulness and safety of IOLs can be enhanced if they are endowed with the ability to load and to sustain drug release in the implantation site. Drug-eluting IOLs can prevent infections and untoward reactions of eye tissues (which lead to opacification and also can act as drug depots for treatment of several other ocular pathologies. Such a myriad of therapeutic possibilities has prompted the design of drug-IOL combination products. Several approaches are under study, namely combination of the IOL with an insert in a single device, soaking in drug solutions, impregnation using supercritical fluids, coating with drug/polymer layers, and covalent grafting of the drug. The advantages/limitations of each technique are discussed in the present review on selected examples. Although more in vivo data are required, the information already available proves the interest of some approaches in ocular therapeutics.

  14. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Tunç

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  15. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Huang; George Pak-Man Cheng; Kin Chiu; Gui-Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs).Data Sources:All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect.Study Selection:The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included,but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded.Results:Technology of surface modification included plasma,ion beam,layer-by-layer self-assembly,ultraviolet radiation,and ozone.The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol),polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane,2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine,TiO2,heparin,F-heparin,titanium,titanium nitride,vinyl pyrrolidone,and inhibitors of cytokines.The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens,a more hydrophilic lens,or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface.Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments.Conclusion:The surface modification is an efficient,convenient,economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility ofIOLs.

  16. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  17. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  18. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs. Data Sources: All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. Study Selection: The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Results: Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO 2 , heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. Conclusion: The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs.

  19. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  20. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Hysi (Pirro); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); H. Springelkamp (Henriët); S. MacGregor (Stuart); J.N.C. Bailey (Jessica N. Cooke); R. Wojciechowski (Robert); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Nag (Abhishek); A.W. Hewit (Alex); R. Höhn (René); C. Venturini (Cristina); A. Mirshahi (Alireza); W.D. Ramdas (Wishal); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); C.C. Khor; A.B. Stefansson (Arni B.); J. Liao (Jie); J.L. Haines (Jonathan); N. Amin (Najaf); Y. Wang (Ying); P.S. Wild (Philipp S.); A.B. Ozel (Ayse B.); J. Li; B.W. Fleck (Brian W.); T. Zeller (Tanja); S.E. Staffieri (Sandra E.); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); X. Luo (Xiaoyan); R.R. Allingham (R Rand); J.E. Richards (Julia); A. Senft (Andrea); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); C. Bellenguez (Céline); L. Xu (Liang); O. Iglesias (Oriol); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.H. Kang (Jae H.); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); V. Jonsson (Vesteinn); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D.D.G. Despriet (Dominique); S. Ennis (Sarah); S.E. Moroi (Sayoko); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); S. Yazar (Seyhan); E.S. Tai (Shyong); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J. Kirwan (James); L.M.E. van Koolwijk (Leonieke); M.A. Hauser (Michael); F. Jonasson (Fridbert); P.J. Leo (Paul); S.J. Loomis (Stephanie J.); R. Fogarty (Rhys); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); L.S. Kearns (Lisa S.); K.J. Lackner (Karl); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.L. Simpson (Claire); C.E. Pennell (Craig); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); J.E. Bailey-Wilson (Joan E.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); C. Maubaret (Cécilia); A.F.H. Pfeiffer (Andreas); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T.L. Young (Terri); L.R. Pasquale (Louis); C. Delcourt (Cécile); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); K.S. Small (Kerrin); K.P. Burdon (Kathryn); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); T.Y. Wong (Tien); A.C. Viswanathan (Ananth); D.A. Mackey (David); J.E. Craig (Jamie); J.L. Wiggs (Janey); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); T. Aung (Tin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractElevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glau

  1. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bdour Muawyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  2. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, John D.; Timothy L Comstock; Cavet, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to direct... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section...

  4. Feline intraocular sarcoma associated with phthisis bulbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Perlmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of feline intraocular sarcoma were reported in stray cats that presented blindness and hypotonia of the affected eye for years before the tumor development. Phthisis bulbi, a final stage of a severe inflammation of the eye, is frequently unmonitored because eyes are blind, small, opaque, and not painful. Yet, this report shows that monitoring and early enucleation of eyes of cats with phthisis bulbi are important and should be considered as a treatment option, because feline intraocular sarcoma is an aggressive tumor that significantly decreases live expectancy.

  5. Effects of different elevated CO2 concentrations on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange, water use efficiency, and PSII activity on C3 and C4 cereal crops in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Hui, Liu; Guanghui, Liu; Liu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Although terrestrial CO2 concentrations [CO2] are not expected to reach 1000 μmol mol(-1) (or ppm) for many decades, CO2 levels in closed systems such as growth chambers and greenhouses can easily exceed this concentration. CO2 levels in life support systems (LSS) in space can exceed 10,000 ppm (1 %). In order to understand how photosynthesis in C4 plants may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if leaves of closed artificial ecosystem grown plants have a fully developed C4 photosynthetic apparatus, and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to elevated [CO2] than leaves of C3 plants. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of gas exchange, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic efficiency of PSII by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., 'Heihe35') of a typical C3 plant and maize (Zea mays L., 'Susheng') of C4 plant under four CO2 concentrations (500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm), which were grown under controlled environmental conditions of Lunar Palace 1. The results showed that photosynthetic pigment by the C3 plants of soybean was more sensitive to elevated [CO2] below 3000 ppm than the C4 plants of maize. Elevated [CO2] to 1000 ppm induced a higher initial photosynthetic rate, while super-elevated [CO2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion for C3 plants. The C4 plant had the highest ETR, φPSII, and qP under 500-3000 ppm [CO2], but then decreased substantially at 5000 ppm [CO2] for both species. Therefore, photosynthetic down-regulation and a decrease in photosynthetic electron transport occurred by both species in response to super-elevated [CO2] at 3000 and 5000 ppm. Accordingly, plants can be selected for and adapt to the efficient use of elevated CO2 concentration in LSS. PMID:25869633

  6. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S.

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  7. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  8. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  9. DESIGN OF THE MULTIORDER INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kolobrodov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular lenses (IOLs are used to replace the natural crystalline lens of the eye. Just few basic designs of IOLs are used clinically. Multiorder diffractive lenses (MODL which operate simultaneously in several diffractive orders were proposed to decrease the chromatic aberration. Properties analysis of MODL showed a possibility to use them to develop new designs of IOLs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a new method of designing of multiorder intraocular lenses with decreased chromatic aberration. The theoretical research of the lens properties was carried out. The diffraction efficiency dependence with the change of wavelength was studied. A computer simulation of MODL in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. It is found the capability of the multiorder diffractive lenses to focus polychromatic light into a segment on the optical axis with high diffraction efficiency. At each point of the segment is present each component of the spectral range, which will build a color image in combination. The paper describes the new design method of intraocular lenses with reduced chromaticism and with endless adaptation. An optical system of an eye with an intraocular lens that provides sharp vision of objects located at a distance of 700 mm to infinity is modeled.

  10. Significance of intraocular lens power calculation.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Singh; Dahalan, A

    1987-01-01

    A total of 94 patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction and insertion of Sinsky style two-loop posterior chamber intraocular lenses. Forty-six eyes received a standard power IOL and 48 eyes were given a preoperatively calculated IOL. A significant difference was found in the two groups with regard to the postoperative refractive error and uncorrected visual acuity.

  11. Clinical analysis of long-term artificial lens dislocation after phakic irisfixated intraocular lens implantation%有晶状体眼虹膜固定型人工晶状体植入术后远期人工晶状体脱位临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 谭少建; 李霞; 刘彩娟; 梁皓

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨有晶状体眼虹膜固定型有晶状体眼人工晶状体(phakic intraocular lens,PIOL)植入术后远期人工晶状体脱位、移位情况及原因分析.方法 对我中心2005至2013年开展的Verisyse PIOL植入术矫正高度近视患者52例(104眼)进行术后平均6.5a随访性研究,对其中发生PIOL脱位、移位患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 104眼中8眼发生PIOL不全脱位,其中1眼是因为拳头打伤颞侧晶状体袢脱落,2眼因皮球打伤眼睛致一侧晶状体袢脱落,1眼因撞击后出现鼻侧晶状体袢脱落,2眼是搬动重物一侧晶状体袢脱落,1眼是自然分娩后出现双侧晶状体袢脱落并PIOL脱落入前房,1眼是夹持虹膜部位退行性改变致晶状体脱位.7眼发生PIOL下移,下移程度>0.5 mm,其中晶状体袢单侧下移2眼,双侧下移5眼.8眼PIOL脱位中6眼行PIOL再固定术,2眼行PIOL取出术.结论 PIOL脱位与术后眼部外力及外伤、眼压波动、手术时固定虹膜组织的程度不够、所夹取的虹膜组织发生脱色素和退行性变有关,PIOL本身有自身的重量,长期作用会发生向下移位或襻脱离.%Objective To explore the long-term postoperative dislocation and displacement of intraocular lens after Verisyse phakic intraocular lens (Verisyse PIOL) implantation,and analyze the reasons of dislocation and displacement of intraocular lens.Methods Based on the random survey carried out on 52 cases who have received Verisyse PIOL implantation for correction of high myopia in our center from 2005 to 2013,the follow-up time averaged 6.5 years,the cases of dislocation and displacement of intraocular lens were retrospectively analyzed.Results In 104 eyes,PIOL in 8 eyes appeared incomplete dislocations,including 1 eye with temporal crystal loop loss resulted from punching,2 eyes with side crystal loop losses induced by ball-beating,1 eye with nasal crystal loop loss due to impact,2 eyes with side crystal loop losses

  12. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  13. Management of dislocated intraocular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C K; Agarwal, A; Agarwal, S; Agarwal, A

    2001-12-01

    Implant dislocation may occur in the absence of appropriate capsular or zonular support (PCIOL) (11,35,53) or following traumatic injury to anterior ocular tissues (ACIOL). (11,19,20) Other factors (e.g., advanced patient age, high myopia, previous vitrectomy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and certain connective tissue disorders) also may predispose implant dislocation. (9,52) Although reported for all types of IOLs, implant dislocation is becoming more manageable because of the advancement of surgical techniques. A dislocated ACIOL or PCIOL may be explanted, exchanged, or repositioned. (11,48,71) Repositioning the dislocated PCIOL in the ciliary sulcus with modern vitreoretinal techniques provides an optimal environment for visual recovery. (11,71) Implant repositioning techniques generally may be categorized into the external or the internal approaches. (8,11) The former involves external suturing methods for a primary or secondary implant in the absence of adequate capsular or zonular support (15,16,31,42,56,60,61,64,66,73,76) and the latter is achieved through modern pars plana techniques. 8,11,62,69) Recently, several implant repositioning methods gaining increasing acceptance include the scleral loop fixation, (45) the snare approach, (43) the use of the 25-gauge implant forceps, (13) temporary haptic externalization, (8,11,36,71) and the use of perfluorocarbon liquids. (1,28,40,41,44) The temporary haptic externalization method combines the best features of the external and the internal approaches, avoids complex intraocular maneuvers, and allows precise scleral fixation of the dislocated IOL on a consistent basis. (8,11,71) Endoscopy provides the surgeon with optimal viewing of the anterior retropupillary anatomy that is often difficult to appreciate (e.g., capsular-zonular complex, ciliary sulcus, anterior retina, and vitreous base). (6,11) As a result, precise haptic placement is possible during the repositioning process. (6,11) However, a three

  14. Effect of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injections (Macugen) in intraocular pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, David S; Goldbaum, Mauro; Leys, Anita M; Starita, Carla; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of pegaptanib-associated sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. METHODS: A posthoc analysis was conducted on all IOP measurements, except the immediate 30-min postinjection, from all subjects randomised to pegaptanib 0.3 mg or sham injections continuously in...... medication added during the course of the study. No subject required glaucoma surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In V.I.S.I.O.N., after 2 years, there was no evidence of sustained IOP elevation associated with pegaptanib 0.3 mg use. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00321997....

  15. Avaliação comparativa do efeito dos colírios de apraclonidina e latanoprost na profilaxia da hipertensão ocular pós capsulotomia com YAG Laser em pacientes não glaucomatosos Profilatic use of apraclonidine and latanoprost to prevent intraocular pressure elevation following Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane de Freitas S. Paranhos

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do latanoprost 0,005% e da apraclonidina 1% na prevenção da hipertensão ocular pós-capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser, em pacientes não- glaucomatosos. Método: Trinta e seis pacientes (36 olhos incluídos foram divididos em três grupos que usaram latanoprost 0,005%, apraclonidina 1% ou placebo. Foram realizadas medidas da pressão ocular antes da instilação de qualquer colírio, 30 minutos após a dilatação, 1 hora e 4 horas após o YAG laser. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os 3 grupos em relação à idade, pressão ocular inicial e pós-dilatação, assim como em quantidade de energia utilizada. Na primeira hora, tanto para a diferença absoluta quanto para o percentual de alteração da pressão intra-ocular, o grupo da apraclonidina apresentou redução estatisticamente maior em relação ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Na 4a. hora não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (p > 0,05. As medidas de pressão nos 4 intervalos não apresentaram variação estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05. A quantidade de energia utilizada não mostrou correlação significativa com o aumento da Po (p > 0,05. Conclusão: A apraclonidina 1% apresentou maior eficácia na profilaxia da hipertensão após capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser quando comparada com latanoprost 0,005%.Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 0.005% latanoprost and 1% apraclonidine in the prevention of an increase of intraocular pressure (IOP after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy in nonglaucomatous patients. Methods: Thirty-six patients were included and divided in to three groups. Patients received 0.005% latanoprost. 1% apraclonidine or placebo. Four measurements of IOP were made: before instillation of any drug, 30 minutes after cycloplegia, 1 hour and 4 hours after laser. Results: No significant difference was found between the three groups regarding age, initial intraocular pressure, pressure 30 minutes after

  16. [Results of intraocular lens implantation in cataract complicated by medium and high myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Iu A; Chuprov, A D; Volkov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of cataract complicated by medium and high myopia are analyzed. The main group consisted of 90 patients (96 eyes) subjected to extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of posterior-chamber intraocular lenses and the reference group of 128 patients in whom cataract was extracted without implantation of artificial lens. The study included creation of a mathematical model of myopic eye with estimation of pressure fluctuations in various zones of the eye, developing during transposition of the vitreous during patient's movements (head movements, jumps, falling) and the damping effect of the lens in the ocular system. It was proven by mathematical calculations that transpositions of jelly fractions of the vitreous decreased by 70% in an eye with the lens in comparison with their transposition in aphakia. Clinical studies demonstrated the efficiency of intraocular correction of aphakia in high myopia: implantation of an intraocular lens decreases the risk of detachment of the retina during the postoperative period and helps attain the desired refraction. PMID:11765458

  17. An examination of the relation between intraocular pressure, fundal stretching and myopic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2016-03-01

    Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Myopic development and progression is biomechanical and dominated by axial elongation. This clinical perspective examines some of the stretch-related fundal changes, which are associated with axial elongation and myopic pathology. The biomechanics of stretching of the fundus appears to depend on genetically and/or visual experience-based scleral changes, which reduce its thickness and elastic modulus so that it becomes more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure. These changes include reduced collagen synthesis, altered collagen fibres, tissue loss, altered proteoglycans and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Such changes are associated with reduced scleral rigidity and related increased potential to stretch in response to intraocular pressure. As axial elongation progresses, the sclera appears likely to continue to reduce in thickness and in its capacity to resist intraocular pressure, especially when pressure becomes elevated. Tessellation, lacquer cracks, myopic crescents, staphylomata, chorioretinal atrophy and retinal detachment are examined within a model for stretching of the fundus. Age, refractive error and axial length, for example, are associated with increased pathological progression. Myopic pathological progression can become dominated by vascular changes and include a greater risk of loss of acuity and blindness. Measures to control myopic pathology, which successfully slow or prevent stretching of the fundus, appear to be key factors in reducing or even avoiding permanent visual loss associated with this condition. For example, limiting axial elongation and related myopic fundus pathology by inhibiting changes which reduce the elastic modulus of scleral tissue is a desirable outcome from interventions to control myopia. Similarly, reducing exposure to the distending stress of elevated intraocular pressure appears to be a desirable form of

  18. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  19. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka M; Ogata N.; Matsuyama K; Yoshikawa T.; Takahashi K.

    2012-01-01

    Masato Matsuoka,1 Nahoko Ogata,2 Kayako Matsuyama,1 Tadanobu Yoshikawa,1 Kanji Takahashi31Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients.Methods: The medical records of a...

  20. Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, P G; Elliot, T. S.; McTaggart, L

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated, with an in vitro model, that Staphylococcus epidermidis is able to colonise intraocular lenses. Adherent organisms were quantitated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and viable counting. Bacterial adherence was associated with production of a polysaccharide glycocalyx. Organisms which were attached to the lenses were resistant to apparently bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics, as determined by conventional testing. We speculate on the role of colo...

  1. Intraocular eyelash after uneventful cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazer, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Boris Knyazer, Jaime Levy, Itamar Klemperer, Tova LifshitzDepartment of Ophthalmology, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion, University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, IsraelIntroduction: Intraocular eyelash is an uncommon complication after cataract surgery. We report a very rare case of corneal foreign body after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery. Methods: A 66-year-old man referred to our outpatient ophthalmology clinic for routine examination one week after uneventful phacoemulsifi...

  2. Evaluating the method increasing of toric intraocular lenses rotational stability

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Fedjashev

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To suggest a safe and effective way to improve the rotational stability of the position of toric the intraocular lenses in the capsular bag.Patients and methods.86 patients (97 eyes) with corneal astigmatism undergoing cataract surgery and Acrysof Toric (Alcon, USA) intraocular lens implantation. In 42 patients (47 eyes), the intraocular lens (IOL) were implanted in accordance with the proposed invention.Results. Average rotation angle IOL implanted by traditional technology was 2,2±...

  3. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Božić Marija; Hentova-Senćanin Paraskeva; Branković Aleksandra; Marjanović Ivan; Jocić Đorđević Jasmina; Senćanin Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary ope...

  4. Quality of vision through diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, J L; Chakrabarti, H S; Morrison, J D

    1991-01-01

    Two elderly women have each received a monofocal intraocular lens in one eye and a 3M diffractive bifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. Both eyes were shown to have equivalent retinal/neural function by measuring contrast sensitivity to laser interference fringes which bypassed refractive and other defects of the ocular media. The eyes with a bifocal intraocular lens displayed a much greater depth of focus, though at the expense of diminished contrast sensitivity compared with the normal...

  5. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  9. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  10. Micro-optical imaging concepts for an intraocular vision aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eix, Ilos; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus D.

    2004-03-01

    About 10 million people around the world are suffering from blindness, where the path of light is disturbed due to an opaque, irreversible damaged, and inoperable cornea. Although vision is not given to this group of population, the retina is still intact. To date, there is no artificial implant which is able to replace the natural cornea. The work presented here describes an approach to build and implant a micro-optical and microelectronic system to be used as an intraocular vision aid. By overcoming the disturbed light path, it yields to an improved visual acuity of the patient. The main aspect of this bio-mimetic system is to transfer information representing the patient's field of view to the retina. An image of the field of view is captured in real-time outside the eye. After employing data processing, it is wireless transferred to the implanted part of the vision aid. From there, the information emerging from a micro display is imaged to the retina via a micro-optical system. The limited display resolution available inside the eye and the limited dimensions of the eyeball build the constrains of the optical system. A combination of a spatial light modulator together with an imaging lens system realizes intelligent spatial information distribution schemes onto the retina. This ensures a high outcome of visual acuity in the central region of the retina. Various retinal acuities can be realized. The employment of in-vivo adjustment mechanisms of the focal plane is discussed.

  11. A CLINICAL STUDY OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CHANGES WITH VECURONIUM BROMIDE AND PANCURONIUM BROMIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja; Nagesha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The maintenance of intraocular pressure forms the mainstay of anesthetic management of intraocular surgery. It is desirable to achieve a normal or reduced intraocular pressure before the eye is opened to avoid expulsive hemorrhage and ocular disruption at the time of incision. Therefore the ideal anesthetic technique for intraocular surgery should produce a moderate reduction in intraocular pressure, or maintain intraocular pressure at near normal values and av...

  12. Evaluation of intraocular lens implant location in the eyeball basing on the Purkinje images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, A.; Siedlecki, D.; Zajac, M.

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) is an artificial implant substituting natural crystalline lens which is non-transparent due to cataract. Incorrect location of the IOL in the eyeball (e.g. its shift or tilt) causes significant deterioration of patient's vision. The analysis of Purkinje images (i.e. reflections from successive refracting surfaces in the eye) enables to determine the real IOL location and thus helps in evaluating the retinal image quality. The experimental setup for Purkinje images recording consists of illuminator, composed of a number of infrared LEDs, telecentric lens and detector (CCD camera). Analysis of mutual position of particular reflections enables to evaluate the lens location in respect to the corneal axis. The actual measurements are realized on artificial eye model, what allows to estimate the precision of the algorithm applied in the calculations. In the future the experimental set-up will be adapted to measure the eyes of real patients.

  13. Clinical Observation of 126 Cases of Sutureless Phacoemulsification with PMMA Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanshuang Yan; Zhengxing Mao

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the safety and effect of sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Methods: One-hundred and twenty-six cases (126 eyes) of sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospected and evaluated. The surgeries were performed through a limbal tunnel incision. PMMA IOLs with 5.5mm or 6.0mm in diameter were implanted.Results: The follow-up was 3~20 months. Visual acuity of 0. 5 or better was obtained in 120 cases (95.2%), and that of 1.0 or better was obtained in 89 cases (70. 6% ).Intra-operative complications included posterior capsule rupture in 9 cases (7. 1% ) and iris injury in 7 cases(5.6% ). Postoperative complications included early corneal edema in 96 cases(76.2% ), transient intraocular pressure elevation in 5 cases(4. 3%),remnant of cortex in 1 case and leakage of incision in 1 case. M1 were properly managed with good results.Conclusion: Sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA IOL implantation is safe even in grass-root hospitals where cataracts are harder.

  14. Intraocular lens power estimation by accurate ray tracing for eyes underwent previous refractive surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Que; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Lu; Meng, Qingyu; Zhu, Qiudong

    2015-08-01

    For normal eyes without history of any ocular surgery, traditional equations for calculating intraocular lens (IOL) power, such as SRK-T, Holladay, Higis, SRK-II, et al., all were relativley accurate. However, for eyes underwent refractive surgeries, such as LASIK, or eyes diagnosed as keratoconus, these equations may cause significant postoperative refractive error, which may cause poor satisfaction after cataract surgery. Although some methods have been carried out to solve this problem, such as Hagis-L equation[1], or using preoperative data (data before LASIK) to estimate K value[2], no precise equations were available for these eyes. Here, we introduced a novel intraocular lens power estimation method by accurate ray tracing with optical design software ZEMAX. Instead of using traditional regression formula, we adopted the exact measured corneal elevation distribution, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, axial length, and estimated effective lens plane as the input parameters. The calculation of intraocular lens power for a patient with keratoconus and another LASIK postoperative patient met very well with their visual capacity after cataract surgery.

  15. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  16. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon Duck [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  17. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Schonlau, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK) Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK) Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). We here pre...

  18. Intraocular pressure reduction and neuroprotection conferred by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Roubeix, Christophe; Godefroy, David; Mias, Céline; Sapienza, Anaïs; Riancho, Luisa; Degardin, Julie; Fradot, Valérie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Picaud, Serge; Sennlaub, Florian; Denoyer, Alexandre; Rostene, William; Sahel, José Alain; Parsadaniantz, Stéphane Melik; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Glaucoma is a sight-threatening retinal neuropathy associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) due to degeneration and fibrosis of the trabecular meshwork (TM). Glaucoma medications aim to reduce IOP without targeting the specific TM pathology, Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used today in various clinical studies. Here, we investigated the potential of MSCs therapy in an glaucoma-like ocular hypertension (OHT) model and decipher in vitro the effects of MSCs...

  19. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  20. Pseudoexfoliation material on posterior chamber intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha-Bastos RA; Silva SE; Prézia F; Falcão-Reis F; Melo AB

    2014-01-01

    Ricardo António da Rocha-Bastos,1 Sérgio Estrela Silva,1 Flávio Prézia,1 Fernando Falcão-Reis,1,2 António B Melo11Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal; 2Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, PortugalAbstract: The presence of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of an intraocular lens (IOL) is a ...

  1. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Espandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.Keywords: hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, Softec HD intraocular lens, aspheric intraocular lens, IOL

  3. A noncontact intraocular pressure measurement device using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates a novel, portable tonometer using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma. Because glaucoma progresses slowly and is not painful, glaucoma patients require a portable prediagnosis system to periodically measure intraocular pressure at home. Conventionally, intraocular pressure is measured by an air-puff tonometer whereby the cornea is deformed by a short pulse of air pressure and the magnitude of the corneal deformation is measured by optic systems such as a combination of laser- and photodiodes. In this study, a micro reflected air pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure the magnitude of corneal deformation without optic systems. In an experimental study, artificial eyes with different internal pressures were fabricated and these pressures were measured by the aforementioned system.

  4. A noncontact intraocular pressure measurement device using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates a novel, portable tonometer using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma. Because glaucoma progresses slowly and is not painful, glaucoma patients require a portable prediagnosis system to periodically measure intraocular pressure at home. Conventionally, intraocular pressure is measured by an air-puff tonometer whereby the cornea is deformed by a short pulse of air pressure and the magnitude of the corneal deformation is measured by optic systems such as a combination of laser- and photodiodes. In this study, a micro reflected air pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure the magnitude of corneal deformation without optic systems. In an experimental study, artificial eyes with different internal pressures were fabricated and these pressures were measured by the aforementioned system. (paper)

  5. Pseudoexfoliation material on posterior chamber intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Bastos RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo António da Rocha-Bastos,1 Sérgio Estrela Silva,1 Flávio Prézia,1 Fernando Falcão-Reis,1,2 António B Melo11Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal; 2Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, PortugalAbstract: The presence of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of an intraocular lens (IOL is a rare finding. We report a series of seven cases with different patterns of pseudoexfoliation material deposition on the posterior chamber IOLs, recognized 2–20 years after cataract surgery. Six patients had an IOL implanted in the capsular bag and one in the ciliary sulcus. Two patients had undergone posterior capsulotomy. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical significance of this finding remain unknown, the careful follow-up of pseudophakic patients with known or suspected pseudoexfoliation syndrome is essential to monitor the development or progression of glaucoma, since deposition of pseudoexfoliation material continues even after cataract surgery.Keywords: intraocular lens, glaucoma, exfoliation syndrome, cataract

  6. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 20 healthy controls (all male. Intraocular pressure was measured without a necktie, 3 minutes after placing a tight necktie and 3 minutes after loosening it. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the data between two groups. The intraocular pressure measurements were subjected to paired t - test. The value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A possible correlation between the age of subjects and intraocular pressure values was analyzed using linear regression (Pearson′. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in intraocular pressure readings in all three measurements between two tested groups (p<0.05. When analyzed within groups, statistical significance in intraocular pressure readings was found after loosening the necktie (<0.05. No correlation between the age of subjects and increased intraocular pressure was found in either tested group of subjects after the necktie had been tightened (r2=0.006, p=0.70 for primary open angle patients, r2=0.07, p=0.22 for healthy controls. Conclusion. Wearing a tight necktie for a limited period of time during the day could be considered as a possible risk factor for glaucoma development.

  7. MicroRNA profiling in intraocular medulloepitheliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak P Edward

    Full Text Available To study the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA profiles between intraocular medulloepithelioma (ME and normal control tissue (CT.Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE intraocular ME (n=7 and from age matched ciliary body controls (n=8. The clinical history and phenotype was recorded. MiRNA profiles were determined using the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays analyzed using expression console 1.3 software. Validation of significantly dysregulated miRNA was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The web-based DNA Intelligent Analysis (DIANA-miRPath v2.0 was used to perform enrichment analysis of differentially expressed (DE miRNA gene targets in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway.The pathologic evaluation revealed one benign (benign non-teratoid, n=1 and six malignant tumors (malignant teratoid, n=2; malignant non-teratoid, n = 4. A total of 88 miRNAs were upregulated and 43 miRNAs were downregulated significantly (P<0.05 in the tumor specimens. Many of these significantly dysregulated miRNAs were known to play various roles in carcinogenesis and tumor behavior. RT-PCR validated three significantly upregulated miRNAs and three significantly downregulated miRNAs namely miR-217, miR-216a, miR-216b, miR-146a, miR-509-3p and miR-211. Many DE miRNAs that were significant in ME tumors showed dysregulation in retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, and precursor, normal and reactive human cartilage. Enriched pathway analysis suggested a significant association of upregulated miRNAs with 15 pathways involved in prion disease and several types of cancer. The pathways involving significantly downregulated miRNAs included the toll-like receptor (TLR (p<4.36E-16 and Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways (p<9.00E-06.We report significantly dysregulated miRNAs in intraocular ME tumors, which exhibited abnormal profiles in other cancers as well such as retinoblastoma and glioblastoma. Pathway analysis

  8. Lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada: resultados Diffractive apodized multifocal intraocular lens: results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Centurion

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar os resultados visuais e refracionais com lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de 100 olhos de 50 pacientes com catarata, submetidos à facoemulsificação com implante bilateral de lente intra-ocular (LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada. Foi avaliada a acuidade visual binocular sem e com correção para longe e perto, a previsibilidade refracional e a freqüência de uso de óculos. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual sem correção para longe foi de e " 20/30 em 97,56% dos olhos operados e e" J2 em 100%, sendo que 82% dos pacientes nunca usam óculos e 16% usam de forma esporádica. CONCLUSÃO: A LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada mostrou ser uma opção previsível, reproduzível e segura na correção dos vícios de refração para longe e perto durante a cirurgia da catarata, permitindo elevado índice de independência ao uso de óculos.OBJECTIVE: To show visual and refraction results using multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens. METHODS: The study of 100 eyes of 50 patients with cataract, submitted to phacoemulsification with bilateral implant of multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens (IOL. Binocular visual acuity was evaluated with and without correction for near and distance, and refraction previsibility and frequency of wearing glasses. RESULTS: Visual acuity without correction for distance was e" 20/30 in 97.56% of eyes operated on and e" J2 in 100%, of these 82% of patients never wear glasses and 16% wear glasses sporadically. CONCLUSION: Multifocal diffractive apodized IOL proved to be a foreseeable option, reproducible and safe in the correction of refraction errors for distance and near during cataract surgery, enabling a high rate of independence from the use of glasses.

  9. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  10. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  11. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Masato Matsuoka,1 Nahoko Ogata,2 Kayako Matsuyama,1 Tadanobu Yoshikawa,1 Kanji Takahashi31Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients.Methods: The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma.Results: A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206, and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497 in the nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0001. The IOP was negatively correlated with age (r = –0.202; P = 0.024 in the diabetic patients and was weakly but significantly correlated with the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level (r = 0.240; P = 0.015 in the group with diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: The significantly higher IOP in diabetic patients and positive correlation of IOP with HbA1c levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy indicate that IOP in diabetic patients is higher, especially in those with poor control of diabetes.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure, open-angle glaucoma

  12. Computational modeling of intraocular gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, P.; Abdekhodaie, M. J.; Cheng, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of intraocular gas behavior in pneumatic retinopexy (PR) procedure. The presented model predicted intraocular gas volume at any time and determined the tolerance angle within which a patient can maneuver and still gas completely covers the tear(s). Computational fluid dynamics calculations were conducted to describe PR procedure. The geometrical model was constructed based on the rabbit and human eye dimensions. SF6 in the form of pure and diluted with air was considered as the injected gas. The presented results indicated that the composition of the injected gas affected the gas absorption rate and gas volume. After injection of pure SF6, the bubble expanded to 2.3 times of its initial volume during the first 23 h, but when diluted SF6 was used, no significant expansion was observed. Also, head positioning for the treatment of retinal tear influenced the rate of gas absorption. Moreover, the determined tolerance angle depended on the bubble and tear size. More bubble expansion and smaller retinal tear caused greater tolerance angle. For example, after 23 h, for the tear size of 2 mm the tolerance angle of using pure SF6 is 1.4 times more than that of using diluted SF6 with 80% air. Composition of the injected gas and conditions of the tear in PR may dramatically affect the gas absorption rate and gas volume. Quantifying these effects helps to predict the tolerance angle and improve treatment efficiency.

  13. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anterior prolate IOL with a diffractive multifocal lens design. The design aims to minimize spherical aberration and improve range of focus. The purpose of this review is to assess patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens.Keywords: Tecnis®, intraocular lens, multifocal, presbyopia 

  14. [The neuroanatomical and physiological bases of variations in intraocular pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, C; Denis, P

    2004-09-01

    Intraocular pressure displays a distinct circadian rhythm in animals and humans, with an increase at night and a decrease during the daytime. In animals, the IOP rhythm has been reported to be synchronized by environmental light and to persist in constant darkness, demonstrating a circadian component controlled by an endogenous pacemaker. The structures involved in the rhythmic regulation of intraocular pressure include the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the activity of sympathetic and parasympathetic ocular innervation. These effectors are responsible for controlling the production (beta-adrenergic system) and the outflow (alpha1-adrenergic, parasympathetic system, prostaglandin) of aqueous humor. The production of aqueous humor is under adrenergic control (alpha1- and beta-receptors). Many neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, and the atrial natriuretic peptide are also involved in the regulation of intraocular pressure. A better understanding of the circadian regulation of intraocular pressure is needed for an appropriate treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. PMID:15314570

  15. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    OpenAIRE

    Ladan Espandar; Shameema Sikder; Majid Moshirfar

    2011-01-01

    Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular le...

  16. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL) designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anter...

  17. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Priyanka; Woodward, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients’ desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL) designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anterior prolate IOL with a diffractive multifocal lens design. The design aims to minimize spherical aberration and improve range of focus....

  18. Intraocular Gnathostomiasis: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Gopal S.; Kumar, Anil; Radhakrishnan, Natasha; Maniyelil, Jayasree; Shafi, Tufela; Dinesh, Kavitha R.; Karim, Shamsul

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular gnathostomiasis is a rare parasitic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of spiruroid nematode Gnanthostoma spp. seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a food-borne zoonosis caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, all of which are known to harbor advanced third-stage larvae of Gnanthostoma spp. To date, 74 cases of intraocular gnathostomiasis have been reported from 12 different countries. Only four...

  19. Effects of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure and anterior chamber depth

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, XIN-QUAN; ZHU, HUA-YING; Su, Jing; HAO, XIAO-JUN

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) in patients with cataract or cataract associated with primary angle closure (PAC). A total of 361 patients (481 affected eyes) with senile cataract (cataract group) and 44 patients (52 affected eyes) with cataract associated with PAC (cataract with PAC group) underwent phacoemulsification with IOL implantation from ...

  20. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  1. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean±SD; 19.72±0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  2. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  3. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  4. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  5. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  6. A study of brachytherapy for intraocular tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose of this study is to perform brachytherapy for intraocular tumor. The result were as followed. 1. Eye model was determined as a 25 mm diameter sphere. Ir-192 was considered the most appropriate as radioisotope for brachytherapy, because of the size, half, energy and availability. 2. Considering the biological response with human tissue and protection of exposed dose, we made the plaques with gold, of which size were 15 mm, 17 mm and 20 mm in diameter, and 1.5 mm in thickness. 3. Transmission factor of plaques are all 0.71 with TLD and film dosimetry at the surface of plaques and 0.45, 0.49 at 1.5 mm distance of surface, respectively. 4. As compared the measured data for the plaque with Ir-192 seeds to results of computer dose calculation model by Gary Luxton et al. and CAP-PLAN (Radiation Treatment Planning System), absorbed doses are within ±10% and distance deviations are within 0.4 mm. Maximum error is -11.3% and 0.8 mm, respectively. 7 figs, 2 tabs, 28 refs. (Author)

  7. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  8. The new factors defining variability of circadian’s rhythms of intraocular and perfusion pressure of glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most scientifically based local risk and progressive factors are elevated levels of intraocular pressure and its instability during the day, caused by local hydromechanical disturbances. However, the other factors affecting the circadian changes of intraocular pressure levels are still evaluated. It was found that light is one of the most important factors affecting the intensity of the cyclical fluctuations of various biological processes, including, and fluctuations of intraocular pressure. At the same time, glaucoma can lead to a variety of sleep disorders, due to a mismatch between cycles «sleep-wake». One if this reason is the death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Such damage indirectly lead to a decrease in production of the pigment melanopsin, which is located in the retina. It is not involved in the visual process, but ensures the implementation of circadian rhythms «sleep-wake» and mediated suppression of epiphyseal melatonin. Most likely, melatonin plays a protective role in the occurrence and progression of glaucoma, protecting retinal cells against free radicals and has a direct impact on the intraocular pressure level. Several studies have shown that the circadian change in intraocular pressure levels, and in particular, its substantial reduction, is influenced by melatonin. In this regard, glaucoma is a disease in which the death of retinal cells, including producing melanopsin, a unique opportunity to study violations of cyclic rhythms. Melatonin acts on such established risk factors and progression of glaucoma as hypertension and diabetes. There are published results of the use of melatonin agonists in the experiment and clinical practice. So, in addition to local and systemic hypotensive action, normalizes sleep patients. Data about the melatonin’s effects on the direct and indirect reduction of intraocular pressure, neuroprotective effects and reducing symptoms of depression can

  9. [Intraocular Pressure Sensor Based on a Contact Lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhong; Pet, Weihua; Yao, Zhaolin; Chen, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hongda; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wu, Huijuan

    2016-02-01

    Intraocular pressure detection has a great significance for understanding the status of eye health, prevention and treatment of diseases such as glaucoma. Traditional intraocular pressure detection needs to be held in the hospital. It is not only time-consuming to doctors and patients, but also difficult to achieve 24 hour-continuous detection. Microminiaturization of the intraocular pressure sensor and wearing it as a contact lens, which is convenient, comfortable and noninvasive, can solve this problem because the soft contact lens with an embedded micro fabricated strain gauge allows the measurement of changes in corneal curvature to correlate to variations of intraocular pressure. We fabricated a strain gauge using micro-electron mechanical systems, and integrated with the contact lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using injection molding. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was 100. 7 µV/µm. When attached to the corneal surface, the average sensitivity of sensor response of intraocular pressure can be 125.8 µV/mm Hg under the ideal condition. PMID:27382734

  10. Effects of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Ohnuma, Shin-ya; Uemoto, Kazuhiro; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Endo, Kazuki; Hosokawa, Tomokazu; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2004-02-23

    We evaluated the activities of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives, relatively selective adenosine A2 receptor agonists, in the intraocular pressure regulation in rabbits. An adenosine A2 receptor agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680) decreased intraocular pressure, while another A2 receptor agonist 2-(phenylamino)adenosine transiently increased it. The first group of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives (1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) caused a transient increase followed by decrease in intraocular pressure, while the second group (1-octyn-1-yl and 6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) only decreased it. The second group is also effective in the ocular hypertensive models induced by water-loading and alpha-chymotrypsin. The outflow facility was increased by a 1-octyn-1-yl derivative. Both increase and decrease in intraocular pressure induced by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl xanthine. These findings suggest that 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives may affect intraocular pressure via adenosine A2 receptor, and 2-alkynyladenosine derivative-induced ocular hypotension is due to the increase of outflow facility. PMID:14985053

  11. Handheld Automated Microsurgical Instrumentation for Intraocular Laser Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungwook; Lobes, Louis A.; Martel, Joseph N.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Laser photocoagulation is a mainstay or adjuvant treatment for a variety of common retinal diseases. Automated laser photocoagulation during intraocular surgery has not yet been established. The authors introduce an automated laser photocoagulation system for intraocular surgery, based on a novel handheld instrument. The goals of the system are to enhance accuracy and efficiency and improve safety. Materials and Methods Triple-ring patterns are introduced as a typical arrangement for the treatment of proliferative retinopathy and registered to a preoperative fundus image. In total, 32 target locations are specified along the circumferences of three rings having diameters of 1, 2, and 3 mm, with a burn spacing of 600 μm. Given the initial system calibration, the retinal surface is reconstructed using stereo vision, and the targets specified on the preoperative image are registered with the control system. During automated operation, the laser probe attached to the manipulator of the active handheld instrument is deflected as needed via visual servoing in order to correct the error between the aiming beam and a specified target, regardless of any erroneous handle motion by the surgeon. A constant distance of the laser probe from the retinal surface is maintained in order to yield consistent size of burns and ensure safety during operation. Real-time tracking of anatomical features enables compensation for any movement of the eye. A graphical overlay system within operating microscope provides the surgeon with guidance cues for automated operation. Two retinal surgeons performed automated and manual trials in an artificial model of the eye, with each trial repeated three times. For the automated trials, various targeting thresholds (50–200 μm) were used to automatically trigger laser firing. In manual operation, fixed repetition rates were used, with frequencies of 1.0–2.5 Hz. The power of the 532 nm laser was set at 3.0 W with a

  12. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Sklenář, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is a design of a vertical bucket elevator which is to be used to transport cereal. The transport height is nineteen meters and transport capacity one hundred tons per hour. This thesis consists of a description of the vertical bucket elevator and its main parts which are mentioned in the introductory list. The thesis deals with functional and capacitive calculations, determining a drive and a tensioning device. Another calculation has the function of control a drive sha...

  13. Evaluation of the motion of surgical instruments during intraocular surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubschman, J-P; Son, J; Allen, B; Schwartz, S D; Bourges, J-L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Robot assistance in ocular microsurgery could improve precision, dexterity, save time or prevent complications by task automation, and provide access to ocular surgery in undeserved countries by teleoperation. However, to design robotic devices, the range of motion of surgical instruments needs to be precisely quantified. Methods An electromagnetic tracking system was developed for intraocular surgery in order to quantify the movements of ophthalmic surgeons. Kinematics of surgical steps during phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy procedures were determined by measuring the maximum translation and angular range of motion of intraocular surgical tools in the three planes. Conclusion Important variations in amplitudes of rotation and translation were measured between both hands and between surgical tasks. These parameters may be used to develop a robotic intraocular surgical system or to improve training. PMID:21527954

  14. Epithelial Downgrowth after Intraocular Surgery Treated with Intracameral 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present the clinical and histopathologic correlation of two cases of epithelial downgrowth (EDG after prior intraocular surgery. Methods. Observational case reports. Results. We present two cases of EDG occurring after intraocular surgery. In both cases, after two anterior chamber injections of 5-fluorouracil (5FU, the area of EDG initially regressed. In Case 1, a limited area of EDG eventually recurred, and penetrating keratoplasty with cryotherapy was curative. In Case 2, subsequent corneal edema required Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and the patient remained clinically free of EDG without further treatment. Conclusion. Intracameral 5FU may have a role in the treatment of EDG after intraocular surgery, though its precise utilization and impact remain to be defined.

  15. Artificial noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: His.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  18. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  19. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  20. Corrigendum: Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espandar L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Espandar L, Sikder S, Moshirfar M. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011;5:65–70.There was an error in the reported optic size of Lenstec’s Softec HD intraocular lens, which was reported to be 5.5 mm in Espandar et al’s work, but is 5.75 mm.Please see the specifications on Lenstec’s Web site for further details (see http://www.lenstec.com/lenstec/hd_specs.html.Read the original article

  1. Development and experimental verification of an intraocular scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong-Jhih; Jhong, Tian-Siang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2011-10-01

    An intraocular scattering model was constructed in human eye model and experimentally verified. According to the biometric data, the volumetric scattering in crystalline lens and diffusion at retina fundus were developed. The scattering parameters of cornea, including particle size and obscuration ratio, were varied to make the veiling luminance of the eye model matching the CIE disability glare general formula. By replacing the transparent lens with a cataractous lens, the disability glare curve of cataracts was generated and compared with that of transparent lenses. The MTF of the intraocular scattering model showed nice correspondence with the data measured by a double-pass experiment.

  2. Immediate intraocular pressure response to selective laser trabeculoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzetta, P; Menchini, U; Virgili, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Selective laser trabeculoplasty targets the pigmented trabecular meshwork cells without damage to the trabecular meshwork architecture in vitro. A study was conducted in vivo of eight eyes with uncontrolled open angle glaucoma to ascertain the immediate intraocular response to selective laser trabeculoplasty.
METHODS—The trabecular meshwork of each eye was treated 360° with a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Intraocular pressure was measured 1, 2, 24 hours and 1, 4, ...

  3. USE OF PRESERVATIVE CONTAINING VS PRESERVATIVE FREE INTRAOCULAR STEROID DURING VITRECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone is a corticosteroid that is used to treat many ophthalmic diseases . Recently, its use has been advocated to aid in visualization of transparent tissue in ophthalmic surgery. It can be used in anterior segment surgery to help manage vitreous loss during complicated cataract surgery. It has been used to visualize the posterior cortical vitreous during pars plana vitrectomy. In addition, it can be useful in the visualization and peeling of the internal limiting membrane. Triamcinolone has been advocated in surgical repair of proliferative vitreoretinopathy both for its visualizing properties and its anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, triamcinolone use in surgery is safe with low incidence of complications including elevated intraocular pressure, cataract and endophthalmitis.

  4. Abnormal increase of intraocular pressure in fellow eye after severe ocular trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajanen, Anu; Tuulonen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An ocular injury can lead to secondary glaucoma in the traumatized eye in 3% to 20% of cases. Literature on the risk of developing elevated intraocular pressure in the nontraumatized fellow eye is scant. Clinicians treating ocular traumas should also bear in mind sympathetic ophthalmia, a rare bilateral granulomatous panuveitis following accidental or surgical trauma to 1 eye. Case report: We report a case of high-pressure glaucoma of the fellow eye without any signs of uveitis. The left eye of a 24-year-old man was injured in an inadvertent movement during a free-time table-tennis match. The eye was severely crushed, leading to blindness. His right eye developed medically uncontrolled high-pressure glaucoma only 1 month after the injury. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of post-traumatic glaucoma in the nontraumatized eye after open-globe injury. PMID:27495058

  5. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  6. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  7. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood QK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study included 52 patients with diabetic retinopathy between 28 to 75 years of age with a mean age of 51 years; 30 (58% were females, and 22 (42% were males. All patients received bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injected intravitreally in a standard fashion between May 2012 to February 2013 in the AL-Jumhoury teaching hospital. IOP was measured at baseline, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after injection using Goldman applanation tonometry.Statistics: Data were analyzed using the SPSS v.12.0 for windows. Basic, demographic, and clinical data were analyzed using means, proportions, and appropriate 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: Most patients (85% were diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, while 15% presented with diabetic macular edema. The mean IOP values at baseline, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after injection were 14.0 mmHg (95% CI 13.4–14.7, 36.1 mmHg (95% CI 33.5–38.6, 25.7 mmHg (95% CI 23.8–27.5, and 15.5 mmHg (95% CI 12.4–16.51, respectively. Regression analysis showed a trend toward phakic patients having higher IOP at 30 minutes.Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab is safe with respect to short-term IOP changes, as almost all IOP returned to a safe range (<25 mmHg within 30 minutes. Elevated IOP 30 minutes after injection only occurs rarely, so routine prophylactic use of anti-glaucoma medication is not indicated.Keywords: intravitreal injection, bevacizumab, intraocular pressure, Goldmann applanation tonometry

  8. Intraocular pressure and tear production in five herbivorous wildlife species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I H; Raz, D; Shvartsman, E; Kass, P H

    2002-08-31

    The intraocular pressure and rate of tear production were measured in 18 addax antelopes (Addax nasomaculatus), four impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 11 wide-lipped rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum), 10 white-tailed wildebeests (Connochaetes gnou) and seven scimitar-horned oryxes (Oryx dammah). The animals were anaesthetised with an intramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, and the Schirmer tear test I was used to evaluate tear production, and applanation tonometry was used to evaluate the intraocular pressure. The mean (sd) rate of tear production ranged from 17.6 (3.1) mm/minute in the rhinoceros to 28.8 (8.3) mm/minute in the addax. The intraocular pressure ranged from 8.0 (1.2) mmHg in the impala to 32.1 (10.4) mmHg in the rhinoceros. The rate of tear production in the addax and the intraocular pressure in the rhinoceros appear to be the highest values of these variables to have been reported in any species. PMID:12233828

  9. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of an explanted opacified intraocular lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, V., E-mail: viosimon@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radu, T.; Vulpoi, A. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rosca, C. [Optilens Clinic of Ophthalmology, 400604 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Eniu, D. [Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Sciences, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Changes on intraocular lens (IOL) surface after implantation. • Partial opacification of IOL central area. • Elemental composition on IOL surface prior to and after implantation. • First XPS depth profiling examination of the opacifying deposits. • Cell-mediated hydroxyapatite structuring. - Abstract: The investigated polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens explanted an year after implantation presented a fine granularity consisting of ring-like grains of about 15 μm in diameter. In order to evidence the changes occurred on intraocular lens relative to morphology, elemental composition and atomic environments, microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results revealed that the grains contain hydroxyapatite mineral phase. A protein layer covers the lens both in opacified and transparent zones. The amide II band is like in basal epithelial cells. The shape and size of the grains, and the XPS depth profiling results indicate the possibility of a cell-mediated process involving lens epithelial cells which fagocitated apoptotic epithelial cells, and in which the debris derived from cell necrosis were calcified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on explanted intraocular lenses using XPS depth profiling in order to examine the inside of the opacifying deposits.

  10. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery. PMID:27009616

  11. Telemedicine in the control of intra-ocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, G; Striebel, W; Prihoda, W; Schmidt, V

    2000-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in the Western world and a major risk factor is increased intra-ocular pressure. We therefore used telemedicine in its control. Patients measured their intra-ocular pressure several times a day with a portable instrument and the values were then entered into a portable digital assistant. These data were transmitted by a modem to a central server. If the intra-ocular pressure was pathologically high, an email message was automatically sent to the ophthalmologist. The pressure curve, including a statistical analysis, was displayed in an easily readable chart format. Ten patients with glaucoma participated in a trial. Self-tonometry with telemedicine enabled continuous evaluation of the patient by the ophthalmologist. This approach offered the advantage of controlling the treatment remotely. Advantages for the patient were that the measurements were easily done at home under normal conditions, and the patient could control when the measurement and data transmission would be performed. Telemedicine is a cost-effective technique enabling the early diagnosis of pathologically increased intra-ocular pressure. PMID:10793996

  12. Effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Maruichi, Midori; Takai, Shinji; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Miyazaki, Mizuo

    2005-11-01

    Chymase is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is stored exclusively in the secretory granules of mast cells and converts big endothelins to endothelin-1 (1-31). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits. Chymase injection (3 and 10 mU) resulted in a trend toward increased intraocular pressure and a significant increase in intraocular pressure at a dose of 10 mU compared with the control. A specific chymase inhibitor, Suc-Val-Pro-Phe(P)(OPh)(2), attenuated the ocular hypertension induced by chymase. Endothelin-1 (1-31) also caused ocular hypertension, which was inhibited by a selective endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist, cyclo(D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu-D-Trp) (BQ-123). Moreover, chymase-induced ocular hypertension was inhibited by BQ-123. These results suggest that chymase influences the regulation of intraocular pressure, and it is likely that the formation of endothelin-1 (1-31) and subsequent activation of endothelin ET(A) receptors are involved in the development of ocular hypertension induced by chymase. PMID:16253233

  13. Hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation therapy for the treatment of intraocular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) photoradiation therapy (PRT) is currently being examined for the treatment of intraocular tumors (retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma). HpD is preferentially retained in malignant tissue and tumorcidal action can be induced when HpD is activated with visible red light. Preclinical studies have been conducted using pigmented rabbits having transplanted intraocular tumors. A dye laser system has been used to generate red light (630 nm) for localized irradiation of ocular tissue following I.V. administration of HpD. The authors have previously reported that acute toxicity to normal retina (in the form of retinal necrosis) can be induced by HpD PRT, and that this damage can be limited to the treatment field. The results of current preclinical studies related to long term ocular toxicity, HpD distribution in ocular tissue and intraocular tumor tissue response following HpD PRT are presented. In addition, initial clinical results of intraocular HpD PRT are described

  14. Impact factors on intraocular pressure measurements in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Geurts, D.; Leeuwen, A.M. van; Voet, N.B.; Deutman, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether intraocular pressure (IOP) calculation by applanation tonometry is determined more essentially by the subject's neck position or by neck constriction. METHODS: 23 right eyes of 23 healthy subjects (12 male, 11 female) were included. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry

  15. Unilateral phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in a dachshund

    OpenAIRE

    Kopala, Robyn L.

    2008-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, spayed, female dachshund was presented with a cataract and lens-induced uveitis in the left eye. The cataract progressed from immature to hypermature in 4 months. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation was performed and the dog remains visual in the left eye 1 year post-surgery.

  16. Implantable parylene-based wireless intraocular pressure sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po-Jui; Rodger, Damien C.; Saati, Saloomeh; Humayun, Mark S.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel implantable, wireless, passive pressure sensor for ophthalmic applications. Two sensor designs incorporating surface-micromachined variable capacitor and variable capacitor/inductor are implemented to realize the pressure sensitive components. The sensor is monolithically microfabricated using parylene as a biocompatible structural material in a suitable form factor for increased ease of intraocular implantation. Pressure responses of the mi...

  17. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hijab; Jayadev, Chaitra; Natarajan, S

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time. PMID:17699956

  18. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta Hitendra; Mehta Hijab; Jayadev Chaitra; Natarajan S

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  19. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hitendra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  20. Antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadband antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite are calculated and implemented practically. Their residual reflectance in the liquid with a refracting index of 1.336 is below 0.2% from each face virtually over the entire visible region. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Intraocular inflammation following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Klevering, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of a mixture of silicone oil and partially fluorinated alkanes (high-density silicone oil) has recently been suggested as intraocular tamponade in complicated retinal detachment of the inferior quadrants. We describe a series of patients who developed a clinical picture resemblin

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  3. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  4. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, John D; Comstock, Timothy L; Cavet, Megan E

    2016-04-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a ketone at the C-20 position, minimizing the potential for side effects, including IOP elevation. In early pivotal clinical trials of LE ophthalmic suspension for conjunctivitis (allergic, giant papillary), anterior uveitis, and post-operative inflammation, LE had minimal impact on IOP over short-term (gel, an ointment, and a suspension of LE in combination with tobramycin-have become commercially available. Multiple studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of LE for inflammatory conditions have been reported, including those requiring longer-term treatment such as photorefractive keratectomy, corneal transplantation, and dry eye disease. We review the available published data on the effect of LE on IOP and report on the cumulative incidence of clinically significant IOP elevations (≥10 mm Hg from baseline) with short-term and long-term LE use. In all studies, LE consistently demonstrated a low propensity to elevate IOP, regardless of formulation, dosage regimen, or treatment duration, including in known steroid responders. The cumulative proportion of patients exhibiting clinically significant IOP increases was 0.8% (14/1725 subjects) in studies evaluating short-term LE treatment and 1.5% (21/1386 subjects) in long-term studies. Furthermore, use of LE was associated with significantly lower rates of IOP elevation ≥10 mm Hg as compared to prednisolone acetate or dexamethasone (when used in combination with tobramycin). The cumulative data to date substantiates a

  5. Retinal image quality with the different types of intraocular lenses including new idea of the hybrid IOLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, D.; Zając, M.; Nowak, J.

    2007-07-01

    Cataract is one of the most frequent reasons of blindness all around the world. Its treatment relies on removing the pathologically altered crystalline lens and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). There exists plenty of types of such implants, which differ in the optical materials and designs (shapes). However one of the important features, which is rather overlooked in the development of the intraocular implants is the chromatic aberration and its influence on the retinal image quality. In this study authors try to estimate the influence of the design and optical material of the implant on the retinal image quality in the polychromatic light, taking into consideration several exemplary types of IOLs which are commercially available. Authors also propose the partially achromatized hybrid IOLs, the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA)of which reduces the total LCA of the phakic eye to the level of a healthy eye's LCA. Several image characteristics, as the polychromatic Point Spread Function (PSF) and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the polychromatic encircled energy are estimated. The results of the simulations show the significance of the partial chromatic aberration correction.

  6. Visual acuity after trans-scleral sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the changes in visual acuity in patients undergoing Trans-Scleral Sutured Posterior Chamber Intra-Ocular Lens (TSSPCIOL) implantation at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: LRBT Tertiary Eye Hospital, Karachi, from January 2006 to December 2010. Methodology: Records of all patients undergoing implantation of TSSPCIOL were reviewed. Patients with diagnosed glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, history of recurrent uveitis, corneal haze or central corneal scars were excluded. For the final analysis, 70 eyes out of a total of 75 were selected. Main outcomes of interest were pre and postoperative visual acuities and surgical complications. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Results: Pre-operatively, the average Best Spectacle-Corrected Visual Acuity (BSCVA) was 6/36 on the Snellen chart. This improved to 6/12 postoperatively. The mean improvement seen was 2.4 lines on the Snellen chart (p < 0.05). Complications include transient intraocular pressure elevation in 25 eyes (36%), IOL tilt in 4 eyes (7.1%), Cystoid Macular Edema (CME) in 4 eyes (5.7%), vitreous haemorrhage in 2 eyes (2.9%), hyphema in 2 eyes (2.9%), uveitis in 1 eye (1.4%), and retinal detachment 1 eye (1.4%). No IOL subluxation, suture erosion, iris capture, choroidal effusion or endophthalmitis was encountered and no re-operations were needed. Conclusion: TSSPCIOLs are a good management option for patients with aphakia in whom PC IOLs cannot be placed. (author)

  7. Gauge Transconjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy in Eyes with Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Dündar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 23-gauge (23G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV in dislocated intraocular lens (IOL cases: In early- and late-term follow-up. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this retrospective study, the medical records of 17 patients who underwent 23 G PPV treatment for dislocated IOL between January 2009 and June 2011 were analyzed. Detailed ophthalmologic examination was performed in all patients; intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Re sults: In this study, mean follow-up time was 9.0 (4-22 months and mean age was 60.8 (8-82 years. Mean time after cataract surgery was variable (mean of 28.3 (0-80 months. Four patients had trauma history, five patients had pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and two patients had pathologic myopia. Dislocated IOL was placed into the sulcus in nine patients (52.9%. In two cases (11.7%, the IOLs were removed, and the patients were left aphakic. In two cases out of other 6 (11.7%, the dislocated IOL was changed with scleral fixation lens, whereas in the other four cases (23.5%, IOL was changed with iris claw lens. One patient (5.8% remained at the same level of vision, while twelve (70.5% cases increased two or more lines in BCVA. The vision was decreased in two cases. Intraocular pressure elevation controlled by medication was observed in one case. For two days, hypotony was observed in one patient. Dis cus si on: 23 G PPV technique is an effective and safe method for removing and repositioning of dislocated IOL in the vitreous. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 99-102

  8. Determination of heparin on intraocular lens surfaces by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, B; Karlsson, A; Ohrlund, A

    2001-05-11

    A sensitive and selective method has been developed for the determination of heparin on heparin coated PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate), intraocular lenses. Heparin was hydrolysed to glucosamine and glucuronic acid, and the content of glucosamine was determined using ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. In order to verify that a complete hydrolysis was obtained for the heparin on the coated intraocular lenses, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used for analysing traces of sulphur on the lens surfaces. The sensitivity of the method allows quantitative determination of 150 ng of heparin on one individual lens. The new method was compared to a standard spectrophotometric method, measuring the colour intensity of a heparin toluidine blue complex. Correlation between the methods was shown for samples prepared from PMMA lenses coated with different amounts of heparin. PMID:11403462

  9. An ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring system that is dedicated to sensing and transferring intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. Our system is comprised of a capacitive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit, which is designed on the SMIC 180 nm process, and a dipole antenna. The system is wirelessly powered and demonstrates a power consumption of 7.56 μW at 1.24 V during continuous monitoring, a significant reduction in active power dissipation compared to existing work. The input RF sensitivity is −13 dBm. A significant reduction in input RF sensitivity results from the reduction of mismatch time of the ASK modulation caused by FM0 encoding. The system exhibits an average error of ± 1.5 mmHg in measured pressure. Finally, a complete IOP system is demonstrated in the real biological environment, showing a successful reading of the pressure of an eye. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Intraocular Pressure Following Intravitreal Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide§

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Ejaz A; Ali, N

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP) response following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Methods: This retrospective consecutive non-comparative case series study included 41 patients (52 eyes) (19 male, 22 female, mean age 64.1 ± 13.44; range 22 – 85 years) with progressive exudative ARMD (n = 10 eyes) or diffuse diabetic macular oedema (42 eyes), who received one or more intravitreal injection(s) of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide. Results: IOP increased ...

  11. Surgical management of astigmatism with toric intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Bruna V.; Li Wang; Weikert, Mitchell P.; Shaun B. Robinson; Koch, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    Correction of corneal astigmatism is a key element of cataract surgery, since post-surgical residual astigmatism can compromise the patient's uncorrected visual acuity. Toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) compensate for corneal astigmatism at the time of surgery, correcting ocular astigmatism. They are a predictable treatment. However, accurate measurement of corneal astigmatism is mandatory for choosing the correct toric IOL power and for planning optimal alignment. When calculating the power of...

  12. Intraocular Pressure And Its Determinants In Tehran Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kashi AH; Fotouhil A; Hashemi H.; Mohammadl K

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to provide data, on the distribution or intraocular pressure (IOP) in Tehran population. Materials and Methods: Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 4565 Tehran citizens were studied in the Tehran Eye Study. The findings of the participants (n=3834) 10 years and older free of glaucoma diagnosis or suspicion who had undergone applanation tonometry examination are presented. All participants received a standardized protocol included...

  13. Black intraocular lens: another cosmetic approach to leukocoria

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa, C; Pina, S.; Azevedo, A.; Pêgo, P; Feijóo, B; Prieto, I

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – To present a case report of a black intraocular lens implantation for cosmetic improvement of a blind eye with leukocoria. Setting – Ophthalmology Department - Professor Dr. Fernando Fonseca Hospital, EPE - Amadora, Lisboa, Portugal Methods – We report a 32-year-old woman who was evaluated because of the undesired cosmetic appearance of her amblyopic left eye with exotropia and leukocoria due to traumatic cataract and total retinal detachment during childhood. The Examination ...

  14. Single-optic positional accommodating intraocular lenses: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Juan, Javier; Piñero Llorens, David Pablo; Larrañaga Murueta-Goyena, Ane

    2014-01-01

    Presbyopia is an age-related physiological condition that causes a gradual loss in the ability to focus on near objects, secondary to changes in zonular fibers, ciliary muscle and crystalline lens. Different surgical approaches are being pursued to surgically compensate presbyopia, such as corneal techniques or implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs); however, their inability to restore accommodation has led to the development of single-optic positional accommodative IOLs. The ax...

  15. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  16. The dangers of metal-loop intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, D D

    1977-10-01

    The author implanted 500 intraocular lenses (IOLs) during intracapsular surgery. Data from the 60 lenses with metal posterior loops showed a markedly high incidence of complication compared to plastic loops: twice as many overall complications, three times the cystoid mascular edema, three times the rate for subsequent corrective surgical procedures, and 30 times more IOLs had to be removed. IOL manufacturers are advised to abandon metal loops for intracapsular implantation. Polypropylene is suggested as the apparent ideal loop material. PMID:304550

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO CATARACT SURGERY WITH INTRAOCULAR LENS IMPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, S.; Chakraborty, P.K.; Gurunadh, V.S.; Ratha, P.

    1995-01-01

    A prospective study of fifty patients who underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was undertaken. Factors aggravating and allaying pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative anxiety were studied A good doctor-patient relations/lip, confidence in the ophthalmologist, and knowledge of successful surgery with IOL implantation in an acquaintance were the major anxiety relieving factors. The main anxiety provoking factors were concerns about the success of surger...

  18. An Unusual Case of Marble Intraocular Foreign Body

    OpenAIRE

    Omoti Afekhide; Dawodu Oseluese; Ogbeide Osesogie

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a case of marble intraocular foreign body that developed toxic complications during surgery. The patient is a 25 years old male who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital with a history of trauma to the right eye while cutting marble. He was examined, had an ocular ultrasound scan and subsequently had an extracapsular cataract extraction. His visual acuity in the right eye was light perception. There was an entry point on the cornea, the lens was opaque, t...

  19. Intraocular lens exchange through a 3.2-mm corneal incision for opacified intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubaloglu Anil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate visual and refractive results and complications of intraocular lens (IOL exchange through a 3.2 mm corneal incision for opacified IOLs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised 33 eyes of 32 patients with IOL opacification requiring an IOL exchange between July 2003 and March 2007. Exchange surgery was performed through a 3.2-mm temporal clear corneal incision followed by implantation of a new foldable hydrophobic IOL. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, topographical astigmatism, and refractive cylinder were evaluated. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA was calculated and complications were recorded. Results: Opacification was observed in 25 eyes (76% with Aqua-Sense, 3 eyes (9% with Hydroview, 3 eyes (9% with MemoryLens IOLs, and 2 eyes (6% with DgR. The mean follow-up period was 36.54 months. An uneventful IOL exchange was achieved in 18 eyes (55%. Zonular dehiscence occurred in 9 eyes (27%, and posterior capsule tear developed in 4 eyes (12%. The mean preoperative BSCVA (mean ± standard deviation, decimal scale was 0.13 ± 0.08 (mean: 20/150, range 20/2000 to 20/60 and improved to 0.63 ± 0.18 (mean: 20/32, range 20/60 to 20/20, P < 0.001. The mean SIA was 0.70 D. Seven eyes (21% had 0.5 D or lower SIA. Conclusion: IOL exchange is a technically challenging procedure with potential risks of reversing the advantages of a prior small-incision cataract surgery. The use of a small corneal incision for IOL exchange could preserve the advantages of modern phacoemulsification surgery with acceptable SIA related to the procedure.

  20. Metabolic syndrome: a risk factor for high intraocular pressure in the Israeli population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamara; Wygnanski-Jaffe; Itzhak; Bieran; Dorit; Tekes-Manova; Yair; Morad; Isaac; Ashkenazi; Eedy; Mezer

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association among elevated intraocular pressure(IOP), the metabolic syndrome(Met S), body mass index(BMI), and some of their components in the Israeli population.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of12 747 soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces, aged 35 y or older, who underwent a routine periodical medical examination between 1991 and 2004. None of the subjects received medical treatment for either glaucoma or ocular hypertension. High IOP(>21 mm Hg) was correlated with age, sex, arterial blood pressure, total blood cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI and Met S.RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between the IOP of subjects with a low risk and higher risk for the development of Met S(P <0.0001 for males, P =0.0026 for females). A statistically significant positive correlation was found in male subjects between high BMI and elevated IOP(r =0.11677, P <0.0001).CONCLUSION: Met S and BMI were significantly more prevalent in subjects with increased IOP levels. We suggest that both should be taken into consideration in the assessment of glaucoma suspects.

  1. Intraocular nematode with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariah Sakinah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Live intraocular nematode is a rare occurrence. Nematode can migrate actively within the eye, creating visual symptoms and damaging ocular tissue. Case presentation A 26-year old man presented with painless reduced vision of the left eye for one week duration. It was associated with floaters. Visual acuity on the left eye was hand movement. Anterior segment examination was normal with normal intra-ocular pressure. Fundus examination showed a live nematode lying subretinally at the macular area with macular oedema and multifocal chorioretinal lesions at peripheral retina. There was no vitritis, vasculitis or any retinal hemorrhage. Systemic examination revealed normal findings and laboratory studies only showed leucocytosis with normal eosinophil count and negative serum toxocara antibody. The diagnosis of introcular nematode with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis was made. He was treated with oral anti-helminths and a course of oral steroid at a reducing dose. The nematode had died evidenced by its immobility during the treatment and finally disintegrated, leaving macular oedema with mottling appearance and mild hyperpigmentation. Multifocal chorioretinal lesions had also resolved. However despite treatment his visual acuity during follow-up had remained poor. Conclusions Cases of intraocular nematode, though not commonly encountered, continue to present the ophthalmologist with the problem of diagnosis and management and hence poorer prognosis to the patient.

  2. Evaluating the method increasing of toric intraocular lenses rotational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Fedjashev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To suggest a safe and effective way to improve the rotational stability of the position of toric the intraocular lenses in the capsular bag.Patients and methods.86 patients (97 eyes with corneal astigmatism undergoing cataract surgery and Acrysof Toric (Alcon, USA intraocular lens implantation. In 42 patients (47 eyes, the intraocular lens (IOL were implanted in accordance with the proposed invention.Results. Average rotation angle IOL implanted by traditional technology was 2,2±2,0 degrees during 12 months. In patients with IOL implanted by the proposed method, the average angle of rotation of the IOL in all operated eyes was significantly lower and amounted to 0,8±1,2 degrees (p <0,05. Сonclusion. The proposed method of fixing the toric IOL provides for prevention the IOL rotation and decentration relative to the eye optical axis, take steps to prevent phimosis anterior lens capsule, maintaining high visual function for a long time, and as there is no need for repeated surgery.

  3. Sunlight exposure as risk factor for intraocular malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a case-control study, the authors compared 444 patients with intraocular malignant melanoma with matched controls to evaluate the role of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and other risk factors in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Persons born in the southern United States had a relative risk of 2.7 (95 per cent confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.9) as compared with those born in the North. Subjects with brown eyes were protected as compared with those with blue eyes (relative risk, 0.6; 95 per cent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.8), but complexion and hair color were not important risk factors. Patients with intraocular malignant melanoma were also more likely to have spent time outdoors in their gardens, to have sunbathed, and to have used sunlamps. Rarely wearing hats, visors, or sunglasses while in the sun was a risk factor for the disease (relative risk, 1.9; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.2). These data suggest that sunlight exposure is an important risk factor for intraocular melanoma

  4. An unusual case of marble intraocular foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoti Afekhide

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of marble intraocular foreign body that developed toxic complications during surgery. The patient is a 25 years old male who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital with a history of trauma to the right eye while cutting marble. He was examined, had an ocular ultrasound scan and subsequently had an extracapsular cataract extraction. His visual acuity in the right eye was light perception. There was an entry point on the cornea, the lens was opaque, there was vitreous haemorrhage and the intraocular foreign body was localized in the posterior part of the posterior segment by ultrasound scan. He had extracapsular cataract extraction. During anterior capsulotomy, the cornea suddenly and rapidly became cloudy with a brownish tinge and the corneal epithelium started desquamating.Marble on its own may not be toxic but the other chemicals including cement, used in the processing of the marble were responsible for this delayed toxicity. Ultrasound scan is valuable in localisation of intraocular foreign bodies.

  5. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Steigerwalt, Robert D; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina; Schönlau, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 su...

  6. Successful Removal of Large Intraocular Foreign Body by 25-Gauge Microincision Vitrectomy Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Kunikata; Megumi Uematsu; Toru Nakazawa; Nobuo Fuse

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new technique for removing a large intraocular foreign body by 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery (25G-MIVS). Noncomparative interventional case series were performed at a single centre. Two patients with a long smooth intraocular vitreal foreign body underwent phacoemulsification and aspiration, intraocular lens implantation, 25G-MIVS, and extraction of the foreign body. The foreign body was removed through a posterior capsulorhexis, anterior continuous curvilinear capsu...

  7. Bilateral spontaneous dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens in a patient with gyrate atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with gyrate atrophy, a rare metabolic disease, who had bilateral late spontaneous posterior dislocation of in-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy, PCIOL retrieval and anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. This report may imply that patients with gyrate atrophy are at risk for spontaneous dislocation of intraocular lenses.

  8. Extracapsular cataract extraction : the fate of retained lens material and intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Kappelhof, Johan

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to examine the fate of the lens material that remains in the eye after an extracapsular cataract extraction both with and without insertion of an intraocular lens. Apart from this, the development of precipitates on the intraocular lenses was morphologically investigated in order to get a better understanding of the interactions between eye and intraocular lens. This thesis is divided into a first part covering animal experiments and a second part about m...

  9. Keeping an eye on dialysis: the association of hemodialysis with intraocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Jeffrey H; Gilbert, Aubrey L; Rosas, Sylvia E

    2015-11-01

    Intraocular hypertension is common during hemodialysis. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and intraocular hypertension occur via similar pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may contribute to the development of glaucoma and cataracts in a patient population already at high risk for ocular abnormalities, given the common risk factors for chronic kidney disease and impaired aqueous humor outflow. We describe a patient with complicated diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, and recent cataract surgery who developed severe intraocular hypertension during hemodialysis. We recommend increased awareness of the symptoms of intraocular hypertension and subsequent ophthalmologic surveillance in order to prevent long-term visual complications. PMID:26042412

  10. Preoperative automatic visual behavioural analysis as a tool for intraocular lens choice in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Neumann Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cataract is the main cause of blindness, affecting 18 million people worldwide, with the highest incidence in the population above 50 years of age. Low visual acuity caused by cataract may have a negative impact on patient quality of life. The current treatment is surgery in order to replace the natural lens with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL, which can be mono- or multifocal. However, due to potential side effects, IOLs must be carefully chosen to ensure higher patient satisfaction. Thus, studies on the visual behavior of these patients may be an important tool to determine the best type of IOL implantation. This study proposed an anamnestic add-on for optimizing the choice of IOL. Methods: We used a camera that automatically takes pictures, documenting the patient’s visual routine in order to obtain additional information about the frequency of distant, intermediate, and near sights. Results: The results indicated an estimated frequency percentage, suggesting that visual analysis of routine photographic records of a patient with cataract may be useful for understanding behavioural gaze and for choosing visual management strategy after cataract surgery, simultaneously stimulating interest for customized IOL manufacturing according to individual needs.

  11. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  12. A capacitor-based sensor and a contact lens sensing system for intraocular pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a capacitor-based sensor on a soft contact lens for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). The sensor was designed and fabricated via microelectromechanical system fabrication technologies. The soft contact lens is designed to be worn on a cornea such that the curvature of the contact lens corresponds substantially to that of the cornea. In addition, the contact lens was fabricated via a cast-molding method using poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate to achieve a lens with high oxygen permeability, which can be worn comfortably for a long time. An IOP sensor prototype was implemented, which exhibited 1.2239 pF mmHg-1 (13,171 ppm mmHg-1) sensitivity during measurements of an artificial anterior chamber at pressures between 18 and 30 mmHg. The results indicate that the developed capacitor-based IOP sensor exhibited high stability and reproducibility in a series of measurements performed under various pressures. The capacitance of the proposed IOP sensor can successfully be converted into a digital value via a capacitor-to-digital converter and be transmitted via a commercial wireless telemetry system in this study.

  13. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  14. INTRAOCULAR AND SERUM LEVELS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS AND OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiertz, Karin; De Visser, Lenneke; Rijkers, Ger; De Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda; Los, Leonie; Rothova, Aniki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the intraocular and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and compare those with VEGF levels found in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Methods: Paired intraocular fluid and serum samples of 17 patients with

  15. Unilateral Crystalline Vitreoretinopathy: A Rare Entity Associated with Intraocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh B. Harshey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old Indian male presented with floaters and diminution of vision in the right eye. Ocular examination showed features of old anterior uveitis with posterior subcapsular cataract and fine, refractile crystals in the vitreous cavity and on the retinal surface. A thorough workup for all known causes of crystalline retinopathy was inconclusive. Unilateral crystalline retinopathy has been sparingly reported. This is the first report of unilateral, crystalline vitreoretinopathy in the absence of any demonstrable and known cause for intraocular crystals.

  16. Probable edge defect in Acrysof single-piece intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Urmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to report an edge defect in single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL observed during a routine phacoemulsification procedure. The chip was successfully removed intraoperatively with a McPherson′s forceps. However, six months postoperatively patient complained of a disturbing glare due to posterior capsular folds originating from the site of IOL defect. Patient was advised, however refused to undergo Nd:Yag laser capsulotomy to relieve the symptoms. This case highlights the necessity to check each foldable IOL under the microscope before loading it into the cartridge, for possible edge defects.

  17. Astigmatism correction in cataract surgery with Rayner toric intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Sally L Painter, Kikkeri S Arun, Jonathan K Kam, CK PatelOxford Eye Hospital, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford, United KingdomBackground: Cataract surgery is increasingly regarded as a refractive procedure. Corneal astigmatism can be reduced by the insertion of a toric intraocular lens (T-IOL). Rayner T-flex T-IOLs are licensed for the correction of astigmatism.Methods: In this retrospective study, 46 eyes from 34 patients, in whom T-IOLs were inserted, have been exami...

  18. Intraocular implants for the surgical correction of presbyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Rol, Pascal O.; Tahi, Hassan; Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Hamaoui, Marie; Ho, Arthur; Holden, Brien

    2000-06-01

    The surgical techniques proposed to restore accommodation past the onset of presbyopia can be categorized in two classes, those based of scleral expansion and those based on intraocular lens implantation and lens capsule refilling. This paper describes and discusses the different techniques and summarizes the results of clinical and experimental animal trials. Restoration of accommodation has been demonstrated by at least two different teams in non-human senile primates using modifications of the lens capsule refilling technique originally described by Julius Kessler in the late fifties. The advent of recent advances in microsurgery, devices, and injectable polymers are very promising and human clinical trials may soon be envisaged.

  19. Silicone oil-intraocular lens interaction: which lens to use?

    OpenAIRE

    McLoone, E; Mahon, G; Archer, D.; Best, R

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To determine a suitable intraocular lens for implantation in patients at high risk of lens exposure to silicone oil in their lifetime.
METHODS—PMMA, AcrySof, AR40, AQUA-Sense, and Raysoft lenses were examined. Each lens was immersed for 5 minute intervals in balanced salt solution (BSS), in stained silicone oil, and again in BSS before being photographed in air and in BSS. Percentage silicone oil coverage of the lens optic was determined.
RESULTS—The mean percentage coating (MPC) for the ...

  20. Persistently raised intraocular pressure following extracapsular cataract extraction.

    OpenAIRE

    David, R; Tessler, Z.; Yagev, R.; BRISCOE, D; Biedner, B. Z.; Gilad, E.; YASSUR;, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In this population based study we have reviewed the files of all patients who underwent an extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) between 1984 and 1987, were normotensives prior to surgery, and were followed up for at least 10 months after the ECCE. From a total of 1047 operations 746 qualified for the inclusion criteria; of these, 16 (2.1%) were found to have a consistently raised intraocular pressure (greater than 21 mmHg) on more than two occasions) at four months or later after surgery ...

  1. Successful toric intraocular lens implantation in a patient with induced cataract and astigmatism after posterior chamber toric phakic intraocular lens implantation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya Kazutaka; Nakamura Akio; Miyake Hideyuki; Nishimoto Hiroyuki; Shimizu Kimiya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We report the case of a patient in whom simultaneous toric phakic intraocular lens removal and phacoemulsification with toric intraocular lens implantation were beneficial for reducing pre-existing astigmatism and acquiring good visual outcomes in eyes with implantable collamer lens-induced cataract and astigmatism. Case presentation A 53-year-old woman had undergone toric implantable collamer lens implantation three years earlier. After informed consent was obtained, we...

  2. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  3. Analyses of ERG in a patient with intraocular lymphoma

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    Chieko Yasuda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chieko Yasuda, Shinji Ueno, Mineo Kondo, Nagako Kondo, Chang-Hua Piao, Hiroko TerasakiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, JapanPurpose: To follow the changes in the electroretinograms (ERGs in a patient with primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL who had a complete remission after chemotherapy. Methods: ERGs were recorded in a 41-year-old woman with PIOL during and after complete remission with chemotherapy. The patient was diagnosed with PIOL from both the ocular signs and the medical history of cranial lymphoma.Results: The ERGs were depressed in the subject. The amplitudes of the bright white flash b-waves were smaller than the a-waves, resulting in a “negative type” ERG. Six weeks after the beginning of chemotherapy, the ocular changes had resolved, and the ERGs, although not of the “negative type”, still showed signs that the amplitude had not returned to normal levels.Conclusion: The negative type ERGs indicated that the inner retina had been damaged to a greater extent than the outer retina. In the convalescent stage, when the ocular manifestations were resolved, the ERGs were still not fully recovered. Although only one case was studied, we suggest that ERGs can be used to evaluate and follow patients with a PIOL.Keywords: electroretinogram, primary intraocular lymphoma, uveitis masquerade syndrome

  4. Intraocular lenses and clinical treatment in paediatric cataract

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    Camila Ribeiro Koch Pena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cataract is the most common treatable cause of blindness in children. Prevalence, etiology and morphology vary with the socioeconomic development. The treatment goal is to reduce amblyopia, being difficult management especially in unilateral cases. The decision on aphakia or primary intraocular lens should be individualized as well as correction with contact lens or spectacles. The intraocular lens single-piece hydrophobic acrylic are the most implanted in children and the preferably is in the capsular bag. The Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T stressing that is described as more predictable, following Holladay I and SRK II and the recommendation is to under correction +6.0 or +8.0 dioptrias expecting the growth of the eye. The posterior capsule opacity is the most frequent complication and varies with the material choice of the lens. Glaucoma is the most serious postoperative complication and depends on the timing of the surgery, primary lens implantation and time of post surgical follow-up. The adherence to occlusion therapy with patching is critical to the visual prognosis and is determined by the child’s age and laterality of the cataract. There was significant improvement in the surgery and in IOLs, however the final visual prognosis is still not desirable.

  5. Epidermoid carcinomas of the conjunctive with intraorbital and intraocular invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidermoid carcinomas of the conjunctive are tumors in general of low incidence with a range between 0.13 and 1.9 cases for 100,000 inhabitants; this incidence is superior however in tropical countries. The incidences reported for intra orbital and intraocular invasive forms have a range between 2 and 12% which demonstrates the aggressive character of this tumor. The handling of epidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctive in initial stages is very conservative, but in their natural history this tumor can invade the ocular globe, orbit, neighboring regions and distant organs, thereby of importance an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment. Our objective was to know the incidence of epidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva with intraocular and intra orbital invasion in the Havana National Oncology Institute. We carry out a retrospective and descriptive study of 18 patients with clinical diagnoses and histology of epidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva with orbit infiltration assisted from January of 1995 until December 2003 classified as T4 NO MO. The evaluated parameters were: age, sex, initial treatment and evolution. Middle aged of our serie it was 58.7 years, excisional surgery and deep radiotherapy was the initial treatment applied in 83.33% of the cases. In its evolution eight cases (44.44%) of the patients had unfavorable result and radical surgery was carried out in 50% of the patients. (The author)

  6. Role of cataract surgery in lowering intraocular pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effects of cataract surgery in lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP). Study Design: Retrospective study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Ophthalmology, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2011 to December 2013. Patients and Methods: The study included a total of 250 patients; of which 100 cases had simple cataract with no coexisting disease, 100 cases had cataract with primary open angle glaucoma and 50 cases of cataract had accompanying pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. All patients were assessed and recorded preoperatively for their IOP, vision, depth of anterior chamber (ACD), angle of anterior chamber by gonioscopy and glaucoma medications being used. Cataract surgery was performed by phacoemulsification and IOL implantations in all cases. These patients were followed up for a period of six months. Results: The intraocular ressure of all these patients was recorded at monthly interval for six months. The IOP showed a significant decrease in all cases and remained constant till the end of the study. A marked improvement of vision was noted in all cases. The depth of the anterior chamber increased and the angle also widened in all cases. Discussion: Cataract surgery has been found to reduce IOP along with improvement in vision. Patients with glaucoma have a dual benefit of reduced IOP and visual improvement after cataract surgery. (author)

  7. Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, N. E. Sverker

    1995-11-01

    The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolutionefficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on.

  8. Effect of hemodialysis on intraocular lens power calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Sinan; Çelikay, Osman; Biçer, Tolga; Aylı, Mehmet Deniz; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-03-01

    Background To evaluate changes in ocular biometric parameters after hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods Forty eyes of 40 patients undergoing HD were included in this cross-sectional study. Keratometry (K) readings, white-to-white (WTW) distance, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), and intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation were measured with Lenstar LS 900 (Haag Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland) before and after hemodialysis. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a non-contact tonometer (Tonopachy NT-530P, Nidek Co., LTD, Tokyo, Japan). Main outcomes were changes in biometric parameters after HD. Reliability of the measurements (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)) and the effect size (Cohen's d) were also calculated. Results Mean difference in AL before and after HD was -0.041 ± 0.022 mm with ICCs > 0.90 (p  0.90 (p = 0.041 and Cohen's d = 0.20). Hemodialysis had no significant effect on K readings, WTW distance, CCT, ACD, LT, or IOP. Conclusion Axial length and pupil diameter increase after HD with small effect size, while HD does not significantly affect IOL power calculations. PMID:26707804

  9. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. We here present the effects of this supplement on IOP in comparison as well as in combination with latanoprost eye drops. Methods: Seventy-nine patients with asymptomatic ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to three groups receiving either the supplement, or latanoprost eye drops, or both in combination. Intraocular pressure and retinal blood flow were investigated in monthly intervals over 24 weeks.Results: Mirtogenol alone lowered IOP from baseline 38.1 to 29.0 mmHg after 16 weeks, with little further improvement during the following eight weeks. Latanoprost rapidly lowered IOP from baseline 37.7 to 27.2 mmHg within four weeks, without further effects thereafter. The combination of the supplement and latanoprost lowered IOP from 38.0 to 27.3 mmHg after four weeks, and further decreased IOP to 24.2 mmHg after six weeks. After 24 weeks IOP with the combination treatment (23.0 mmHg was significantly lower than with latanoprost alone (27.2 mmHg. Mirtogenol and latanoprost individually showed comparable effects for gradually increasing central artery blood flow with treatment duration. Combination treatment showed higher systolic blood flow velocity throughout the trial period. The diastolic blood flow velocity gradually increased with treatment duration in all three groups. From twelve weeks onwards, the diastolic component with combination treatment was higher than with individual treatments.Conclusions: Mirtogenol lowered elevated IOP in patients almost as effectively as

  10. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

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    Bingsheng Lou

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014.A total of 153 (30.6% of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9% and intravitreal injection (42.0%. Cephalosporins (53.8% and vancomycin (42.0% were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%, and aminoglycosides (13.4%. Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7% replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4% (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test.Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  11. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

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    Korenfeld MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulated eyes. Methods: A thin fluid-filled bladder was constructed from flexible and inelastic plastic sheeting and was connected to a pressure transducer with high pressure tubing. The output of the pressure transducer was sent to an amplifier and recorded. This device was validated by measuring induced pressure in the fluid-filled bladder while digital pressure was applied to one surface, and the other surface was placed directly against a human cadaver eye or in vivo pig eye. The human cadaver and in vivo pig eyes were each cannulated to provide a manometric intraocular pressure control. Results: The measurements obtained with the newly described device were within ~5% of simultaneously measured manometric intraocular pressures in both a human cadaver and in vivo pig eye model for a pressure range of ~15–100 mmHg. Conclusion: This novel noninvasive device is useful for estimating the intraocular pressure transients induced during any form of external globe compression; this is a clinical setting where no other devices can be used to estimate intraocular pressure. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, tonometer, ocular compression

  12. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Junlian; Yang, Yao; Yuan, Zhaohui; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR) code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014. Results A total of 153 (30.6%) of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9%) and intravitreal injection (42.0%). Cephalosporins (53.8%) and vancomycin (42.0%) were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%), and aminoglycosides (13.4%). Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7%) replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4%) (p = 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). Conclusions Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis. PMID:27275777

  13. Two cases of intraocular lymphoma diagnosed by analyses of vitreous and infusion fluid

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    Matsuoka M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Masato Matsuoka,1 Hideyuki Yoshida,1 Yuichi Kinoshita,2 Tetsuya Nishimura11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Histopathology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, JapanPurpose: Intraocular lymphomas are rare, and they have poor prognosis. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment are needed. A definitive diagnosis of a lymphoma is based on cytological analysis of the intraocular fluids or tissues. We report two cases of intraocular lymphoma diagnosed by the analyses of vitreous and infusion fluid.Patients: Case 1 was a 66-year-old woman who complained of eye floaters and was found to have diffuse vitreous opacification bilaterally. She received corticosteroid therapy, however the vitreous opacification was not resolved, and her visual acuity (VA remained reduced. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV, and vitreous and infusion fluid were collected to determine the cause of the reduced VA. The undiluted vitreous obtained from core PPV was submitted for cytokine analysis, and infusion fluid was obtained from the machine cassette after full PPV and used for cytological analysis. Case 2 was a 62-year-old man referred with low vision and was found to have diffuse vitreous opacification in the right eye and dot hemorrhages in both eyes. Four years earlier, he had been diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses and was in remission after chemotherapy. Because metastasis of the lymphoma was suspected, he underwent PPV, and intraocular samples were collected as in Case 1.Results: Atypical lymphoid cells were detected from the infusion fluid in both cases. The ratio of interleukin (IL-10 to IL-6 was greater than 1.0 in both cases. These results allowed us to make a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma: primary intraocular lymphoma in Case 1 and metastatic intraocular lymphoma in Case 2.Conclusion: Vitreous and infusion fluid collected during PPV can be used for diagnosing an intraocular lymphoma

  14. Associations with Intraocular Pressure in a Large Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Grossi, Carlota M.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Patel, Praveen J.; Khaw, Peng T.; Morgan, James E.; Vernon, Stephen A.; Foster, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the associations of physical and demographic factors with Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) in a British cohort. Design Cross-sectional study within the UK Biobank, a large-scale multisite cohort study in the United Kingdom. Participants We included 110 573 participants from the UK Biobank with intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements available. Their mean age was 57 years (range, 40–69 years); 54% were women, and 90% were white. Methods Participants had 1 IOP measurement made on each eye using the Ocular Response Analyzer noncontact tonometer. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations of IOP with physical and demographic factors. Main Outcome Measures The IOPg and IOPcc. Results The mean IOPg was 15.72 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.70–15.74 mmHg), and the mean IOPcc was 15.95 mmHg (15.92–15.97 mmHg). After adjusting for covariates, IOPg and IOPcc were both significantly associated with older age, male sex, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), faster heart rate, greater myopia, self-reported glaucoma, and colder season (all P < 0.001). The strongest determinants of both IOPg and IOPcc were SBP (partial R2: IOPg 2.30%, IOPcc 2.26%), followed by refractive error (IOPg 0.60%, IOPcc 1.04%). The following variables had different directions of association with IOPg and IOPcc: height (−0.77 mmHg/m IOPg; 1.03 mmHg/m IOPcc), smoking (0.19 mmHg IOPg, −0.35 mmHg IOPcc), self-reported diabetes (0.41 mmHg IOPg, −0.05 mmHg IOPcc), and black ethnicity (−0.80 mmHg IOPg, 0.77 mmHg IOPcc). This suggests that height, smoking, diabetes, and ethnicity are related to corneal biomechanical properties. The increase in both IOPg and IOPcc with age was greatest among those of mixed ethnicities, followed by blacks and whites. The same set of covariates explained 7.4% of the variability of IOPcc but only 5.3% of the variability of IOPg. Conclusions This analysis

  15. Change in Intraocular Pressure During Point-of-Care Ultrasound

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    Berg, Cameron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Point-of-care ocular ultrasound (US is a valuable tool for the evaluation of traumatic ocular injuries. Conventionally, any maneuver that may increase intraocular pressure (IOP is relatively contraindicated in the setting of globe rupture. Some authors have cautioned against the use of US in these scenarios because of a theoretical concern that an US examination may cause or exacerbate the extrusion of intraocular contents. This study set out to investigate whether ocular US affects IOP. The secondary objective was to validate the intraocular pressure measurements obtained with the Diaton® as compared with standard applanation techniques (the Tono-Pen®.   Methods: We enrolled a convenience sample of healthy adult volunteers. We obtained the baseline IOP for each patient by using a transpalpebral tonometer. Ocular US was then performed on each subject using a high-frequency linear array transducer, and a second IOP was obtained during the US examination. A third IOP measurement was obtained following the completion of the US examination. To validate transpalpebral measurement, a subset of subjects also underwent traditional transcorneal applanation tonometry prior to the US examination as a baseline measurement. In a subset of 10 patients, we obtained baseline pre-ultrasound IOP measurements with the Diaton® and Tono-Pen®, and then compared them.   Results: The study included 40 subjects. IOP values during ocular US examination were slightly greater than baseline (average +1.8mmHg, p=0.01. Post-US examination IOP values were not significantly different than baseline (average -0.15mmHg, p=0.42. In a subset of 10 subjects, IOP values were not significantly different between transpalpebral and transcorneal tonometry (average +0.03mmHg, p=0.07.   Conclusion: In healthy volunteer subjects, point-of-care ocular US causes a small and transient increase in IOP. We also showed no difference between the Diaton® and Tono-Pen® methods

  16. Intraocular inflammation as the main manifestation of Rickettsia conorii infection

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    Orduña A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Archimedes LD Agahan1,3, Jenice Torres1, Graciana Fuentes-Páez1, Hernan Martínez-Osorio1, Antonio Orduña2, Margarita Calonge11Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Unit, Institute of Applied Ophthalmobiology (IOBA, 2Microbiology Department, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of the Philippines, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, PhilippinesObjective: To report the clinical features and management of seven cases of intraocular inflammation caused by Rickettsia infection and review published literature.Methods: Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia spp. infection was diagnosed based on the following criteria: (1 positive serology according to the European Guidelines, (2 titer normalization after specific treatment, and (3 complete resolution of ophthalmic disease and accompanying symptoms after antibiotic therapy.Results: Seven patients were referred for uveitis of unknown etiology. All came from regions where Mediterranean spotted fever is prevalent. One patient met the European guidelines criteria for Rickettsia spp. infection, while the other six cases met the criteria for R. conorii infection. The main symptoms were visual loss, floaters, eye redness, photophobia, and ocular pain. Predominant ophthalmic signs included vasculitis, choroiditis, vitritis, and macular edema. All patients required antibiotic treatment that resulted in the remission of the infection. Doxycycline was the first choice and the only antibiotic used to treat four patients. One patient needed ciprofloxacin as a second antibiotic after not responding to doxycycline. Two patients had doxycycline as a second antibiotic after not responding primarily to sulfonamides (which had been given after 2–3 days of doxycycline gastric intolerance; one of these patients needed ciprofloxacin as a third antibiotic.Conclusion: Intraocular inflammation can occur as the main manifestation of Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia spp

  17. Tilt and decentration tolerance of intraocular lenses: measurements with an improved mechanical model eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Lukas; Reutterer, Bernd; Bayer, Natascha; Rank, Elisabet; Krause, Sylvio; Beckert, Erik; Drauschke, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Cataract, a clouding of the crystalline eye lens, is the leading cause of blindness. It can effectively be treated by cataract surgery, where the clouded lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). Postoperative healing processes can cause a displacement of the IOL, which further leads to the fact that the quality of vision is deteriorated. Studies have shown that the imaging quality of high sophisticated IOL designs is more sensitive to lens displacements than simpler designs. The effects of IOL displacements are not well represented and tested within the current IOL test standard ISO 11979-2. This fact leads to the necessity to develope new test standards for novel and more sophisticated IOL designs. In this paper we present an improved model eye, which extends the current standard in three main aspects: First, the eye-model is very close to the physiology of the human eye. Second, electromechanic drives allow an automatic and precise simulation of postoperative lens tilts and decentrations, and finally in addition to standard conform MTF analysis, in the proposed setup also wavefront aberrations are measured. The latter reveals specific image aberrations caused by lens displacements. The model eye allows to objectively analyze the displacement tolerance of various IOL designs. The functionality of this novel setup is tested by measuring a spherical and an aspheric IOL design. Additionally, for comparison, IOLs that were already investigated with a previous version of the presented model eye are used for analysis. Measurements results reveal improvements compared to the previous version of the model eye and a functional prototype for wavefront measurement.

  18. Reproducibility analysis of measurements with a mechanical semiautomatic eye model for evaluation of intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Reutterer, Bernd; Lux, Kirsten; Drauschke, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical eye models are used to validate ex vivo the optical quality of intraocular lenses (IOLs). The quality measurement and test instructions for IOLs are defined in the ISO 11979-2. However, it was mentioned in literature that these test instructions could lead to inaccurate measurements in case of some modern IOL designs. Reproducibility of alignment and measurement processes are presented, performed with a semiautomatic mechanical ex vivo eye model based on optical properties published by Liou and Brennan in the scale 1:1. The cornea, the iris aperture and the IOL itself are separately changeable within the eye model. The adjustment of the IOL can be manipulated by automatic decentration and tilt of the IOL in reference to the optical axis of the whole system, which is defined by the connection line of the central point of the artificial cornea and the iris aperture. With the presented measurement setup two quality criteria are measurable: the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the Strehl ratio. First the reproducibility of the alignment process for definition of initial conditions of the lateral position and tilt in reference to the optical axis of the system is investigated. Furthermore, different IOL holders are tested related to the stable holding of the IOL. The measurement is performed by a before-after comparison of the lens position using a typical decentration and tilt tolerance analysis path. Modulation transfer function MTF and Strehl ratio S before and after this tolerance analysis are compared and requirements for lens holder construction are deduced from the presented results.

  19. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  20. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  1. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed.

  2. Ectopic intraocular lens: An unusual complication of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul A Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We wish to report an unusual complication of intraocular lens (IOL insertion following uneventful phacoemulsification. After successful phacoemulsification surgery, a hydrophobic acrylic IOL was loaded in the injector for insertion into the capsular bag. During insertion, the IOL inadvertently extended into the corneal stromal lamella. The complication was recognized at a late stage, and the foldable acrylic lens was retrieved and reinserted correctly in the bag. The anterior chamber was made viscoelastically taut and was maintained in this state for 10 min, followed by a routine viscoelastic wash and air bubble injection. Cornea was slightly edematous with stromal haze, and the corneal thickness was 908 μm. At the 1-month follow-up visit, the patient′s vision was 20/40, the stromal haze had subsided, the corneal thickness was 572 μm, and the patient was comfortable. Though it was unknown complication, following proper management patient recovered satisfactorily.

  3. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Petricli, İkbal Seza; Karakaya, Jale; Ozcan, Beyza; Yucel, Husniye; Kavurt, Aysen Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) of premature infants and to document correlation of them with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight of infants. Using a hand-held applanation tonometer and a portable pachymeter, IOP and CCT of 170 premature infants were measured just before initial retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and re-measured 4 weeks after the first visit. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated during the first (r = 0.616, p premature infants with a smaller gestational age were found to be higher (p Premature infants with smaller gestational age have higher CCT and IOP values when compared to older infants. These values tend to become lower 4 weeks after the first examination as infants become older. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated with each other and both were negatively correlated with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight during first and second visits. PMID:26286757

  4. [To guard against mistakes in selection of intraocular lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shou-zhi

    2008-04-01

    Development of different kinds of new intraocular lenses (IOL) provide more selections to meet various clinical requirements, which may plays an active role in making cataract surgery more perfectible. But there are many misunderstandings about how to select the proper IOL. For example, "the expensive one is the best one", "new product is absolutely perfect", and so on. Some surgeons prefer more practice and ignore the summary of the experiences. Someone unilaterally exaggerates some special function of IOL When selecting the IOL, it is a common challenge for us to fully consider the patients needs, and properly manage the relationship between the basic need and special need, and to avoid fanaticism, and provide the best benefits to the patients. PMID:18844010

  5. Intraocular electro-optic lens with ciliary muscle controlled accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornaert, Dries; Glorieux, Christ; De Gersem, Herbert; Puers, Robert; Spileers, Werner; Blanckaert, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a concept is proposed of an intraocular lens implant with electro-optic accommodation of a variable-focus hybrid liquid-crystal-based lens. The dioptric strength of the lens is electronically controlled by a signal that is derived from the change of inductance of a sensing coil due to a marker implanted in the nearby contracting or decontracting ciliary muscle. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are reported on the dependency of the frequency of a Colpitts oscillator circuit on the location of a nearby conductive marker. A concept is also reported on the use as an electro-optic lens of a device based on a liquid crystal in planar alignment, which is held between a flat and a curved window coated with optically transparent and electrically conductive layers. PMID:24110406

  6. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  7. The accute effects of resistance exercise on intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Geraldo Magela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study intraocular pressure (IOP variations in healthy volunteers after weight lifting, in the supine position. METHODS: A descriptive study was designed. Thirty-four individuals were preselected for this study, and a group of 25 volunteers fulfilled the inclusion criteria for joining the initial phase of this research. All of them were healthy without glaucoma. They were asked to lift an 85% top load in the supine position for 8 times. IOP was measured before and after the exercise. Student's t test was used to analyze the IOP variations. RESULTS: A small, but significant IOP decrease (1.61 mmHg was obtained after exposing 25 individuals (49 eyes to a specific physical effort. CONCLUSIONS: After a session of weight lifting in the supine position with 85% top load for 8 repetitions, there is a small, but significant IOP decrease.

  8. Intraocular penetration of sequentially instilled topical moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sugioka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Koji Sugioka1, Masahiko Fukuda1, Shohei Komoto1, Motoki Itahashi1, Masakazu Yamada2, Yoshikazu Shimomura11Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka, Japan; 2Division for Vision Research, National Institute of Sensory Organs, National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The objective of the study was to compare the intraocular penetration levels of the newer fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin in the rabbit’s cornea, aqueous humor, and conjunctiva after topical instillation.Methods: 0.5% moxifloxacin, 0.3% gatifloxacin, and 0.5% levofloxacin were instilled in random sequence in both eyes of nine New Zealand White rabbits at two-minute intervals. Instillation was repeated every 15 minutes for a total of three drops of each fluoroquinolone per eye. Three additional animals had only moxifloxacin instilled bilaterally using the same schedule. Sixty minutes after the final instillation, the rabbits were sacrificed for determination of corneal, aqueous humor, and conjunctival fluoroquinolone concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved significantly higher concentrations than levofloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea (P = 0.0102 and P = 0.0006, respectively, aqueous humor (P = 0.0015 and P < 0.0001, respectively, and conjunctiva (P = 0.0191 and P = 0.0236, respectively. Conclusions: 0.5% moxifloxacin eyedrops provided superior intraocular penetration in rabbits’ eyes compared with the two other fluoroquinolones, 0.5% levofloxacin and 0.3% gatifloxacin.Keywords: fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penetration, rabbit

  9. Experimental study of aberration characteristics changing in case of intraocular lenses decentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Zhaboiedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the creation of high functional vision in intraocular correction which depends much on the optical properties of implanted IOL is of great importance. So far as even after an impeccably performed operation an IOL decentration occurs that inevitably induces aberrations which reduce the vision of a pseudophakic eye, it is important to use IOL models that are least sensitive to decentration. Purpose. To identify IOL models that are less sensitive to decentration using an artificial model of eye optical system. Material and methods. The experimental study of aberration properties of different IOL models TECNIS®, SA60AT, SN60WF, SL-907 «CentriX DZ» has been conducted on an original model. Results. At first the aberrometry of the eye model was performed without IOL, later an investigated IOL was placed into the eye model and centered by localization of mirror images of LEDs centering. Artificially created IOL decentration along the X-axis had ±0.5mm and ±1.0mm values, IOL angular rotations around the vertical axis were ±4° and ±8°. Decentration of all IOL models as well as its rotation around the vertical axis caused the change in the aberrations amplitude. The study showed that the SL-907 «CentriX DZ» IOL model is less sensitive to any IOL decentration and rotation (tilt, the TECNIS® and SN60WF models are more sensitive. The SA60AT IOL is the most sensitive to the decentr ation and rotation. Conclusions. Thus, the IOL decentration in the range of ±1mm and rotation angles of ±8 degrees cause an increase in the amplitude of the aberration modes, equal values of IOL decentration entail unequal changes in the values of aberrations between different IOL models. It has been found that the SL-907 «CentriX DZ» IOL model is less sensitive to decentration, rotation and tilt, that allows its use in cases with a high risk of its displacement in the postoperative period.

  10. Intraocular pressure in postmenopausal Nigerian women with and without systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ebeigbe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mean intraocular pressure (IOP in postmenopausal women has been reported higher than that in menstruating women. Also, intraocular pressure is said to be positively correlated with systemic blood pressure. No previous study in Nigeria has compared intraocular pressure in postmenopausal women with and without systemic hypertension. Purpose: To investigate the effects of menopause on intraocular pressure in subjects with and without high blood pressure. Methods: Normotensive and hypertensive premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects in the   same agerange of 45 to 55 years were studied. Intraocular pressure was measured with the hand-held Kowa applanation tonometer.  Blood pressure was taken in the sitting position at the right upper arm using a manual mercury sphygmomanometer with the right cuff size. The average of two readings was recorded. Results: Mean IOP for premenopausal normotensive women was 14.58 ± 2.56 mmHg whilethat of postmenopausal normotensive women was16.15 ± 1.80 mmHg (p<0.05.  Also, the difference in mean IOP between premenopausal hypertensive (16.58 ± 3.23 mmHg and postmenopausal hypertensive women (18.24 ± 3.89 mmHgwas statistically significant (p<0.05. A statistically significant and positive correlation was observed between IOP and systemic blood pressure in postmenopausal hypertensive women, p<0.05.Conclusion: Menopause significantly increases intraocular pressure. Mean intraocular pressure of hypertensive postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of normotensive post-menopausal women, (p<0.05. Knowledge of the normal level of intraocular pressure during various stages of the female reproductive cycle may help during glaucoma screening. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(3 117-122

  11. [The progress of studies on intraocular lens implantation in cataract with high myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Wan, Xiuhua

    2015-07-01

    With development of the technology of cataract surgery, combined phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in cataract with high myopia has been widely carried out in clinical treatment. Due to the particularity of high myopia, phacoemulsification in patients with cataract and high myopia is difficult and has recently received a lot of attentions. In this paper, preoperative examinations, the selection of intraocular lenses, surgery methods and surgical complications of cataract surgery in patients with cataract and high myopia are briefly reviewed. PMID:26310259

  12. Primary Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation for Acute Primary Angle-Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Wei-Wen; Chen, Phil Yeong-Fung; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Henry Shen-Lih

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of primary phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with acute primary angle-closure (PAC) and coexisting cataract. Methodology Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with acute PAC received phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation as initial management for medically uncontrolled IOP in a retrospective chart review. The effects on IOP, vision, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and number of antiglaucoma medications were evaluated. Princi...

  13. Dosimetry and treatment planning of Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds for intraocular lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhari Suresh; Deshpande Sudesh; Anand Vivek; Sandeep; Saxena Sanjay; Dash A; Basu Mahua; Samant Preetam; Kannan V

    2008-01-01

    Intraocular malignant lesions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Plaque brachytherapy represents an effective means of treatment for intraocular lesions. Recently Radiopharmaceutical Division, BARC, Mumbai, has indigenously fabricated reasonable-cost I-125 sources. Here we are presenting the preliminary experience of dosimetry of sources, configuration of treatment planning system (TPS) and quality assurance (QA) for eye plaque therapy with Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds, treated in ou...

  14. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    OpenAIRE

    Korenfeld MS; Dueker DK

    2016-01-01

    Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulat...

  15. Followup of a Dog with an Intraocular Silicone Prosthesis Combined with an Extraocular Glass Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gwendolyna Romkes; Johanna Corinna Eule

    2012-01-01

    Because of unpredictable corneal changes, evisceration and implantation of a silicone prosthesis does not always lead to a satisfying cosmetic result. This paper describes the use of an intraocular silicone prosthesis in combination with an extraocular glass prosthesis and shows a followup of two and a half years in a nonexperimental study. An intraocular silicone prosthesis was implanted after evisceration of the left eye in a five-month-old Bernese mountain dog. A glass prosthesis was fitte...

  16. MRt in the recurrent retinal detachment diagnosis after intraocular tamponade media injection: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inraocular Silicon (SO), Fluorosilicon (FSO) oil or Perfluorocarbon fluid (PFCL) injection is a new succesfull surgical technique in the treatment detachment. After personal casu istic review, we report our experience in 37 patients, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with intraocular SO, FSO or PFCL in injection for retinal detachment, monitored with Magnetic Resonance Imaging controls. MRI, showing no significant oil-related artifcats, revealed as a confident, non-invasive imaging modality in evaluating patient undergone tamponade media intraocular injection

  17. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed N; Meyer D

    2013-01-01

    Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect...

  18. Phacolytic glaucoma-its treatment by planned extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Gurdeep; Kaur Jagmeet; Mall Sanjay

    1994-01-01

    Phacolytic glaucoma has traditionally been treated with intracapsular lens extraction to avoid any anaphylaxis. Various mechanisms have been described for the rise of intraocular pressure in these cases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC IOL) in five cases of phacolytic glaucoma that occurred between March 1989 and August 1990. A planned extracapsular cataract extractio...

  19. Inflammation after cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, T; Fujiwara, M.; Matsuo, N

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--The purpose of this study was to examine whether preoperative activity of rheumatoid arthritis influences the extent of anterior chamber inflammation after cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. METHODS--The medical records of 23 consecutive patients (33 eyes) with rheumatoid arthritis, who underwent cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation, were reviewed during a 4 year period from April 1990 to March 1994. RESULTS--Eleven patients who still showed a 1+ le...

  20. Audit of outcome of an extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens training course

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassan, M; Kyari, F.; Achi, I.; Ozemela, C.; Abiose, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A training course for cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation was organised in April 1997 at the National Eye Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria. Operations were performed by six Nigerian consultant ophthalmologists under the supervision of two surgeons from Aravind Eye Hospital, India.
METHODS—A total of 175 eyes with uncomplicated cataracts were operated on after careful selection. All but six patients had extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens...

  1. The Effect of Swimming Goggles on Intraocular Pressure and Blood Flow within the Optic Nerve Head

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Kyoung Tak; Chung, Woo Suk; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Goggles are frequently worn in the sport of swimming and are designed to form a seal around the periorbital tissue orbit. The resultant pressure on the eye may have the potential to affect intraocular pressure and blood flow of the optic nerve head. This study evaluates the influence of wearing swimming goggles on intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood flow of the ocular nerve head (ONH) in normal subjects. Materials and Methods Thirty healthy participants took part in this study. The I...

  2. Intraocular pressure variations during zygomatic fracture reduction and fixation: a clinical study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Dylan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The reduction of midface fractures has been associated with the rare but devastating complication of blindness. An increase in intraocular pressure is important in the mechanism of blindness in this setting. In this study, the authors assessed the intraocular pressure in patients who underwent zygomatic fracture reduction (with or without fixation). METHODS: Using applanation tonometry, 29 patients underwent intraocular pressure measurements before, during, and after fracture fixation. The contralateral pressures were measured and used as the control. RESULTS: There were 29 patients with a mean age of 35 years, and the mean time to surgery was 5 days. Preoperatively, all patients had normal intraocular pressures and normal visual acuity. All patients underwent a Gillies lift and 18 patients required open reduction and fixation of the frontozygomatic suture (n = 4) or the infraorbital margin (n = 2), and the remainder (n = 12) required fixation of both points. There was no statistically significant increase in the intraocular pressures following the reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures. Statistically significant pressure reductions were noted immediately after reduction and fixation. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures has no adverse effect on the intraocular pressure. It is the authors\\' opinion that adjunctive measures to reduce the pressures are unnecessary.

  3. A case of Alagille syndrome complicated by intraocular lens subluxation and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukumoto M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Masanori Fukumoto, Tsunehiko Ikeda, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Mari Ueki, Takaki Sato, Eisuke Ishizaki Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, Japan Abstract: This case report describes a case of Alagille syndrome with developing intraocular lens subluxation and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment 4 years after cataract surgery. A 15-year-old female patient with Alagille syndrome-associated cataracts in both eyes underwent phacoemulsification aspiration and intraocular lens implantation. Four years postoperative, intraocular lens subluxation developed in her left eye. For treatment, extraction of the dislocated intraocular lens, anterior vitrectomy, and intraocular lens fixation was performed. Three weeks later, the patient developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, which was well-treated by pars plana vitrectomy. Cataract surgery needs to be performed carefully in patients with Alagille syndrome due to the weakness of the zonule of Zinn. Careful postoperative observation is necessary for patients with Alagille syndrome who have undergone intraocular surgery in order to facilitate early detection of a possible rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Keywords: Alagille syndrome, cataract, retina, surgery

  4. Comparison of dose calculation methods for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Finger, Paul T.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Melhus, Christopher S.; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E.; Rogers, D. W. O.; Thomson, Rowan M.; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Quality MediPhys LLC, Denville, New Jersey 07834 (United States); New York Eye Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Physics, Elekta Inc., Norcross, Georgia 30092 (United States); Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric differences among several clinical treatment planning systems (TPS) and Monte Carlo (MC) codes for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors using {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd plaques, and to evaluate the impact on the prescription dose of the adoption of MC codes and certain versions of a TPS (Plaque Simulator with optional modules). Methods: Three clinical brachytherapy TPS capable of intraocular brachytherapy treatment planning and two MC codes were compared. The TPS investigated were Pinnacle v8.0dp1, BrachyVision v8.1, and Plaque Simulator v5.3.9, all of which use the AAPM TG-43 formalism in water. The Plaque Simulator software can also handle some correction factors from MC simulations. The MC codes used are MCNP5 v1.40 and BrachyDose/EGSnrc. Using these TPS and MC codes, three types of calculations were performed: homogeneous medium with point sources (for the TPS only, using the 1D TG-43 dose calculation formalism); homogeneous medium with line sources (TPS with 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes); and plaque heterogeneity-corrected line sources (Plaque Simulator with modified 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes). Comparisons were made of doses calculated at points-of-interest on the plaque central-axis and at off-axis points of clinical interest within a standardized model of the right eye. Results: For the homogeneous water medium case, agreement was within {approx}2% for the point- and line-source models when comparing between TPS and between TPS and MC codes, respectively. For the heterogeneous medium case, dose differences (as calculated using the MC codes and Plaque Simulator) differ by up to 37% on the central-axis in comparison to the homogeneous water calculations. A prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth based on calculations in a homogeneous medium delivers 76 Gy and 67 Gy for specific {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS-plaque heterogeneities. For off

  5. Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Formulas Involving 148 Eyes with Long Axial Lengths: A Retrospective Chart-Review Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Chen; Xian Xu; Yuyu Miao; Gaoxin Zheng; Yong Sun; Xun Xu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study aims to compare the accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in eyes with long axial lengths from Chinese patients subjected to cataract surgery. Methods. A total of 148 eyes with an axial length of >26 mm from 148 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were included. The Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T formulas were used to calculate the refractive power of the intraocular lenses and the postoperative estimated...

  6. Sensitivity of the corneal-plane refractive compensation to change in power and axial position of an intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    W. F. Harris

    2009-01-01

    If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye?  Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc) to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye.  In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye with intraocular lens placed 5 mm behi...

  7. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Schuster; Daniel Berrar; Naoyuki Sato

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  8. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  9. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  10. Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Libal, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is rai...

  11. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  12. Cuerpo extraño intraocular en el segmento posterior Intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diley Pérez García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El trauma causado por cuerpo extraño intraocular es una de las principales causas de pérdida visual severa. Técnicamente es un trauma penetrante con permanencia del agente agresor dentro del globo ocular. Constituye una verdadera emergencia oftalmológica, pues puede ocasionar ceguera aún cuando se realiza un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados. Se realizó esta revisión para proponer un algoritmo de trabajo con el propósito de maximizar la recuperación anatómica y funcional después de una lesión de este tipo. La conducta a seguir ante este paciente requiere un tratamiento guiado por la apreciación del mecanismo del daño, naturaleza, localización y tamaño del cuerpo extraño; los conocimientos y la disposición del equipamiento necesario para el tratamiento quirúrgico y los cuidados posoperatorios. Existe controversia en cuanto al momento de extracción del cuerpo extraño; sin embargo, se debe realizar una conducta. La profilaxis de la endoftalmitis con antibióticos sistémicos es recomendada y la intravítrea de antibiótico debe ser considerada en los pacientes de alto riesgo. Se debe realizar el diagnóstico precoz o detección posoperatoria temprana de complicaciones como el desprendimiento de retina, endoftalmitis y la proliferación vítreorretiniana, que se han asociado con un pobre pronóstico visual.Intraocular foreign bodies are a major cause for severe visual loss. By technical definition, it consists of a form of penetrating ocular trauma, characterized by the persistence of the traumatic agent inside the eye, and is considered an ophthalmic emergency, since it may cause blindness even if good diagnosis and treatment are followed. This review was made to submit a management algorithm that can maximize the anatomical and functional outcomes after this type of injury. The management of these patients requires taking into account the mechanism of eye injury, the nature, the location and the size of the foreign body

  13. Successful toric intraocular lens implantation in a patient with induced cataract and astigmatism after posterior chamber toric phakic intraocular lens implantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Kazutaka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a patient in whom simultaneous toric phakic intraocular lens removal and phacoemulsification with toric intraocular lens implantation were beneficial for reducing pre-existing astigmatism and acquiring good visual outcomes in eyes with implantable collamer lens-induced cataract and astigmatism. Case presentation A 53-year-old woman had undergone toric implantable collamer lens implantation three years earlier. After informed consent was obtained, we performed simultaneous toric implantable collamer lens removal and phacoemulsification with toric intraocular lens implantation. Preoperatively, the manifest refraction was 0, -0.5 × 15, with an uncorrected visual acuity of 0.7 and a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 0.8. Postoperatively, the manifest refraction was improved to 0, -0.5 × 180, with an uncorrected visual acuity of 1.2 and a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 1.5. No vision-threatening complications were observed. Conclusion Toric intraocular lens implantation may be a good surgical option for the correction of spherical and cylindrical errors in eyes with implantable collamer lens-induced cataract and astigmatism.

  14. Intraocular camera for retinal prostheses: Refractive and diffractive lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michelle Christine

    The focus of this thesis is on the design and analysis of refractive, diffractive, and hybrid refractive/diffractive lens systems for a miniaturized camera that can be surgically implanted in the crystalline lens sac and is designed to work in conjunction with current and future generation retinal prostheses. The development of such an intraocular camera (IOC) would eliminate the need for an external head-mounted or eyeglass-mounted camera. Placing the camera inside the eye would allow subjects to use their natural eye movements for foveation (attention) instead of more cumbersome head tracking, would notably aid in personal navigation and mobility, and would also be significantly more psychologically appealing from the standpoint of personal appearances. The capability for accommodation with no moving parts or feedback control is incorporated by employing camera designs that exhibit nearly infinite depth of field. Such an ultracompact optical imaging system requires a unique combination of refractive and diffractive optical elements and relaxed system constraints derived from human psychophysics. This configuration necessitates an extremely compact, short focal-length lens system with an f-number close to unity. Initially, these constraints appear highly aggressive from an optical design perspective. However, after careful analysis of the unique imaging requirements of a camera intended to work in conjunction with the relatively low pixellation levels of a retinal microstimulator array, it becomes clear that such a design is not only feasible, but could possibly be implemented with a single lens system.

  15. Stem Cells in the Trabecular Meshwork for Regulating Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hongmin; Zhou, Yi; Wills, Andrew; Du, Yiqin

    2016-06-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is still the main treatment target for glaucoma. Outflow resistance mainly exists at the trabecular meshwork (TM) outflow pathway, which is responsible for IOP regulation. Changes of TM cellularity and TM extracellular matrix turnover may play important roles in IOP regulation. In this article, we review basic anatomy and physiology of the outflow pathway and TM stem cell characteristics regarding the location, isolation, identification and function. TM stem cells are localized at the insert region of the TM and are label-retaining in vivo. They can be isolated by side-population cell sorting, cloning culture, or sphere culture. TM stem cells are multipotent with the ability to home to the TM region and differentiate into TM cells in vivo. Other stem cell types, such as adipose-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have been discovered for TM cell differentiation and TM regeneration. We also review glaucomatous animal models, which are suitable to study stem cell-based therapies for TM regeneration. PMID:27183473

  16. Measurement of Intraocular Pressure after LASIK by Dynamic Contour Tonometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; LEI Cheng; LI Xinyu; Dong Jieyu

    2006-01-01

    Changes of corneal properties induced by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) results in low inaccurate intraocular pressure (IOP) readings by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT).Before and after LASIK, the applied value of IOP, measured by dynamic contour tonometry (DCT)in comparison to GAT, was evaluated. Before and 1, 4 weeks after LASIK, the IOP in 30 cases (60 eyes) was measured by GAT and DCT respectively. The obtained results were statistically processed by SPSS11. 5 statistical software. The results showed that central corneal thickness (CCT)could affect GAT measurements but not DCT measurements. The comparison of IOP one and 4 weeks after LASIK revealed that the readings from GAT was separately decreased by 5.00±1.12 and 5.45±1. 13 mmHg as compared with those before LASIK, while those from DCT had no significant difference. It was concluded that LASIK-induced changes of CCT could influence the accuracy of GAT measurements, but had no influence on those from DCT. DCT was more beneficial to the measurements of IOP in normal eyes and those subject to LASIK surgery.

  17. Surgical management of astigmatism with toric intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna V. Ventura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Correction of corneal astigmatism is a key element of cataract surgery, since post-surgical residual astigmatism can compromise the patient's uncorrected visual acuity. Toric intraocular lenses (IOLs compensate for corneal astigmatism at the time of surgery, correcting ocular astigmatism. They are a predictable treatment. However, accurate measurement of corneal astigmatism is mandatory for choosing the correct toric IOL power and for planning optimal alignment. When calculating the power of toric IOLs, it is important to consider anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism, along with the surgically induced astigmatism. Accurate toric lens alignment along the calculated meridian is also crucial to achieve effective astigmatism correction. There are several techniques to guide IOL alignment, including the traditional manual marking technique and automated systems based on anatomic and topographic landmarks. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on astigmatism management with toric IOLs, including relevant patient selection criteria, corneal astigmatism measurement, toric IOL power calculation, toric IOL alignment, clinical outcomes and complications.

  18. Experiment design for through-focus testing of intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María. S.; Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel

    2013-11-01

    Eye models to test intraocular lenses (IOLs) in an optical bench are commonly designed in agreement with the ISO 11979-2 and 11979-9 standard requirements. However, modifications to the ISO eye model have been proposed to test IOLs in conditions closer to real human eye. Wavefront analysis and aberration characterization, wavelength dependence, efficiency, off-axis performance and imaging degradation under certain amount of misalignment can thus be measured in vitro. The main parts of the system to test IOLs are: the illumination system and object test, the eye model including the IOL immersed in a wet cell and a microscope assembled to a sensor that magnifies and captures the aerial image of the object formed by the eye model. A problem concerning the simultaneous variation of defocus and magnification arises when using the microscope to capture out-of-focus images in a through-focus study. Using the eye model, we study the problem of implementing a through-focus measurement of the imaging quality of an IOL. We find a solution based on geometrical optics and compare it with other proposals reported in the literature. The effects on the measurement of the Modulation Transfer Function and the Point Spread Function are predicted. Experimental results are obtained and discussed.

  19. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P.

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  20. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  1. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute...

  2. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  3. Resultados da troca de lente intra-ocular de hidrogel opacificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salera Cristina Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da explantação e substituição das lentes intra-oculares (LIO de hidrogel opacificadas. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os prontuários de 12 pacientes (15 olhos submetidos à explantação e substituição das lentes intra-oculares de hidrogel opacificadas. RESULTADOS: A opacificação das lentes intra-oculares de hidrogel causou perdas de linhas de visão em 13 olhos (86,7%. A troca das lentes intra-oculares opacificadas promoveu o ganho de linhas de visão em 11 olhos (73,3%. As complicações peroperatórias ocorreram em três olhos (20% e foram as seguintes: perda de óleo de silicone, ruptura total de zônula com perda do saco capsular e ruptura parcial de zônula. Durante a explantação das lentes intra-oculares foi necessária a realização de incisões relaxantes na borda da capsulorrexe anterior em três olhos (20% e em dois olhos (13,3% os hápticos foram cortados sendo retirada somente a zona óptica das lentes intra-oculares. CONCLUSÃO: A cirurgia para explantação e substituição das lentes intra-oculares opacificadas mostrou-se eficaz naqueles pacientes com perdas de linhas de visão (p > 0,05.

  4. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  5. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  6. Electrochemical lysis at the stage of endoresection for large posterior intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to design the new combined technique of endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis at the tumor destruction stage for large posterior intraocular tumors.Methods: 3 patients (3 eyes with large choroidal melanomas t3N0M0 (tumor thickness — 8-10 mm, base diameter — 13-15 mm, juxtapapillary localization. Mean age was 55.4 years old. Endoresection with intraoperational intraocular electrochemical lysis of the tumor was performed. Electrochemical lysis was performed with use of the technical unit ECU 300 (Soering, Germany and the original method of combined intratumoral positioning of two platinum electrodes: anode and cathode.Results: the tumor was removal completely in all 3 cases. the anatomical retinal reattachment was reached in all patients. Sclera was safe in all 3 cases. Visual acuity was not changed (NLP. At the place of the removal tumor a surgical choroidal coloboma without pigmentation all over scleral bed and periphery was shown in all cases in distant postoperative period (from 1.5 to 3 years. No local recurrences or metastasis were revealed in all patients.Conclusion: Further investigations in clinical group are necessarily to determinate the real possibilities of the combined method and the indications for endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis for large intraocular tumors. 

  7. Comparison of Bigbag and Rayner620H intraocular lens in cataract surgeries in high myopia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Jiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effects of Bigbag and Rayner620H intraocular lens in cataract surgeries in high myopia patients. METHODS:Seventy-seven patients(128 eyeswere treated by phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation from January 2014 to March 2015 in our hospital. Thirty-nine patients(65 eyeswere treated with Bigbag intraocular lens, 38 cases(63 eyeswere treated with Rayner620H. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAdistribution, the actual refractive value, the difference between predictive refractive value and actual refractive value and complications were measured and recorded in the two groups at 1mo after surgeries. RESULTS:The difference between the two groups on BCVA are statistically significant(PWilcoxon rank sum test. The differences between predictive refractive value and actual refractive value of the two groups were statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION:The effect of Bigbag intraocular lens for patients with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation is good, and it can reduce the risk of complications.

  8. The effect of ionizing radiation on intraocular lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The native crystalline lens is the principal shield against ultraviolet radiation (UV), damage to the human retina. Every year in the United States, more than one million patients undergo removal of the natural lens in the course of cataract surgery (phakectomy), at which time an intraocular lens (IOL) is placed in the lens capsule. The IOL thenceforth serves as the principal barrier to ultraviolet radiation over the life of the implant, potentially for decades. The synthetic organic molecules of which IOLs are composed offer little UV protection unless ultraviolet-absorbing chromophores are incorporated into the lens material during manufacture. However, chromophores are alkenes potentially subject to radiolytic degradation. It is unknown whether ionizing radiation at clinical doses (e.g., to the brain or in the head-and-neck region) affects the UV-absorbing capacity of chromophore-bearing IOLs and consequently exposes the retina to potentially chronic UV damage. In addition, the polymers of which IOLs are composed are themselves subject to radiation damage, which theoretically might result in optical distortion in the visible light range. Objective: To determine whether megavoltage photon ionizing radiation alters the absorption spectra of ultraviolet-shielding polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and organopolysiloxane (silicone) intraocular lenses (IOLs) in the UV (280 nm ≤ λ < 400 nm), visible (400 nm ≤ λ ≤ 700 nm), and low-end near-infrared (700 nm < λ ≤ 830 nm) ranges. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized trial of dose-paired IOL cohorts. Methods: Fourteen IOLs, seven of PMMA (Chiron 6842B) and seven of silicone (IOLAB L141U), were paired and examined for absorption spectra in 1-nm intervals over the range λ = 280-830 nm on a Cary 400 deuterium and quartz halogen source-lamp UV/visible spectrophotometer before and after undergoing megavoltage ionizing irradiation to doses of 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 Gray, respectively. Because of

  9. Driving time modulates accommodative response and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Jiménez, Raimundo; Morales, José M; Catena, Andrés; Cardenas, David; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2016-10-01

    Driving is a task mainly reliant on the visual system. Most of the time, while driving, our eyes are constantly focusing and refocusing between the road and the dashboard or near and far traffic. Thus, prolonged driving time should produce visual fatigue. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on two ocular parameters: the accommodative response (AR) and the intraocular pressure (IOP). A pre/post-test design has been used to assess the impact of driving time on both indices. Twelve participants (out of 17 recruited) completed the study (5 women, 24.42±2.84years old). The participants were healthy and active drivers with no visual impairment or pathology. They drove for 2h in a virtual driving environment. We assessed AR and IOP before and after the driving session, and also collected subjective measures of arousal and fatigue. We found that IOP and AR decreased (i.e., the accommodative lag increased) after the driving session (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, the nearest distances tested (20cm, 25cm, and 33cm) induced the highest decreases in AR (corrected p-values<0.05). Consistent with these findings, the subjective levels of arousal decreased and levels of fatigue increased after the driving session (all p-values<0.001). These results represent an innovative step towards an objective, valid, and reliable assessment of fatigue-impaired driving based on visual fatigue signs. PMID:27235337

  10. Retreatments after multifocal intraocular lens implantation: an analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell Gunnar; Makari, Sarah; Ostenstad, Steffen; Potvin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and etiology of required retreatment after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and to evaluate the methods and clinical outcomes of retreatment. Patients and methods A retrospective chart review of 416 eyes of 209 patients from one site that underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery with multifocal IOL implantation. Biometry, the IOL, and refractive data were recorded after the original implantation, with the same data recorded after retreatment. Comments related to vision were obtained both before and after retreatment for retreated patients. Results The multifocal retreatment rate was 10.8% (45/416 eyes). The eyes that required retreatment had significantly higher residual refractive astigmatism compared with those who did not require retreatment (1.21±0.51 D vs 0.51±0.39 D, P<0.01). The retreatment rate for the two most commonly implanted primary IOLs, blended bifocal (10.5%, 16/152) and bilateral trifocal (6.9%, 14/202) IOLs, was not statistically significantly different (P=0.12). In those requiring retreatment, refractive-related complaints were most common. Retreatment with refractive corneal surgery, in 11% of the eyes, and piggyback IOLs, in 89% of the eyes, was similarly successful, improving patient complaints 78% of the time. Conclusion Complaints related to ametropia were the main reasons for retreatment. Residual astigmatism appears to be an important determinant of retreatment rate after multifocal IOL implantation. Retreatment can improve symptoms for a high percentage of patients; a piggyback IOL is a viable retreatment option. PMID:27041983

  11. Comparative visual performance with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen KG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kjell Gunnar Gundersen,1,* Richard Potvin2,*1Privatsykehuset Haugesund, Haugesund, Norway; 2Science in Vision, Burleson, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision, and quality of vision using appropriate subjective questionnaires, when monofocal or apodized diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs are binocularly implanted.Methods: Patients with different binocular IOLs implanted were recruited after surgery and had their visual acuity tested, and quality of vision evaluated, at a single diagnostic visit between 3 and 8 months after second-eye surgery. Lenses tested included an aspheric monofocal and two apodized diffractive multifocal IOLs with slightly different design parameters. A total of 94 patients were evaluated.Results: Subjects with the ReSTOR® +2.5 D IOL had better near and intermediate vision than those subjects with a monofocal IOL. Intermediate vision was similar to, and near vision slightly lower than, that of subjects with a ReSTOR® +3.0 D IOL implanted. The preferred reading distance was slightly farther out for the +2.5 D relative to the +3.0 D lens, and farthest for the monofocal. Visual acuity at the preferred reading distance was equal with the two multifocal IOLs and significantly worse with the monofocal IOL. Quality of vision measures were highest with the monofocal IOL and similar between the two multifocal IOLs.Conclusion: The data indicate that the ReSTOR +2.5 D IOL provided good intermediate and functional near vision for patients who did not want to accept a higher potential for visual disturbances associated with the ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL, but wanted more near vision than a monofocal IOL generally provides. Quality of vision was not significantly different between the multifocal IOLs, but patient self-selection for each lens type may have been a factor.Keywords: multifocal IOL, near vision, cataract, presbyopia

  12. Intraocular lens power calculation in eyes with short axial length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M Moschos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the predictive capacity of four intraocular lens (IOL power calculation formulas (SRK/T, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and Haigis in eyes shorter than 22.0 mm. Setting and Design: Observational study. Materials and Methods: Participants in our study were 69 consecutive patients with a preoperative axial length (AL of less than 22.0 mm in one or both eyes. All patients underwent phacoemulsification with IOL implantation and postoperative target of refraction was analyzed. Specifically, the differences in the mean absolute estimation error (AE for the four formulas were analyzed. Furthermore, the percentage of eyes with AE within ±0.5 and ±1.0 D for each formula was estimated, as well as the correlation coefficient (r between the AL and estimation error (E for each formula. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences in the AEs of the formulas. A statistically significant difference was defined as P < 0.05. Results: The Haigis formula had statistically significant smaller mean AE in comparison to Holladay 1, Hoffer Q, and SRK/T. The Haigis formula predicted more eyes with E within ±0.5 and ±1.0 D of predicted spherical equivalent compared to other formulas. Correlation between AL and AE revealed a negative r value and P < 0.05 for all formulas. Conclusions: Haigis formula provides more accurate results concerning the postoperative target of refraction in eyes with AL less than 22.0 mm. Hoffer Q could be also used as an alternative.

  13. Computerized invasive measurement of time-dependent intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.O. Campos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been described to measure intraocular pressure (IOP in clinical and research situations. However, the measurement of time varying IOP with high accuracy, mainly in situations that alter corneal properties, has not been reported until now. The present report describes a computerized system capable of recording the transitory variability of IOP, which is sufficiently sensitive to reliably measure ocular pulse peak-to-peak values. We also describe its characteristics and discuss its applicability to research and clinical studies. The device consists of a pressure transducer, a signal conditioning unit and an analog-to-digital converter coupled to a video acquisition board. A modified Cairns trabeculectomy was performed in 9 Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbits to obtain changes in IOP decay parameters and to evaluate the utility and sensitivity of the recording system. The device was effective for the study of kinetic parameters of IOP, such as decay pattern and ocular pulse waves due to cardiac and respiratory cycle rhythm. In addition, there was a significant increase of IOP versus time curve derivative when pre- and post-trabeculectomy recordings were compared. The present procedure excludes corneal thickness and error related to individual operator ability. Clinical complications due to saline infusion and pressure overload were not observed during biomicroscopic evaluation. Among the disadvantages of the procedure are the requirement of anesthesia and the use in acute recordings rather than chronic protocols. Finally, the method described may provide a reliable alternative for the study of ocular pressure dynamic alterations in man and may facilitate the investigation of the pathogenesis of glaucoma.

  14. [Refraction after Implantation of Multifocal and Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, F T A; Linz, K; Mueller, M; Gerl, M; Koss, M J; Gerl, R H; Auffarth, G U

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, further developments in the field of intraocular lenses offer a higher level of spectacle independence for our patients. As light gets scattered on different focal points a wider range of defocus is created. This greater defocus area makes it more difficult for us to determine the objective or subjective refraction. This contribution is concerned with the difficulties of measuring visual acuity in different intraocular lens designs and different measurement distances. Measuring refraction after implantation of a multifocal intraocular lens is a complex procedure and the experience of the examiner plays a crucial role. Retinoscopy, keratometry and the defocus curve are reliable methods for testing, while the auto refractometer, bichromatic testing and the cross-cylinder have limitations. PMID:25927177

  15. Value of the Doppler color ultrasound for the intraocular masses study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen intraocular masses were imaged using Doppler color ultrasound. Flow was seen in eight masses and no Doppler signal was detected in the rest. All of the vascularized masses were tumor (six choroidal melanomas, one cavernous haemangiomas and two intraocular metastases). Lesions without a flow were three choroidal hemorrhage, one senile macular degeneration and one retinoblastoma. The highest systolic peak velocity and end-diatolic velocity were seen in choroidal melanomas. Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive semiquantitative method that allows the in-vivo evaluation of flow and neo vascularity in intraocular neoplasms. This can be very helpful for the differential diagnosis, particularly when other diagnostic techniques (oftalmoscopy, angiofluoresceine) can not be used. 13 refs

  16. Artificial ecosystem selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R

    2000-08-01

    Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915

  17. A study of patient satisfaction after cataract surgery with implantation of different types of intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ching-Kuo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of capitated payment has driven medical institutions through developing balance billing for medical services. By exploring the patients’ decision-making factors on different self-pay items, a reference for the pricing and sales strategy for the related products can be formed. The major purposes of this study were to analyze the determinants of preoperative selection and postoperative satisfaction with implantation of different types of intraocular lenses in cataract surgery. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 127 patients that were 50 years of age and older, and who had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire. The following parameters were measured: access to medical care, attitude towards receiving medical products at one’s own expense, overall patient satisfaction and postoperative visual clarity. Results The results showed that the patient’s gender, educational level and economic status influenced the type of intraocular lens chosen. Patients in the insurance group cared about access to medical care, and patients in the balance billing group cared about product differentiation. ANOVA results showed no statistically significant differences in the overall satisfaction of the patients among the groups with different types of intraocular lenses. Patients that received cataract surgery with implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses had better vision when trying to view smaller objects and when looking at objects under strong light. Conclusions Manufacturers should increase the number of differences between their products, and health care providers can then recommend the appropriate intraocular lens in accordance with the needs or demands of their patients, and also by keeping in mind the financial constraints of their patients.

  18. Rotational stability of the AcrySof SA60TT toric intraocular lenses: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Richard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the rotational stability of the three types of AcrySof SA60TT toric intraocular lenses (Alcon, Switzerland in cataract surgery after the first postoperative week. Methods A retrospective study of 44 eyes in 33 patients. All patients underwent similar uncomplicated phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Seven eyes with corneal astigmatism of less than 1.5 D were implanted with the AcrySof SA60T3 intraocular lens. Seventeen eyes with astigmatism between 1.5 D and 2.25 D received the SA60T4 intraocular lens, and 20 eyes with more than 2.25 D of corneal astigmatism received the SA60T5 intraocular lens. Intraoperatively, the axis of the toric lens was aligned to the steepest axis of the corneal astigmatism. Main outcome measure was the postoperative position of the lens, assessed at 1 week and 3 months, using a specially designed angle measuring eyepiece for the slit lamp. Results There was no significant difference in the rotational stability of the three types of toric intraocular lenses. Overall, the postoperative rotation was within 5 degrees in 95% and within 2 degrees in 68% of eyes. The mean absolute rotation was 2.2 ± 2.2 degrees. No lens showed more than 9 degrees of rotation, and no lens required secondary repositioning. There was no trend for either clockwise or anti-clockwise rotation. The surgical procedure did not change the corneal astigmatism. Conclusion Once placed to it's position, each of the three types of the AcrySof SA60TT toric intraocular lenses demonstrate rotational stability in the capsular bag.

  19. A Joint Model for Prognostic Effect of Biomarker Variability on Outcomes: long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation on the risk of developing primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Feng; Miller, J Philip; Miglior, Stefano; Beiser, Julia A.; Torri, Valter; Kass, Michael A; Gordon, Mae O.

    2011-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is among the leading causes of blindness in the United States and worldwide. While numerous prospective clinical trials have convincingly shown that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a leading risk factor for the development of POAG, an increasingly debated issue in recent years is the effect of IOP fluctuation on the risk of developing POAG. In many applications, this question is addressed via a “naïve” two-step approach where some sample-based estimat...

  20. Intraocular/Intracranial pressure mismatch hypothesis for visual impairment syndrome in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fan; Hargens, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is considered a major risk for future human spaceflight. Loss of hydrostatic pressure gradients in vascular and cerebrospinal fluid systems due to the removal of gravity associated with subsequent intracranial and intraocular fluid shifts and the resulting intraocular/intracranial pressure mismatch might be important etiology factors causingVIIP syndrome. Acclimation changes in the ocular and cerebral circulation and the two fluid systems during chronic microgravity exposure and their underlying mechanisms need further elucidation. Relevant findings may help to validate the pressure differential hypothesis for VlIP syndrome and to evaluate whether a gravity based countermeasure is needed. PMID:24479265

  1. Symbolic algebra approach to the calculation of intraocular lens power following cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmstad, David P.; Sayegh, Samir I.

    2013-03-01

    We present a symbolic approach based on matrix methods that allows for the analysis and computation of intraocular lens power following cataract surgery. We extend the basic matrix approach corresponding to paraxial optics to include astigmatism and other aberrations. The symbolic approach allows for a refined analysis of the potential sources of errors ("refractive surprises"). We demonstrate the computation of lens powers including toric lenses that correct for both defocus (myopia, hyperopia) and astigmatism. A specific implementation in Mathematica allows an elegant and powerful method for the design and analysis of these intraocular lenses.

  2. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device backflow into cartridge during intraocular lens insertion using injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Matsuura,1 Yoshitsugu Inoue2 1Nojima Hospital, 2Tottori University, Kurayoshi City, Tottori, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of intraocular contamination caused by intraocular lens (IOL insertion with injectors by observing the dynamics of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD. Methods: Each type of injector was equipped with a colored OVD and IOL, and a 2 mm length from the tip of the cartridge was replaced with a colored OVD. The various combinations of IOLs and injectors used were: a three-piece shaped IOL, VA60BBR + TypeE1 (HOYA incision size 2.5 mm; group A, n=5; a single-piece IOL, 251+ iSert micro, preloaded (HOYA, incision size 2.2 mm; group G, n=5; and a single-piece IOL, SN6CWS preloaded (Alcon, incision size 2.7 mm; group C, n=5. Results: In group A, the intraocular OVD instantly flowed backward into the injector, whereas the colored OVD was pushed backward deep inside the cartridge without flowing into the eye. In group B, the backflow of the intraocular OVD into the injector was limited, resulting in the influx of a large amount of the colored OVD into the eye along with the IOL. In group C, as in group A, a large amount of the intraocular OVD flowed backward into the injector. Consequently, a small amount of the colored OVD flowed into the eye. Conclusion: The tip of the injector and OVD could be contaminated because the surgical field cannot be completely sterile, even after preoperative disinfection. Our experiments revealed that OVD backflow into the injector cavity occurs during IOL insertion, and this phenomenon may have minimized intraocular contamination. However, small-diameter cartridges along with plate-type haptics allow insufficient OVD backflow, resulting in intraocular influx of the contaminated OVD. Surgeons have to be notified that intraoperative bacterial contamination can occur even after IOL insertion using injectors. Keywords: intraocular lens insertion

  3. Design of hillside elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroš, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor´s Thesis presents a structural proposal of a hillside elevator to a house on the slope used to carry goods and people. The elevator is designed in a total length of 40 meters with a capacity of 400 kilograms and slope of 25 degrees. The main focus aims at the drive of the machine and its safety. The elevator fulfills prescribed safety terms according to the 127/2004 directive. A 3D model of the elevator, a design drawing and drawings of its individual components are included.

  4. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  5. Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary condition for making this argument. Rather than requiring that the system be hermetically sealed to avoid perceptions...

  6. Sensitivity of the corneal-plane refractive compensation to change in power and axial position of an intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye?  Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye.  In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye with intraocular lens placed 5 mm behind the cornea the sensitivity to errors in the power of the intraocular lens is about  71 . 0 − 71 for an intraocular lens of power   for an intraocular lens of power 20 D, that is, the refractive compensation decreases by about 0.71 dioptres per dioptre increase in the power of the intraocular lens.  More generally the sensitivity is approximately  ( m   0037 . 0 63 . 0 F − − 0.63 ( 003 . 0 63 . 0 − − (0.0037mF where FI is the power of the intraocular lens.  Also for Gullstrand’s simplified eye the sensitivity of refractive compensation to axial displacement of the intraocular lens is approximately linear in FI about  (64D FI, in fact.  That is, for each dioptre of the power of the intraocular lens the refractive compensation increases by about 0.064 dioptres per millimetre of axial displacement towards the retina. 

  7. Intraocular Pressure Changes in Non-Glaucomatous Patients Receiving Intravitreal Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddee, Weerawat; Montriwet, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study the prevalence of sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation associated with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Methods Prospective comparative study. Non-glaucomatous patients scheduled to receive intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF therapy were recruited from an outpatient eye clinic, Songklanagarind Hospital between April 2013 and March 2014. The IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometer before and at 1 hour, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after injection. The IOP was compared using the repeated measures analysis. Sustained IOP elevation was defined as either an IOP > 21 mmHg or an increase from baseline ≥ 5 mmHg on two consecutive visits. Results Seventy eyes of 54 patients met the inclusion criteria. The most common diagnosis was diabetic macular edema (48%). The mean IOP ± standard deviation (SD) before treatment was 13.7 ± 2.8 mmHg. The means ± SDs after treatment at 1 hour, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months were 11.3 ± 2.6, 13.7 ± 3.6, 14.1 ± 3.3, 14.0 ± 2.3, and 13.7 ± 2.4 mmHg, respectively. A mean of IOP difference at 1 hour postinjection and at baseline was −2.36 ± 2.5 mmHg (P < 0.001). Four of 70 treated eyes (5.7%) developed sustained IOP elevation (IOP ≥ 5 mmHg from baseline on two consecutive visits). The IOP returned to baseline levels after 1 month, in three eyes. One eye had sustained IOP elevation at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Thereafter, IOP returned to baseline level. There was no need of anti-glaucoma medication. Conclusions After receiving intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agent, a small proportion of non-glaucomatous eyes developed a sustained IOP elevation without requiring IOP-lowering treatment. At 1 hour postinjection, there was a significant reduction of the mean IOP compared with the baseline level. PMID:26360382

  8. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Artificial Personality and Disfluency

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, Mirjam; Aylett, Matthew; Tomalin, Marcus; Dall, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is artificial voices with different personalities. Previous studies have shown links between an individual's use of disfluencies in their speech and their perceived personality. Here, filled pauses (uh and um) and discourse markers (like, you know, I mean) have been included in synthetic speech as a way of creating an artificial voice with different personalities. We discuss the automatic insertion of filled pauses and discourse markers (i.e., fillers) into otherwise f...

  11. The Artificial Anal Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, John

    2000-01-01

    The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...

  12. Time Course of Age-dependent Changes in Intraocular Pressure and Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in DBA/2J Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan Zhang; Mei Zhang; Marcel Y. Avila; Jian Ge; Alan M. Laties

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterizes the progression of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) numbers in mice of various ages.Methods: A quantitative assessment of the pathophysiology of the DBA/2J mice was performed and the C57/BL6 mice was used as control. The IOP was measured by the servo-null micropipette system; the regional patterns of the loss of RGCs were determined by cell count of retrogradely-labeled RGCs.Results: The baseline IOP for DBA/2J mice at 7 weeks was (16.6 ± 1.2)mm Hg.Then IOP increased extend to 12 months, with the peak of (25.2 ± 1.2)mm Hg at 6 months of age. Retinal ganglion cell numbers did not decrease relative to control until 12 months of age (P=0.006), when the loss was proportionally higher in peripheral regions (P<0.05).Conclusion: The elevation in IOP precedes the loss of RGCs by several months.RGCs cell loss occurs particularly in peripheral regions of the retina. These findings expand our understanding of the changes in DBA/2J mice and provide information for experiments design when they are used as a glaucoma model for future studies of RGCs degeneration in glaucoma.

  13. Interface Fluid Syndrome Induced by Uncontrolled Intraocular Pressure Without Triggering Factors After LASIK in a Glaucoma Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Akira; Haruki, Takahiro; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Kasahara, Masayuki; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to describe a glaucoma patient with interface fluid syndrome (IFS) induced by uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) without triggering factors after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Case report and review of the literature. A 23-year-old man with open-angle glaucoma underwent bilateral LASIK for myopia in 2009. Two years later, the patient reported sudden vision loss. The IOP in the right eye was not measurable using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), but was determined to be 33.7 mm Hg using a noncontact tonometer. IFS was diagnosed based on the presence of space-occupying interface fluid on anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. After a trabeculectomy was performed, the IOP decreased to 10 mm Hg, and GAT measurement became possible. However, the corneal fold remained visible in the flap interface. Six months later, the IOP in the left eye increased, and a trabeculectomy was performed during the early stages of this increase in IOP. Following this procedure, the IOP decreased, and visual acuity remained stable. In glaucoma cases that involve a prior increase in IOP, IOP can continue to increase during the disease course even if temporary control of IOP has been achieved. If LASIK is performed in such cases, the treatment of glaucoma becomes insufficient because of underestimation of the typical IOP. In fact, the measurement of IOP can become difficult because of high-IOP levels. Therefore, LASIK should not be performed on patients with glaucoma who are at high risk of elevated IOP. PMID:26426645

  14. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  15. Modelado computacional del globo ocular ante cargas de presión intraocular Computational modeling of the ocular globe before intraocular pressure loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio de algunas patologías del ojo (miopía asociada a un crecimiento axial, se desarrolló una investigación que pretende establecer un modelo del comportamiento mecánico del ojo. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio del material escleral, para determinar su comportamiento, y con estos datos se realiza el modelo del globo ocular por elementos finitos para obtener el estado de esfuerzos y deformaciones presentes en este cuando se somete a un incremento en la presión intraocular. Para esto se analiza el ojo mediante el modelo Mooney Rivlin para cinco constantes que presenta el denominado ANSYS. Los resultados muestran cómo las restricciones mecánicas y la alta presión intraocular pueden generar abultamientos cercanos a la inserción muscular denominados estafilomas, lo cual concuerda con lo observado clínicamenteA research that intends to establish a model of the mechanical behavior of the eye was developed for studying some eye diseases (myopia associated with an axial growth. A study of the scleral material was conducted to determine its behavior and with these data the model of the ocular globe was created by using finite elements to obtain the state of strain and deformation present in it when it is subjected to an increase of the intraocular pressure. To this end, the eye was analyzed using the Mooney Rivlin model for five constants presented by the so-called ANSYS. The results showed how the mechanical restrictions and the high intraocular pressure may generate outpouchings closed to the muscular insertion denominated staphylomas, which agreed with what was clinically observed

  16. Drug loading of foldable commercial intraocular lenses using supercritical impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouledjouidja, A; Masmoudi, Y; Sergent, M; Trivedi, V; Meniai, A; Badens, E

    2016-03-16

    The drug delivery through intraocular lenses (IOLs) allows the combination of cataract surgery act and postoperative treatment in a single procedure. In order to prepare such systems, "clean" supercritical CO2 processes are studied for loading commercial IOLs with ophthalmic drugs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP, an antibiotic) and dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (DXP, an anti-inflammatory drug) were impregnated into foldable IOLs made from poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (P-HEMA). A first pre-treatment step was conducted in order to remove absorbed conditioning physiological solution. Supercritical impregnations were then performed by varying the experimental conditions. In order to obtain transparent IOLs and avoid the appearance of undesirable foaming, it was necessary to couple slow pressurization and depressurization phases during supercritical treatments. The impregnation yields were determined through drug release studies. For both drugs, release studies show deep and reproducible impregnation for different diopters. For the system P-HEMA/CIP, a series of impregnations was performed to delimit the experimental range at two pressures (80 and 200 bar) in the presence or absence of ethanol as a co-solvent for two diopters (+5.0 D and +21.0 D). Increase in pressure in the absence of a co-solvent resulted in improved CIP impregnation. The addition of ethanol (5 mol%) produced impregnation yields comparable to those obtained at 200 bar without co-solvent. A response surface methodology based on experimental designs was used to study the influence of operating conditions on impregnation of IOLs (+21.0 D) in the absence of co-solvent. Two input variables with 5 levels each were considered; the pressure (80-200 bar) and the impregnation duration (30-240 min). CIP impregnation yields ranging between 0.92 and 3.83 μg CIP/mg IOL were obtained from these experiments and response surface indicated the pressure as a key factor in the process. The DXP impregnation in P-HEMA was

  17. Intraocular Lens Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report refractive outcomes following phacoemulsification (PE and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation in eyes with previous corneal refractive surgery. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, 18 consecutive eyes of 14 patients with previous keratorefractive surgery for myopia including photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, 6 eyes; 33.3% and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, 12 eyes; 66.7% underwent PE+PCIOL. Computerized corneal topography was employed to determine the flattest keratometric reading within the 3-mm central zone. This value was inserted into the Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff/T (SRK/T formula to calculate IOL power. IOL power selected for implantation was 1 D greater than the calculated value described above. Results: Mean age and follow-up period were 54.1±11.5 years and 29.9±26.3 months, respectively. Mean implanted lens power was 18.56±3.86 D which was not significantly different from mean back-calculated IOL power for target refraction (19.04±4.16 D (P=0.28. There was no significant difference between mean target refraction (-0.94±0.52 D and achieved postoperative spherical equivalent refractive error (-0.62±1.06 at final follow-up (P=0.28. The achieved spherical equivalent refractive error was within ±0.50 D of intended refraction in 8 (44.4% eyes, within ±1.0 D in 11 (61.1% eyes, and within ±2.0 D in 16 (88.9% eyes. In a subgroup of patients (5 eyes with complete pre-refractive surgery data, the difference between post-refractive surgery keratometry method and all other methods (P=0.02 and between the current method and the Feiz-Mannis method (P=0.01 was statistically significant. Conclusion: The method suggested herein is simple and independent of pre-refractive surgery data with results comparable to other commonly used methods.

  18. Intraocular infections in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisk RA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hassan A Aziz1, Audina M Berrocal1,2, Robert A Sisk1, Kristin Hartley1, Magaly Diaz-Barbosa2, Rose A Johnson2, Ditte Hess1, Sander R Dubovy1, Timothy G Murray1, Harry W Flynn Jr11Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the incidence and treatment outcomes of endogenous endophthalmitis among newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a single medical center.Methods: This was a noncomparative, retrospective case series of endogenous endophthalmitis among infants at the Jackson Memorial Hospital NICU treated between March 1, 2002 and March 1, 2007.Results: Of 4323 infants admitted to the NICU, seven eyes of six (0.139% infants (two males, four females were diagnosed with endophthalmitis during the study period. Four patients were born prematurely with a mean gestational age of 27.5 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1153 g. Retinopathy of prematurity was reported in two of the six patients. Mean follow-up was 3.5 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive cultures or polymerase chain reaction testing at a median age of 34 postnatal days. Positive cultures included Candida albicans (n = 4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1, and Herpes simplex type 2 (n = 1. All patients received systemic treatment and five received adjunctive ophthalmic interventions, including intravitreal antibiotics in five eyes of four patients and vitrectomy with pars plana lensectomy in three eyes. One patient underwent primary enucleation and another had delayed evisceration. In the remaining five eyes, there was a normal appearing posterior segment and normal intraocular pressures at last follow-up.Conclusion: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare complication in infants in the NICU, but may occur in patients with candidemia, bacteremia, retinopathy of prematurity, and low birth weight. Despite early and

  19. Comparison of two optical biometers in intraocular lens power calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Hui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the consistency and accuracy in ocular biometric measurements and intraocular lens (IOL power calculations using the new optical low-coherence reflectometry and partial coherence interferometry. Subjects and Methods: The clinical data of 122 eyes of 72 cataract patients were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were measured with a new optical low-coherence reflectometry system, using the LENSTAR LS 900 (Haag Streit AG/ALLEGRO BioGraph biometer (Wavelight., AG, and partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster V.5.4 [Carl Zeiss., Meditec, AG] before phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Repeated measurements, as recommended by the manufacturers, were performed by the same examiner with both devices. Using the parameters of axial length (AL, corneal refractive power (K1 and K2, and anterior chamber depth (ACD, power calculations for AcrySof SA60AT IOL were compared between the two devices using five formulas. The target was emmetropia. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS 13.0 with t-test as well as linear regression. A P value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mean age of 72 cataract patients was 64.6 years ± 13.4 [standard deviation]. Of the biometry parameters, K1, K2 and [K1 + K2]/2 values were significantly different between the two devices (mean difference, K1: −0.05 ± 0.21 D; K2: −0.12 ± 0.20 D; [K1 + K2]/2: −0.08 ± 0.14 D. P <0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in AL and ACD between the two devices. The correlations of AL, K1, K2, and ACD between the two devices were high. The mean differences in IOL power calculations using the five formulas were not statistically significant between the two devices. Conclusions: New optical low-coherence reflectometry provides measurements that correlate well to those of partial coherence interferometry, thus it is a precise device that can be used for the

  20. Intraocular pressure-lowering combination therapies with prostaglandin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is currently the only therapeutic approach demonstrated to preserve visual function in patients with glaucoma. The first line of glaucoma treatment consists of topical IOP-lowering medications, usually initiated as monotherapy. A significant proportion of patients require more than one medication to reach a target IOP at which optic nerve damage will not progress. As prostaglandin analogues (PGAs) are the most effective class for reducing IOP, one of the other commonly used classes (β-adrenoceptor antagonist [β-blocker], carbonic anhydrase inhibitor or α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist) is frequently combined with a PGA. In the last decade, the use of fixed combinations containing two medications in a single bottle has steadily increased. Fixed combinations have the potential to simplify the dosing regimen, increase patient adherence, avoid the washout effect of the second drop on the first medication instilled, decrease exposure to preservatives and, sometimes, reduce the cost of treatment. Clinical trials have evaluated PGA-based fixed combinations versus unfixed combinations (individual components administered concomitantly) or versus individual monotherapies; however, any advantage that the fixed combinations may have in terms of IOP-lowering efficacy is still debated. For these reasons, the PGA-based fixed combinations are not approved by regulatory authorities in some countries, such as the US. We review the published studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of the IOP-lowering unfixed and fixed combination therapies with PGAs. Regarding unfixed combinations, the review shows that α(2)-adrenergic agonists-PGA and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor-PGA combinations seem to be at least as effective at reducing IOP as the β-blocker-PGA combinations. As for the fixed combinations, the review shows that the three PGA-timolol fixed combinations are more effective than their component medications used separately as monotherapy and

  1. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Raul Velez-Montoya1, Carmen Clapp2, Jose Carlos Rivera2, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre1, Virgilio Morales-Cantón1, Jans Fromow-Guerra1, Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo1, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado31Retina Department Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, México City, México; 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, México; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado, USAPurpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular ­endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity.Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05.Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001 in the aqueous and vitreous samples.Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no ­statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group

  2. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  3. Reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna

    2011-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid

  4. Uveitis in Thailand : emphasis on clinical patterns and novel developments in diagnostics using intraocular fluid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathanapitoon, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on the so far unknown causes of uveitis in Thailand and describe their clinical manifestations. We found out that intraocular infections were the second most common cause of blindness and low vision in a tertiary center in northern Thailand. These infections predominantly c

  5. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai B

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure and intraocular pressure were taken following which patients were divided into two groups: laryngeal mask airway was inserted in group 1 and tracheal tube in group 2. These measurements were repeated at 15-30 second, every minute thereafter up to 5 minutes after airway instrumentation. RESULTS: A statistically significant rise in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure was seen in both the groups subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Mean maximum increase was statistically more after endotracheal intubation than after laryngeal mask airway insertion. The duration of statistically significant pressure responses was also longer after endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable alternative technique for ocular surgeries, offering advantages in terms of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular stability compared to tracheal intubation.

  6. Evaluation of Different Power of Near Addition in Two Different Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ugur; Baser, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision and quality of vision, when refractive rotational multifocal intraocular lenses with 3.0 diopters or diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with 2.5 diopters near addition are implanted. Methods. 41 eyes of 41 patients in whom rotational +3.0 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted and 30 eyes of 30 patients in whom diffractive +2.5 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted after cataract surgery were reviewed. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, intermediate visual acuity, near visual acuity, and patient satisfaction were evaluated 6 months later. Results. The corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity were the same between both groups (p = 0.50 and p = 0.509, resp.). The uncorrected intermediate and corrected intermediate and near vision acuities were better in the +2.5 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.049, p = 0.005, and p = 0.001, resp.) and the uncorrected near vision acuity was better in the +3.0 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.001). The patient satisfactions of both groups were similar. Conclusion. The +2.5 diopters near addition could be a better choice in younger patients with more distance and intermediate visual requirements (driving, outdoor activities), whereas the + 3.0 diopters should be considered for patients with more near vision correction (reading). PMID:27340560

  7. Bilateral transient pupil closure after iris supported intraocular lens implantation in a case with Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necip Kara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old woman presented with Marfan syndrome and bilateral ectopia lentis. The surgical treatment including removal of the crystalline lens and implantation of an iris-supported intraocular lens in both eyes at a week interval. Postoperatively, the biomicroscopic examination showed total pupil closure bilaterally. After the topical tropicamide treatment, the pupil returned to normal shape.

  8. A novel index for predicting intraocular pressure reduction following cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, S A; Pacheco, J.; Mahmood, U; Nolan, J; Beatty, S

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The results of a study designed to investigate the predictive value of preoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular pressure (IOP) are reported. The relation between these factors and their effect on the reduction in IOP following phacoemulsification cataract surgery was also studied.

  9. ATYPICAL CASE OF RETAINED INTRAOCULAR FOREIGN BODY PRESENTING AS SECONDARY GLAUCOMA AFTER 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Atypical case of retained intraocular foreign body presenting as secondary glaucoma after 12 years . To report a case of retained intraocular foreign body presenting as glaucoma after 12 yrs. A 24 yrs old male patient came to OPD, with pain & redness in right eye since 2 days. He was operated for cataract 12 years back. On examination, OD VA - hand movements. Slit lamp examination revealed corneal edema and deep anterior chamber . Rest of the det ails was not clear. OS Findings were normal. IOP: OD - 50 mmHg, OS - 16 mmHg. After control of IOP with medications, following findings were noted: Corneal scar in paracentral zone. RAPD present in right eye. Iris hole present at 3’0 clock position. FUNDUS: V itreous is clear. Intraocular foreign body of size half disc diameter present over the optic disc. Disc is pale , with attenuated vessels & peripapillary pigmentary changes. Yellowish speckled lesions present surrounding the vessels and dull foveal reflex. Gonioscopy revealed open angles with increased pigmentation. Visual fields showing advanced field defects . CT & B scan showing radio opaque foreign body over disc. Electro retinogram of right eye showing reduced response to all stimuli. Removal of foreign body not done because of poor visual prognosis & risk of symphathetic ophthalmitis. CONCLUSION: Retained metallic Intraocular foreign body can manifest after many years with varied presentation like secondary glaucoma without classical f eatures of siderosis bulbi .

  10. X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging study of intraocular tumors in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with edge enhancement is suitable for the observation of weakly absorbing objects. The potential ability of the DEI was explored for displaying the microanatomy and pathology of human eyeball in this work. The images of surgical specimens from malignant intraocular tumor of hospitalized patients were taken using the hard X-rays from the topography station of Beamline 4W1A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The obtained radiographic images were analyzed in correlation with those of pathology. The results show that the anatomic and pathologic details of intraocular tumors in human beings can be observed clearly by DEI for the first time, with good visualization of the microscopic details of eyeball ring such as sclera, choroid and other details of intraocular organelles. And the best resolution of DEI images reaches up to the magnitude of several tens of μm. The results suggest that it is capable of exhibiting clearly the details of intraocular tumor using DEI method. (authors)

  11. Phacolytic glaucoma-its treatment by planned extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurdeep

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Phacolytic glaucoma has traditionally been treated with intracapsular lens extraction to avoid any anaphylaxis. Various mechanisms have been described for the rise of intraocular pressure in these cases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC IOL in five cases of phacolytic glaucoma that occurred between March 1989 and August 1990. A planned extracapsular cataract extraction with can-opener capsulectomy was done in all the cases with placement of a sulcus-fixated modified J-loop Sinskey design intraocular lens. With a mean follow-up period of two years, all patients (100% maintained a normal postoperative intraocular pressure of less than 20 mm Hg without any additional medical therapy. The final best-corrected visual acuity in 4 cases (80% was 6/12 or better, while in one case it was 6/24 due to a senile maculopathy. These results show that ECCE with PC IOL implantation is a safe and efficacious method of visual rehabilitation in cases of phacolytic glaucoma

  12. Clinically unsuspected phacoanaphylaxis after extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, M S; Weiss, J S; Riedel, K G; Albert, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    We describe the histopathological findings of an enucleation specimen from a clinically undiagnosed case of phacoanaphylaxis which occurred after extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Phacoanaphylaxis, a granulomatous inflammatory response to liberated lens protein, is potentially curable by prompt removal of residual lens material. This case emphasises that the diagnosis of phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis should be considered in any case of extracapsular cat...

  13. Idiopathic pupillary capture 7 years after extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Juan; Jurado, Venancio

    2011-01-01

    Pupillary capture is a pathology commonly associated with traumatic or inflammatory processes of the eye. We present a case of idiopathic pupillary capture, 7 years after extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. This case highlights the need for ongoing patient surveillance, especially in elderly patients who are less able to detect subtle changes in their vision.

  14. The case for intraocular delivery of PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, Maxwell P

    2012-09-01

    Systemic therapeutics targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we provide a rationale for the use of these therapeutics as intraocular agents. In addition, we introduce the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and describe their functions in response to the drugs.

  15. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect on intraocular cannabinoid receptors.Methods: A 2-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center, parallel-group pilot study was carried out to determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol 1 g orally administered every 6 hours in adult patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucoma as compared with topical levobunolol 0.5% twice a day. Patient well-being was closely monitored throughout the study and focused on hepatic safety in accordance with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network criteria. The in vitro diffusion kinetics of acetaminophen in a phosphate-buffered solution in rabbit and human corneas was also investigated, with the view to a topical application.Results: Eighteen adult patients were enrolled in the study, with nine in the topical levobunolol group and nine in the oral paracetamol group. In the levobunolol group, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure at day 7 was 7.5 mmHg (P < 0.008 and at day 14 was 9.1 mmHg (P < 0.005, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.6 mmHg. The corresponding figures for the paracetamol group were 8.8 mmHg (P < 0.0004 at day 7 and 6.5 mmHg (P < 0.004 at day 14, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.4 mmHg. Both study regimens were well tolerated. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in either of the treatment groups. Liver function tests, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate remained unchanged in both groups during the 2 weeks of the study. In

  16. Experimental differentiation of intraocular masses using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging--a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Falke

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The case reports presented here were compiled to demonstrate the potential for improved diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress of intraocular lesions using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM at 7.1 Tesla. METHODS: High-resolution ex vivo ocular magnetic resonance (MR images were acquired on an ultrahigh-field MR system (7.1 Tesla, ClinScan, Bruker BioScan, Germany using a 2-channel coil with 4 coil elements and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE sequences of human eyes enucleated because of different intraocular lesions. Imaging parameters were: 40×40 mm field of view, 512×512 matrix, and 700 µm slice thickness. The results were correlated with in vivo ultrasound and histology of the enucleated eyes. RESULTS: Imaging was performed in enucleated eyes with choroidal melanoma, malignant melanoma of iris and ciliary body with scleral perforation, ciliary body melanoma, intraocular metastasis of esophageal cancer, subretinal bleeding in the presence of perforated corneal ulcer, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, and premature retinopathy with phthisis and ossification of bulbar structures. MR imaging allowed differentiation between solid and cystic tumor components. In case of hemorrhage, fluid-fluid levels were identified. Melanin and calcifications caused significant hypointensity. Microstructural features of eye lesions identified by MRM were confirmed by histology. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the potential of MRM for the visualization and differential diagnosis of intraocular lesions. At present, the narrow bore of the magnet still limits the use of this technology in humans in vivo. Further advances in ultrahigh-field MR imaging will permit visualization of tumor extent and evaluation of nonclassified intraocular structures in the near future.

  17. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  18. ElevationDEM_CCLIDARDEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the 2004 Chittenden bare earth LiDAR data. The pixel size of this layer is 3.2m, equal to the spacing of the filtered...

  19. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of known elevator control strategies by simulating these in an own made apartment simulator. Efficiency will be determined by the lowest product of the energy consumption (Watt/second), average waiting time, average transfer time and the maximum waiting time of a passenger, which is the output by the simulator. The apartment simulator will simulate the elevator behavior, according to a respective control strategy, and the passenger flow on each respectiv...

  20. Artificial ionospheric turbulence (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an analysis of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) arising near the level at which a powerful wave is reflected with ordinary polarization. AIT is an inhomogeneous structure in the ionosphere with a size on the order of centimeters or tens of kilometers and with characteristic frequencies from a fraction of a hertz (aperiodic inhomogeneity) to several megahertz (plasma waves). The authors are primarily concerned with small-scale artificial ionospheric turbulence (SAIT), i.e., with inhomogeneities that are greatly extended along the geomagnetic field with transverse dimensions that are less than the wavelengths of the perturbing waves - the pumping waves (PW) - in a vacuum

  1. Production of artificial radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in the production of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)

  2. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  3. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  4. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  5. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  6. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  7. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  8. Natural or Artificial Intelligence?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plzeň (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  10. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  11. Comparison of the Retinal Straylight in Pseudophakic Eyes with PMMA, Hydrophobic Acrylic, and Hydrophilic Acrylic Spherical Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-wen Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the intraocular straylight value after cataract surgery. Methods. In this study, 76 eyes from 62 patients were subdivided into three groups. A hydrophobic acrylic, a hydrophilic acrylic, and a PMMA IOL were respectively, implanted in 24 eyes, 28 eyes, and 24 eyes. Straylight was measured using C-Quant at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively in natural and dilated pupils. Results. The hydrophilic acrylic IOLs showed significantly lower straylight values than those of the hydrophobic acrylic IOLs in dilated pupils at 1 week and 1 month after surgery (P0.05. Moreover, no significant difference was found in straylight between natural and dilated pupils in each group at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively (P>0.05. Conclusions. Although the hydrophobic acrylic IOL induced more intraocular straylight, straylight differences among the 3 IOLs were minimal. Pupil size showed no effect on intraocular straylight; the intraocular straylight was stable 1 week after surgery.

  12. Effects of short-term IOP elevation on receptive field properties of cat LGN cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Liming; ZHANG Nan; YE Xiang; ZHOU Yifeng

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effects of short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on the receptive field properties of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells, responses of the LGN cells to annulus, disc and drifting gratings with high or low spatial frequencies have been recorded extracellularly in the cat with the retinal perfusion pressure kept stable (30mmHg). Our results indicated that the responses of the X and Y type LGN cells were significantly weakened during IOP elevation. And the responses varied with the different mechanisms of receptive fields. Specifically, while using annulus and disc as stimuli, the responses of Y cells were more tolerant than X cells to IOP elevation. The surround area of the receptive field was more sensitive to IOP elevation than the center. The mean responses during IOP elevation decreased more than the peak responses did. IOP elevation has more influence on the responses of X cells than on the response of Y cells to the drifting gratings with high spatial frequency. These results may reflect different degrees of ischemia on corresponding retinal structures caused by IOP elevation.

  13. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  14. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such ... An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon ...

  15. INTRAOCULAR TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR IN A DOG TUMOR VENÉREO TRANSMISSÍVEL INTRA-OCULAR EM CÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia Nadalini Rodrigues

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a round cell neoplasm occurring on the external genital mucosa of male and female dogs. Transmission is by cell implantation during coitus, licking, or other interaction between an affected dog and a susceptible host. Metastasis of the tumor rarely occurs. This report describes an unusual presentation of TVT with intraocular involvement and inguinal lymph nodes metastasis. The subject was a six-year-old, intact, male, Brazilian Terrier dog with a history of abnormal masses in the right eye, penis and several subcutaneous nodules in the inguinal area. Histopathological examination of the eye specimens as well as cytologic examination of penile mass and subcutaneous nodules revealed similar findings. The examination revealed round cells containing a large nuclei with prominent, central located nucleoli and a pale cytoplasm containing few small, clear round vacuoles. Histologically, the subcutaneous nodules in the inguinal area were lymph nodes. The diagnosis of TVT with intraocular involvement and lymph nodes metastasis was based on clinical, cytologic and histopathologic findings.Tumor venéreo transmissível (TVT é uma neoplasia de células redondas que acomete a mucosa genital externa de cães, machos e fêmeas. A transmissão decorre da implantação de células tumorais durante o coito, brigas ou interações entre animais portadores e susceptíveis. Existem relatos referindo-se a localizações atípicas do TVT, mas metástases raramente ocorrem. O presente relato descreve um caso incomum de TVT, com acometimento intra-ocular e metástases nos linfonodos ingüinais, num cão Terrier Brasileiro, com seis anos de idade. O animal apresentava massas anormais de tecido no olho direito, extremidade do pênis e aumento de volume de linfonodos da região ingüinal. A histopatologia do globo ocular e as citologias da massa peniana e dos nódulos subcutâneos evidenciaram aspectos citológicos semelhantes

  16. Sensitivity of the corneal-plane refractive compen- sation to change in power and axial position of an intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    W. F. Gool; R.D. van Gool

    2009-01-01

    If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye?  Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc) to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye.  In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye withintraocular lens placed 5 mm behin...

  17. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  18. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  19. Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Fallah-Ghalhary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall of Khorasan Province, the Northeastern part of Iran, was evaluated from Dec. to May that is included 80% total of annual rainfall in the area under study using artificial neural network. The data of 37 rainfall stations were selected and analyzed over a period of 33 years (1970-2002. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM was then used to calculate the average rainfall in the area of interest. The relation between variation of synoptic patterns including Sea Surface Temperature (SST, Sea Level Pressure (SLP, the difference of sea level pressure, the difference between sea surface temperature and 1000 hPa surface level, relative humidity at 300 hPa level, geopotential height at 500 hPa level and air temperature at 850 hPa level with mean rainfall of the region were considered. Then the artificial neural network model was trained for 1970-2002 period and rainfall for period of 1993-2002 was predicted. The results showed that artificial neural network method was very successful in predicting rainfall and in more than 70% of years could predict rainfall within acceptable precision. The root mean square error of the model was found to be 41 mm which is considered negligible at yearly level and it is expected that by increasing the number of years of statistical data the precision of the model would increase.

  20. Vascular effects of photodynamic therapy in an intraocular retinoblastoma-like tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from experimental tumours suggest that the mechanism of action of photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves both a direct killing of tumour cells, and a secondary effect resulting from vascular damage. We have investigated the possible vascular changes induced by PDT in an intraocular retinoblastoma-like rat tumour model using the 86RbCl extraction procedure. Light irradiation (90 J/cm2; 633 nm; 30 min) of intraocular tumours 24 h after an intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg Photofrin II produced an increase in the tumour uptake of 86RbCl during the treatment period. However, 24 h later these values had decreased to 25% of that normally found in control animals. These effects were observed in both the tumour material and associated normal eye tissue, but not in PDT treated normal eyes without tumours. The results confirm that the vasculature of this eye tumour model is a target for some of the PDT effects. (orig.)

  1. The Changes of Quality of Life in the Patients after Phacoemulsification with Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiewei Liu; Jingjing Xu; Mingguang He

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the improvement and maintenance of the quality of life in the patients after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation.Methods :The study population consisted of 116 patients receiving phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. They were interviewed using the quality of life questionnaire, and the clinical outcomes were evaluated before surgery and at 1 week, 1month, 3 months, 6 months after surgery respectively.Results:Patients reported similar scores of quality of life and all the four subscales among 1-week, 1-month , 3-month and 6-month follow-up visit after surgery, all of which were higher than the scores before surgery.Conclusion: Patients receiving phacoemulsification reported rapid improvement in quality of life after surgery, and the quality of life scores were not changed significantly from 1week to 6 months after surgery.

  2. UV laser ablation of intraocular lenses: SEM and AFM microscopy examination of the biomaterial surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several new materials and patterns are studied for the formation and etching of intraocular lenses (IOLs), in order to improve their optical properties, to reduce the diffractive aberrations and to decrease the incidence of posterior capsular opacification. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of UV (λ = 266 nm) laser pulses to ablate the intraocular lenses materials, and thus to provide an alternative to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs fabrication. Ablation experiments were conducted using various polymer substrates of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and PMMA IOLs. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the morphology of the ablated area by imaging the surface modification with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphological appearance of IOL samples reveals the effect of a photochemical and photothermal ablation mechanism.

  3. Delivery of Intraocular Triamcinolone Acetonide in the Treatment of Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Siesky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema (ME is one of the eventual outcomes of various intraocular and systemic pathologies. The pathogenesis for ME is not yet entirely understood; however, some of the common risk factors for its development have been identified. While this investigation will not discuss the numerous etiologies of ME in detail, it appraises the two most widely studied delivery modalities of intraocular corticosteroids in the treatment of ME—intravitreal injection (IVI and sub-Tenon’s infusion (STI. A thorough review of the medical literature was conducted to identify the efficacy and safety of IVI and STI, specifically for the administration of triamcinolone acetonide (TA, in the setting of ME in an attempt to elucidate a preferred steroid delivery modality for treatment of ME.

  4. Automatic intraocular lens segmentation and detection in optical coherence tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillner, Melanie; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2014-05-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic segmentation and detection of an accommodative intraocular lens implanted in a biomechanical eye model. We extracted lens curvature and position. The algorithm contains denoising and fan correction by a multi-level calibration routine. The segmentation is realized by an adapted canny edge detection algorithm followed by a detection of lens surface with an automatic region of interest search to suppress non-optical surfaces like the lens haptic. The optical distortion of lens back surface is corrected by inverse raytracing. Lens geometry was extracted by a spherical fit. We implemented and demonstrated a powerful algorithm for automatic segmentation, detection and surface analysis of intraocular lenses in vitro. The achieved accuracy is within the expected range determined by previous studies. Future improvements will include the transfer to clinical anterior segment OCT devices. PMID:23928353

  5. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  6. "Effect of topical timolol on intraocular pressure in the presence of systemic indomethacin in normal subjects"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sud R

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study on 60 normal subjects, the effect of 0.5% timolol eye drops on intraocular tension was assessed in the presence of oral indomethacin. The subjects were categorized in four groups for comparing the results. Also the side effects of timolol maleate were noted. The following conclusions were made:- 1. In cases in whom indomethacin was given along with timolol drops, average fall in intraocular tension was almost identical with those in whom timolol alone was used. 2. The ocular hypotensive effect of timolol maleate eve drops is not attenuated by indomethacin given orally; but before we can conclude that the simultaneous administration of timolol maleate eye drops and indomethacin is entirely without risk of attenuation. We must study the effect of combined administration in patients with glaucoma.

  7. Effect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with CataractEffect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with CataractEffect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Tansu Gönen; Kadircan Keskinbora; Fatih Horozo¤lu; Özkan Sever; Mustafa Yaflar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of preoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) on intraocular pressure (IOP) after uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in nonglaucomatous eyes. Material and Method: The medical records of fifty-five patients (30 male and 25 female) were reviewed retrospectively. The patients who had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were divided into two groups according to the values of preoperative ACD: ...

  8. Corneal thickness and daily curve of intraocular pressure in suspected and glaucomatous patients Espessura corneana e curva diária de pressão intra-ocular em pacientes suspeitos e glaucomatosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in suspected and glaucomatous patients the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP, measured during the daily curve of intraocular pressure (DCPo, including CCT and IOP measurements in bed at 6 am. The ocular axial length was also compared. METHODS: 114 eyes from 73 patients, 30 eyes suspected of glaucoma (group I and 84 eyes with chronic open-angle glaucoma (group II were prospectively studied. Both groups were subjected to DCPo with measurements of IOP at 9 am, 12 pm, 6 pm, 10:30 pm and on the next day at 6 am in bed and in darkness before the patient gets up. Using the ultrasonic DGH 5100® device, CCT measurements were performed at 9 am, 6 pm, 10:30 pm and the next day at 6 am in bed before the patient gets up. The ocular axial length was also measured. RESULTS: In the total sample and, separately in each group, the mean IOP was more elevated in bed at 6 am. There were no significant CCT changes during the day within each group or between both groups. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean ocular axial length of both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In suspected and glaucomatous patients, there were no statistically significant CCT variations during the day; therefore, only one CCT measurement is sufficient. Also, there was no statistically significant difference between ocular axial length of both groups.OBJETIVO: Verificar em pacientes suspeitos de glaucoma e glaucomatosos se existe correlação entre a espessura corneana central (ECC e a pressão intra-ocular (Po, medidos durante a curva diária de pressão intra-ocular (CDPo, incluindo-se as medidas da ECC e da Po às 6:00 horas da manhã no leito. Avaliar também comparativamente o diâmetro axial ântero-posterior (Diâm. axial em ambos os grupos. MÉTODOS: 114 olhos de 73 pacientes selecionados no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo, foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I - pacientes suspeitos de

  9. Relationship between progression of visual field defect and intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Naito T.; Yoshikawa K; Mizoue S; Nanno M; Kimura T; Suzumura H; Shiraga F

    2015-01-01

    Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between intraocular press...

  10. Treatment of dystrophic calcification on a silicone intraocular lens with pars plana vitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta N; Goldberg RA; Shah CP

    2014-01-01

    Nitish Mehta,1 Roger A Goldberg,2 Chirag P Shah21University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Department of Retina, Ophthalmic Consultants of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USAPurpose: Dense, vision-obscuring calcification on the posterior aspect of silicone intraocular lenses (IOLs) is often not amenable to neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet capsulotomy, and, in prior reports, has required IOL exchange. We report the successful removal of dense calcium deposition on the po...

  11. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroni Nadal; Bachar Kudsieh; Ricardo P. Casaroli-Marano

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL) stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a ...

  12. Intraocular lens dislocation and tube shunt in the posterior chamber: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Velázquez-Villoria, Alvaro; Sabater, Alfonso L.; Salinas-Alamán, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe management of a case of intraocular lens (IOL) and capsular bag (CB) dislocation in an eye with an Ahmed glaucoma valve in the posterior chamber. Case presentation A 75-year-old pseudophakic man with open-angle glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy developed neovascular glaucoma. After two intravitreous injections of bevacizumab and panretinal photocoagulation were administered, the new vessels regressed. However, goniosynechiae were observed over 360° of the angle. An Ahme...

  13. Phacoemulsification and acryl foldable intraocular lens implantation in dogs: 32 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Na-Young; Park, Shin-Ae; JEONG, Man-Bok; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Se-Eun; Chae, Je-Min; Seo, Kang-moon

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the surgical outcome and complications of phacoemulsification and the implantation of an acryl foldable intraocular lens (IOL) with a squared edge in dogs with cataracts. Thirty-two eyes from 26 dogs were examined. The mean follow up period was 75.9 days ranging from 23 to 226 days. The complications after phacoemulsification were posterior capsular opacity (PCO) around the IOL (n = 11), ocular hypertension (n = 4), focal posterior synechia (n = 4), hyphema (n = 3) and co...

  14. Intraocular Pressure in Eyes Receiving Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, V; Cabugueira, A; de Noronha, M; Abegão Pinto, L; Reina, M.; Branco, J; Gomes, T

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the this study was to determine the effect of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections on intraocular pressure (IOP) and identify possible risk factors for the development of increased IOP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included a total of 106 eyes receiving intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as treatment for macular edema or active choroidal neovascularization. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry immediately be...

  15. Clinical investigation of the effect of topical anesthesia on intraocular pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Almubrad, Turki M.; Kelechi C. Ogbuehi

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aims: Contact tonometry is generally considered more accurate than non-contact tonometry in the assessment of intraocular pressure (IOP). This study was designed to investigate the effect of ocular anesthesia, a pre-requisite for contact tonometry, on the IOP in a sample of visually normal subjects. Method: In a random sample of 120 young visually normal subjects (divided equally among three groups), the Topcon CT80 non-contact tonometer was used to measure IOP before, at the secon...

  16. Comparisons of amplitude of pseudoaccommodation with aspheric yellow, spheric yellow, and spheric clear monofocal intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi T.; Taketani F; Ueda T; Ogata N.

    2013-01-01

    Tomo Nishi, Futoshi Taketani, Tetsuo Ueda, Nahoko Ogata Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara City, Nara, Japan Purpose: To determine the amplitude of pseudoaccommodation and higher-order aberrations with three types of implanted monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs): aspheric yellow (IQ); spheric yellow (NT); and spheric clear (AT). Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. Methods: We studied 60 patients who underwent small incision...

  17. Effective position of the intraocular lens diagnosed with ultrasonic biomicroscopy in phacoemulsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective and descriptive study was performed in a sample of 176 eyes from 100 patients, who had been operated on from cataract with phacoemulsiphication using Pre Chop technique in the Ocular Microsurgery Service of 'Ramon Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology'. The effective position of their intraocular lens diagnosed by ultrasonic biomicroscopy in the phacoemulsiphication and their relationship to the post surgery refractive surprise was determined

  18. Intraocular lens power calculation by measuring axial length with partial optical coherence and ultrasonic biometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Machado Fontes; Bruno Machado Fontes; Elaine Castro

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the achieved refractive outcomes of patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation performed by conventional immersion ultrasound (US) or partial coherence interferometry (PCI). METHODS: Prospective, comparative case series. Patients undergoing cataract surgery were randomly divided in two groups with regard to the IOL power calculation method. Group 1 had calculations performed by PCI (IOL Master; Carl Zeiss Meditec), while US was used ...

  19. Differentiating Between a Silicone Oil Bubble and a Dislocated Intraocular Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Shipman, Kate E; Patel, C. K.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate how a silicone oil bubble can be mistaken for a dislocated intraocular lens. An 80-year-old gentleman was referred by his optometrist with the diagnosis of dislocated IOL in a pseudophakic eye. Eye examination revealed a silicone oil bubble from previous retinal-detachment surgery and that the lens was in-situ. In conclusion, a history of retinal detachment surgery should alert one that an oil bubble can be misinterpreted as a dislocated IOL.

  20. Visual and Refractive Outcomes of a Toric Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Epitropoulos, Alice T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate outcomes in astigmatic patients implanted with the Trulign (Bausch + Lomb) toric presbyopia-correcting intraocular lens (IOL) during cataract surgery in a clinical practice setting. Methods. Retrospective study in 40 eyes (31 patients) that underwent cataract extraction and IOL implantation in a procedure using intraoperative wavefront aberrometry guidance (ORA system). Endpoints included uncorrected visual acuity (VA), reduction in refractive cylinder, accuracy to target...

  1. Comparison of Different Presbyopia Treatments: Refractive Lens Exchange with Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation Versus LASIK Monovision

    OpenAIRE

    Barišić, Ante; Gabrić, Nikica; Dekaris, Iva; Romac, Ivana; Bohač, Maja; Jurić, Branka

    2010-01-01

    There are several methods for presbyopia treatment. Refractive lens exchange (RLE) followed by multifocal intraocular lens (MFIOL) implantation enables high rate of spectacle independance but have some visual disturbances. Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) monovision gives patient ability to have good distant vision with dominant eye and good near vision with nondominant eye. In this prospective randomized study we wanted to compare clinical outcomes in patients who underwent either of the...

  2. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    WALDOCK, A; Snape, J; Graham, C

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients.
METHODS—141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for ana...

  3. Assessment of the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature and full-term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Muslubas, Isil Bahar Sayman; Oral, Ayse Yesim Aydın; Cabi, Cemalettin; Caliskan, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in premature and full-term newborns. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated measurements of CCT and IOP in 45 premature and 45 full-term newborns. IOP was determined with topical anesthesia using a Tono-Pen AVIA, applanation tonometer and a wire lid retractor in premature newborns undergoing screening for retinopathy. Full-term newborns were used as a control group. CCT was determined with a port...

  4. Intraocular pressure and influencing systemic health parameters in a Korean population

    OpenAIRE

    Young Sang Han; Ji Woong Lee; Jong Soo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and systemic health parameters such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: A total of 30,893 healthy subjects underwent automated multiphasic tests, including non-contact tonometry, automated perimetry, fundus photography, and blood samplings for total cholesterol, HDL, and TG. Seven age groups were divided...

  5. Acute onset of retinal detachment after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Núria Planas Domènech; Luí­s Arias; Sergi Prades; Octavi Pujol; Marc Rubio; Caminal, Jose M

    2008-01-01

    Núria Planas Domènech, Luís Arias, Sergi Prades, Octavi Pujol, Marc Rubio, Jose M CaminalDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainCase report: A 34-year-old man with severe myopia, presented with acute visual loss in his right eye. This occurred 3 hours after a posterior chamber phakic (PCP) intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and was associated with a rhegmatogenous retinal detachme...

  6. Toric intraocular lenses for correction of astigmatism in keratoconus and after corneal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Ilse EMA Mol,1,2 Bart TH Van Dooren1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: To describe the results of cataract extraction with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with preexisting astigmatism from three corneal conditions (keratoconus, postkeratoplasty, and postpterygium surgery).Methods: Cataract patients with topographically stable, fairly regular (although sometim...

  7. Wireless Intraocular Pressure Sensing Using Microfabricated Minimally Invasive Flexible-Coiled LC Sensor Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po-Jui; Saati, Saloomeh; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an implant-based wireless pressure sensing paradigm for long-range continuous intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring of glaucoma patients. An implantable parylene-based pressure sensor has been developed, featuring an electrical LC-tank resonant circuit for passive wireless sensing without power consumption on the implanted site. The sensor is microfabricated with the use of parylene C (poly-chlorop- xylylene) to create a flexible coil substrate that ca...

  8. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Foldable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ge; Yan Guo; Yizhi Liu; Mingkai Lin; Yehong Zhuo; Bing Chen; Xiuqi Chen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Design: Retrospective, noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants: In 36 eyes with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG), there were 18 eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), 14 eyes with primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (PCCG), 3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (SCCG).Intervention: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative visual acuity, IOP, axial anterior chamber depth.Results: After a mean postoperative follow-up time of 8.81 ± 7.45 months, intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81 ± 17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54 ± 4. 73 mmHg ( P = 0. 001 ). Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75 ± 0.48 mm preoperatively and 2.29 ± 0.38 mm postoperatively ( P = 0. 000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0. 01 to 0. 7 (20/200 to 20/30) postoperatively, which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4 (20/50) ( P= 0. 000).Conclusion: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma. Eye Science 2000; 16:22 ~ 28.

  9. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Folable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianGE; YanGuo; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOIL)implantation.Design:Retrospective,noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants:In 36 eyes with angle -closure glaucoma(ACG).there were 18eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma(PACG),14 eyes with primary chonic angle -closure glaucoma(PCCG),3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle -closure glaucoma(SCCG).Intervention:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures:Postoperative visual acuity,IOP,axial anterior chamber depth.Results:After a mean postoperative follow -time of 8.81±7.45 months,intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81±17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54±4.73mmHg(P=0.001).Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75±0.48 mm preoiperatively and 2.29±0.38mm postoperatively(P-0.000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0.01 to 0.7(20/200 to 20/30)postoperatively,which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4(20/50)(P=0.000).Conclusion:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma.Eye Science2000;16:22-28.

  10. The Impact of Multifocal Intraocular Lens in Retinal Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Dias-Santos, A; Costa, L; Lemos, V; Anjos, R.; Vicente, A.(IFPA, Dep. AGO, Université de Liège, Bat B5, Sart-Tilman, B-4000, Liège 1, Belgium); Ferreira, J; Cunha, JP

    2015-01-01

    Multifocal intraocular lenses (MF IOLs) have concentric optical zones with different dioptric power, enabling patients to have good visual acuity at multiple focal points. However, several optical limitations have been attributed to this particular design. The purpose of this study is to access the effect of MF IOLs design on the accuracy of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cross-sectional study conducted at the Refractive Surgery Department of Central Lisbon Hospital Center. Twent...

  11. Evaluation of actual retinal images produced by misaligned aspheric intraocular lenses in a model eye

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikado, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Takashi Fujikado,1 Makoto Saika2 1Department of Applied Visual Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 2Research and Development Department of Topcon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To examine the effect of misalignment (decentration and tilt) of intraocular lenses (IOLs) on retinal image quality using a water-immersed model eye with corneal spherical aberration adjusted to the values found in normal human eyes (spherical aberration 0.25 µm; pupil d...

  12. Comparison of retinal image quality with spherical and customized aspheric intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Huanqing; Goncharov, Alexander V.; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesize that an intraocular lens (IOL) with higher-order aspheric surfaces customized for an individual eye provides improved retinal image quality, despite the misalignments that accompany cataract surgery. To test this hypothesis, ray-tracing eye models were used to investigate 10 designs of mono-focal single lens IOLs with rotationally symmetric spherical, aspheric, and customized surfaces. Retinal image quality of pseudo-phakic eyes using these IOLs together with individual variati...

  13. Cystoid macular oedema after extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in diabetic patients without retinopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Menchini, U; Bandello, F; R.Brancato; Camesasca, F I; Galdini, M

    1993-01-01

    Postoperative onset or aggravation of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) in diabetic patients after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a frequent problem. At present little is known about the occurrence and prognosis of this complication in diabetics with no clinically detectable diabetic retinopathy (DR). Twenty five diabetic eyes (24 subjects) without DR and 45 normal eyes (44 subjects) were studied before surgery and 30, 90, 180, 360 days after E...

  14. Effect of intraocular lens implantation on combined extracapsular cataract extraction with trabeculectomy: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, R.; Zalish, M.; Oliver, M.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to assess the effect of posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on the outcome of combined extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and trabeculectomy we compared 23 eyes subjected to ECCE and trabeculectomy with 23 eyes subjected to a triple procedure-that is, with the addition of IOL implantation. The results showed that IOL implantation did not have a detrimental effect on postoperative IOP reduction, gain in visual acuity, or needs for antiglaucoma medication. ...

  15. Experience with extracapsular extraction and binkhorst 2-loop intraocular lenses: preliminary communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R J; Andrew, N C

    1981-01-01

    Extracapsular cataract extraction and implantation of a Binkhorst 2-loop intraocular lens were performed on 50 patients. The majority of the patients achieved a corrected postoperative acuity of 6/9. Operative, immediate postoperative and late postoperative complications are discussed. The commonest postoperative complication was the formation of a dense capsular membrane which required capsulotomy in 9 patients. Suggestions are put forward for improving the result of this rewarding operation.

  16. Retinal detachment following extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, P C; Tolentino, F I

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen cases of primary retinal detachment after extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation were treated by scleral buckling surgery. Retinal reattachment was achieved in 100% of the cases. All eyes had a postoperative visual acuity of 6/30 or better; in six eyes the visual acuity was 6/12 or better. We attributed our high anatomical success rate to early detection of the retinal detachment, good visibility of the retinal breaks, lack of inflammato...

  17. Use of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 2% for removing adherent silicone oil from silicone intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, S Chien; Ramkissoon, Yashin D; Lopez, Mauricio; Page, Kristopher; Ivan P. Parkin; Sullivan, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background / aims: To investigate the effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the physical interaction (contact angle) between silicone oil and a silicone intraocular lens (IOL). Methods: In vitro experiments were performed, to determine the effect of HPMC (0.5%, 1% or 2%), with or without an additional simple mechanical manoeuvre, on the contact angle of silicone oil at the surface of both silicone and acrylic (control) IOLs. A balanced salt solu...

  18. The case for intraocular delivery of PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Treacy Maxwell P; Hurst Tara P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Systemic therapeutics targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we provide a rationale for the use of these therapeutics as intraocular agents. In addition, we introduce the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and describe their functions in response to the drugs. Discussion Based on the evidence of large-scale clinical studies investigating the systemic admini...

  19. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that...... successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well as...

  20. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  1. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  2. Changes in intraocular pressures during laparoscopy: a comparison of propofol total intravenous anesthesia to desflurane-thiopental anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuman, Arslan Onuk; Baris, Arslan; Bilge, Karsli; Bozkurt, Selen; Nurullah, Bülbüler; Meliha, Kahraman; Umit, Celik

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed under either desflurane-thiopental anesthesia or propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). 36 patients who will undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into one of two groups: desflurane (Group D, n=18) or propofol (Group P, n=18). All patients received fentanyl 2 micro/kg IV, and then breathed 100% oxygen for 3 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced by using thiopental 5 mg/kg IV in Group D and 2 mg/kg IV propofol in group P. Neuromuscular block was achieved with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg IV. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane 3-6% in group D and propofol infusion 5-10 mg/kg/h in group P. Desflurane and propofol concentrations were adjusted to maintain mean arterial pressure witihin 20% of the preinduction value. During anaesthesia, fractionated doses of fentanyl 0.5-1 micro g /kg IV and maintenance doses of muscle relaxants were used. In both groups, the the mixture 60% nitrous oxide and 40% oxygen was administered used. Arterial pressure, heart rate, ETCO2, SpO2 and IOP were recorded at the predefined time points. Creation of pneumoperitoneum resulted in a significant increase in IOP which remained elevated throughout the operation in both groups. Also, we recorded a similar IOP changes with both techniques except at five minutes after pneumoperitoneum in 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg position during desflurane-thiopental anesthesia. In c6nclusion, desflurane-thiopental anesthesia maintains the IOP at least at similar levels compared to propofol TIVA anesthesia. PMID:23833850

  3. Clinical utility and differential effects of prostaglandin analogs in the management of raised intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anne J Lee1,2, Peter McCluskey2,31Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 3Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Prostaglandin analogs (PGA are powerful topical ocular hypotensive agents available for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. Latanoprost 0.005% and travoprost 0.004% are prodrugs and analogs of prostaglandin F2a. Bimatoprost 0.03% is regarded as a prostamide, and debate continues as to whether it is a prodrug. The free acids of all 3 PGAs reduce IOP by enhancing uveoscleral and trabecular outflow via direct effects on ciliary muscle relaxation and remodeling of extracellular matrix. The vast majority of clinical trials demonstrate IOP-lowering superiority of latanoprost, bimatoprost and travoprost compared with timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2%, or dorzolamide 2% monotherapy. Bimatoprost appears to be more efficacious in IOP-lowering compared with latanoprost, with weighted mean difference in IOP reduction documented in one meta-analysis of 2.59% to 5.60% from 1- to 6-months study duration. PGAs reduce IOP further when used as adjunctive therapy. Fixed combinations of latanoprost, bimatoprost or travoprost formulated with timolol 0.5% and administered once daily are superior to monotherapy of its constituent parts. PGA have near absence of systemic side effects, although do have other commonly encountered ocular adverse effects. The adverse effects of PGA, and also those found more frequently with bimatoprost use include ocular hyperemia, eyelash growth, and peri-ocular pigmentary changes. Iris pigmentary change is unique to PGA treatment. Once daily administration and near absence of systemic side effects enhances tolerance and compliance. PGAs are often prescribed as first-line treatment for ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost

  4. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  5. Impacts of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Trappl, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book, which is intended to serve as the first stage in an iterative process of detecting, predicting, and assessing the impacts of Artificial Intelligence opens with a short "one-hour course" in AI, which is intended to provide a nontechnical informative introduction to the material which follows. Next comes an overview chapter which is based on an extensive literature search, the position papers, and discussions. The next section of the book contains position papers whose richness...

  6. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  7. Artificial Intelligence in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Peter E.

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years artificial intelligence has changed from being the preoccupation of a handful of scientists to a thriving enterprise that has captured the imagination of world leaders and ordinary citizens alike. While corporate and government officials organize new projects whose potential impact is widespread, to date few people have been more affected by the transition than those already in the field. I review here some aspects of this transition, and pose some issues that it rai...

  8. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  9. Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise

    OpenAIRE

    Chace, William M.

    1984-01-01

    I rise now to speak with the assumption that all of you know very well what I am going to say. I am the humanist here, the professor of English. We humanists, when asked to speak on questions of science and technology, are notorious for offering an embarrassed and ignorant respect toward those matters, a respect, however, which can all too quickly degenerate into insolent condescension. Face to face with the reality of computer technology, say, or with "artificial intelligence," we humanists ...

  10. Lente intra-ocular opaca em diplopia intratável: relato de caso Opaque intraocular lens in intractable diplopia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Teixeira Krieger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia intratável tem sido descrita em várias situações. Métodos convencionais como prismas e correção cirúrgica do estrabismo falham em neutralizá-la. O objetivo do trabalho é documentar o caso de uma paciente com estrabismo de longa data, cuja diplopia deteriorou-se ao longo dos anos, e não foi possível resolução com cirurgia, prisma, e oclusão com óculos e lente de contato com pupila opaca. A paciente foi então submetida à facoemulsificação com implante de lente intra-ocular opaca que atingiu o objetivo desejado.Intractable diplopia has been described in many situations but poor results are the rule with standard treatment modalities. The authors report a case of a woman with long-standing strabismus and diplopia who failed to improve following surgery, prism, and occlusive spectacles or contact lenses. Then, she was submitted to phacoemulsification and opaque intraocular lens implantation, which successfully neutralized diplopia.

  11. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE OF MODERATE INTENSITY AND SHORT DURATION ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamala Devi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular pressure (IOP in normal individuals varies throughout the night and day. The diurnal variation for normal eyes is between 3 and 6mmHg and the variation may increase in glaucomatous eyes. Hence, the present effort is to investigate the effect of moderate exercise on intraocular pressure changes. IOP was measured before and after exercise in 100 subjects (50M, 50F with no ocular abnormality with ages ranging from 18-21 years by using Schiotz tonometer. Weight, height and body mass index, were recorded. The results obtained were compared between before-and-after-exercise of the subjects. The data were presented as the mean ± SD, Student’s t-test was used to calculate significance between means. The IOP showed a statistically significant fall following moderate exercise. The mean IOP significantly decreased (p0.05 decreased after 60 minutes of aerobic exercise. Gender wise comparison of intraocular pressure both before and after exercise did not reveal much significance. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.

  12. Two cases of uveitis masquerade syndrome caused by bilateral intraocular large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sometimes it is not easy to clinically recognize subtle differences between intraocular lymphoma and noninfectious uveitis. The most common lymphoma subtype involving the eye is B-cell lymphoma. Case report. We presented two patients aged 59 and 58 years with infiltration of the subretinal space with a large B-cell non-Hodgkin intraocular lymphoma. The patients originally had clinically masked syndrome in the form of intermediate uveitis. As it was a corticosteroid-resistant uveitis, we focused on the possible diagnosis of neoplastic causes of this syndrome. During hospitalization, the neurological symptoms emerged and multiple subretinal changes accompanied by yellowish white patches of retinal pigment epithelium with signs of vitritis, which made us suspect the intraocular lymphoma. Endocranial magnetic resonance imaging established tumorous infiltration in the region of the left hemisphere of the cerebellum. The histopathological finding confirmed the diagnosis of large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of risk moderate degree, immunoblast - centroblast cytological type. The other patient had clinical chronic uveitis accompanied by yellowish shaped white echographic changes of the retina and localized changes in the level of the subretina. The diagnosis of lymphoma was made by brain biopsy. Conclusion. Uveitis masquerade syndrome should be considered in all patients over 40 years with idiopathic steroid-resistant uveitis. Treatment begun on time can affect the course and improve the prognosis of uveitis masquerade syndrome (UMS and systemic disease.

  13. Successful Removal of Large Intraocular Foreign Body by 25-Gauge Microincision Vitrectomy Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kunikata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new technique for removing a large intraocular foreign body by 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery (25G-MIVS. Noncomparative interventional case series were performed at a single centre. Two patients with a long smooth intraocular vitreal foreign body underwent phacoemulsification and aspiration, intraocular lens implantation, 25G-MIVS, and extraction of the foreign body. The foreign body was removed through a posterior capsulorhexis, anterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, and a corneal incision. In both cases, the foreign body was safely removed through the corneal incision, and IOL was implanted and well positioned. The surgical incision did not require suturing. No postoperative complications associated with this technique were found. The corneal endothelial cell density was maintained over 2000 cells/mm2 in both cases during recent follow-up examinations. Our findings indicate that 25G-MIVS with this technique can be used to extract a long slender smooth foreign body. It is safe, without complications, and can be performed without enlarging the 25-gauge sclerotomy.

  14. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Brandner

    Full Text Available To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population.Retrospective study.Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed.Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident.Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate.

  15. Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Intraocular Silicone Oil Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic and ocular factors may cause acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. Herein, we aimed to describe a case of CRAO due to intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponade. To the best of our knowledge, a case like our has not been reported previously. A 58-yearold male patient had undergone combined pars plana vitrectomy-lensectomy and intraocular SO for lens luxation and vitreus hemorrhage associated with a blunt ocular trauma in his right eye. Two weeks after the surgery, he presented with acute vision loss in the same eye. He was diagnosed with acute CRAO and it should be related with mechanical press or raised intraocular pressure (IOP associated with SO. He was treated by partial removal of SO immediately. In spite of the regression of retina edema, his visual acuity did not improve due to optic atrophy. SO may cause CRAO due to raised IOP and/or its mechanical pressure and this complication must be kept in mind. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 238-40

  16. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  17. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  18. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

  19. The relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide (NO) content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: All New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: (1) control group, (2) extracapsular cataract extraction group (ECCE), (3) extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation group (ECCE+IOL). The inflammation of all experimental rabbit eyes, including cornea edema and anterior chamber exudation were observed via zoom-photo slitlamp microscope 1,3,7,14,30 d postoperation. Meanwhile, aqueous humor was drawn for white blood cell (WBC) counting and classifying, and for NO-2/NO-3 and cytokine assay, including interleukin-2(IL-2), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Statistics were taken by SPSS softwear. RESULTS: (1) Total WBC in aqueous humor were higher and anterior chamber exudation were more severe in ECCE+IOL group than that in ECCE group and control group. (2) The level of IL-2 and TNF-α and the content of NO-2/NO-3 in aqueous humor of ECCE+IOL group were higher than that in ECCE group and control group 1-14 d postoperation respectively, and it increased to peak value at 3-7 d postoperation and decreased gradually after two weeks postoperation. (3) The change regularity of IL-2, TNF-α and NO-2/NO-3 in each group were basically similar, i.e. when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) was normal, the content of NO-2/NO-3 was normal too, when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) increased, the content of NO-2/NO-3 increased too. CONCLUSION: The intraocular inflammation after ECCE+IOL was more severe than that after simple ECCE. NO, IL-2 and TNF-α play an important role in intraocular inflammation after intraocular lens implantation. The changes of IL-2 and TNF-α level was closely related with NO content in aqueous humor.

  20. Prostaglandin E2-Glyceryl Ester: In Vivo Evidence for a Distinct Pharmacological Identity from Intraocular Pressure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, David F; Poloso, Neil J; Wang, Jenny W

    2016-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-2-glyceryl ester is a cyclo-oxygenase 2 product of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol. It is claimed as pharmacologically novel, but this is complicated by rapid and irreversible isomerization to the 1(3) ester. For ocular studies, enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester moiety creates an additional complication. PG-glyceryl esters were stabilized to isomerization and hydrolysis by replacing the noncarbonyl O with NH, to form the serinolamide and propanediolamide as stable analogs of PG-2-glyceryl and PG-2-1(3) glyceryl esters, respectively. Intraocular pressure was measured in conscious dogs and conscious laser-induced ocular hypertensive monkeys. Pharmacological studies involved stable transfectants for each of the human recombinant prostanoid receptors and the isolated feline iris for prostamide activity. PGE2-serinolamide and PGE2- propanediolamide were essentially inactive at all receptors except the EP3 receptor (EC50, ∼500 nM). This obliged elucidation of EP3 receptor involvement in the intraocular pressure response to these PGE2-glycyerl ester analogs. Since the EP3 receptor agonists sulprostone and GR 63799 did not lower monkey intraocular pressure, a role for EP3 receptors in mediating the effects of PGE2-serinolamide and PGE2-propanediolamide is not indicated. PGE2-glyceryl ester (0.01% and 0.1%) substantially lowered intraocular pressure in monkeys. PGE2-propanediolamide was more efficacious than PGE2-serinolamide in lowering intraocular pressure in monkey eyes, but both appeared equieffective in dog eyes. PGE2-serinolamide dose-dependently (0.01- 0.1%) lowered intraocular pressure in both species, but PGF2 α-serinolamide was inactive. In conclusion, stable PGE2-glyceryl ester analogs lowered intraocular pressure. These findings are consistent with the presence of a PGE2-glyceryl ester-specific recognition site in the eye. PMID:27217589

  1. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems. PMID:16203606

  2. Prótese intra-ocular de resina acrílica em cães e gatos Acrylic resin intraocular prosthesis in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Rahal

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Unesp - Campus de Botucatu, 11 animais (oito cães e três gatos, com alterações oftálmicas unilaterais graves que levaram à perda total da função ocular (protrusão de globo com injúria nervosa e estrutural, perfurações de córnea com perda de conteúdo intra-ocular e endoftalmites, entre outras. Os animais, com idades entre dois meses e 10 anos, foram submetidos à evisceração e posterior inclusão de esfera de resina acrílica (metilmetacrilato na capa córneo-escleral ou escleral. As esferas foram previamente confeccionadas e esterilizadas por autoclavagem. No pós-operatório foram utilizados antiinflamatórios e antibioticoterapia tópica combinada ou não a sistêmica. O período de observação variou de 2 meses a 3 anos e os aspectos avaliados foram secreção ocular, blefarospasmo, sinais de desconforto e estética. Obtiveram-se resultados satisfatórios em oito casos. Concluiu-se que a resina acrílica pode ser uma alternativa para uso como inclusão em cavidade anoftálmica.Eleven animals (eight dogs and three cats, aged between two months and ten years were referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - Unesp, Botucatu, Brazil. These animals presented severe unilateral ophthalmic changes that lead to a total loss of ocular function, such as prolapsed eyes with nervous and structural injury, corneal damage with loss of intraocular contents or endophthalmitis among others. They were submitted to evisceration followed by the insertion of an acrylic resin prosthesis (methylmethacrylate in the corneoscleral or scleral shell. The spheres were previously made and sterilized by autoclave. The postoperative medical therapy included topical and systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics for seven days and anti-inflammatory drugs. The follow-up time varied from two months to three years. The evaluated

  3. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  4. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  5. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  6. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  7. Two-position measurement of intraocular pressure by PT100 noncontact tonometry in comparison with Goldmann tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuehi KC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi C Ogbuehi, John C Chijuka, Uchechukwu L Osuagwu Department of Optometry & Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the precision of intraocular pressure measurements obtained by PT100 noncontact tonometry in a handheld and slit lamp-mounted position in comparison with that of Goldmann applanation tonometry in healthy young adults.Methods: Sixty eyes from 60 subjects (30 men and 30 women aged 22 ± 1 (range 20–24 years participated in this study. Triplicate intraocular pressure measurement of a randomly selected eye was obtained by a noncontact tonometer in a handheld and slit lamp-mounted position in a randomized order, with the Goldmann applanation tonometer always performed last. A second measurement session was carried out after one week to assess repeatability.Results: The mean ± standard deviation of intraocular pressure readings in the first and second session, respectively, with the three techniques were: handheld position, 14.52 ± 3.28 mmHg and 15.26 ± 2.11 mmHg; slit lamp-mounted position, 14.01 ± 2.80 mmHg and 15.16 ± 2.34 mmHg; and Goldmann applanation tonometer, 14.86 ± 3.26 mmHg and 15.16 ± 2.42 mmHg. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 between the techniques in the intraocular pressure measurements returned (Goldmann applanation tonometer vs handheld and Goldmann applanation tonometer vs slit lamp-mounted. The Goldmann applanation tonometer measured intraocular pressure 0.34 mmHg higher than handheld and 0.85 mmHg higher than slit lamp-mounted in session 1, and in session 2 Goldmann applanation tonometer intraocular pressure measurement was the same as with the slit lamp-mounted method but lower than with the handheld method by 0.11 mmHg. In PT100 handheld vs slit lamp-mounted comparisons, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 between intraocular pressure measurements returned

  8. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  9. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  10. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498

  11. Effects of Cataract Surgery on Intraocular Pressure in Patients with and without Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin İsmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of phacoemulsification surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL implantation on intraocular pressure (IOP in various types of glaucoma patients with visually significant cataract and to compare these results with cataract patients without glaucoma. Ma te ri al and Met hod: This retrospective study included consecutive cases of 21 primary open-angle glaucoma patients, 13 primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG patients, 11 pseudoexfoliation glaucoma patients, and 21 control eyes without any type of glaucoma; all patients had co-existing cataract. Visual acuities, IOP, number of glaucoma medications used, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and gonioscopic evaluations were noted both pre- and postoperatively. Phacoemulsification and IOL implantations were performed via clear corneal incisions in the whole study group. Study group was followed-up for six months. Re sults: Postoperative visits at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months were noted. After surgery, visual acuities improved significantly (p=0.001 in all groups. Intraocular pressures decreased in all groups postoperatively, but the change was statistically significant in the PACG group (p=0.013. Increase in ACD was significant in PACG group (p=0.001. Widening of iridocorneal angle and decrease in the number of antiglaucoma drugs were observed in all groups, but these were significant in the PACG group (p=0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Dis cus si on: In glaucoma patients with co-existing cataract, phacoemulsification surgery allows both the visual rehabilitation and IOP control. This IOP lowering effect is seen most markedly in the PACG group. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 167-72

  12. Intra- and Intersession Repeatability of an Optical Quality and Intraocular Scattering Measurement System in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    Full Text Available To evaluate intra- and intersession repeatability of objective optical quality and intraocular scattering measurements with a double-pass system in children.Forty-two eyes of 42 children were included in the study. An optical quality analysis system (OQAS was used to measure optical quality parameters, including modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (MTFcutoff, Strehl ratio (SR, OQAS values (OV at 3 different contrasts and objective scatter index (OSI. Three measurement sessions with 10-min intervals were operated by the same technician, and in each session four consecutive measurements were obtained.Mean values for MTFcutoff, SR and OSI were 46.85 ± 7.45cpd, 0.27 ± 0.06 and 0.34 ± 0.22 respectively. 1 The intraclass correlation coefficients were ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 and coefficients of variation from 0.06 to 0.16 for all the parameters in the first session; the relative repeatability were 11.1% (MTFcutoff, 22.5% (SR, 10.9% (OV100%, 16.6% (OV2%, 22.4% (OV9% and 56.3% (OSI. Similar results were found in the second and third sessions. 2 Bland-Altman analysis showed that narrow 95% confidence intervals (compared between the first and second sessions ranged from -5.42 to 5.28 (MTFcutoff, -0.05 to 0.07 (SR, -0.18 to 0.18 (OV100%, -0.26 to 0.29 (OV20%, -0.33 to 0.39 (OV9% and -0.11 to 0.09 (OSI; the comparison between any two of the three sessions showed similar results.Measurements of optical quality and intraocular scattering in children by the double-pass system showed good intra- and intersession repeatability. Retinal image quality is high and intraocular scattering is low in children.

  13. Densiron® 68 as an intraocular tamponade for complex inferior retinal detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain RN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumana N Hussain, Somnath BanerjeeLeicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKIntroduction: Densiron® 68 is a high-density liquid used to tamponade inferior retinal detachments. We present a case series of 12 patients treated with Densiron as an intraocular tamponade agent.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes in 12 patients was carried out. The primary endpoint was anatomic reattachment of the retina following removal of Densiron oil.Results: All patients had inferior detachments; 33% had associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Densiron was utilized as a primary agent in five patients (42%; the remaining patients had prior unsuccessful surgery for retinal reattachment, including pars plana vitrectomy, cryotherapy, laser, encirclement, gas (C3F8 or C2F6, or silicone oil. Eleven patients (91% had successful reattachment of the retina at 3 months following removal of Densiron; one patient had extensive PVR, total retinal detachment, preretinal macula fibrosis, and chronic hypotony, and surgical intervention was unsuccessful. Six patients (50% had raised intraocular pressure (IOP, resolving in the majority of cases following Densiron removal; two patients had long-term raised IOP requiring topical or surgical therapy. Of the six phakic patients, 50% developed significant cataract in the operated eye. Of those with successful retinal reattachment, visual outcome was variable, with 36% patients gaining two to four lines on Snellen, 27% remaining objectively the same, and 36% losing one to two lines.Conclusion: The anatomic success rate is high (91% in patients requiring Densiron tamponade for inferior retinal detachments with or without evidence of PVR either as a primary or secondary intervention. A common complication is raised IOP; however, this most often resolves following removal of the oil.Keywords: intraocular tamponade, silicone oil, retinal detachment, retinal reattachments

  14. Iris Claw versus Scleral Fixation Intraocular Lens Implantation during Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Farrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes of iris claw anterior chamber intraocular lens (ICACIOL with that of scleral fixation posterior chamber intraocular lens (SF-PCIOL implantation during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV as initial surgery to correct aphakia. Methods: Twelve patients with complicated cataract surgery or trauma who had suffered nucleus, whole crystalline lens or intraocular lens (IOL drop into the vitreous cavity, and undergone PPV with IC-ACIOL implantation over a period of one year were evaluated for the purpose of this study. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central corneal thickness (CCT, spherical equivalent (SE refractive error, astigmatism and complications were recorded. The results were compared to outcomes of another group of 13 patients who had previously undergone PPV with SF-PCIOL implantation. Results: Mean improvement of UCVA was greater in IC-ACIOL eyes as compared to the SF-PCIOL group (-1.17±0.28 versus -0.89±0.21 logMAR, P=0.01, corresponding values for postoperative BCVA were 0.24±0.17 and 0.44±0.22 logMAR (P=0.041, respectively. Average postoperative SE was comparable in the IC-ACIOL and SFPCIOL groups at 0.6±1.03 and 0.56±1.23 diopters, respectively (P=0.290. However, 10 (83.3% IC-ACIOL eyes versus 6 (46.1% SF-PCIOL eyes had SE within 1 diopter of emmetropia (P=0.048. Mean postoperative increase in CCT was comaparble between the study groups (P=0.126. Conclusion: In the absence of sufficient capsular support, the use of an IC-ACIOL for correction of aphakia during PPV can be a good alternative and seems to entail better visual outcomes as compared to SF-PCIOL.

  15. A randomised comparative study of the effect of Airtraq optical laryngoscope vs. Macintosh laryngoscope on intraocular pressure in non-ophthalmic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bikramjit Das; Rajiv Kumar Samal; Arup Ghosh; Ratul Kundu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared intraocular pressure changes following laryngoscopy and intubation with conventional Macintosh blade and Airtraq optical laryngoscope. METHODS: Ninety adult patients were randomly assigned to study group or control group. Study group (n = 45) - Airtraq laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Control group (n = 45) - conventional Macintosh laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Preoperative baseline intraocular pressure was measured with Schiotz tonometer. Laryngosc...

  16. [Optimisation of the visualisation technique for optical paths through intraocular lenses for characterisation of multifocal imaging properties of Fresnel-zone plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiß, S; Forbrig, J; Guthoff, R F; Terwee, T; Stolz, H; Siewert, S; El-Tamer, A; Hinze, U; Chichkov, B N; Stachs, O

    2014-12-01

    The utilisation of the diffractive properties of Fresnel zone plates offers the possibility of intraocular lens designs with multiple foci. Such intraocular lenses can be manufactured by two-photon polymerisation (2PP). This paper explains the underlying concept and shows the principles for visualisation of the focus properties of such implants. PMID:25519505

  17. An investigation on dysphotopsia of a sigma-edged intraocular lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishan Gao; Meimei Kong; Xinhua Li; Lei Chen; Rihong Zhu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A sigma-edged design of intraocular lens (IOL) is proposed to minimize the reflected glare images associated with the edge. The optimal sigma inverse edge is investigated when pupil diameter is 5.0 mm by the established Escudero-Sanz's wide angle model. The non-sequential ray tracing program of Zemax-EE (Zemax Development Corp., San Diego, USA) is used to investigate the sigma edge of reducing the potential for edge glare phenomena. The results show that sigma-edged design can significantly reduce the reflected glare intensity on retina if the angle of its inverse edge is taken from 20 to 70 degrees.

  18. Experimental Differentiation of Intraocular Masses Using Ultrahigh-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Falke, Karen; Krüger, Paul; Hosten, Norbert; Zimpfer, Annette; Guthoff, Rudolf; Langner, Sönke; Stachs, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The case reports presented here were compiled to demonstrate the potential for improved diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress of intraocular lesions using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) at 7.1 Tesla. Methods High-resolution ex vivo ocular magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired on an ultrahigh-field MR system (7.1 Tesla, ClinScan, Bruker BioScan, Germany) using a 2-channel coil with 4 coil elements and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences of hum...

  19. Recent decreasing frequency of enucleation for intraocular retinoblastoma in Upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of combined systematic chemotherapy (chemoreduction) and local ophthalmic therapy (LT) is preventing or delaying external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and enucleation in patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, single-institution, clinical study. Twenty-eight patients (37 eyes) with newly diagnosed intraocular retinoblastoma were included in this study. Primary enucleation was performed for 7 eyes with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma at presentation before starting chemoreduction. Using Reese-Ellsworth (RE) staging for RB, the remaining 30 eyes were as follows: Two in group I, 3 in group II, 8 in group III, 7 in group IV, and 9 in group V. All the 30 eyes were initially treated with 6 cycles of chemoredution using vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin, repeated every three weeks. After total of 6 cycles, each tumor was re-evaluated decide on the next mode of therapy. In cases where the tumor was reduced enough, LT (Thermotherapy, or cryotherapy, but plaque radiotherapy was unavailable) was applied. In cases where the tumor was reduced but insufficient for LT, we added another 3 cycles of same regimen in some patients; or we performed chemotherapy (CTT) for others, according to size of the residual tumor. Eyes failed to respond to tochemorduction and LT, received EBRT or were enucleated. Following 6 cycles of chemoreduction, all tumors showed an initial regression, and all vitreous and subretinal seeds showed calcification or disappearance of most of them. Among the 30 eyes, 12 eyes achieved complete response (CR), and 18 eyes achieved partial response (PR). Only 7 eyes (stage I to III) showed sufficient reduction of tumor size for the LT to be applied for, for which, TTT (4 eyes), and cryotherapy (3 eyes) were performed. Chemotherapy (CTT) was performed for 9 patients (13 eyes, 15 tumors). At the end of follow-up period, 14 of the total 30 eyes (46.7%) could not be salvaged with chemoreduction and LT

  20. Intra-operative assessment of toric intra-ocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinopoulos Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new procedure for intra-operative toric intra-ocular lens (IOL axis assessment in order to achieve optimal implantation. IOL implantation procedure was directly recorded. An assessor estimated the angle formed by the marked 0-180 axis and the toric IOL axis after implantation with the use of the appropriate software. If IOL implantation was assessed to be inaccurate, the surgeon was advised to correct IOL positioning by rotating the IOL clockwise. The assessment procedure was repeated until accurate IOL positioning was achieved.

  1. A Rapid and Convenient Procedure to Evaluate Optical Performance of Intraocular Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Schaeffel; Hakan Kaymak

    2014-01-01

    A new portable lens scanner was developed and tested for measuring focal lengths and relative contrast transfer of mono- and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). A photograph of a natural scene was imaged in white light through an IOL in a water-filled cuvette, with their +21D base power largely neutralized by a −20D trial lens, using a USB monochrome video camera that could be focused via a laptop-controlled stepping motor from −8.5 to + 8.0D. The output of 10000 ON-OFF antagonistic “recept...

  2. Intracapsular dexamethasone implant in patients undergoing phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Monferrari Monteiro Vianna; Lincoln Leme Freitas; Walton Nosé; Liliane Andrade Almeida Kanecadan; Eduardo Sone Soriano; Cristina Muccioli; Rubens Belfort Jr.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To relate the outcomes of 7 eyes of 7 patients in which a dexamethasone 0.7 mg implant (Ozurdex®) was placed inside the capsule bag after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and compare with the fellow eyes, that were operated by the same technique and received dexamethasone eyedrops in the post-operatory. METHODS: Report review of 7 eyes of 7 patients who received dexamethasone 0.7 mg implant after phacoemulsification and IOL, comparing them to the fellow eye...

  3. Postoperative Astigmatic Outcomes Based on the Haptic Axis of Intraocular Lenses Inserted in Cataract Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Kim, Hyun-Seung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to compare post-operative astigmatic outcomes of two groups, with-the-rule (WTR) and against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism patients, according to the haptic axis of intraocular lenses (IOLs) inserted in cataract surgery. Methods Seventy-two eyes with WTR astigmatism and 79 eyes with ATR astigmatism had cataract surgery through a clear corneal temporal incision. These two groups of eyes were then each divided into 2 groups based on whether the haptic axis of the i...

  4. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  5. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii, in an immunocompetent patient, following intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for anterior endophthalmitis following an intraocular lens implantation. He had developed a fluffy growth resembling a fungal mass on the iris of the right eye. The mass was removed and sent for fungal studies to our department. Direct microscopy revealed hyphae. Further studies helped identify the fungus to belong to genus Paecilomyces. This is a rare case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii in an immunocompetent person.

  6. Prospective evaluation of visual outcomes with three presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses following cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ang RE; Martinez GA; EM Cruz; Tiongson AA; Dela Cruz AG

    2013-01-01

    RE Ang,1,2 GA Martinez,2,3 EM Cruz,1 AA Tiongson,1 AG Dela Cruz1 1Asian Eye Institute, Makati City, Philippines; 2Cardinal Santos Medical Center, San Juan City, Philippines; 3Pasig City General Hospital, Pasig City, Philippines Purpose: To compare the visual acuity and quality of vision achieved with three widely-used intraocular lenses (IOLs) in subjects with bilateral cataracts. Patients and methods: This three-arm, parallel, prospective, partially masked, single-surgeon study randomized 78...

  7. Ultraviolet or blue-filtering intraocular lenses: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, S M

    2016-02-01

    Cataract surgery was revolutionised by the introduction of modern intraocular lenses in the late 1940's. By the late 1960's to 1970's evidence had emerged that short-wavelength light caused phototoxicity at the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. By the early 1980's ultraviolet filters had been incorporated into intraocular lenses. This caused intense controversy, as there was concern that the UV-filtering chromophore might leach out into the eye causing toxicity. With the arrival of blue-filtering intraocular lenses (BFIOLs) in 1990's, a further debate was ignited as to their safety and potential disadvantages. Selecting the optimal performing intraocular lens to obtain the best visual performance with the fewest potential drawbacks has become complex and challenging for cataract surgeons and their patients with the wide choice of lenses available. Choosing a personalised lens to address astigmatism, presbyopia, spherical aberration, chromatic aberration, and potentially to shield the retina from short-wavelength light is now possible. The potential benefits and possible side effects of these different innovations emphasise the importance of assessing the evidence for their clinical utility, allowing the surgeon and the patient to weigh-up the risk benefit ratio and make an informed decision. The BFIOLs were developed to reduce cyanopsia, address chromatic aberration, and improve contrast sensitivity in different lighting conditions, as well as to prevent short-wavelength light reaching the retina thus potentially reducing the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration. Further design development of the BFIOLs was to mimic the natural crystalline lens absorption and transmittance properties in adulthood. Multiple publications have reported on the potential benefits and pitfalls of implanting a blue-filtering lens. The potential disadvantages raised in the literature over the last 25 years since their introduction, regarding compromise of visual

  8. Spontaneous fracture of an implanted posterior chamber polyimide intraocular lens haptic: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Haemin Kang; Kyung Eun Han; Tae-im Kim; Eung Kweon Kim

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old male patient visited our clinic for decreased visual acuity in the right eye for 10 days. He denied any trauma history, but recalled that the symptom developed after straining. He had undergone uncomplicated phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the bag of the right eye 11 years ago. The IOL was a three-piece silicone polyimide-haptics design. On slit-lamp examination, the IOL optic and proximal part of nasal fractured haptic were found...

  9. Intraocular Pressure and Associations in Children. The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Da Yong; Guo, Kai; Wang, Yan; Guo, Yuan Yuan; Yang, Xian Rong; Jing, Xin Xia; Guo, Hai Ke; Tao, Yong; Zhu, Dan; Jonas, Jost B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association in children in a population living in an oasis in the Gobi Desert. Methods The cross-sectional school-based study included all schools in the Ejina region. The children underwent an ophthalmic examination, non-contact tonometry and measurement of blood pressure and body height and weight. Results Out of eligible 1911 children, 1565 (81.9%) children with a mean age of 11.9±3.5 years (range: 6–21 years) participated. Mean sphe...

  10. The Clinical Analysis of Secondary Glaucoma Following Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    We present 14 patients with secondary gluacoma following the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (lOLs). All patients were u-nilateral gluacoma , which developed within 1 month following the IOL implantation in 10 cases, and from 1 to 3 years in 4 cases. The angle of anterior chamber was open in 8 patients, and close in 6 ones. Seven patients required treatment of antiglaucomatous medicine; 4 patients underwent laser indecto-my and 3 patients required antiglaucoma surgery. The results s...

  11. Measurement of intraocular distances in human eyes by using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Zhu, Lida; Li, Qinghua; Ma, Zhenhe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a system for rapidly measuring the intraocular distances of human eyes in vivo with high sensitivity by using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry. The system mainly consisting of a rapid focus displacement unit and a reference arm which has a variable optical path length. This system is capable of providing a complete biometrical assessment of a human eye in a single measurement procedure, including cornea thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length. The system is experimentally verified by measuring the four parameters of a human eye in vivo.

  12. A time-delay calibrated method for cornea hysteresis and intraocular pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Jen; Tsai, Che-Liang; Wang, Wai; Hsu, Long; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-04-01

    The presence of cornea hysteresis (CH) in characterizing the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a human eye deteriorates the accuracy of IOP. To suppress CH, the pressure gauge of a tonometer must be located as close as possible to the cornea. However, this arrangement is unpractical because appropriate working distance to the cornea is required. In this paper, a time-delay calibrated (TDC) method is proposed to counteract the undesired effect of CH in characterizing the IOP. Employing this TDC method, the CH approaches to zero for most eyes measured.

  13. Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, R W

    1976-04-14

    Cats with one normal eye and one eye with experimental glaucoma were trained to tolerate tonometry while conscious. They were then given the general anesthetic agents pentobarbital, ketamine, and CI-744 in the lowest and twice the lowest dosages which permitted tonometry in untrained cats. Pentobarbital lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) by 20-50%. Ketamine raised IOP by about 10%. CI-744 had essentially no effect on IOP. The two conpoments of CI-744, tiletamine (CI-634) and zolazepam (CI-716) were given individually in the doses in which they had been given as part of CI-744. Tiletamine had no effect on IOP, while zolazepam lowered IOP by about 10%. PMID:1083696

  14. A slide rule for calculating the power of an intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G J; Pomerantzeff, O; Miao, T Y

    1983-01-01

    We have designed a slide rule to calculate the emmetropizing and iseikonizing power of an intraocular lens (IOL). Like the dial biometer currently used for these calculations, the slide rule is inexpensive, easy to use, simple, and a compact pocket size. It can, however, also be used to calculate postoperative refractive error, corneal power when various keratometers are used, and conversion of refractive correction at the spectacle frame to that at the cornea, or vice versa. All the calculated data are within the accuracy suitable for clinical work. PMID:6630016

  15. Refractive errors induced by displacement of intraocular lenses within the pseudophakic eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, D A

    1989-03-01

    Simple methods were developed to estimate refractive errors when intraocular lenses are not fitted optimally within pseudophakic eyes. The accuracy of these methods was determined by comparing results obtained with them to results obtained by raytracing through a model eye. Accuracy was good for longitudinal displacement and tilting, and reasonable for transverse displacement. Refractive errors are related linearly to the magnitude of the longitudinal displacement, and are related to the square of the magnitude of tilt or transverse displacement. The refractive error upon transverse displacement is quadratically dependent upon lens shape. PMID:2717142

  16. Innovative confocal laser method for exact dioptric power measurement of intraocular lens implants Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilko K. Ilev; Robert W. Faaland; Do-Hyun Kim; Robert H. James; Don Calogero

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel confocal laser method (CLM) for precise testing of the dioptric power of both positive and negative intraocular lens (IOL) implants. The CLM principle is based on a simple fiber-optic confocal laser design including a single-mode fiber coupler that serves simultaneously as a point light source used for formation of a collimated Gaussian laser beam, and as a highly sensitive confocal point receiver. The CLM approach provides an accurate, repeatable, objective, and fast method for IOL dioptric power measurement over the range from 0 D to greater than =t=30 D under both dry and in-situ simulated conditions.

  17. Diseño y evaluación de perfiles de lentes intraoculares

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Gallego, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    El uso de lentes intraoculares (LIOs) monofocales, bifocales y acomodativas es una estrategia para restaurar el poder refractivo en los ojos tratados de las cataratas. Con el fin de comprender y mejorar la percepción visual de las escenas tridimensionales, abordamos el estudio de los diseños de las LIOs y evaluamos in vitro su desempeño. Inicialmente, proponemos dos diseños alternativos que compensan la falta de la acomodación, expandiendo la profundidad de foco del ojo. Los diseños se basan ...

  18. Diseño, fabricación y control de calidad de lentes intraoculares multifocales

    OpenAIRE

    Remón Martín, Laura

    2012-01-01

    El mercado de lentes intraoculares (LIOs) está creciendo de manera espectacular en los últimos años debido al auge de cirugía de cataratas. La mayoría de las lentes implantadas en la actualidad son monofocales diseñadas simplemente para compensar la visión de lejos del paciente. Sin embargo, existen otros tipos de lentes denominadas multifocales (LIOMs) que proporcionan buena visión tanto de lejos como de cerca y suponen una alternativa prometedora en pacientes de más de 50 años para la compe...

  19. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of NO-donor containing carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to lower intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinhua; Rui, Eugene Y; Cobbs, Morena; Dinh, Dac M; Gukasyan, Hovhannes J; Lafontaine, Jennifer A; Mehta, Saurabh; Patterson, Brian D; Rewolinski, David A; Richardson, Paul F; Edwards, Martin P

    2015-03-26

    The antiglaucoma drugs dorzolamide (1) and brinzolamide (2) lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by inhibiting the carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme to reduce aqueous humor production. The introduction of a nitric oxide (NO) donor into the alkyl side chain of dorzolamide (1) and brinzolamide (2) has led to the discovery of NO-dorzolamide 3a and NO-brinzolamide 4a, which could lower IOP through two mechanisms: CA inhibition to decrease aqueous humor secretion (reduce inflow) and NO release to increase aqueous humor drainage (increase outflow). Compounds 3a and 4a have shown improved efficacy of lowering IOP in both rabbits and monkeys compared to brinzolamide (2). PMID:25728019

  20. Additive Effect of Brinzolamide on Diurnal Changes in Intraocular Pressure in Latanoprost-treated Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Keitetsu; Kashiwagi, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of brinzolamide on diurnal fluctuations in the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients on latanoprost ophthalmic solution prospectively was aimed. Eleven patients with primary open angle glaucoma were enrolled in this study. The subjects were admitted to the hospital and had their IOPs measured over 24 hours (10 AM, noon, 2 PM, 4 PM, 6 PM, 8 PM, 10 PM, midnight, 3 AM, 6 AM, and 8AM). After topical administration of brinzolamide twice daily for 4-8 weeks for one eye, t...

  1. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  2. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  3. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  4. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  5. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from a...

  6. Environmental and health impacts of artificial turf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Reinhard, Martin

    2014-02-18

    With significant water savings and low maintenance requirements, artificial turf is increasingly promoted as a replacement for natural grass on athletic fields and lawns. However, there remains the question of whether it is an environmentally friendly alternative to natural grass. The major concerns stem from the infill material that is typically derived from scrap tires. Tire rubber crumb contains a range of organic contaminants and heavy metals that can volatilize into the air and/or leach into the percolating rainwater, thereby posing a potential risk to the environment and human health. A limited number of studies have shown that the concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in the air above artificial turf fields were typically not higher than the local background, while the concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants in the field drainages were generally below the respective regulatory limits. Health risk assessment studies suggested that users of artificial turf fields, even professional athletes, were not exposed to elevated risks. Preliminary life cycle assessment suggested that the environmental impacts of artificial turf fields were lower than equivalent grass fields. Areas that need further research to better understand and mitigate the potential negative environmental impacts of artificial turf are identified. PMID:24467230

  7. The heritability of glaucoma-related traits corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and choroidal blood flow pulsatility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Freeman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. METHODS: Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Three measures of intraocular pressure were obtained: Goldmann-correlated and corneal compensated intraocular pressure using the Ocular Response Analyser, and Pascal intraocular pressure using the Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometer. The pulsatility of choroidal blood velocity and flow were measured in the sub-foveolar choroid using single-point laser Doppler flowmetry (Oculix. We estimated heritability using maximum-likelihood variance components methods implemented in the SOLAR software. RESULTS: No significant heritability was detected for the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow or velocity. The Goldman-correlated, corneal compensated, and Pascal measures of intraocular pressure measures were all significantly heritable at 0.94, 0.79, and 0.53 after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0023, p = 0.0239. Central corneal thickness was significantly heritable at 0.68 (p = 0.0078. Corneal hysteresis was highly heritable but the estimate was at the upper boundary of 1.00 preventing us from giving a precise estimate. CONCLUSION: Corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure are all heritable and may be suitable as glaucoma endophenotypes. The pulsatility of choroidal blood flow and blood velocity were not significantly heritable in this sample.

  8. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  9. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  10. Elevated temperature crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  11. Humoral immunity resulted from vaccination with Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine given subcutaneously and intraocularly in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Aldabagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the humeral immune response induced by administration of smooth strain of B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine (1-2× 109 viable organism per dose given by subcutaneous and intraocular routes in goats. Rose Bengal test was done to ensure the absence of Brucella infection in experimental animals and the 2- ME agglutination test was used to evaluate the antibody titers. The results showed that subcutaneous group showed positive results in 80% of animals whereas 38.5% of intraocular group showed positive results.

  12. Genome-wide association study of intraocular pressure identifies the GLCCI1/ICA1 region as a glaucoma susceptibility locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES); Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; Strange, A; Bellenguez, C; Freeman, C.; Pirinen, M.; Su, Z.; Band, G.; Pearson, R; Vukcevic, D.; Rautanen, A; Spencer, CC; Donnelly, P

    2013-01-01

    To discover quantitative trait loci for intraocular pressure, a major risk factor for glaucoma and the only modifiable one, we performed a genome-wide association study on a discovery cohort of 2175 individuals from Sydney, Australia. We found a novel association between intraocular pressure and a common variant at 7p21 near to GLCCI1 and ICA1. The findings in this region were confirmed through two UK replication cohorts totalling 4866 individuals (rs59072263, P(combined) = 1.10 × 10(-8)). A ...

  13. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with the portable PT100 noncontact tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Salim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarwat Salim, Daniel J Linn, James R Echols II, Peter A NetlandHamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USAPurpose: Noncontact tonometers are useful when regulations preclude use of contact tonometers by medical students and other nonophthalmologists. Our study compared the measurements by the portable, noncontact tonometer (PT100 with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT. Methods: This was a prospective study of 98 eyes from 98 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP was measured by GAT and the PT100 (Reichert, Buffalo, NY.Results: Mean IOP measurements showed no significant differences in measurements performed by the two tonometers (P = 0.64. Measurements by the two tonometers were in agreement by ≤3 mmHg in 92.8% of eyes. Linear regression analysis of PT100 vs GAT measurements revealed a slope of 0.98 with r2 = 0.58. Bland–Altman analysis showed a mean difference of measurements by GAT and PT100 of -0.3 mmHg with two standard deviation = 7.1 mmHg.Conclusion: The portable noncontact PT100 tonometer provides IOP measurements comparable to GAT within the normal range of IOP. Keywords: applanation tonometer, intraocular pressure, noncontact tonometry

  14. Sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens fixation with lamellar dissection of scleral tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaji T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Kawaji,1,2 Tomoki Sato,2 Hidenobu Tanihara11Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, 2Sato Eye & Internal Medicine Clinic, Kumamoto, JapanPurpose: To report the results of sutureless scleral fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL by using our developed simple technique.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 48 eyes of 47 patients who underwent sutureless intrascleral IOL fixation by using our modified technique. A 25-gauge microvitreoretinal knife was used to perform sclerotomies and create limbus-parallel scleral tunnels with lamellar dissection in which the haptics were fixed.Results: The IOLs were fixed and centered well. The mean follow-up period was 26.7 months. Postoperative complications included smooth vitreous hemorrhage in four eyes (8.3%, cystoid macular edema in two eyes (4.2%, and iris capture of the IOL in two eyes (4.2%. No other complications, such as breakage of the IOL, spontaneous IOL dislocation, or retinal detachment, were detected during the follow-up period.Conclusion: The lamellar dissection of the limbus-parallel scleral tunnel can simplify the forceps-assisted introduction of the haptics into the scleral tunnel, and this technique seemed to be safe.Keywords: intraocular lenses, ophthalmologic surgical procedures, intrascleral fixation, sutureless fixation

  15. Intraocular pressure determination in clinically normal red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, André L; Mendes, Guilherme M; McManus, Concepta; Arrais, Patrícia

    2002-03-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reflects a balance between aqueous humor production and outflow and is often an essential ophthalmic diagnostic procedure in animals. The objective of this study was to estimate IOP in clinically normal red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) of various sizes by using applanation tonometry. Intraocular pressures were estimated for 25 captive red-footed tortoises (10 males, 10 females, and 5 animals of unknown sex) by using an applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia. Body length ranged from 5.1 to 54.9 cm, measured from nuchal to anal scutes. Five measurements from each eye were obtained by a single observer in an ambient temperature of approximately 30 degrees C. Observer's reliability was good (intraclass r = 0.75), and IOP did not change over the ordered sequence of five replicate measurements. For individual tortoises the correlation for IOP between the left and right eyes was low (r = 0.20). The paired t-test did not show any statistical effect (P = 0.426) for the difference in IOP between the left and right eyes. Mean IOP determined for 10 confirmed males and 10 confirmed females did not differ between sexes (P = 0.244). The mean IOP of five small tortoises ( 10 cm long). In red-footed tortoises there does not appear to be any relation between carapace length and IOP. PMID:12216794

  16. Customized toric intraocular lens implantation for correction of extreme corneal astigmatism due to corneal scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bassily

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available R Bassily, J LuckOphthalmology Department, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UKAbstract: A 76-year-old woman presented with decreased visual function due to cataract formation. Twenty-five years prior she developed right sided corneal ulceration that left her with 10.8 diopters (D of irregular astigmatism at 71.8° (steep axis. Her uncorrected visual acuity was 6/24 and could only ever wear a balanced lens due to the high cylindrical error. Cataract surgery was planned with a custom designed toric intraocular lens (IOL with +16.0 D sphere inserted via a wound at the steep axis of corneal astigmatism. Postoperative refraction was -0.75/+1.50 × 177° with a visual acuity of 6/9 that has remained unchanged at six-week follow-up with no IOL rotation. This case demonstrates the value of high power toric IOLs for the correction of pathological corneal astigmatism.Keywords: intraocular lens, corneal ulceration, visual acuity, scarring

  17. Dosimetry and treatment planning of Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds for intraocular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular malignant lesions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Plaque brachytherapy represents an effective means of treatment for intraocular lesions. Recently Radiopharmaceutical Division, BARC, Mumbai, has indigenously fabricated reasonable-cost I-125 sources. Here we are presenting the preliminary experience of dosimetry of sources, configuration of treatment planning system (TPS and quality assurance (QA for eye plaque therapy with Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds, treated in our hospital, for a patient with ocular lesions. I-125 seeds were calibrated using well-type chamber. BrachyVision TPS was configured with Monte Carlo computed radial dose functions and anisotropy functions for I-125 sources. Dose calculated by TPS at different points in central axis and off axis was compared with manually calculated dose. Eye plaque was fabricated of 17 karat pure gold, locally. The seeds were arranged in an outer ring near the edge of the plaque and in concentric rings throughout the plaque. The sources were manually digitized on the TPS, and dose distribution was calculated in three dimensions. Measured activity using cross-calibrated well-type chamber was within ±10% of the activity specified by the supplier. Difference in TPS-calculated dose and manually calculated dose was within 5%. Treatment time calculated by TPS was in concordance with published data for similar plaque arrangement.

  18. Dosimetry and treatment planning of Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds for intraocular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Suresh; Deshpande, Sudesh; Anand, Vivek; De, Sandeep; Saxena, Sanjay; Dash, A; Basu, Mahua; Samant, Preetam; Kannan, V

    2008-01-01

    Intraocular malignant lesions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Plaque brachytherapy represents an effective means of treatment for intraocular lesions. Recently Radiopharmaceutical Division, BARC, Mumbai, has indigenously fabricated reasonable-cost I-125 sources. Here we are presenting the preliminary experience of dosimetry of sources, configuration of treatment planning system (TPS) and quality assurance (QA) for eye plaque therapy with Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds, treated in our hospital, for a patient with ocular lesions. I-125 seeds were calibrated using well-type chamber. BrachyVision TPS was configured with Monte Carlo computed radial dose functions and anisotropy functions for I-125 sources. Dose calculated by TPS at different points in central axis and off axis was compared with manually calculated dose. Eye plaque was fabricated of 17 karat pure gold, locally. The seeds were arranged in an outer ring near the edge of the plaque and in concentric rings throughout the plaque. The sources were manually digitized on the TPS, and dose distribution was calculated in three dimensions. Measured activity using cross-calibrated well-type chamber was within +/-10% of the activity specified by the supplier. Difference in TPS-calculated dose and manually calculated dose was within 5%. Treatment time calculated by TPS was in concordance with published data for similar plaque arrangement. PMID:20041047

  19. Dosimetry and treatment planning of Occu-Prosta 125I seeds for intraocular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraocular malignant lesions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Plaque brachytherapy represents an effective means of treatment for intraocular lesions. Recently Radiopharmaceutical Division, BARC, Mumbai, has indigenously fabricated reasonable-cost 125I sources. Here we are presenting the preliminary experience of dosimetry of sources, configuration of treatment planning system (TPS) and quality assurance (QA) for eye plaque therapy with Occu-Prosta 125I seeds, treated in our hospital, for a patient with ocular lesions. 125I seeds were calibrated using well-type chamber. BrachyVision TPS was configured with Monte Carlo computed radial dose functions and anisotropy functions for 125I sources. Dose calculated by TPS at different points in central axis and off axis was compared with manually calculated dose. Eye plaque was fabricated of 17 karat pure gold, locally. The seeds were arranged in an outer ring near the edge of the plaque and in concentric rings throughout the plaque. The sources were manually digitized on the TPS, and dose distribution was calculated in three dimensions. Measured activity using cross-calibrated well-type chamber was within ± 10% of the activity specified by the supplier. Difference in TPS-calculated dose and manually calculated dose was within 5%. Treatment time calculated by TPS was in concordance with published data for similar plaque arrangement. (author)

  20. Acute onset of retinal detachment after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Planas Domènech

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Núria Planas Domènech, Luís Arias, Sergi Prades, Octavi Pujol, Marc Rubio, Jose M CaminalDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainCase report: A 34-year-old man with severe myopia, presented with acute visual loss in his right eye. This occurred 3 hours after a posterior chamber phakic (PCP intraocular lens (IOL implantation, and was associated with a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Retinal retachment surgery was performed without complications, with the outcome showing good anatomical and functional results during a 2-year follow-up period.Discussion: Despite the fact that several authors have described retinal detachments following PCP IOL implantation in highly myopic patients, there is no evidence that this procedure increases the risk of retinal detachment in these patients. The occurrence of the retinal detachment immediately after the phakic IOL implantation supports the hypothesis that the surgical procedure could induce iatrogenic changes in patients with high myopia, which could increase the incidence of retinal detachment. In contrast to other reports, the interval between the PCP IOL implantation and the retinal detachment was only 3 hours in our patient. We believe this demonstrates the importance of performing a complete preoperative vitreoretinal examination in patients with severe myopia.Keywords: retinal detachment, phakic intraocular lens, myopia

  1. Transconjunctival sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens fixation using intrascleral tunnels guided with catheter and 30-gauge needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Akimoto, Masayuki; Taguchi, Hogara; Nakagawa, Satoko; Hiroi, Kano

    2015-11-01

    We invented a new method for fixing an intraocular lens (IOL) in the scleral tunnel without using a wide conjunctival incision. Modified bent catheter needles were used to penetrate the IOL haptics through the sclerotomy sites. The IOL haptics were inserted into 30-guage (G) scleral tunnels guided by double 30-G needles piercing the sclera. All procedures were performed through the conjunctiva without wide incision. The procedure does not require special forceps, trocars or fibrin glue, only catheter and 30-G needles. The aid of an assistant was not required to support the IOL haptic. The procedures were easily learnt based on our previous method. As with other transconjunctival sutureless surgeries, patients feel less discomfort and the conjunctiva can be conserved for future glaucoma surgery. Complications included two cases of vitreous haemorrhage (16.7%), and one case each of postoperative hypotony, and iris capture (8.3%). Astigmatism induced by intraocular aberration was the same as we reported previously. Our method for fixing the IOL into the scleral tunnel is innovative, less expensive, less invasive and quick. This modified method is a good alternative for fixing IOL haptics into the sclera. PMID:25855502

  2. Laser flare photometry: a noninvasive, objective, and quantitative method to measure intraocular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Herbort, Carl P

    2010-10-01

    Aqueous flare and cells are the two inflammatory parameters of anterior chamber inflammation resulting from disruption of the blood-ocular barriers. When examined with the slit lamp, measurement of intraocular inflammation remains subjective with considerable intra- and interobserver variations. Laser flare cell photometry is an objective quantitative method that enables accurate measurement of these parameters with very high reproducibility. Laser flare photometry allows detection of subclinical alterations in the blood-ocular barriers, identifying subtle pathological changes that could not have been recorded otherwise. With the use of this method, it has been possible to compare the effect of different surgical techniques, surgical adjuncts, and anti-inflammatory medications on intraocular inflammation. Clinical studies of uveitis patients have shown that flare measurements by laser flare photometry allowed precise monitoring of well-defined uveitic entities and prediction of disease relapse. Relationships of laser flare photometry values with complications of uveitis and visual loss further indicate that flare measurement by laser flare photometry should be included in the routine follow-up of patients with uveitis. PMID:19430730

  3. Irradiation system for two-photon induced activation of agents in novel intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klämpfl, Florian; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    This paper presents a newly designed irradiation system for the photochemically triggered two-photon activation of an agent loaded in novel intraocular lenses. After activation, this agent suppresses the formation of after-cataract, a very common disease after the treatment of an eye cataract by implanting an intraocular lens. For this application, intrinsic safety is also important: the laser radiation is applied to one of the most light-sensitive organs: the eye. This has to be taken into account during development of the system. Moreover, the activation uses a two-photon process so a relatively small laser focus is required. To address these issues in combination with economic requirements, a mirror based objective was designed and built, specifically tailored to these needs. Besides the laser beam guidance elements, the irradiation system consists of a camera based monitoring module and an illumination unit. While the first part of the paper shows the design of the system, the second part presents the results of the characterization of the system. The paper closes with a conclusion and an outlook discussing what further development is needed to prepare the system for treatments of human eyes.

  4. Clinical features of removing phakic intraocular lenses in cataract at high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Konovalov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development and an assessment of efficiency of a technique of phakic intraocular lenses (FIOL at cataract phacoemul- sification.Methods: 25 FIOL, a pupillary lens RSC-3, a posterior chamber lens, production of MNtK, Russia, and posterior chamber lens ICL S4 StAAR were removed. Before complex surgical intervention (FIOL + phacoemulsification were carried out standard ophthalmo- logic examination, and also automatic detection of density of endothelial cells.Results: the developed technique of removal of FIOL included subconjunctival anesthesia, formation of a corneal tunnel, filling of the anterior chamber viscoelastic, FIOL mobilization, removal of the bottom haptic element in the anterior chamber, removal of the top haptic element in the of anterior chamber, FIOL removal. In the early postoperative period in 8% transitory hypertensia was observed, in one case (4% cornea hypostasis developed. In 92.4% of cases of the maximal visual acuity with correction was corresponded to the planned. Loss of endothelial cells after operation made 4.8% that in full corresponds to standard loss of cells after not complicated phacoemulsification.Conclusion: the technique of removal of FIOL developed as part of this research allows enough effectively and to carry out safelyto patients surgical treatment of the complicated cataract with a phakic intraocular lenses explantation.

  5. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  6. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  7. An ACO model for a non-stationary formulation of the single elevator problem

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Silvia; Leguizamón, Mario Guillermo; Alba Torres, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic is a bio-inspired approach for hard combinatorial optimization problems for stationary and non-stationary environments. In the ACO metaheuristic, a colony of artificial ants cooperate for finding high quality solutions in a reasonable time. An interesting example of a non-stationary combinatorial optimization problem is the Multiple Elevators Problem (MEP) which consists in finding a sequence of movements for each elevator to perform in a buildi...

  8. Artificial frustrated spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2015-09-01

    Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.

  9. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  10. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  11. DEM interpolation based on artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yaolin

    2005-10-01

    This paper proposed a systemic resolution scheme of Digital Elevation model (DEM) interpolation based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In this paper, we employ BP network to fit terrain surface, and then detect and eliminate the samples with gross errors. This paper uses Self-organizing Feature Map (SOFM) to cluster elevation samples. The study area is divided into many more homogenous tiles after clustering. BP model is employed to interpolate DEM in each cluster. Because error samples are eliminated and clusters are built, interpolation result is better. The case study indicates that ANN interpolation scheme is feasible. It also shows that ANN can get a more accurate result by comparing ANN with polynomial and spline interpolation. ANN interpolation doesn't need to determine the interpolation function beforehand, so manmade influence is lessened. The ANN interpolation is more automatic and intelligent. At the end of the paper, we propose the idea of constructing ANN surface model. This model can be used in multi-scale DEM visualization, and DEM generalization, etc.

  12. Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome caused by posterior chamber intraocular lens--a rare complication in pediatric cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Ju; Tan, Chau-Yi; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Jou, Jieh-Ren

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of postoperative uveitis-glaucome-hyphema (UGH) syndrome following pediatric cataract surgery due to posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL). Slit-lamp examination revealed the optic of PC-IOL migrated into anterior chamber. The PC-IOL explantation was performed and ocular inflammation subsided. PMID:19230361

  13. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  14. Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Formulas Involving 148 Eyes with Long Axial Lengths: A Retrospective Chart-Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Xu, Xian; Miao, Yuyu; Zheng, Gaoxin; Sun, Yong; Xu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study aims to compare the accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in eyes with long axial lengths from Chinese patients subjected to cataract surgery. Methods. A total of 148 eyes with an axial length of >26 mm from 148 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were included. The Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T formulas were used to calculate the refractive power of the intraocular lenses and the postoperative estimated power. Results. Overall, the Haigis formula achieved the lowest level of median absolute error 1.025 D (P 33 mm, and median absolute errors were significantly higher for those eyes than eyes with axial length = 26.01-30.00 mm. Absolute error was correlated with axial length for the SRK/T (r = 0.212, P = 0.010) and Hoffer Q (r = 0.223, P = 0.007) formulas. For axial lengths > 33 mm, eyes exhibited a postoperative hyperopic refractive error. Conclusions. The Haigis and SRK/T formulas may be more suitable for calculating intraocular lens power for eyes with axial lengths ranging from 26 to 33 mm. And for axial length over 33 mm, the Haigis formula could be more accurate. PMID:26793392

  15. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoue, Shiro; Nakano, Tadashi; Fuse, Nobuo; Iwase, Aiko; Matsumoto, Shun; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Methods In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs

  16. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  17. Artificial Life Meets Computational Creativity?

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    I (briefly) review the history of work in Artificial Life on the problem of the open-ended evolutionary growth of complexity in computational worlds. This is then put into the context of evolutionary epistemology and human creativity.

  18. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications. PMID:20812798

  19. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  20. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.