WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial visual baits

  1. Combination of Phagostimulant and Visual Lure as an Effective Tool in Designing House Fly Toxic Baits: A Laboratory Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae), potential vectors of a variety of pathogens, characteristically search and feed on sugar sources just after emergence for their survival. Phagostimulants like sugars, and visual characteristics of feeding materials play an important role in foraging success in house flies. Therefore, development of toxic baits by using the combination of phagostimulant and visual lure may prove effective in localized control of house flies. In the present study, visual attract...

  2. Visual Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Araokar, Shashank

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of optical characters is known to be one of the earliest applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a simplified neural approach to recognition of optical or visual characters is portrayed and discussed. The document is expected to serve as a resource for learners and amateur investigators in pattern recognition, neural networking and related disciplines.

  3. Combination of phagostimulant and visual lure as an effective tool in designing house fly toxic baits: a laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae), potential vectors of a variety of pathogens, characteristically search and feed on sugar sources just after emergence for their survival. Phagostimulants like sugars, and visual characteristics of feeding materials play an important role in foraging success in house flies. Therefore, development of toxic baits by using the combination of phagostimulant and visual lure may prove effective in localized control of house flies. In the present study, visual attraction of house flies to different fabric colors was studied in choice and no choice experiments. Dark blue was the most preferred color in both experiments. In toxicity experiments, insecticide solutions were prepared in 20% sugar solution. Dark blue fabric strips were prepared by moistening with 20% sugar water solution containing median lethal concentrations of one of the four insecticides viz., fipronil, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb and Spinosad. The fabric strips treated with fipronil and Imidacloprid took minimum time (7.66 and 7.81 h, respectively) to cause 50% mortality, while those treated with Spinosad and indoxacarb took relatively more time (13.62 and 17.91 h, respectively) to cause 50% mortality. In conclusion, the combination of phagostimulant and visual lure could be used in designing toxic baits for house flies. PMID:24086770

  4. Combination of phagostimulant and visual lure as an effective tool in designing house fly toxic baits: a laboratory evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available House flies (Diptera: Muscidae, potential vectors of a variety of pathogens, characteristically search and feed on sugar sources just after emergence for their survival. Phagostimulants like sugars, and visual characteristics of feeding materials play an important role in foraging success in house flies. Therefore, development of toxic baits by using the combination of phagostimulant and visual lure may prove effective in localized control of house flies. In the present study, visual attraction of house flies to different fabric colors was studied in choice and no choice experiments. Dark blue was the most preferred color in both experiments. In toxicity experiments, insecticide solutions were prepared in 20% sugar solution. Dark blue fabric strips were prepared by moistening with 20% sugar water solution containing median lethal concentrations of one of the four insecticides viz., fipronil, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb and Spinosad. The fabric strips treated with fipronil and Imidacloprid took minimum time (7.66 and 7.81 h, respectively to cause 50% mortality, while those treated with Spinosad and indoxacarb took relatively more time (13.62 and 17.91 h, respectively to cause 50% mortality. In conclusion, the combination of phagostimulant and visual lure could be used in designing toxic baits for house flies.

  5. Estimating Synaphobranchus kaupii densities: Contribution of fish behaviour to differences between bait experiments and visual strip transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkel, Verena M.; Lorance, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Kaup's arrowtooth eel Synaphobranchus kaupii is a small-bodied fish and an abundant inhabitant of the European continental slope. To estimate its local density video information using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Victor 6000 were collected at three locations in the Bay of Biscay slope. Two methods for estimating local densities were tested: strip transect counts and bait experiments. For bait experiments three behaviour types were observed in about equal proportions for individuals arriving near the seafloor: moving up the current towards the ROV, moving across the current and drifting with the current. Visible attraction towards the bait was the highest for individuals swimming against the current (80%) and about equally low for the other two types (around 30%); it did not depend on current speed nor temperature. Three main innovations were introduced for estimating population densities from bait experiments: (i) inclusion of an additional behaviour category—that of passively drifting individuals, (ii) inclusion of reaction behaviour for actively swimming individuals and (iii) a hierarchical Bayesian estimation framework. The results indicated that about half of individuals were foraging actively of which less than one third reacted on encountering the bait plume and the other half were drifting with the current. Taking account of drifting individuals and the reaction probability made density estimates from bait experiments and strip transects more similar.

  6. Different baits and bait amendments to attract Drosophila suzukii

    OpenAIRE

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Daniel, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is a major pest of soft fruits. Baited traps are widely used for monitoring and mass trapping: different commercial baits, different recipes for home-made baits as well as several literature references on attractive compounds are available. In a series of 15 laboratory experiments we compared the attractiveness of different baits for D. suzukii: the commercially available Dros’attract (Biobest Belgium NV) and the Gasser-bait (Biologische Becherfalle für die Kirschessigf...

  7. Artificial grammar learning: preference for acoustic or visual modality?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Ana Isabel Santos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis transmits the artificial grammar learning paradigm as an acquisition and processing model of language, within implicit learning investigation. The number of investigations about language and it’s acquisition has increased throughout the years, specifically in the implicit learning ability and artificial grammar learning as the most adequate ...

  8. Simulation of Artificial Intelligence Agents using Modelica and the DLR Visualization Library

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub, Alexander; Hellerer, Matthias; Bodenmüller, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a scheme for testing artificial intelligence algorithms of autonomous systems using Modelica and the DLR Visualization Library. The simulation concept follows the ’Software-in-the-loop’ principle, whereas no adaptations are made to the tested algorithms. The environment is replaced by an artificial world and the rest of the autonomous system is modeled in Modelica. The scheme is introduced and explained by using the example of the ROboMObil, wh...

  9. Bag-of-visual-words model for artificial pornographic images recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 罗四伟; 刘熙尧; 邹北骥

    2016-01-01

    It is illegal to spread and transmit pornographic images over internet, either in real or in artificial format. The traditional methods are designed to identify real pornographic images and they are less efficient in dealing with artificial images. Therefore, criminals turn to release artificial pornographic images in some specific scenes, e.g., in social networks. To efficiently identify artificial pornographic images, a novel bag-of-visual-words based approach is proposed in the work. In the bag-of-words (BoW) framework, speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is adopted for feature extraction at first, then a visual vocabulary is constructed through K-means clustering and images are represented by an improved BoW encoding method, and finally the visual words are fed into a learning machine for training and classification. Different from the traditional BoW method, the proposed method sets a weight on each visual word according to the number of features that each cluster contains. Moreover, a non-binary encoding method and cross-matching strategy are utilized to improve the discriminative power of the visual words. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the traditional method.

  10. Fat and Haematin contents of male tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes and G. m. morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) caught in odour-baited traps and artificial refuges in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male G. m. morsitans and G. pallidipes caught in artificial refuges had 27 - 31% more fat than those caught in traps; mean haematin levels were 6.8 - 7.7 times higher, but haematin-specific fat levels did not differ between capture methods. Male G. pallidipes with haematin level >150 ug, which had fed 5%/day due to starvation alone) were impossibly high. An alternative model, based on known changes in activities related to feeding, suggests that feeding rates increase linearly during the trophic cycle. For T = 53 h the model gives good predictions of fat levels in G. pallidipes, with starvation rates <1%/day; it is suggested that a proportion of tsetse with high fat and haematin feed off mobile hosts early in the trophic cycle. Over-estimates of T result from the failure to consider these flies and not to errors in the assumed time scale, nor failure to catch high-fat flies which visit stationary traps. (author). 32 refs, 16 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Level-by-level artificial viscosity and visualization for MHD simulation with adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Tomoharu; Ito, Atsushi M.; Nunami, Masanori; Usui, Hideyuki; Miura, Hideaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a numerical method to determine the artificial viscosity in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method, where the artificial viscosity is adaptively changed due to the resolution level of the AMR hierarchy. Although the suitable value of the artificial viscosity depends on the governing equations and the model of target problem, it can be determined by von Neumann stability analysis. By means of the new method, "level-by-level artificial viscosity method," MHD simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) are carried out with the AMR method. The validity of the level-by-level artificial viscosity method is confirmed by the comparison of the linear growth rates of RTI between the AMR simulations and the simple simulations with uniform grid and uniform artificial viscosity whose resolution is the same as that in the highest level of the AMR simulation. Moreover, in the nonlinear phase of RTI, the secondary instability is clearly observed where the hierarchical data structure of AMR calculation is visualized as high resolution region floats up like terraced fields. In the applications of the method to general fluid simulations, the growth of small structures can be sufficiently reproduced, while the divergence of numerical solutions can be suppressed.

  12. Visual reliance for balance control in older adults persists when visual information is disrupted by artificial feedback delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ting Yeh

    Full Text Available Sensory information from our eyes, skin and muscles helps guide and correct balance. Less appreciated, however, is that delays in the transmission of sensory information between our eyes, limbs and central nervous system can exceed several 10s of milliseconds. Investigating how these time-delayed sensory signals influence balance control is central to understanding the postural system. Here, we investigate how delayed visual feedback and cognitive performance influence postural control in healthy young and older adults. The task required that participants position their center of pressure (COP in a fixed target as accurately as possible without visual feedback about their COP location (eyes-open balance, or with artificial time delays imposed on visual COP feedback. On selected trials, the participants also performed a silent arithmetic task (cognitive dual task. We separated COP time series into distinct frequency components using low and high-pass filtering routines. Visual feedback delays affected low frequency postural corrections in young and older adults, with larger increases in postural sway noted for the group of older adults. In comparison, cognitive performance reduced the variability of rapid center of pressure displacements in young adults, but did not alter postural sway in the group of older adults. Our results demonstrate that older adults prioritize vision to control posture. This visual reliance persists even when feedback about the task is delayed by several hundreds of milliseconds.

  13. Supervised pixel classification using a feature space derived from an artificial visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa C.; Coggins, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Image segmentation involves labelling pixels according to their membership in image regions. This requires the understanding of what a region is. Using supervised pixel classification, the paper investigates how groups of pixels labelled manually according to perceived image semantics map onto the feature space created by an Artificial Visual System. Multiscale structure of regions are investigated and it is shown that pixels form clusters based on their geometric roles in the image intensity function, not by image semantics. A tentative abstract definition of a 'region' is proposed based on this behavior.

  14. Use of artificial intelligence techniques for visual inspection systems prototyping. Application to magnetoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automation of visual inspection is a complex task that requires collaboration between experts, for example inspection specialist, vision specialist. on-line operators. Solving such problems through prototyping promotes this collaboration: the use of a non specific programming environment allows rapid, concrete checking of method validity, thus leading incrementally to the final system. In this context, artificial intelligence techniques permit easy, extensible, and modular design of the prototype, together with heuristic solution building. We define and achieve the SPOR prototyping environment, based on object-oriented programming and rules-basis managing. The feasibility and the validity of an heuristic method for automated visual inspection in fluoroscopy have been proved through prototyping in SPOR. (author)

  15. Functional analysis from visual and compositional data. An artificial intelligence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, J. A.; Moitinho de Almeida, V.

    Why archaeological artefacts are the way they are? In this paper we try to solve such a question by investigating the relationship between form and function. We propose new ways of studying the way behaviour in the past can be asserted on the examination of archaeological observables in the present. In any case, we take into account that there are also non-visual features characterizing ancient objects and materials (i.e., compositional information based on mass spectrometry data, chronological information based on radioactive decay measurements, etc.). Information that should make us aware of many functional properties of objects is multidimensional in nature: size, which makes reference to height, length, depth, weight and mass; shape and form, which make reference to the geometry of contours and volumes; texture, which refers to the microtopography (roughness, waviness, and lay) and visual appearance (colour variations, brightness, reflectivity and transparency) of surfaces; and finally material, meaning the combining of distinct compositional elements and properties to form a whole. With the exception of material data, the other relevant aspects for functional reasoning have been traditionally described in rather ambiguous terms, without taking into account the advantages of quantitative measurements of shape/form, and texture. Reasoning about the functionality of archaeological objects recovered at the archaeological site requires a cross-disciplinary investigation, which may also range from recognition techniques used in computer vision and robotics to reasoning, representation, and learning methods in artificial intelligence. The approach we adopt here is to follow current computational theories of object perception to ameliorate the way archaeology can deal with the explanation of human behaviour in the past (function) from the analysis of visual and non-visual data, taking into account that visual appearances and even compositional characteristics only

  16. Improving liquid bait programs for Argentine ant control: bait station density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik H; Daane, Kent M

    2007-12-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have a positive effect on populations of mealybugs (Pseudococcus spp.) in California vineyards. Previous studies have shown reductions in both ant activity and mealybug numbers after liquid ant baits were deployed in vineyards at densities of 85-620 bait stations/ha. However, bait station densities may need to be bait stations/ha before bait-based strategies for ant control are economically comparable to spray-based insecticide treatments-a condition that, if met, will encourage the commercial adoption of liquid baits for ant control. This research assessed the effectiveness of baits deployed at lower densities. Two field experiments were conducted in commercial vineyards. In experiment 1, baits were deployed at 54-225 bait stations/ha in 2005 and 2006. In experiment 2, baits were deployed at 34-205 bait stations/ha in 2006 only. In both experiments, ant activity and the density of mealybugs in grape fruit clusters at harvest time declined with increasing bait station density. In 2005 only, European fruit lecanium scale [Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché)] were also present in fruit clusters, and scale densities were negatively related to bait station density. The results indicate that the amount of ant and mealybug control achieved by an incremental increase in the number of bait stations per hectare is constant across a broad range of bait station densities. The results are discussed in the context of commercializing liquid ant baits to provide a more sustainable Argentine ant control strategy. PMID:18284776

  17. Speed of efficacy and delayed toxicity characteristics of fast-acting fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, David H; Oi, Faith M

    2006-10-01

    Efficacy and speed of action of fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) baits that claim fast control of colonies were compared with a standard bait. More than 85% of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, laboratory colonies provided bait containing the active ingredient indoxacarb died within 3 d, and all colonies were dead in 6 d. Standard bait containing hydramethylnon resulted in death of 60% of the colonies in 9 d. Bait containing spinosad did not cause colony death. Under field conditions, one-half of the areas treated with the indoxacarb bait did not have any active fire ant nests within 3 d, whereas 11 d was needed to reach the same level of control with the hydramethylnon bait. Spinosad had a maximum of 17% of the treated areas without nests after 3 d. The delay in death of S. invicta adults treated in the laboratory with the indoxacarb and spinosad baits was shorter than the standard hydramethylnon bait, which had mortality similar to the traditional delayed toxicity criterion of 89% mortality over the test period. Indoxacarb caused mortality of 57% at 24 h and 100% at 48 h; however, visual symptoms of toxicity were not readily observed for at least 8 h before the abrupt increase in death. Spinosad caused 96% mortality by 24 h, and initial mortality became apparent at 4 h. Time required for death of 15% of a treated population (LT15) of spinosad, indoxacarb, and hydramethylnon was 3, 9, and 16 h, respectively. Delayed toxicity characteristics of the fast-acting indoxacarb bait may be useful for the development of other fast-acting ant baits. PMID:17066807

  18. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be published when the offer is not a bona fide...

  19. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    OpenAIRE

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia; Rafael María Roman Bravo; Adelina Díaz de Ramirez; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which w...

  20. Effect of trap design, bait type, and age on captures of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Lindsy E; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2014-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (with and without a yellow visual stimulus or odorless dish detergent) and the fifth treatment was a Pherocon AM yellow sticky card trap. Cup traps were baited with 150 ml of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and the Pherocon AM trap had a 7.4-ml glass vial containing ACV. In 2013, the Pherocon AM yellow sticky card was omitted because of low spotted wing drosophila captures in 2012. The four treatments evaluated were four 1-liter cup traps with and without a yellow visual stimulus. One cup trap (with a yellow stimulus) was baited with yeast + sugar in place of ACV and the other cup traps were baited with ACV. In both years, there were no differences in spotted wing drosophila captures among cup traps baited with ACV with and without yellow visual stimulus. However, the cup trap baited with yeast + sugar and yellow visual stimulus captured more spotted wing drosophila than the ACV-baited cup traps irrespective of visual stimulus or detergent. In another study, four baits including 1) ACV, 2) yeast + sugar mixture, 3) yeast + flour mixture (yeast, sugar, water, whole wheat flour, and ACV), and 4) wine + vinegar mixture (rice vinegar and merlot wine) were evaluated in a commercial blueberry planting using 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (as described above). The experiment was repeated in wild blackberries but the yeast + flour bait was replaced with ACV + merlot wine + sugar. Results indicated that the two yeast baits captured significantly more spotted wing drosophila and more nontarget organisms than the vinegar baits. In the final study, although we found that the attraction of ACV and

  1. Small and dim target detection via lateral inhibition filtering and Artificial Bee colony based selective visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haibin; Deng, Yimin; Wang, Xiaohua; Xu, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel bionic selective visual attention mechanism to quickly select regions that contain salient objects to reduce calculations. Firstly, lateral inhibition filtering, inspired by the limulus' ommateum, is applied to filter low-frequency noises. After the filtering operation, we use Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm based selective visual attention mechanism to obtain the interested object to carry through the following recognition operation. In order to eliminate the camera motion influence, this paper adopted ABC algorithm, a new optimization method inspired by swarm intelligence, to calculate the motion salience map to integrate with conventional visual attention. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of our method, several experiments were conducted. First the filtering results of lateral inhibition filter were shown to illustrate its noise reducing effect, then we applied the ABC algorithm to obtain the motion features of the image sequence. The ABC algorithm is proved to be more robust and effective through the comparison between ABC algorithm and popular Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Except for the above results, we also compared the classic visual attention mechanism and our ABC algorithm based visual attention mechanism, and the experimental results of which further verified the effectiveness of our method. PMID:23991033

  2. Bait delivery for oral rabies vaccine to gray foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, H G; Henke, S E; Moore, G M

    2000-10-01

    Rabies is a widespread zoonotic disease that has reached epizootic proportions in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in central Texas. Because each species of carnivore has different food preferences and foraging strategies, it is essential that the efficacy of a bait delivery program be examined for gray foxes prior to an oral vaccination program being attempted. Field trials were conducted to determine bait preferences of free-ranging gray foxes to selected baits and odor attractants. Baits consisted of polymer cubes made of either dog food meal or fish meal, and a wax-lard cake that was enhanced with marshmallow flavoring. Attractants added to baits exuded sulfurous, fatty, cheesy, or sweet odors and flavors. During 3,589 operable bait station nights, gray fox visitation and bait uptake rates were 9.2% and 8.3%, respectively. Gray foxes exhibited no preference in bait uptake rates between bait and odor attractant combinations. Gray foxes exhibited no difference in cumulative bait uptake rates between onroad and offroad sites; however, the uptake rate by raccoons was significantly greater for baits placed on roads than for baits randomly placed. Raccoons were the major non-target species competing for baits, being attributed with 73% of the total uptake. Visitation and bait uptake rates by raccoons significantly increased after a 7-day lethal removal of raccoons (n = 37) from the study area. Random distribution of baits is recommended; it reduced bait uptake by non-target species without adversely affecting uptake by gray foxes. PMID:11085437

  3. [Control of Monomorium pharaonis using a methoprene bait in the Berlin Zoo and its combined application with a residue insecticide in the Olomouc Children's Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunker, R; Rupes, V; Chmela, J

    1984-05-01

    The control of Monomorium pharaonis by a methoprene bait in the Tierpark Berlin and its combined application with a residue insecticide in the children's hospital in Olomouc. In two different institutions heavy infestations with the Pharaoh's ant (Monomorium pharaonis L.) could be eradicated with a methoprene bait applied by different methods. In a zoological garden the bait was continuously exposed in boxes for many weeks. The dosage was about 2.5 g/10 m2, and 1.42 kg of DYBH-bait were used. On average 50% of this amount was taken off by the ants during the eradication period of 14...37 weeks. In a children's hospital after spraying permethrin 10 weeks before the bait was exposed uncovered with 0.5 g per bait station. Within 13 days an area of 9,000 m2 was treated with about 1.8 kg of DYBH-bait. 131/2 weeks after the beginning of the application no more ants could be detected by visual checking. Further checking with baited traps after 128 days confirmed eradication. The bait was very persistent being still attractive and effective after an exposition of about 8 months. PMID:6465616

  4. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  5. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section 238.0 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part...

  6. Animal v. plant-based bait: does the bait type affect census of fish assemblages and trophic groups by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazilou, A; Shokri, M R; Gladstone, W

    2016-05-01

    Coral reef fish communities were sampled at the Nayband Marine Park, Iran, using baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVSs) which incorporated animal (i.e. frigate tuna Auxis thazard and beef liver), or plant-based baits (i.e. raw dough and raw dough-turmeric powder mix). The A. thazard was found to record significantly (P turmeric powder mix trials. There was also a significant difference in trophic composition of fish assemblages surveyed by animal- and plant-based baits which seemed to be due to variations in attraction patterns of carnivores and herbivores occurring at the earlier phases of each BRUV deployments. Meanwhile, the assemblage structure was comparable among fish assemblages sampled by different bait treatments, indicating that species-level responses to each bait type may be more complicated. In essence, the efficiency of mixed baits should also be examined in future studies. PMID:27170108

  7. Visualization and measurement of CO2 flooding in an artificial porous structure using micromodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bogyeong; Wang, Sookyun; Um, Jeong-Gi; Lee, Minhee; Kim, Seon-Ok

    2015-04-01

    Geological CO2 sequestration is one of the most important technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere by isolating great volumes of CO2 in deep geological formations. This novel storage option for CO2 involves injecting supercritical CO2 into porous formations saturated with pore fluid such as brine and initiate CO2 flooding with immiscible displacement. Despite of significant effects on macroscopic migration and distribution of injected CO2, however, only a limited information is available on wettability in microscopic scCO2-brine-mineral systems. In this study, a micromodel had been developed to improve our understanding of how CO2 flooding and residual characteristics of pore water are affected by the wettability in scCO2-water-glass bead systems. The micromodel (a transparent pore structure made of 1 mm diameter glass beads between two glass plates) in a high-pressure cell provided the opportunity to visualize spread of supercritical CO2 and displacement of pore water in high pressure and high temperature conditions. CO2 flooding followed by fingering migration and dewatering followed by formation of residual water were observed through a imaging system with a microscope. Measurement of contact angles of droplets of residual water on and between glass beads in a micromodel were conducted to estimate differential pressure between wetting and nonwetting fluids in a scCO2-water-glass bead system. The experimental observation results could provide important fundamental informations on capillary characteristics of reservoirs and caprocks for geological CO2 sequestration.

  8. Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inho; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Ramu, Swapnika; Lee, Ha Neul; Kim, Kyu Eui; Lee, Sunju; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Choi, Dongwon; Lee, Yong Suk; Aguilar, Berenice

    2011-01-01

    Although the blood vessel-specific fluorescent transgenic mouse has been an excellent tool to study vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, a lymphatic-specific fluorescent mouse model has not been established to date. Here we report a transgenic animal model that expresses the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of Prox1, a master control gene in lymphatic development. Generated using an approximately 200-kb-long bacterial artificial chromosome harboring the entire Prox1 gene, this Prox1-green fluorescent protein mouse was found to faithfully recapitulate the expression pattern of the Prox1 gene in lymphatic endothelial cells and other Prox1-expressing organs, and enabled us to conveniently visualize detailed structure and morphology of lymphatic vessels and networks throughout development. Our data demonstrate that this novel transgenic mouse can be extremely useful for detection, imaging, and isolation of lymphatic vessels and monitoring wound-associated lymphangiogenesis. Together, this Prox1-green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse will be a great tool for the lymphatic research. PMID:20962325

  9. How environment and vole behaviour may impact rodenticide bromadiolone persistence in wheat baits after field controls of Arvicola terrestris?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate whether environmental factors affect the persistence of bromadiolone in baits in field treatment. Baits were distributed in three soils according to two types of distribution: (1) artificial galleries conform to agricultural practices; (2) storage cavities to mimic bait storage by voles. Persistence was evaluated for 30 days in galleries and 80 days in storage cavities in autumn and spring. The decrease of bromadiolone concentrations was described by a first-order kinetic model. In galleries, the half-lives ranged from 3.0 to 5.1 days in autumn and from 5.4 to 6.2 days in spring. The half-lives were similar between soils and seasons but the pattern of persistence differed lightly for two soils between seasons. Half-lives in storage cavities, 42.7 and 24.6 days in autumn and spring respectively, were longer than in galleries. To conclude, both soil characteristics and climatic conditions weakly influence persistence, while bait storage lengthens it dramatically. - After field treatment, both soil characteristics and climate conditions influence weakly the persistence of bromadiolone while it is dramatically increased by vole storage of baits

  10. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

    OpenAIRE

    José Lopes; Ana L. Lozovei

    1996-01-01

    With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion) sp. e Aedes fluviati...

  11. Liquid baits control Argentine ants sustainably in coastal vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M.; Nelson, Erik H; Varela, Lucia G; Battany, Mark; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Rust, M K

    2008-01-01

    Liquid ant baits are an alternative to broad-spectrum insecticide sprays conventionally used to control Argentine ants. We review the development of liquid ant baits, which capitalize on the ants’ sugar-feeding requirements and social structure to deliver small doses of toxicant throughout the colony. The ant bait program described here, developed for commercial vineyards, also has the potential to facilitate the use of biological controls for mealybug and scale pests. The implementation of a...

  12. Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Urban Contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, Daniel; Ward, Paul I.; Deplazes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, increases in the urban fox population have been observed in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere. As a result, Echinococcus multilocularis has entered the urban environment. Because of a possible increased risk for alveolar echinococcosis, intervention strategies need to be evaluated. In Zürich, Switzerland, 50 praziquantel-containing baits per km2 were distributed monthly in six 1-km2 bait areas and one 6-km2 bait area from April 2000 through October 2001. The proportio...

  13. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  14. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests). PMID:17461077

  15. Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, D H; Vail, K M; Williams, D F

    2000-08-01

    Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), infestations often consist of several colonies located at different nest sites. To achieve control, it is desirable to suppress or eliminate the populations of a majority of these colonies. We compared the trophallactic distribution and efficacy of two ant baits, with different modes of action, among groups of four colonies of Pharaoh ants. Baits contained either the metabolic-inhibiting active ingredient hydramethylnon or the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen. Within 3 wk, the hydramethylnon bait reduced worker and brood populations by at least 80%, and queen reductions ranged between 73 and 100%, when nests were in proximity (within 132 cm) to the bait source. However, these nest sites were reoccupied by ants from other colonies located further from the bait source. The pyriproxyfen bait was distributed more thoroughly to all nest locations with worker populations gradually declining by 73% at all nest sites after 8 wk. Average queen reductions ranged from 31 to 49% for all nest sites throughout the study. Even though some queens survived, brood reductions were rapid in the pyriproxyfen treatment, with reductions of 95% at all locations by week 3. Unlike the metabolic inhibitor, the IGR did not kill adult worker ants quickly, thus, more surviving worker ants were available to distribute the bait to all colonies located at different nest sites. Thus, from a single bait source, the slow-acting bait toxicant provided gradual, but long-term control, whereas the fast-acting bait toxicant provided rapid, localized control for a shorter duration. PMID:10985038

  16. Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Urban Contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegglin, Daniel; Ward, Paul I.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, increases in the urban fox population have been observed in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere. As a result, Echinococcus multilocularis has entered the urban environment. Because of a possible increased risk for alveolar echinococcosis, intervention strategies need to be evaluated. In Zürich, Switzerland, 50 praziquantel-containing baits per km2 were distributed monthly in six 1-km2 bait areas and one 6-km2 bait area from April 2000 through October 2001. The proportion of E. multilocularis coproantigen–positive fox fecal samples collected remained unchanged in six control areas but decreased significantly in the 1-km2 bait areas (from 38.6% to 5.5%) and in the 6-km2 bait area (from 66.7% to 1.8%). E. multilocularis prevalence in the intermediate host Arvicola terrestris also decreased significantly in baited areas. This controlled baiting study shows that a pronounced reduction of E. multilocularis egg contamination is feasible in urban areas where the organism is highly endemic. PMID:14609462

  17. The baiting crowd in episodes of threatened suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, L

    1981-10-01

    This study examines 21 cases in which crowds were present when a disturbed person threatened to jump off a building, bridge, or tower. Baiting or jeering occurred in 10 of the cases. Analysis of newspaper accounts of the episodes suggests several deindividuation factors that might contribute to the baiting phenomenon: membership in a large crowd, the cover of nighttime, and physical distance between crowd and victim (all factors associated with anonymity). The baiting phenomenon was also associated with warm temperatures and long duration of episode. These factors suggest leads for more systematic investigation. PMID:7288565

  18. Responses of captive and free-ranging coyotes to simulated oral rabies vaccine baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farry, S C; Henke, S E; Anderson, A M; Fearneyhough, M G

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a bait for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in southern Texas. Captive trials were conducted from January to April, 1994, to determine bait preferences and behavioral responses of coyotes (n = 42) to selected baits and attractants. Baits were hollow rectangular cubes made of polymer dog food or fish meal. Attractants had sweet (watermelon), fruity (raspberry), sulfurous (synthetic WU), and lard (beef lard) fragrances. Captive coyotes did not exhibit a preference for either bait bases or attractants; however, coyotes chewed dog food baits 1.6 times more than fish meal baits. Average proximity of coyotes eliciting a response to baits was 2.2 +/- 1.3 m (mean +/- SE). Captive coyotes readily accepted dog food baits containing 2 ml of liquid rhodamine B, a biological marker. Rhodamine B staining of the oropharyngeal region was evident in each captive coyote. Results from the field evaluation of baits and attractants were consistent with that of the captive trials. Of 2,070 bait station-nights conducted from February to April, 1994, coyotes comprised the greatest single species visitation and uptake rates with 31% and 28%, respectively. Bait uptake rates of free-ranging coyotes did not differ among bait-attractant combinations. Coyotes took baits 93% of the time they encountered a bait, regardless of bait type. PMID:9476221

  19. Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Inho; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Ramu, Swapnika; Lee, Ha Neul; Kim, Kyu Eui; Lee, Sunju; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Choi, Dongwon; Lee, Yong Suk; Aguilar, Berenice; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Although the blood vessel-specific fluorescent transgenic mouse has been an excellent tool to study vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, a lymphatic-specific fluorescent mouse model has not been established to date. Here we report a transgenic animal model that expresses the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of Prox1, a master control gene in lymphatic development. Generated using an approximately 200-kb-long bacterial artificial chromosome harboring the entire Prox1 gene, this Prox1-g...

  20. [Control of the Pharaoh's ant with borax bait formulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunker, R; Scheurer, S; Neumann, T

    1990-12-01

    Results are given for the experimental control of Pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis L., with persistent borax baits in the laboratory and the field. DYBH-bait formulations with about 17 per cent borax are very attractive and have a good effectivity. In 5 different objects infested with this ant eradication was proved to be possible with this experimental formulations. The progress of eradication depends essentially on the good organisational preparation of control measures. PMID:2095049

  1. USE OF VARIOUS BAITS FOR EXTRACTION OF EARTHWORMS FROM VERMICOMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kostecka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During vermicomposting, earthworm grower has to overcome a lot of different problems. For instance, in case of a sudden requirement to sell earthworms it is useful to have the ability to collect them in one place. Fresh food extraction is an effective and neutral way to do it. The efficiency of gathering and extracting E. fetida from the vermicompost was studied, using a fresh bait method. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory (at the mean temperature of 20±0.5 °C in pots filled with vermicompost. Generally, two hundreds of adult E. fetida were put in every pot and left there for 24 hours. After such acclimatization, various baits were inserted to every pot. Different experiments allowed to conclude that: 1 repeated bait exchange was more efficient in extracting worms from vermicompost than bait laid once for a longer time; 2 extracting worms from the bait in the morning was quicker than extracting them in the evening; 3 addition of valerian (Valeriana officinalis, nettle (Urtica dioica, and flaxseeds to cattle manure could resulted in better extraction than pure manure; 4 dry valerian was more effective than steamed one, but on other hand, steaming of nettle and flaxseeds was giving better results in collecting worms in the bait.

  2. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  3. Field and laboratory trials of a novel metaflumizone house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) bait in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Gerry, Alec C; Diniz, Alesha N

    2010-04-01

    House fly responses to metaflumizone bait were studied in southern California. Field-strain, laboratory-reared flies in outdoor cages had access for 5 d to water and two containers of untreated sugar/dry milk (control), one container of untreated food and one container of metaflumizone bait, or one container of untreated food and one container of spinosad bait (positive control). Most fly mortality occurred between 0 and 48 h for spinosad and between 48 and 96 h for metaflumizone. On a commercial dairy, fly visitation and bait consumption were higher for metaflumizone bait than for sugar or imidacloprid bait. Flies seldom visited or consumed the imidacloprid bait. Approximately 32% of field flies collected directly from metaflumizone bait (single exposure) died when held in the laboratory with untreated food for 72 h versus < 5% mortality for flies from sugar or imidacloprid bait. Individual laboratory-reared females from a field strain and a susceptible laboratory strain were videotaped in the laboratory after exposure to untreated dry milk/sugar, metaflumizone bait, spinosad bait, and imidacloprid bait. Imidacloprid-induced mortality in field strain flies was low; when on the bait they spent proportionally less time feeding (38%) than did the laboratory strain flies (63%). Feeding by the field strain was more variable, and they fed less on all bait/food sources except metaflumizone. Metaflumizone has promise as a relatively slow-acting fly bait. PMID:20429473

  4. 3D visualization of collagen in artificial scaffolds using two-photon excitation and second-harmonic generation imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, M.; Burdíková, Zuzana; Filová, Eva; Košťáková, E.; Janáček, Jiří

    Urbino : Societa Italiana Scienze Micriscopiche, 2011. s. 261-262 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810092; GA ČR GAP501/10/0340; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/09/0733; GA AV ČR IAA500390702; GA MŠk 7E09088 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : multi-photon microscopy * artificial scaffolds * collagen Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  5. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

  6. Wild carnivore acceptance of baits for delivery of liquid rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, P; Bramwell, R N; Fraser, S J; Gilmore, D A; Johnston, D H; Lawson, K F; MacInnes, C D; Matejka, F O; Miles, H E; Pedde, M A

    1990-10-01

    A series of experiments are described on the acceptance, by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other species, of two types of vaccine-baits intended to deliver liquid rabies vaccine. The baits consisted of a cube of sponge coated in a mixture of tallow and wax, or a plastic blister-pack embedded in tallow. All baits contained tetracycline as a biological marking agent: examination of thin sections of carnivore canines under an ultraviolet microscope revealed a fluorescent line of tetracycline if an individual had eaten baits. Baits were dropped from fixed-wing aircraft flying about 100 m above ground at approximately 130 km/h. Flight lines followed the edges of woodlots midway between parallel roads. Baits were dropped at one/sec, resulting in one bait/36 m on the ground, or 17 to 25 baits per km2. Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) removed many baits, but did not appear to lower the percent of the fox population which took bait. Dropping baits only into corn and woodland to conceal baits, to reduce depredation by crows, reduced acceptance by foxes. Acceptance by foxes ranged between 37 and 68%. Meat added as an attractant did not raise acceptance. Presence, absence, color and perforations of plastic bags did not alter bait acceptance. Dispersal by juvenile foxes probably lowered the estimates of bait acceptance. It took 7 to 17 days for 80% (n = 330) of foxes to eat their first bait. The rapidity with which foxes picked up their first bait appeared more affected by unknown characteristics of years or study areas than by experimental variables. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) also ate these baits, but acceptance was lower. Small mammals contacted baits, but rarely contacted the vaccine, which had the potential for vaccine-induced rabies in some species. Aerial distribution of baits was more cost-effective than ground distribution as practiced in Europe. This system has potential for field control of rabies, although higher acceptance will be desirable

  7. Effects of bait age and prior protein feeding on cumulative time dependent mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to GF-120 Spinosad baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies (GF-120, Dow Agro-Science) was tested to determine effects of pre-treatment diet and ageing of GF-120 bait prior to use on cumulative mortality rates of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Leow), Tephritidae). Bait effectiveness depends o...

  8. Multilevel Cognitive Machine-Learning-Based Concept for Artificial Awareness: Application to Humanoid Robot Awareness Using Visual Saliency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosh Madani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of “intelligence,” the “awareness” is the state or ability to perceive, feel, or be mindful of events, objects, or sensory patterns: in other words, to be conscious of the surrounding environment and its interactions. Inspired by early-ages human skills developments and especially by early-ages awareness maturation, the present paper accosts the robots intelligence from a different slant directing the attention to combining both “cognitive” and “perceptual” abilities. Within such a slant, the machine (robot shrewdness is constructed on the basis of a multilevel cognitive concept attempting to handle complex artificial behaviors. The intended complex behavior is the autonomous discovering of objects by robot exploring an unknown environment: in other words, proffering the robot autonomy and awareness in and about unknown backdrop.

  9. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  10. A method of small mammals mass baiting with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to develope the mass method of small mammals baiting with radionuclides in alimentary way. The approved method enabling to simulate the chronic substance intake to organism with considerable reliability was suggested. The advantage of suggested baiting method lies in the fact that isotope introduction into animals doesn't require much time, safety control is possible and the danger of contamination of cages and work rooms with radioactive substance is minimal. Considering chemical properties of some compounds (sufficient adsorption, temperature resistance), the authors suggest it for studying delayed results of industrial product effect on organism

  11. Food preference and foraging activity of ants: recommendations for field applications of low-toxicity baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species ( Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management. PMID:25373195

  12. The use of alarm pheromones to enhance bait harvest by grass-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W O H; Goulson, D

    2002-06-01

    The enhancement of bait for the control of grass-cutting ants was investigated using two species of grass-cutting ant, Atta bisphaerica (Forel) and Atta capiguara (Gonçalves) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bait was applied in loose piles to obtain a direct relationship between ant attraction and bait harvest. Enhancement with alarm pheromone compounds significantly increased the attractiveness and harvest of bait under certain conditions. A large proportion of the ants attracted to the enhanced bait were minor workers. These ants rarely transport bait because of their small size, and so it may be possible to increase the effect of bait enhancement by using smaller bait granules. Foragers of A. capiguara were less inclined to transport citrus-pulp bait than were those of Atta laevigata (Fr. Smith), a species that also harvests dicotyledonous plants. This emphasizes the importance of developing a bait matrix that is more acceptable to grass-cutting species. Nevertheless, the results suggest that alarm pheromone compounds have significant potential to improve the efficacy of baits for the control of grass-cutting ants. PMID:12088538

  13. The possibility of use of some essential oils in rodenticidal baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić, G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils of ten different plant species, at rates of one and two ml per kg of plain bait, on bait acceptance and palatability in choice feeding tests for Swiss mice was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Our aim was to determine the possibility of use of the tested essential oils in rodenticidal baits as potential attractants at rates which prevent mould development and which are applicable in humane medicine. Also, the use of these oils would be to prolong utility value of baits and reduce the use of antifungal ingredients, which usually reduce bait acceptance. Cinnamon and anise essential oils, commonly used as attractants, and clove oil, showed the best effects, because that they did not negatively affect bait acceptance and palatability, while fenchel and bergamot oils showed repellent action which became more pronounced as the content of oil in baits increased.

  14. Bait effects in sampling coral reef fish assemblages with stereo-BRUVs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey R Dorman

    Full Text Available Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1 non extractive, 2 can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3 are cost effective, 4 sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5 and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC. In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (P<0.001, while no difference was observed with species richness. Samples baited with cat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia.

  15. Broadcast application of a placebo rodenticide bait in a native Hawaiian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlevy, P.A.; Campbell, E. Wm., III; Lindsey, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik?? Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sowage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sewage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Shylo R; Stallard, Melissa D; McGrew, Ashley K; Page, L Kristen; Crider, Nikki; Ballweber, Lora R; Swihart, Robert K; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic helminth with the potential to cause severe or fatal infection. Raccoons thrive in human-dominated landscapes, and the fecal-oral transmission pathway and lack of effective treatment make B. procyonis a serious threat to public health. The distribution of medicinal baits has emerged as a socially acceptable and cost-effective method for managing disease in free-ranging wildlife. We assessed the suitability of a mass-producible anthelmintic bait for B. procyonis mitigation by evaluating the willingness of free-ranging raccoons to consume anthelmintic baits and determining whether bait consumption successfully cleared B. procyonis infections from raccoons. Anthelmintic baits were modified from standard fishmeal polymer baits, the food attractant commonly used in oral rabies vaccine baits, with the introduction of 220 mg of pyrantel pamoate into the fishmeal mixture. We captured 16 naturally infected raccoons, presented one anthelmintic bait, and monitored B. procyonis infection over 90 d by screening feces for eggs. Treatment cleared B. procyonis infections for nine of 12 raccoons that consumed >10 g of the 15 g bait. We used remote cameras to monitor in situ patterns of bait consumption for anthelmintic baits relative to standard baits. Both anthelmintic and standard baits were rapidly consumed, with no differences in the rate of consumption between bait types. However, after bait contact, raccoons demonstrated a greater willingness to consume standard baits while ignoring anthelmintic baits more frequently (P = 0.06). Initial trials of anthelmintic baits show promise, although refinement in both dose and palatability is needed. At mass production scales, the addition of pyrantel pamoate to fishmeal polymer baits would be inexpensive, potentially making anthelmintic baits a viable management option when coupled with an oral rabies vaccine or used independently

  17. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  18. Ancient whole genome enrichment using baits built from modern DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, Jacob M; Devault, Alison M; Kuch, Melanie; Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2014-05-01

    We report metrics from complete genome capture of nuclear DNA from extinct mammoths using biotinylated RNAs transcribed from an Asian elephant DNA extract. Enrichment of the nuclear genome ranged from 1.06- to 18.65-fold, to an apparent maximum threshold of ∼80% on-target. This projects an order of magnitude less costly complete genome sequencing from long-dead organisms, even when a reference genome is unavailable for bait design. PMID:24531081

  19. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  20. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods. PMID:25647587

  1. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  2. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, James C; Atwood, Todd C; Byrne, Michael E; Vercauteren, Kurt C; Johnson, Shylo R; Rhodes, Olin E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14-24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99-240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753 m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but repeated

  3. Assessing anti-rabies baiting – what happens on the ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszomirski Tomasz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is one of the most hazardous zoonoses in the world. Oral mass vaccination has developed into the most effective management method to control fox rabies. The future need to control the disease in large countries (i.e. Eastern Europe and the Americas forces cost-benefit discussions. The 'Increase bait density' option refers to the usual management assumption that more baits per km2 could compensate for high fox abundance and override the imperfect supply of bait pieces to the individual fox. Methods We use a spatial simulation, which combines explicitly fox space use (tessellation polygons and aeroplane flight lines (straight lines. The number of baits actually falling into each polygon is measured. The manager's strategic options are converted into changes of the resulting bait distribution on the ground. The comparison enables the rating of the options with respect to the management aim (i.e. accessibility of baits. Results Above 5% (approx. 10% of all fox groups without any bait (at most 5 baits relate to the baiting strategy applied in the field (1 km spaced parallel flight lines, 20 baits per km2 distributed under habitat conditions comparable to middle and western Europe (fox group home-range 1 km2, 2.5 adults; reference strategy. Increasing the bait density on the same flight-line pattern neither reduces the number of under-baited fox group home-ranges, nor improves the management outcome and hence wastes resources. However, reducing the flight line distance provides a more even bait distribution and thus compensates for missed fox groups or extra high fox density. The reference strategy's bait density can be reduced when accounting for the missed fox groups. The management result with the proper strategy is likely the same but with reduced costs. Conclusion There is no overall optimal strategy for the bait distribution in large areas. For major parts of the landscape, the reference strategy will be more

  4. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  5. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git. PMID:27009209

  6. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  7. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  8. Low-toxicity baits control ants in citrus orchards and grape vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Tollerup, Kris E.; Rust, Michael K.; Dorschner, Keith W.; Phillips, Phil A.; Klotz, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Effective ant control is critical for controlling honeydew-secreting homopteran agricultural pests such as whitefly and mealybug. Low-toxicity ant baits may more effectively control ants than the broad-spectrum insecticides currently used in California vineyards and citrus orchards. This study focused on developing effective ant baits for use in bait stations to control field ant and Argentine ant, which aggressively tend homopteran pests. In the Coachella Valley, field ant is associated with...

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine bait containing ERA strain of attenuated rabies virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, K F; Black, J G; Charlton, K M; Johnston, D. H.; Rhodes, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Ninety percent of foxes fed commercial ERA vaccine in a specially designed bait developed rabies serum neutralizing antibodies. The vaccine bait did not cause clinical signs of rabies when consumed by foxes, raccoons, skunks, dogs, cats, cattle and monkeys. When presented, in the laboratory, to wild rodents of the species Microtus, Mus musculus and Peromyscus, the vaccine baits caused vaccine-induced rabies only in Mus musculus. Laboratory mice of the CD-1 and CLL strain were susceptible to v...

  10. First trials of oral vaccination with rabies SAG2 dog baits in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Darkaoui, Sami; Boué, Franck; Demerson, Jean Michel; Fassi Fihri, Ouafaa; Yahia, Khadija Id Sidi; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Canine rabies is a serious health problem in Morocco and about 22 human deaths are reported yearly. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, Moroccan authorities evaluated oral rabies vaccine baits specially designed for dogs. Materials and Methods The study was performed in Tiflet area. The vaccine strain was SAG2, a modified live oral rabies vaccine strain. Each bait contained an aluminium/PVC capsule filled with a liquid. Two kinds of baits were used: placebo ...

  11. Effects of contaminants on bait acceptance by Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Riley, Melissa B

    2003-02-01

    Three commonly used fire ant baits, Amdro (0.73% hydramethylnon [AI]), Ascend (0.011% abamectins [AI]), and Maxforce (1.0% hydramethylnon [AI]), were exposed to potential, volatile contaminants. The contaminants included the insecticides Orthene Fire Ant Killer (75.0% acephate [AI] ), Cyren (44.6% chlorpyrifos [AI]), and Tempo 2 (24.3% cyfluthrin [AI]); cigarette smoke; gasoline (unleaded, 89 octane); and fertilizer (10-10-10). Fire ant baits previously exposed for 48 h to these contaminants were analyzed using gas chromatography analysis. Orthene Fire Ant Killer, Cyren, Tempo 2, cigarette smoke, and gasoline had volatile components transferred to the baits. Baits exposed to these products were used in a field evaluation of bait acceptance by Solenopisis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. Uncontaminated Amdro was significantly preferred by S. invicta over Amdro contaminated by smoke, Cyren, Tempo 2, and gasoline. Uncontaminated Maxforce was significantly preferred over Maxforce contaminated by Tempo 2, Cyren, and gasoline, and uncontaminated Ascend was preferred over Tempo 2- and Cyren-contaminated Ascend. Orthene-exposed Amdro, Maxforce, and Ascend baits, and smoke-exposed Maxforce and Ascend baits were not significantly different from the control. These results indicate that volatile insecticides and products can contaminate fire ant baits. Some insecticides and products, such as gasoline, can significantly affect bait palatability and may adversely impact control. PMID:12650350

  12. Assessing Risks to Non-Target Species during Poison Baiting Programs for Feral Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Buckmaster; Dickman, Christopher R.; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the ba...

  13. A comparison of pitfall traps with bait traps for studying leaf litter ant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Strazanac, J; Butler, L

    2001-06-01

    A comparison of pitfall traps with bait traps for sampling leaf litter ants was studied in oak-dominated mixed forests during 1995-1997. A total of 31,732 ants were collected from pitfall traps and 54,694 ants were collected from bait traps. They belonged to four subfamilies, 17 genera, and 32 species. Bait traps caught 29 species, whereas pitfall traps caught 31 species. Bait traps attracted one species not found in pitfall traps, but missed three of the species collected with pitfall traps. Collections from the two sampling methods showed differences in species richness, relative abundance, diversity, and species accumulation curves. Pitfall traps caught significantly more ant species per plot than did bait traps. The ant species diversity obtained from pitfall traps was higher than that from bait traps. Bait traps took a much longer time to complete an estimate of species richness than did pitfall traps. Little information was added to pitfall trapping results by the bait trapping method. The results suggested that the pitfall trapping method is superior to the bait trapping method for leaf litter ant studies. Species accumulation curves showed that sampling of 2,192+/-532 ants from six plots by pitfall traps provided a good estimation of ant species richness under the conditions of this study. PMID:11425034

  14. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results. PMID:22395957

  15. USE OF VARIOUS BAITS FOR EXTRACTION OF EARTHWORMS FROM VERMICOMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kostecka; Vinod Kumar Garg

    2015-01-01

    During vermicomposting, earthworm grower has to overcome a lot of different problems. For instance, in case of a sudden requirement to sell earthworms it is useful to have the ability to collect them in one place. Fresh food extraction is an effective and neutral way to do it. The efficiency of gathering and extracting E. fetida from the vermicompost was studied, using a fresh bait method. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory (at the mean temperature of 20±0.5 °C) in pots filled wit...

  16. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498

  17. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  18. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access. PMID:25229348

  19. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert; Banko, Paul; Pendleton, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola (Homoptera: Coccidae). Ants, in facultative relationships with scale insects, may facilitate scale population growth and increase their effect on plant hosts. Three ant species found on Rose Atoll, Tetramorium bicarinatum, T. simillimum, and Pheidole oceanica, are capable of tending Pulvinaria on Pisonia and may have contributed to the demise of the trees on the atoll. Replicated trials conducted on Rose Atoll during 17–21 March 2013 tested the effectiveness and relative attractiveness of five formicidal baits potentially to be used to eradicate these ants on the atoll. Three baits contained toxins (hydramethylnon in Amdro® and Maxforce®, indoxacarb in Provaunt®) and two baits contained an insect growth regulator (IGR; pyriproxyfen in Distance® and s-methoprene in Tango®). Amdro, Distance, and Maxforce are granular baits while Provaunt and Tango were mixed with adjuvants to form a gel-like matrix. Results varied among ant species and baits, but Provaunt was highly effective against workers of both Tetramorium species while Amdro and Maxforce were highly effective against T. simillimum and P. oceanica. Limited time on the island prevented the evaluation of the effectiveness of the IGR baits. The relative attractiveness of the baits generally mirrored their ability to kill worker ants. Tetramorium simillimum was attracted to all five baits; T. bicarinatum was attracted to Provaunt, Distance, and Tango; and P. oceanica was attracted to the three granular baits. These results and the small area of Rose Atoll suggest that island-wide application of formicidal baits may result in eradication of these ants, but an application strategy targeting all three species would more likely succeed with the use of multiple baits.

  20. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  1. Mirex incorporation in the environment: in situ decomposition of fire ant bait and its effects on two soil macroarthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, A A; Lue, K Y

    1978-01-01

    The decomposition rate of fire ant baits and the consequent leaching of the pesticide mirex from the bait were investigated for one year in three types of environments (i.e., on the ground, in the soil, and in the pond) by means of the nylon litter bag method. There was no significant difference in the decomposition rates between toxic and non-toxic baits. The bait proved to be stable and slow to decay. After one year of exposure in the field, about 75% of bait material remained in the bags that were deployed on the ground, 60% in the soil, and 25% in the pond. The removal of mirex from the bait was due to leaching from, and natural decay of the bait. The loss of mirex from the bait to the environment varied significantly among the three habitats. At the end of 12 months, mirex disappearance from baits exposed on the ground was 41.1%, in the soil 56.3%, and in the pond 83.9%. The rate of mirex loss was slower during fall and winter. The toxicities of the bait decomposed in situ for different lengths of time (12, 9, 6, 3, and 0 months) to the land isopod Armadillidium vulgare and the soil millipede oxidus gracilis were higher than the undecomposed baits. This indicated that weathered mirex baits left in the field have greater biological impact than freshly applied baits, at least on the two soil animals tested. PMID:666366

  2. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in bait uptake, control efficacy may be maximized by applying bait when ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand. PMID:22928290

  3. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM/serine (20 mM and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attractant (starch/serine and chlorophyllin was examined in red and sunlight. The fraction of snail that was in contact with chlorophyllin bait in zone-3 was used as measure of attraction process. Infected snails were more attracted with red light+starch (57.7%. Uninfected snails were more attracted by red light+serine (58.0%. The molluscicidal activity of chlorophyllin against infected snails in red light (96h LC50-1.88% chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-2.40% chlorophyllin in bait was more pronounced than uninfected snail in red light (96h LC50-1.76% Chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-3.62% chlorophyllin in bait.

  4. Evaluation of systemic insecticides mixed in rodenticide baits for plague vector control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Søholt; Lodal, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Rodenticide baits containing systemic insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for their palatability to the house rat Rattus rattus and for their toxicity against the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis - both animals are important Vectors of plague in Africa. The test bait and a non...

  5. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  6. Hunger in red imported fire ants and their behavioral response to two liquid bait products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kathryn S; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M

    2005-12-01

    To help manage red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, invasion, several types of pest management systems have been developed, including baits. To accurately test liquid bait effectiveness in the laboratory, we determined that starvation time of 96 h is required for laboratory fire ants to simulate foraging ants in the field. We measured density and viscosity of two commercial baits and 20% sugar water at 25 degrees C and then compared amount of material consumed per ant at these physical properties. Mean densities of 20% sugar water, Dr. Moss, and Terro were 1.051, 1.287, and 1.354 g/ml, respectively, and viscosity of each bait treatment varied in the same order but more drastically (1.7, 32, and 400 centipoises, respectively). Field and laboratory studies demonstrated that bait acceptability may be affected by toxicant and physical properties. Baits that are more dense have more mass per volume and may cause the ant to cease feeding with a lower crop load than when they feed on sugar water. Ants that feed on formulated baits exhibit feeding behaviors different from those that occur when feeding on sugar water. At first glance, one might conclude that the difference is because of the toxicant, but our findings suggest that physical properties of baits may be a factor in this change in feeding behavior. PMID:16539145

  7. Detrimental effects of highly efficient interference competition: invasive Argentine ants outcompete native ants at toxic baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is an invasive species that disrupts the balance of natural ecosystems by displacing indigenous ant species throughout its introduced range. Previous studies that examined the mechanisms by which Argentine ants attain ecological dominance showed that superior interference and exploitation competition are key to the successful displacement of native ant species. The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that effective interference competition by Argentine ants may also be detrimental to the survival of Argentine ant colonies where Argentine ants and native ants compete at toxic baits used to slow the spread of Argentine ants. To study this hypothesis, we examined the competitive interactions between Argentine ants and native odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile, in the presence and absence of toxic baits. Results showed that Argentine ants aggressively outcompete T. sessile from toxic baits through efficient interference competition and monopolize bait resources. This has severe negative consequences for the survival of Argentine ants as colonies succumb to the toxic effects of the bait. In turn, T. sessile avoid areas occupied by Argentine ants, give up baits, and consequently suffer minimal mortality. Our results provide experimental evidence that highly efficient interference competition may have negative consequences for Argentine ants in areas where toxic baits are used and may provide a basis for designing innovative management programs for Argentine ants. Such programs would have the double benefit of selectively eliminating the invasive species while simultaneously protecting native ants from the toxic effects of baits. PMID:18559180

  8. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF BAIT SPRAYS ON BORDER WINDBREAKS FOR POPULATION SUPPRESSION OF BACTROCERA SPP. IN PAPAYA ORCHARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is standard practice to apply bait sprays to plants bordering a host crop area, and not to the host crop itself, for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations. In contrast, bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), popula...

  10. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for Baits aged longer than 8 h were substantially less attractive and less effective. Horizontal transfer tests examined the transfer of thiamethoxam from live treated donors to live untreated recipients. The results show that donor ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any transfer tests, suggesting that multiple feedings from multiple

  11. Trapping mosquitoes using milk products as odour baits in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owino Eunice A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ample evidence has shown that blood seeking mosquitoes locate their hosts by following odours produced by the hosts. Odour baited traps would therefore, provide a solution in controlling diseases spread by mosquitoes. Comparative studies were undertaken to determine the relative efficacies of two odour baits i.e. Limburger cheese and African traditional milk cream in trapping mosquitoes in the field in western Kenya. Method Comparative efficacy studies were carried out in the field using Latin square experimental designs. In the first study, a counterflow geometry (CFG trap (MM-x model; American Biophysics Corp., USA. baited with Limburger cheese, man landing catches (MLC, Centres for Disease Control (CDC light trap and an entry trap were compared. In the second study, three CFG traps baited with either Limburger cheese, African traditional milk cream or with no bait were compared and in the third study four CDC traps baited with either Limburger cheese, African traditional milk cream, light or with no bait were compared. Parameters like species, catch size, abdominal status, parity status and size of the collected mosquitoes were compared. Results A total of 1,806 mosquitoes were collected (60% An. gambiae s.l and 25% An.funestus, culicines 15%. There was no significant difference in the number of An. funestus trapped by the CFG trap baited with Limburger cheese from those trapped by the MLC (P = 0.351. The Limburger cheese baited CFG trap collected significantly more gravid An. funestus than the MLC (P = 0.022. Furthermore, when the CFG trap baited with Limburger cheese and the CFG trap baited with milk cream were compared, there was no significant difference in the number of An. funestus collected (P = 0.573. The same trend was observed in the comparison of Limburger cheese baited CDC trap and milk cream baited CDC trap. Conclusions Limburger cheese and African traditional milk cream have a potential as effective odour

  12. Oral rabies vaccination of red foxes and golden jackals in Israel: preliminary bait evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, S B; King, R; Zamir, S; Naveh, U; Davidson, M; Perl, S

    1997-12-01

    Field trials were conducted in late April to early May of 1995 and 1996 in central Israel to assess the potential for controlling rabies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) by using vaccine-laden baits. Of the bait types which were field tested, polymer fish meal baits were selected as the most suitable for both species. Fish meal baits containing tetracycline hydrochloride, an oral biomarker, were distributed by four-wheel-drive vehicle at a density of approximately 30 baits/km2 in two test areas of 35 km2. Of the animals which were trapped and euthanized seven to ten days after treatment, 65% of foxes and 56% of jackals gave positive results when tested for the biomarker. These results indicate the potential effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination of these species in Israel and possibly elsewhere in the Middle East, where rabies is a problem in wild canids. PMID:9567312

  13. Fish Assemblages on Estuarine Artificial Reefs: Natural Rocky-Reef Mimics or Discrete Assemblages?

    OpenAIRE

    Folpp, Heath; Lowry, Michael; Gregson, Marcus; Suthers, Iain M.

    2013-01-01

    If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, sp...

  14. Odour-baited targets to control New World screwworm: A preliminary field study in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biconical, F3 and Wind Oriented (WOT) traps and black cloth targets, baited with swormlure-4, were assessed as catching and killing devices for the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in Mexico. The WOT was significantly better than the other trap designs, with a mean catch 2.7 and 86.4 times better than those of the Biconical and F3, respectively. It was demonstrated that the release of swormlure-4 could be reduced from the standard 10 ml/day to 2 ml/day without a reduction in the numbers of screwworm caught in a WOT. Use of electric nets demonstrated that a visual target was not necessary for the precise location of a swormlure-4 source by screwworm. Target colour was important with respect to the landing response of screwworms on targets: in a two-choice situation, flies landed much more frequently on black than on blue or yellow, and more on these two colours than they did on white. Screwworm tend not to circle a target before landing on it: about 75% of the flies caught on a combination of electrified black target plus electric flanking net were caught on the target. 6 tabs

  15. Behavioural responses of Lymnaea acuminata against apigenin, morusin and quercetin in bait pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Hanif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Snail control plays an important role in control of fasciolosis. In order to achieve this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. In the present study bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants that also act as molluscicide i.e. apigenin, morusin and quercetin (10 mM, derived from Morus nigra bark, leaf and fruit in 2% agar solution. These were used against Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematode Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural response of snails to these attractants (apigenin, morusin and quercetin was examined. The fraction of snails that were in contact with the bait pellet in zone-3 was used as a measure of attraction process. Apigenin emerged as the strongest attractant (89.1% after 2h against L. acuminata in comparison to morusin (80.2% after 2h and quercetin (72.5% after 2h at 5% concentration in bait. The molluscicidal activity of quercetin (96h LC50- 0.59% in bait was more pronounced than that of morusin (96h LC50- 1.01% in bait and apigenin (96h LC50- 1.32% in bait.

  16. MECHANIZED SYSTEMATIC APPLICATION OF GRANULETED ANTS BAITS IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS IN MAINTENANCE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to manual control, systematic control WITH ant bait requires less labor, results in lower exposure of workers and increases operating YIELD. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality of leaf-cutting ants nests with a mechanized systematic application of ant bait in three spacings on eucalyptus plantations in maintenance phase, the operational capability of mechanized application and the quality of the distribution of bait throughout the area. The experiment was conducted in the city of Paropeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in stands of eucalyptus plantations in maintenance phase. A sulfluramid (0.3% based bait was systematically applied at 1 kg.ha-1 every 6 x 2.5 9 x 2.5 and 12 x 2.5 meters, with an application equipment attached to the hydraulic system of a tractor, comprising three treatments with five repetitions. Nests with a size of up to one square meter of land area were selected and marked and evaluated their inactivity at 60 and 210 days after bait application. The percentage of bait loading, the operational capability of the mechanized process and the quality of the distribution process of the bait were also evaluated, using control charts. It was found that the different spacings applied did not influence the effectiveness of control. The largest spacing used provided greater operational capacity (8.42 ha.h-1. The mechanized systematic application provided good distribution as to the process’ statistical control, being a viable alternative to manual application.

  17. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait Against Asian and German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2016-08-01

    The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai Mizukubo) was introduced to Florida in 1986 and has since spread throughout the Southeastern United States. Blattella asahinai is a peridomestic pest and high population densities in residential areas can become a nuisance, especially when adults fly into homes. Few studies to date have been conducted on Asian cockroach control, and we evaluated the efficacy of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait and Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait against this species in the laboratory compared with the closely related German cockroach (Blattella germanica (L.)). In no-choice and two-choice assays with both species, Zyrox bait and Maxforce bait achieved nearly 100% mortality within two and five days, respectively. We also tested Zyrox bait against B. asahinai in an invasive field population in North Carolina at the label rate (2 g/m(2)) and at approximately three times the label rate (6.9 g/m(2)), and found that broadcast applications at both rates reduced populations by an average of 64 and 92%, respectively, for 35 d after the initial application. Zyrox Fly Bait appears to be effective against the Asian and German cockroaches, and could be another tool in an integrated pest management program, if its label could be extended or the active ingredient (cyantraniliprole) formulated into a cockroach bait. PMID:27122494

  18. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  19. Determining different parameters of Co-60 bait as a radiotracer for three species of subterranean termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to test the feasibility of using Cobalt-60 for tracing the nesting system of subterranean termites. Over a period of four weeks, mortality caused by feeding on bait containing Cobalt-60 (30 microcurie) did not exceed 6% in Heterotermes indicola, Microtermes unicolor or Reticulitermes. The data on radiation distribution in different body parts of H. indicola after feeding on radioactive bait showed maximum radioactivity in gut (64.63%) followed by external contamination (26.81%), appendages (5.87%) and exoskeleton (2.92%). It was concluded that Co-60 label bait could safely be used as a radiotracer to study the nesting system of subterranean termites. (author)

  20. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H Nasirian

    2007-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h), and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 inter...

  1. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  2. Final Report: Influence of Food Availability on Black Bear Bait Station Visits in Southeastern Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes findings related to bait station techniques to assess black bear status in the Greater Okefenokee landscape, and provides guidance on how to...

  3. Occurrence of Photobacterium leiognathi, as the bait organ symbiont in frogfish Antennarius hispidus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Bait organs of the frogfish Antennarius hispidus, collected from a coralline habitat off Bombay, Maharashtra, India from the depth of about 50 m, were luminescent and revealed the exclusive presence of luminous bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi...

  4. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  5. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  6. Behavioural responses of Lymnaea acuminata against apigenin, morusin and quercetin in bait pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Farheen Hanif; Pradeep Kumar; D K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Snail control plays an important role in control of fasciolosis. In order to achieve this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. In the present study bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants that also act as molluscicide i.e. apigenin, morusin and quercetin (10 mM), derived from Morus nigra bark, leaf and fruit in 2% ...

  7. Were human babies used as bait in crocodile hunts in colonial Sri Lanka?

    OpenAIRE

    Anslem de Silva; Ruchira Somaweera

    2015-01-01

    Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide.  However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period.  Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place. 

  8. An accelerated soil bait assay for the detection of potato mop top virus in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Triona

    2009-01-01

    An accelerated soil bait test can be used to determine whether a field harbours virus-carrying Spongospora subterranea. S. subterranea is the causal agent of powdery scab and also the only vector of potato mop top virus (PMTV). Real-time RT-PCR can detect PMTV RNA in the roots of bait plants after 2 weeks of growth in viruliferous soil. This test may be used to assess the risk of planting potato crops in a particular field. PMID:19301761

  9. Were human babies used as bait in crocodile hunts in colonial Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem de Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide.  However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period.  Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place. 

  10. The Marine Live Bait Trade in California: A Pathway for Introduction of Non-Indigenous Species?

    OpenAIRE

    Passarelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Several species of marine invertebrates are imported into California for use as live bait in recreational fishing. I investigated the marine live bait trade in California as a potential introduction pathway for non-indigenous species (NIS). I estimated that ~1,900,000 ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), ~575,000 bloodworms (Glycera dibranchiata), ~600,000 pileworms Nereis virens), and ~1,100,000 lugworms (Perinereis sp.), and are imported annually into California from different parts of...

  11. The safety and efficacy of immunizing foxes (Vulpes vulpes) using bait containing attenuated rabies virus vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, J. G.; Lawson, K. F.

    1980-01-01

    Foxes given ERA rabies vaccine baits were challenged at one, six, 12 and 24 months later and showed a resistance to challenge in 80%, 78%, 60% and 44% of individuals respectively. All animals showing seroconversion following vaccination, resisted challenge at 24 months, suggesting that successful vaccination by the oral route could confer a relatively long term duration of immunity. The trials showed that fox pups did not immunize as easily as adult foxes using ERA rabies vaccine baits. Back-...

  12. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  13. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed. PMID:24020292

  14. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Grabowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  15. Digestion of Termiticide Bait Matrices by the Pest Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Karl, Zachary J; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Termites are highly effective digesters of wood lignocellulose, which is a central factor contributing to their global status as pests of wooden structures. For the same reason, termite baits that combine cellulosic matrices with slow-acting insecticides are both effective and popular as a reduced-risk approach for termite control. This study took a novel approach for assessing digestibility of termite bait matrices and matrix components to gain potentially new insights into bait attractiveness and efficacy. The rationale behind this study is that termite baits that are more digestible should have more nutritional value to termites and thus encourage maximal feeding and trophallactic transfer of active ingredients through termite colonies. Studies were done using in vitro digestion assays with termite gut protein extracts followed by colorimetric detection of released glucose and pentose monosaccharides from test substrates. The substrates tested included two commercial bait matrices (Recruit IV and Recruit II HD), two matrix components (compressed and toasted compressed cellulose), and two natural pine woods as positive controls (southern yellow and northern pine). Overall results show equal or greater monosaccharide availability for some commercial matrices than standard pine lignocelluloses, suggesting sufficient nutritional value for the proprietary matrices. Another more prominent trend was significant intercolony variation in digestibility across substrates, possibly resulting from differences in microbiota composition, long-term diet adaptation, or both. These findings thus illuminate new nutrition-based factors that can potentially impact bait feeding, trophallactic exchange, and efficacy. PMID:26896534

  16. Evaluation of liquid baits against field populations of the longlegged ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kim-Fung; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2009-08-01

    An evaluation of several insecticides, namely, 0.01% fipronil, 0.05% indoxacarb, and 2% boric acid in liquid bait formulations were carried out against field populations of the longlegged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The baits were formulated in brown cane sugar solution (50%, wt:wt) and placed in an experimental bait station. Each bait was evaluated against populations of A. gracilipes at four buildings. Fipronil, indoxacarb, and boric acid were effective against A. gracilipes, with > 90% reduction of workers within 3 d posttreatment. Total reduction (100%) was achieved within 7 d for fipronil, 14 d for indoxacarb, and 56 d for boric acid. The performance of fipronil and indoxacarb baits did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in all postbaiting sampling intervals. Reduction of A. gracilipes resulted in an increase in other ant species [Monomorium pharaonis (L.), Monomorium floricola (Jerdon), Monomorium orientale Mayr, Monomorium destructor (Jerdon), Tapinoma indicum Forel, Pheidole sp., and Camponotus sp.] at the baited locations. PMID:19736772

  17. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits. PMID:24331615

  18. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  19. Field evaluation of potential of alarm pheromone compounds to enhance baits for control of grass-cutting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William O H; Howse, Philip E; Vilela, Evaldo F; Knapp, Jenny J; Goulson, Dave

    2002-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are important economic pests of the Neotropics, and the most common method of control involves the use of insecticidal baits. Baits that are currently available exhibit low attractiveness to grass-cutting species, thus there is a need to develop improved baits. The potential for using alarm pheromone compounds to enhance the attractiveness and subsequent harvest of baits was examined for two economically important species of grass-cutting ant, Atta bisphaerica (Forel) and Atta capiguara (Goncalves). Compounds of the alarm pheromone were applied to rubber septa that were then sealed inside plastic sachets together with citrus pulp-based bait. The best candidate compound for bait enhancement was 4-methyl-3-heptanone. This compound significantly increased the attractiveness of bait sachets to both species. It also appeared to improve the discovery of nearby unenhanced sachets. However, 4-methyl-3-heptanone resulted in only a slight and non-significant improvement in bait harvest. Enhanced and unenhanced bait sachets were applied at a number of positions to obtain an improvement in harvest, but without success. The possible reasons for the lack of an enhancement of harvest and the potential for using alarm pheromone compounds as leaf-cutting ant bait enhancers are discussed. PMID:12075997

  20. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  1. A modified 'easy trap' could be a good 'bait station' against fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently, a new 'easy trap' was launched onto the fruit fly market. The easy trap showed a good performance when it was tested against PMT and Tephri traps baited with Nulure or synthetic attractants. The use of 'bait stations' to control fruit flies is being introduced recently. An important parameter to consider will be the amount of flies that it can kill versus the number of beneficial insects killed. The 'Easy trap' can be transformed into a 'bait station' by discarding the clear half and replacing it with a yellow one. The effect is a yellow rectangular box with two holes and a hanger. The position and size of the holes in the trap have acted as a good mechanism for dispersion when baited with synthetic attractants (AA; TMA) or Nulure. This aspect can be useful when coating the whole surface of the trap with a sugar based syrup plus methomyl. The flies will be attracted by the synthetic attractants inside the trap. They land on the syrup - coated surface, they eat it and die. The first tests with this 'easy bait station' were run accordingly to the Standard Research Protocol of the FAO/IAEA CRP 'Development of Improved Attractants Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assesment' from 11 Sep to 26 Oct 2004 in a mango orchard located in Malaga in southern Spain. The results were more than acceptable: During 45 days the 'easy bait station' killed an amount (mean) of 283 medflies (6.3 F/T/D, 70% females) while PMT baited with Nulure and Borax (used as control) captured 265 flies (5.8 F/T/D, 59% females) and the 'easy trap' baited with AA+TMA using Deltametrin as killer agent, captured 238 flies (5.3 F/T/D, 68% females). No other insects, especially their natural enemies, have been caught in high numbers (some Chrysopids and black flies) in the 'easy bait station'. It will be necessary to study the performance of the bait stations in other fruit orchards and sites with diverse climates and entomofauna. (author)

  2. MEMBRAIN NEURAL NETWORK FOR VISUAL PATTERN RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Popko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of visual patterns is one of significant applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence. In the paper, a simplified neural approach to recognition of visual patterns is portrayed and discussed. This paper is dedicated for investigators in visual patterns recognition, Artificial Neural Networking and related disciplines. The document describes also MemBrain application environment as a powerful and easy to use neural networks’ editor and simulator supporting ANN.

  3. MEMBRAIN NEURAL NETWORK FOR VISUAL PATTERN RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Popko; Marek Jakubowski; Rafał Wawer

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of visual patterns is one of significant applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence. In the paper, a simplified neural approach to recognition of visual patterns is portrayed and discussed. This paper is dedicated for investigators in visual patterns recognition, Artificial Neural Networking and related disciplines. The document describes also MemBrain application environment as a powerful and easy to...

  4. Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A more economic and practical fruit fly suppression tool is needed to replace conventional aerial and ground bait sprays applications over human settlements, protected natural areas, and difficult to access areas where fruit fly hosts exist. This has been a major request from area-wide integrated pest management action programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a component. In recent years, especially in Europe, most conventional insecticides used to control fruit pests have been banned (e.g. malathion, dichlorvos and other organophosphates), therefore areas producing fruits and vegetables for markets that request low insecticide residues or even fruit and vegetable organic farming is seeking for a more economic fruit fly control option to the spinosad-based bait sprays and to the use of mass trapping. To address these requests, bait stations can be one of the most suitable alternatives. The development of these devices needs to take into consideration cost-effectiveness, and long lasting attractants and killing agents, and should target female fruit flies. Recent developments of synthetic food attractants and long-lasting formulations open the possibility to improve the existent baits stations or develop new ones. With this objective the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organized a Consultants Meeting ('Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT'), held in Mazatlan, Mexico, from 30 October to 1 November 2008, with the participation of 14 scientists from the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Argentina; Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia; North American Plant Protection Organization, Canada; African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Spain, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y

  5. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  6. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits. PMID:21061977

  7. Native ant responses to Solenopsis invicta buren reduction using broadcast baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Alejandro A; Harris, Marvin K; Knutson, Allen; Barr, Charles L

    2007-10-01

    A pilot study was conducted to investigate the impact of Solenopsis invicta management with an insect growth regulator bait (s-methoprene) on native ant species and to determine the responses of these species to S. invicta reduction. This invasive species alters the diversity and structure of different trophic levels of arthropod assemblages. Despite advances in S. invicta management using biological control agents, poison baits remain as the primary tool for effective fire ant management. However, the effect of these products on native ants is relatively unknown. Understanding these effects is critical to the development of S. invicta management strategies that include conservation of native ants. Native ants compete with S. invicta to some degree and can bolster efforts to release and establish exotic biological control agents to more effectively manage S. invicta. The study was carried out in Mumford, TX. Two treatments were used: a bait treatment that reduced S. invicta densities and a control. The treatments were randomly assigned to 1.33-ha blocks, replicated four times, and periodically inspected using complementary sampling techniques (pitfall traps, baited vials, manual collections, and nest surveys). Sixteen ant species were found among the two treatments. After S. invicta reduction, significant increases in densities of several other ant species were observed. Species within the assemblage shifted from the dominance by S. invicta to the dominance of the native pyramid ant, Dorymyrmex flavus McCook, which showed the most significant increase in bait treated blocks and was found to persist at densities significantly higher than the control for >2 yr after the last bait treatment. A temporary change in diversity was observed, indicating that use of a poison bait for S. invicta management benefited numerous resident species in the ant assemblage. PMID:18284735

  8. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM)/serine (20 mM) and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attracta...

  9. Artificial noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

  10. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  11. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  12. 基于黎曼流型度量的人工鱼群算法视觉跟踪%Visual Tracking of Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm Based on Riemannian Manifold Metric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁昕苗; 郭文; 徐常胜

    2012-01-01

    A novel visual tracking method based on artificial fish swarm algorithm on Riemannian manifold metric was proposed. The new algorithm can well deal with the interactive occlusion, and consume less computation load comparing with global exhaustive search,both of which are the limits of classical covariance descriptor tracker. The paper used co-variance descriptor combining with object information of position, color, and gradient to enhance the adaptability to change of gesture and illumination changing. The artificial fish swarm algorithm was utilized to find the best matching between object and candidate. Its parallel operation and global search ability improves the effectiveness of processing and can be more robust to occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more robust for visual tracking under complex scene.%针对经典的基于协方差算子的跟踪方法不能适应目标的遮挡及其全局搜索造成的过多计算消耗问题,提出了一种在黎曼流型度量上的人工鱼群算法的视觉跟踪方法.该方法将融合了目标的位置、颜色、梯度等特征区域的协方差算子作为目标的表观模型,以提高它对姿态变化以及亮度变化的适应性.利用人工鱼群算法搜寻目标与候选目标之间最优的匹配,其并行运算机制提高了跟踪算法的效率,其全局搜索的能力则提高了算法对遮挡问题的鲁棒性.实验结果袁明,该算法在复杂背景情况下具有目标跟踪的鲁棒性.

  13. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  14. Effect of scattered and discrete hydramethylnon bait placement on the Asian needle ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eleanor Spicer; Shik, Jonathan Z; Silverman, Jules

    2012-10-01

    The Asian needle ant (Pachycondyla chinensis Emery) is invading natural and disturbed habitats across the eastern United States. While recent studies document the impact of P. chinensis on native ecosystems and human health, effective control measures remain unknown. Thus, we evaluated the field performance of a hydramethylnon granular bait, Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait, dispersed in clumps or scattered against P. chinensis. We also measured the effect of this bait on P. chinensis outside of the treatment zone. Surprisingly, unlike reports for other ant species, we achieved nearly complete P. chinensis population reductions 1 d after treatments were applied. Significant ant reductions were achieved until the end of our study at 28 d. No difference was recorded between clumped and scattered application methods. We found no overall difference in ant reductions from the edge out to 5 m beyond the treatment zone. Other local ant species appeared to be unaffected by the bait and foraging activity increased slightly after P. chinensis removal from treated areas. We suggest that Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait can be effective in an Asian needle ant treatment program. PMID:23156173

  15. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  16. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  17. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  18. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  19. Bait and habitat preferences, and temporal variability of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) attracted to vertebrate carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Thiago de Carvalho; Giannotti, Edilberto; Thyssen, Patrícia Jacqueline; Solis, Daniel Russ; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde

    2011-09-01

    In addition to feeding on carrion tissues and fluids, social wasps can also prey on immature and adult carrion flies, thereby reducing their populations and retarding the decomposition process of carcasses. In this study, we report on the occurrence and behavior of social wasps attracted to vertebrate carrion. The collections were made monthly from September 2006 to October 2007 in three environments (rural, urban, and forest) in six municipalities of southeast Brazil, using baited bottle traps. We collected Agelaia pallipes (Olivier, 1791) (n = 143), Agelaia vicina (Saussure, 1854) (n = 106), Agelaia multipicta (Haliday, 1836) (n = 18), and Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896 (n = 3). The wasps were observed feeding directly on the baits and preying on adult insects collected in the traps. Bait and habitat associations, temporal variability of social wasps, and possible forensic implications of their actions are discussed. PMID:21936327

  20. Generation and Validation of MYTH Baits: iMYTH and tMYTH Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Jamie; Stagljar, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Generation of baits for membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screening differs depending on the nature of the protein(s) being studied. When using native yeast proteins with cytoplasmic carboxyl termini, the integrated form of MYTH (iMYTH) is the method of choice. iMYTH involves endogenous carboxy-terminal tagging of the gene of interest within the yeast chromosome, leaving the gene under the control of its natural promoter. When studying proteins not native to yeast, or native yeast proteins with only cytoplasmic amino termini, traditional MYTH (tMYTH) must be used. In the tMYTH approach, amino- or carboxy-terminally tagged proteins are expressed ectopically from a plasmid. In this protocol, we describe the generation and validation of iMYTH and tMYTH baits. MYTH bait generation can typically be completed in ∼1-2 wk. PMID:26729907

  1. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  2. The Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT: a behavioral measure of protective risk management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G Essex

    Full Text Available Prior methods used to assess individual differences related to risk have not focused on an important component of risk management: how willing individuals are to pay for or take actions to insure what they already have. It is not clear whether this type of protective risk management taps into the same individual differences as does risk taking propensity measured by existing risk taking tasks. We developed a novel task to assess protective risk management, the Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT, which is modeled after the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART. In the BAIT, individuals are forced to decide how much money they are willing to pay in order to insure a specific fraction of their prior winnings given changing but imprecise levels of risk of monetary loss. Participants completed the BART and BAIT for real monetary rewards, and completed six self report questionnaires. The amount of insurance purchased on the BAIT was positively correlated with scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and on the Checking scale of the revised Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Conversely, the amount of insurance purchased was negatively correlated with scores on the Domain Specific Risk Taking Questionnaire, and on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI. Furthermore, relationships between insurance purchased and these scales remained significant after controlling for the BART in linear regression analyses, and the BART was only a significant predictor for measures on one scale--the PPI. Our results reveal that behavior on the BAIT taps into a number of individual differences that are not related to behavior on another measure of risk taking. We propose that the BAIT may provide a useful complement to the BART in the assessment of risk management style.

  3. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  4. Post-control surveillance of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida with chemically-baited sticky traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta Rojas de Arias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease prevention critically depends on keeping houses free of triatomine vectors. Insecticide spraying is very effective, but re-infestation of treated dwellings is commonplace. Early detection-elimination of re-infestation foci is key to long-term control; however, all available vector-detection methods have low sensitivity. Chemically-baited traps are widely used in vector and pest control-surveillance systems; here, we test this approach for Triatoma spp. detection under field conditions in the Gran Chaco. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a repeated-sampling approach and logistic models that explicitly take detection failures into account, we simultaneously estimate vector occurrence and detection probabilities. We then model detection probabilities (conditioned on vector occurrence as a function of trapping system to measure the effect of chemical baits. We find a positive effect of baits after three (odds ratio [OR] 5.10; 95% confidence interval [CI(95] 2.59-10.04 and six months (OR 2.20, CI(95 1.04-4.65. Detection probabilities are estimated at p ≈ 0.40-0.50 for baited and at just p ≈ 0.15 for control traps. Bait effect is very strong on T. infestans (three-month assessment: OR 12.30, CI(95 4.44-34.10; p ≈ 0.64, whereas T. sordida is captured with similar frequency in baited and unbaited traps. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chemically-baited traps hold promise for T. infestans surveillance; the sensitivity of the system at detecting small re-infestation foci rises from 12.5% to 63.6% when traps are baited with semiochemicals. Accounting for imperfect detection, infestation is estimated at 26% (CI(95 16-40 after three and 20% (CI(95 11-34 after six months. In the same assessments, traps detected infestation in 14% and 8.5% of dwellings, whereas timed manual searches (the standard approach did so in just 1.4% of dwellings only in the first survey. Since infestation rates are the main indicator used for decision

  5. Evidence that grey seals (Halichoerus grypus use above-water vision to locate baited buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Fjälling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fishing gear in the Baltic is often raided by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. The seals remove the fish and damage the nets, or entangle themselves and drown. In order to develop ways of mitigating the seals-fisheries conflict, it is important to know exactly how the seals locate the fishing gear. A field experiment was conducted in order to clarify whether seals use their vision above water to do this. Bait (herring; Clupea harengus was attached to the anchor lines of buoys of the type that is commonly used to mark the position of fishing gear. In all, 643 buoys were set. Some of the buoys (210 were also fitted with camera traps. Weather data were collected from official weather stations nearby. Bait loss (mean 18% was significantly correlated with buoy size (P = 0.002 and wind speed (P = 0.04. There was a significant association between bait loss and seal observations near the buoys (P = 0.05. Five photos of grey seals were obtained from the camera traps. No fish-eating birds, such as cormorants or mergansers, were ever observed near the buoys or caught on camera. It was concluded that a main cause of missing bait was scavenging by grey seals, and that they did use above-water vision to locate the buoys. It was also concluded that wind strength (i.e. wave action contributed tothe bait loss. The camera trap buoys had a somewhat lower bait loss than the other buoys (P = 0.054, which was attributed to a scaring effect. Neither the number of seal observations nor the bait loss differed significantly between the 2 study areas in the experiment (P = 0.43 and P = 0.83, respectively. Bait loss was not affected by the buoy colour (red, white, or grey; P = 0.87. We suggest that the findings of this experiment could be put into practice in a seal-disturbed area by deploying a number of decoy buoys, or by hiding live buoys below the surface of the water. This would increase the cost of foraging for the seals, and hence discourage them from exploiting

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  7. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  8. Mortality of Rhagoletis indifferens exposed to hydrolyzed protein baits and spinosad in the absence and presence of yeast extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is the major quarantine pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.), in the Pacific Northwest of the USA and in British Columbia in Canada. Although spinosad bait (GF-120 NF Naturalyte® Fruit Fly Bait, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN, USA) ...

  9. Effects of Different Essential Oils on the Acceptability and Palatability of Cereal-Based Baits for Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Jokić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the possibility of application of essential oilsas additives in cereal-based rodenticide baits, at rates which prevent mould developmentand are applicable in humane medicine. Also, the purpose of these oils would be to extendthe utility value of baits and reduce the use of antifungal ingredients that usually affect baitacceptance.The effects of essential oils of ten different plant species, applied at rates of one andtwo ml per kg of plain bait, on bait acceptance and palatability in choice feeding testsfor Swiss mice were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Baits were preparedaccording to relevant EPPO standards (2004. The effects of essential oils on bait acceptanceand palatability for Swiss mice were determined in choice feeding tests using a formula byJohnson and Prescott (1994.There was no significant statistical difference in effects between groups and sexesregarding weight change in the experiment. During the experiment and recovery period,neither change in mice behavior no deaths were observed. Cinnamon and anise essentialoils, commonly used as attractants, and clove oil, were most effective because they hadno negative effect on bait acceptance and palatability, while fenchel and bergamot oilsshowed repellent activity that grew as the oil content in baits increased.

  10. Laboratory and field cage studies on female-targeted attract-and-kill bait stations for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A matrix was developed for use as a base for bait station for pest tephritid fruit flies. The matrix consists of a wax, a hardener and emulsifier, and can be used with a variety of insecticides and other additives. Bait stations were formed into plugs to approximate a sphere shape or into strips of ...

  11. Quantitative relationship between potato tuber damage and counts of Pacific Coast wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in baits: seasonal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plots were baited with rolled oats in spring to assess the relationship between counts of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and damage to potato tubers. Baiting was done at 7 intervals beginning before planting of potatoes and ending following germination. Injury (per...

  12. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed. PMID:22928314

  13. Retrieval of granular bait by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): effect of clumped versus scattered dispersion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jules; Roulston, T'ai H

    2003-06-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), use mass recruitment foraging, with clumped prey items being retrieved more efficiently than dispersed prey. However, in prior field experiments, granular baits, whether dispensed in containers or broadly scattered, had a similar impact on Argentine ant populations. In laboratory experiments, granular insecticide bait was encountered faster by Argentine ant workers and more granules were initially returned to the colony when the granules were scattered versus clumped. After 2 h, granules from both dispersion patterns were retrieved equally. Our results suggest that Argentine ant colonies adjust their foraging patterns to resources of different quality (prey versus bait). Also, foraging activity patterns for bait in the laboratory are consistent with prior field results demonstrating no efficacy advantages to discrete granular bait placements. PMID:12852629

  14. Red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) control with a corn grit bait of fenoxycarb without soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D F; Banks, W A; Vander Meer, R K; Lofgren, C S

    1991-06-01

    The standard fenoxycarb fire ant bait formulation (Logic), composed of pregel defatted corn grits and soybean oil toxicant, was modified by eliminating the soybean oil. This formulation without soybean oil contained greater than 2 times more fenoxycarb and was as effective as the standard bait formulation against laboratory colonies of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In field tests, the modified and standard baits were equally effective in controlling fire ants after 6, 12, and 18 wk. Individual worker ants obtained from plots treated with fenoxycarb baits without soybean oil had greater than 47 times less fenoxycarb than did workers from the plots treated with the standard fenoxycarb baits containing soybean oil. PMID:1885843

  15. Effectiveness of methoprene-impregnated baits in the control of Monomorium pharaonis ant populations infesting health establishment and households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupes, V; Chmela, J; Hrdý, I; Krecek, J

    1983-01-01

    The use of baits consisting of dried egg yolks and impregnated with 0.5% of methoprene, loosely applied twice within 8-12 days at the rate of 1 g of bait per 3-6 m2 of floor surface area at each application was found to result consequently in a complete eradication of M. pharaonis ant populations in two medium-size health establishments and in one apartment house. Under more favorable conditions in another health establishment the use of methoprene-impregnated baits applied twice at the average dose of 1 g per as many as 46 m2 floor area proved equally effective in ensuring permanent eradication of ants. Providing that all colonies on the premises can be affected by bait a complete eradication of ants can be expected within 100 days after the first application of bait. PMID:6644016

  16. A bait for locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) suitable for oral application of juvenile hormone analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Václav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2003), s. 287-290. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : locust control * bait * oral application Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.183, year: 2003

  17. Evaluation of Liquid and Bait Insecticides against the Dark Rover Ant (Brachymyrmex patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, Javier G; Baker, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Dark rover ants (Brachymyrmex patagonicus, Mayr) are an exotic ant species native to South America that has recently spread through the southern US. We evaluated the residual activity of three liquid insecticides (indoxacarb, fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin) as potential barrier treatments against these ants. The factors we considered include the use of a porous or non-porous surface, a short or long exposure time and the changes in insecticide activity after treatment during a 90 day period. We also tested the effect of baits containing three different active ingredients (imidacloprid, sodium tetraborate and indoxacarb) on colony fragments of this species for a 15 day period. Both lambda-cyhalothrin® and indoxacarb® resulted in high levels of ant mortality up to 90 days after application. The results of exposure to fipronil® resembled those from the control treatment. Application of insecticides on a porous surface and the shorter exposure time generally resulted in greater ant survival. Of the baits tested, only the imidacloprid based one decreased ant survival significantly during the evaluation period. Within three days, the imidacloprid bait produced over 50% mortality which increased to over 95% by the end of the experiment. Results from the other two bait treatments were not significantly different from the control. PMID:26462943

  18. Searching for baits with insect growth regulating effects on an invasive crazy ant, Nylanderia pubens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylanderia pubens is an invasive ant that is currently plaguing parts of Florida and Texas with extremely high populations that dominate landscapes. It is hypothesized that insect growth regulating (IGR) ant baits would be distributed more efficiently among multiple colonies of N. pubens than fast...

  19. Resurgence and persistence of Dorymyrmex flavus after reduction of Solenopsis invicta buren with a broadcast bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Alejandro A; Harris, Marvin K; Barr, Charles

    2007-06-01

    The effects of bait treatment(s) on population dynamics of Solenopsis invicta and Dorymyrmex flavus were studied, and various factors underlying the resurgence and persistence of D. flavus to reinvasion by S. invicta were studied in more detail. Pitfall traps, bait vials, transect sampling, and direct inspections were used to monitor densities of these two species, and inspections of D. flavus midden contents, video monitoring of D. flavus colonies, and studies of the fate of marked S. invicta were used to further clarify interactions of these two species, D. flavus abundance increased after the reduction of S. invicta with baits. D. flavus was also observed to sustain higher densities for an extended period (2 yr) after cessation of bait treatment and to exhibit antagonistic behaviors toward S. invicta, showing an ability to resist reinvasion of the treated area by S. invicta. Given these findings, D. flavus may retard domination of the ant assemblage by S. invicta. Additional studies are justified regarding how to enhance the role of this species in affected ecosystems. PMID:17540063

  20. Evaluation of Liquid and Bait Insecticides against the Dark Rover Ant (Brachymyrmex patagonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Miguelena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dark rover ants (Brachymyrmex patagonicus, Mayr are an exotic ant species native to South America that has recently spread through the southern US. We evaluated the residual activity of three liquid insecticides (indoxacarb, fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin as potential barrier treatments against these ants. The factors we considered include the use of a porous or non-porous surface, a short or long exposure time and the changes in insecticide activity after treatment during a 90 day period. We also tested the effect of baits containing three different active ingredients (imidacloprid, sodium tetraborate and indoxacarb on colony fragments of this species for a 15 day period. Both lambda-cyhalothrin® and indoxacarb® resulted in high levels of ant mortality up to 90 days after application. The results of exposure to fipronil® resembled those from the control treatment. Application of insecticides on a porous surface and the shorter exposure time generally resulted in greater ant survival. Of the baits tested, only the imidacloprid based one decreased ant survival significantly during the evaluation period. Within three days, the imidacloprid bait produced over 50% mortality which increased to over 95% by the end of the experiment. Results from the other two bait treatments were not significantly different from the control.

  1. Field evaluation of carbon dioxide baits for sampling Ornithodoros turicata (Acari: Argasidae) in gopher tortoise burrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, O A; Butler, J F

    1991-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to assess the reliability of carbon dioxide baits in sampling Ornithodoros turicata Duges. Tick response to about 50 g of dry ice placed at various distances away from tick-infested burrows was monitored over a 2-h period. In addition, tick attraction to different flow rates of carbon dioxide was monitored. Tests were conducted over a 15-mo period, during which seasonal effects on O. turicata response to CO2 were assessed. The efficacy of the baits was evaluated at night and in daytime. Ticks responded to dry ice baits placed up to 8 m away from the burrows. There was no significant difference in the total number of ticks attracted in a 1-h period using 500 to 2,000 ml CO2/min. At night, ticks were attracted to CO2 bits throughout the year except in December and January. By contrast, ticks were attracted to CO2 baits during daytime only between May and mid-December. PMID:1903452

  2. Seasonal activity of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, as estimated by baited flight traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation in flight activity of the small hive beetle was monitored at two sites in north-central Florida, one near colonies of the European honeybee and the other far removed from bee colonies. Activity was monitored by flight traps baited with fermenting pollen dough that had been inocul...

  3. Comparision of carbon dioxide-baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Braks, M.A.H.; Takken, W.

    2000-01-01

    For collecting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) the outdoor catching efficiency of four types of trapping devices baited with carbon dioxide (CO2, 300 ml/min) was evaluated and compared in two areas of Tanzania. The types of traps employed were: the CDC miniature trap with the incandescent light bulb

  4. Impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Anja; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-03-01

    Baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. An often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on large herbivores in North America. While the objectives of supplemental feeding and baiting typically differ, the effects on disease transmission of these practices are largely the same. Both feeding and baiting provide wildlife with natural or non-natural food at specific locations in the environment, which can result in large congregations of individuals and species in a small area and increased local densities. Feeding can lead to increased potential for disease transmission either directly (via direct animal contact) or indirectly (via feed functioning as a fomite, spreading disease into the adjacent environment and to other animals). We identified numerous diseases that currently pose a significant concern to the health of individuals and species of large wild mammals across North America, the spread of which are either clearly facilitated or most likely facilitated by the application of supplemental feeding or baiting. Wildlife diseases also have important threats to human and livestock health. Although the risk of intra- and inter-species disease transmission likely increases when animals concentrate at feeding stations, only in a few cases was disease prevalence and transmission measured and compared between populations. Mostly these were experimental situations under controlled conditions, limiting direct scientific evidence that feeding practices exacerbates disease occurrence, exposure, transmission, and spread in the environment. Vaccination programs utilizing

  5. Combined effect of hemipteran control and liquid bait on Argentine ant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, R J; Bambara, S B; Silverman, J

    2010-10-01

    The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has become a worldwide problem capable of inflicting significant ecological and economic injury on urban, agricultural, and natural environments. The mobility of this pest ant has long been noted, rapidly moving nests to new food resources and then away as resources are depleted. This ant, like many pest ant species, has a special affinity for honeydew excreted by phloem-feeding Hemiptera. We investigated the effect of various hemipteran control strategies on terrapin scale densities and measured their indirect effect on local Argentine ant densities and foraging effort. We then determined whether this indirect treatment strategy improved the performance of an ant bait. We predicted that Argentine ants would move nests away from trees treated for Hemiptera and then move nests back when a liquid bait was offered, followed by a decline in ant numbers due to intake of the toxicant. A horticultural oil spray and soil application of the systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, had no effect on terrapin scale numbers. However, trunk-injected dicrotophos caused a reduction in scale and a decline in local Argentine ant nest density and canopy foraging effort. We also recorded a reduction in local Argentine ant ground foraging when large amounts of liquid bait were applied, and we found no evidence that combining dicrotophos with liquid ant bait performed better than each treatment alone. We suggest that a strategy of combined hemipteran control plus application of liquid ant bait can reduce local Argentine ant densities, when both components of this system are highly efficacious. PMID:21061981

  6. Molluscicide baits impair the life traits of Folsomia candida (Collembola): Possible hazard to the population level and soil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-08-01

    The application of molluscicides baits on the soil surface is the most common practice to control terrestrial gastropods. There seems to be a gap in the accurate evaluation of molluscicidal baits effects to soil arthropods, since their hazard to non-target organisms has been considered low after mixing baits into soil. In this work the ecotoxicological effects of two molluscicide baits (metaldehyde and methiocarb) to the collembolan Folsomia candida were evaluated using two different approaches: (1) molluscicidal baits were applied to the top soil once and only at the beginning of the exposure and avoidance behaviour and reproduction were evaluated; and (2) baits were replaced by new ones after 14-d of exposure, simulating the recommended application rate recommended by the manufacturer and reproduction was assessed (repeated/pulse exposure). A preference for the side contaminated for methiocarb was observed but the distribution of collembolans in the avoidance test with metaldehyde was random. Exposure to metaldehyde resulted in a significant increase in mortality. For methiocarb, a reduction in the juveniles produced but no acute effects were observed. In the bait pulse test, the toxic effects of each chemical was significantly increased compared with the single exposure test, for all treatments used (both reproduction and mortality). In summary, molluscicides have an adverse effect on F. candida, with severe effects on their behaviour (only for methiocarb), reproduction and survival (for both), which can lead to population collapse with time. PMID:25769136

  7. Effect of bait formulation and number of traps on detection of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) oviposition using egg traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S

    2011-02-01

    Egg traps are the primary tool for monitoring egg deposition of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for timing treatments for this pest in almonds, Prunus amygdalus Batsch, and pistachios, Pistacia vera L. We compared, in almond and pistachio orchards, the number of eggs per trap in traps baited with almond meal, pistachio meal, or the current standard commercial bait. When considering cumulative eggs captured over an extended period, traps baited with pistachio meal prepared from previous-crop nuts generally captured a similar number of eggs compared with the commercial bait, and more eggs than those baited with almond meal prepared from previous-crop nuts. However, differences in eggs per trap between bait formulations were not as evident when examining individual weeks, particularly in weeks with few eggs per trap, as is typical when treatment decisions are made. The variance in eggs per trap was generally greater than the mean and increased with the mean and, when mean eggs per trap was low, most traps did not have eggs. We discuss implications of these findings for the relative importance of bait type and trap numbers for monitoring, and for experiments comparing egg trap performance. PMID:21404860

  8. Effects of interspecific competition between two urban ant species, Linepithema humile and Monomorium minimum, on toxic bait performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Patricia; Silverman, Jules

    2005-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of interspecific competition on ant bait performance with two urban pest ants, the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the little black ant, Monomorium minimum (Buckley). In a laboratory study, the impact of a solid sulfluramid bait on M. minimum was diminished when L. humile were present, whereas the presence of M. minimum reduced the performance of a liquid fipronil bait against L. humile. Argentine ants were not adversely affected by sulfluramid bait at any time, whereas M. minimum was unaffected by fipronil bait until 14 d of exposure. In field studies measuring diel foraging activity, M. minimum seemed to delay L. humile foraging to food stations by approximately 30 min during summer 2001. However, L. humile subsequently recruited to food stations in very high numbers, thereby displacing M. minimum. L. humile visited food stations over an entire 24-h period, whereas M. minimum was only observed visiting food stations during daylight hours. Adjusting the timing of bait placement in the field may minimize any negative effects of interspecific competition between these two species on toxic bait performance. PMID:15889743

  9. 白蚁诱饵剂成型工艺的研究%Research of Shaping Craft of the Termite Bait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛东; 黄求应; 王满囷; 雷朝亮; 胡松

    2005-01-01

    The termite baits were maded by the handmade molding instrument, and the crackle degree of termite baits was regarded as the evaluation index. The shaping craft of the termite bait was studied by orthogonal method. The results of the experiment showed that the best shaping craft of the termite bait of the cane powder was:the thin cane powder, I0 % adhesive, 5 s of crush time and 200% water; while the best shaping craft of the termite bait of the pine fritter was:the thin pine fritter, 10 % adhesive,5 s of crush time and 100% water.

  10. Direct photo-patterning of hyaluronic acid baits onto a fouling-release perfluoropolyether surface for selective cancer cell capture and immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credi, Caterina; De Marco, Carmela; Molena, Elena; Nava, Michele M; Raimondi, Manuela T; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    A simple photolithographic process for directly patterning glycidyl methacrylate modified hyaluronic acid features onto UV curable perfluoropolyether-based surfaces is presented. Due to the versatility of the developed method, HA spotted areas with different geometrical features could be rapidly and inexpensively designed. In addition, the excellent antifouling and fouling-release properties of the substrates enabled direct HA baits photo-grafting onto PFPEs without further surface passivation or chemical modification to avoid not specific adsorption. The aim of the study was to locally switch the surface properties of the PFPEs from cells and protein repulsive to adherent. Particularly, we exploited HA well-known preferential interactions with CD44 transmembrane receptors to selectively immobilize cancer cells. Living cell arrays offer a higher-resolution visualization of HA-CD44 interactions and may provide a deep insight into understanding molecular mechanisms needed to develop selective therapies and diagnosis against tumor growth. PMID:26952441

  11. Efficacy of locally produced papain enzyme for the production of protein bait for bactrocera invadens (diptera: tephritidae) control in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autolysed brewery yeast waste is currently being used as cost effective protein bait for Bactrocera invadens control the world over to replace commercial protein hydrolysate bait formulations. However, significant reduction in production cost can be achieved when all the production materials are from local sources. This experiment was aimed at assessing the efficacy of locally produced papain extracted from 'Red lady' pawpaw fruit latex and skin peel to be used for protein bait production. Aqueous two-phase extraction of papain from pawpaw fruit latex with 15 % (NH4)2SO4 - 8 % PEG recovered 64.72 ± 2.08 % papain into the supernatant with 7.33 % proteolytic activity yield and a fold purification of 58.11 ± 1.67. Proteolytic activity and protein concentration measured for the aqueous two-phase extracts of pawpaw skin peel were significantly higher (p= 0.00) than crude extracts of skin peel. However, the aqueous two phase extraction of papain from skin peel needs to be optimised further since SDS-PAGE showed no visible bands in the different phase extracts. Gamma irradiation at 10 KGy increased the proteolytic activity of crude papain by 21.69 % of the non-irradiated papain and subsequently increased the specific activity by 18.51 % but the protein concentration was not affected. Protein baits prepared with crude papain extracted from the pawpaw fruit latex and skin peels were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with wild flies reared from field collected infested mangoes. The source of papain did not affect the protein bait recovery, the pH and protein concentration though colour of bait differed for crude fruit latex papain bait (dark brown) and skin peel papain bait (light brown). The bait preparations had equal attractance to male and female B. invadens. Mean attractance to protein baits produced with fruit latex and skin peel papain baits were between 25.00 ± 7.56 % and 47.50 ± 11.09 % respectively for males, 25.00 ± 13.13 % and 32.86 ± 8.23 % for

  12. Retention time of chlorophacinone in the tissues of black-tailed prairie dogs exposed to chlorophacinone bait

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rozol prairie dog bait (0.005% chlorophacinone) was fed to male and female adult/subadult black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) over a 2-day period. The...

  13. Baited and Unbaited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) Surveys of Fish at Select U.S. Pacific Reefs Since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A type of remote video system used by CRED is the baited remote underwater video station (BRUVS). The BRUVS was developed and several of them have been used widely...

  14. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  15. Evaluation of different food grains as baits for management of Hystrix indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica is widely distributed and serious rodent pest of orchards, field crops and vegetables in Pakistan. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine highly effective cereal used as bait base for its management. Six locally available food grains viz. wheat, rice, maize, black gram, sorghum and millet were offered in whole/crack form. Under no choice and choice tests, rice was the most preferred food, followed by wheat, maize and others. The present study suggested that rice in whole or cracked form alone or in combination with wheat can be applied as very palatable (32 percentage and 27 percentage, respectively) and cost effective grain as bait base for effective management of Indian porcupine, Hystrix indica, being an economically important rodent pest of agriculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan. (author)

  16. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus at a Bait Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan McNeil

    Full Text Available This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species' worldwide distribution and evolutionary success.

  17. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Bryan; Lowry, Dayv; Larson, Shawn; Griffing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species' worldwide distribution and evolutionary success. PMID:27243237

  18. The clasical swine fever vaccine - Pestivac M® dosage in wild boar’s baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirbu, C.,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the technical dates about vaccine baits and the results of domestic and feral pigs’ immunization against classical swine fever using these vaccine baits. The new vaccine contains modified swine fever virus grown on tissue culture encapsulated in blisters, which are incorporated into cereal-based and attractive flavors matrix measuring 4 x 4 x 1.5 cm. The new vaccine administered to domestic and feral pigs was well-accepted. Thirty days after administration more than 75% of the vaccinated feral pigs and 100% of the vaccinated domestic pigs showed good antibody levels. Further more 80% of the vaccinated domestic pigs were protected after challenged with virulent CFS virus 30 days post vaccination. The vaccine can be administered any time during the year.

  19. Comparison of baited longlines and baited underwater cameras for assessing the composition of continental slope deepwater fish assemblages off southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. L.; Green, M.; Harvey, E. S.; Williams, A.; Daley, R.; Graham, K. J.

    2015-04-01

    Expansion of demersal fisheries into the deep sea has driven a need for methods to provide information on the status of deepwater fish assemblages, especially for vulnerable species. For this purpose, we compared co-located sampling by baited longlines and baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVs) off southeastern Australia and found these techniques observed different elements of the continental slope fish assemblage, but were complementary for monitoring needs. Of the 94 species surveyed in total, only 32% were common to both survey techniques, with BRUVs sampling fewer species, with 51 species detected compared with 73 species captured by longlines. Species detected exclusively by BRUVs (21 spp) included those not vulnerable to longline hooks, and those with large-body size-including several chondrichthyans. One group of chondrichthyans, gulper sharks (Centrophorus) were the focus of this study because they are listed as conservation dependent under Australia's Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, and are subject to a management plan that requires their recovery to be monitored. Very few gulper sharks were observed by BRUVs (n=10). Longlines captured 773 gulper sharks suggesting this technique provides a more effective means of sampling. However, most longline caught sharks were either dead or in poor condition on capture, further depleting this vulnerable species. BRUVs are non-lethal, but a high sampling intensity is likely to be needed to detect changes in gulper shark abundance within typical management timeframes (years).

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) in the first us field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard B; Algeo, Timothy P; Mills, Samuel A; Nelson, Kathleen M; Croson, Christopher K; Dubovi, Edward J; Vercauteren, Kurt; Renshaw, Randall W; Atwood, Todd; Johnson, Shylo; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies. Raccoon rabies was enzootic and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) had never been used in the study area. We distributed 79,027 ONRAB baits at 75 baits/km(2) mostly by fixed-wing aircraft along parallel flight lines at 750-m intervals. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher at 49.2% (n=262) in raccoons after ONRAB was distributed than the 9.6% (n=395) before ORV. This was the highest antibody prevalence observed in raccoons by US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services for areas with similar management histories evaluated before and after an initial ORV campaign at 75 baits/km(2) with Raboral V-RG. Tetracycline biomarker (TTCC) was significantly higher among antibody-positive raccoons after ONRAB baiting and was similar among raccoons before ORV had been conducted, an indication of vaccine-induced rabies virus-neutralizing antibody production following consumption of bait containing TTCC. Skunk sample size was inadequate to assess ONRAB effects. Safety and immunogenicity results supported replication of this field trial and led to a recommendation for expanded field trials in 2012 to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of ground-distributed ONRAB at 150 baits/km(2) in residential and commercial habitats in Ohio, USA and aerially distributed ONRAB at 75 baits/km(2) in rural habitats along US-Quebec border. PMID:24807178

  1. Oral vaccination against raccoon rabies: landscape heterogeneity and timing of distribution influence wildlife contact rates with the ONRAB vaccine bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jean-Philippe; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Guérin, Daniel; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2011-07-01

    Aerial distribution of oral vaccine baits is one of the available strategies for controlling the spread of infectious wildlife diseases. This technique has commonly been used to control rabies in wild carnivores and, together with other techniques, was used to immunize wild populations of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) after the detection of the first rabid raccoon in the province of Quebec, Canada, in 2006. Vaccine bait distribution was conducted over large areas where agricultural land is dominant but interspersed with residual forest patches. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of habitat (forest vs. agricultural crops) in space and time on the contact rate between wildlife and the ONRAB(®) vaccine bait, a recent alternative to the V-RG(®). Four transects of eight vaccine baits each were installed parallel to, and at different distances from, the forest's edge (under forest cover, at field-forest edge, and at 50 and 200 m from forest edge in agricultural crops) at three sites composed of various crop types interspersed with forest patches. This experiment was conducted during three periods (late spring, 1-7 June; summer, 27 July-2 August; and fall, 24-30 October) in 2009. Contact rates with vaccine baits were monitored for 7 days in each period to evaluate the potential temporal variations generated within the habitat types. Contact rates with ONRAB vaccine baits were highest under forest cover and in the fall. Of 13 species observed in proximity to the vaccine baits, raccoons were the most frequent (49.5%, n=55 visits). Our study underlines the importance of taking into account landscape heterogeneity and timing of distribution when planning the distribution of vaccine baits to control rabies in raccoons. PMID:21719823

  2. Cost-efficient vaccination of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies and the need for a new baiting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhorst, T; Thulke, H H; Müller, T

    2001-09-20

    In this study, ecological models, optimisation algorithms and threshold analysis were linked to develop oral-vaccination strategies against rabies in fox populations. It is important that such strategies are cost-efficient and resistant to environmental conditions which would lessen their success. The model validation shows that the ecological models used are suited to predict the proportion of tetracycline- (TC) marked foxes in the course of time. This figure indicates the proportion of foxes which had at least one contact to vaccine baits, and is based on the design of the vaccination strategy (i.e. the number and timing of vaccination campaigns and the number of baits used per square kilometre and campaign). The design of a vaccination strategy also determines the costs. It is the combination of ecological models and optimisation algorithms that helped us to design a vaccination strategy which is capable of achieving a continuous rate of >70% of TC-marked foxes within an analytical horizon of 3 years at low costs. Compared to the standard strategy (baseline comparator), the improved strategy incurs just over half of the cost while almost doubling the number of weeks during which the proportion of TC-marked foxes is >70%. In the improved strategy, June is recommended as the time for bait distribution. The standard strategy, however, avoids summer months (because high temperatures reduce the durability of the baits) which again leads to a reduction of the bait intake by the foxes. Using threshold analysis, we examined the effect of a reduced durability of the baits on the design of the improved vaccination strategy. We concluded that distribution of baits in June was optimal given that the durability of baits is above a threshold of 7 days. PMID:11530197

  3. Evaluation of bait acceptance by wild boar and non-target species - test of different distribution modalities and seasonal variations - implication for oral vaccination efficiency against classical swine fever virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, M.; Hubert, P.; S. Rossi

    2011-01-01

    Field assessment of the proportion of target and non-target individuals that consume baits is crucial to evaluate and optimize the cost-efficacy of a baiting campaign. In our study, different pre-baiting and baiting systems were tested at a long time scale (12 months) to try to improve vaccination efficiency of wild boars against classical swine fever virus. Evaluation of seasonal variation in natural food resources (competition with bait consumption) and life cycle succession of wild boar fr...

  4. A bait and switch hapten strategy generates catalytic antibodies for phosphodiester hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wentworth, Paul; Liu, Yunqi; Wentworth, Anita D.; Fan, Ping; Foley, Matthew J.; Janda, Kim D.

    1998-01-01

    General base catalysis supplied by the histidine-12 (H-12) residue of ribonuclease (RNase) A has long been appreciated as a major component of the catalytic power of the enzyme. In an attempt to harness the catalytic power of a general base into antibody catalysis of phosphodiester bond hydrolysis, the quaternary ammonium phosphate 1 was used as a bait and switch hapten. Based on precedence, it was rationalized that this positively charged hapten could induce a counter-charged residue in the ...

  5. Laboratory Tests for Group and Individual Exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille Slugs to Different Molluscicide Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Stojnić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983 and Wiktor (1989. The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% relative air humidity, no air stream, diffuse daylight. Smaller(15.5 x 15.5 x 7 cm and larger (28 x 17.5 x 7 cm arenas were used, depending on slug numbers, and different rates of food and bait were administered. Plastic boxes with perforated coverage, lined with multi-ply paper moistened on a daily basis, were used as arenas. The slugs were fed on fresh salad daily, while baits were administered in open 35 mm petri dishes once for the duration of experiment. The first trial involved single-slug exposures to bait in 20 arenas per each of four treatments with two replicates and a total of 160 slugs. The second trial, group exposure, involved four treatments of five slugs per arena in six replicates with a total of 120 slugs. The products Arion and Pužomor demonstrated the highest efficacy (77.5% in the single-slug trial. The average efficacy of the product Carakol after seven days of exposure was 60.0%. Regarding group exposure, Pužomor pellets achieved 79.3% efficacy after three days and this efficacy rate remained for the rest of the experiment. On the seventh day ofexposure, Arion and Carakol had 33.3% and 40.0% efficacy, respectively.

  6. Fox baiting against Echinococcus multilocularis: contrasted achievements among two medium size cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, S; Raton, V; Raoul, F; Hegglin, D; Giraudoux, P; Deplazes, P; Favier, S; Gottschek, D; Umhang, G; Boué, F; Combes, B

    2013-08-01

    In Europe, most cities are currently colonized by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are considered to be the main definitive host of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The risk of transmission to humans is of particular concern where high fox populations overlap with high human populations. The distribution of baits containing praziquantel has successfully reduced the infection pressure in rural areas and in small plots within large cities. The purpose of this study was to assess its efficiency in two medium size cities (less than 100,000 inhabitants) in areas of high human alveolar echinococcosis incidence. From August 2006 to March 2009, 14 baiting campaigns of praziquantel treatment were run in Annemasse and Pontarlier (Eastern France), each of which encompassed 33 km(2), with a density of 40 baits/km(2). The bait consumption appeared to be lower in strictly urban context compared to suburban areas (78.9% vs. 93.4%) and lower in Annemasse than in Pontarlier (82.2% vs. 89.5%). During our study, the prevalence of E. multilocularis, as assessed by EM-ELISA on fox faeces collected in the field in Annemasse, was lower within the treated area than in the rural control area. A "before/during" treatment comparison revealed a significant decrease of spring prevalence from 13.3% to 2.2%. No significant change in prevalence was detected in Pontarlier (stable prevalence: 9.1%) where the contamination of the treated area followed the temporal trend observed in the control area. There, a greater resilience of the parasite's life cycle, probably due to a strong pressure of recontamination from outside the treated area, may have counteracted the prophylaxis treatment. These contrasted outcomes suggest that the frequency of fox anthelmintic treatment should be adapted to the local situation. PMID:23642656

  7. Fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D F; Lofgren, C S; Vander Meer, R K

    1990-02-01

    Eight laboratory-reared ant species were fed baits of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae treated with hydramethylnon. Two fire ant species, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis geminata (F.), and Pheidole morrissi (Forel) were killed; average percentage of mortality of the five other species was less than 20%. In contrast, all species that were fed the commercial fire ant bait containing hydramethylnon (Amdro) died or were adversely affected. In the field, applications of house fly pupae and eye gnat, Hippelates pusio Loew, pupae dipped in acetone solutions of fenoxycarb significantly reduced population indices of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta, compared with commercial formulations of fenoxycarb (Logic) and hydramethylnon (Amdro). Field observations showed that the pupae of either species can be carried or moved by one or two worker ants. The smooth, hard cuticle of the pupae make them easy to handle and apply with application equipment. The current cost of house fly pupae is considerably more than the cost of a granular carrier, pregel defatted corn grits. However, if mass-production methods reduce this price differential, fly pupae could become an effective and more species-specific fire ant bait carrier. PMID:2324379

  8. Capture of Nontarget Flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, and Anthomyiidae on Traps Baited with Volatile Chemicals in Field-Crop Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Hesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp., and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp. in field crops. With lauxaniids, baiting with 2-phenylethanol on cotton-roll dispensers increased catch of H. bispina in two corn plot tests, and methyl salicylate increased trap catch in one test. Traps baited with methyl salicylate increased the catch of C. borealis. When using plastic-sachet dispensers, traps baited with methyl salicylate caught more H. bispina than ones baited with 2-phenylethanol, whereas traps baited with 2-phenylethanol caught more C. borealis than those with methyl salicylate. For chloropids, traps baited with 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine greatly increased catch of Olcella flies in corn and soybean. With anthomyiids, catch of male Delia flies in wheat increased with 2-phenylethanol on cotton rolls and with either 2-phenylethanol or methyl salicylate using plastic dispensers. In soybean, 2-phenylethanol formulated on cotton rolls or in plastic dispensers increased catch of male Delia flies, but methyl salicylate did not affect trap catch. Trap catch of female Delia flies did not vary among chemicals. In another test in soybean, trap catch of both male and female Delia flies was greater with 2-phenylethanol than with other volatile chemicals.

  9. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

    2013-07-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants. PMID:23602901

  10. Experimental study on the efficiency of different types of traps and baits for harvesting Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Bentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is a freshwater prawn endemic to South America with wide distribution in Brazilian Amazon rivers. In estuary and freshwater streams of the Pará State, they are captured with different types of traps locally know matapi. This study evaluated the efficiency of traps of different sizes (large, medium and small and baits (babassu coconut and fish for sampling this shrimp. Samplings were conducted with 24 traps with different treatments (trap size and bait. We captured 909 specimens. Higher mean catches were observed in traps baited with babassu coconut. Interactions between babassu coconut bait and medium matapi (BM-M, and fish bait and large matapi (FISH-L were significant. Carapace length (CL varied significantly between sites (F = 12.74, p < 0.01. The total maximum length was13.65 cm. Medium traps baited with babassu coconut were the most successful in the tested combinations, however, there was a clear correlation between size trap and size of shrimp, for both body weight and carapace length.

  11. Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Snow

    Full Text Available Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa cause extensive damage to agricultural and wildlife resources throughout the United States. Development of sodium nitrite as a new, orally delivered toxicant is underway to provide an additional tool to curtail growth and expansion of feral swine populations. A micro-encapsulation coating around sodium nitrite is used to minimize detection by feral swine and maximize stability for the reactive molecule. To maximize uptake of this toxicant by feral swine, development a bait matrix is needed to 1 protect the micro-encapsulation coating so that sodium nitrite remains undetectable to feral swine, 2 achieve a high degree of acceptance by feral swine, and 3 be minimally appealing to non-target species. With these purposes, a field evaluation at 88 sites in south-central Texas was conducted using remote cameras to evaluate preferences by feral swine for several oil-based bait matrices including uncolored peanut paste, black-colored peanut paste, and peanut-based slurry mixed onto whole-kernel corn. These placebo baits were compared to a reference food, whole-kernel corn, known to be readily taken by feral swine (i.e., control. The amount of bait consumed by feral swine was also estimated using remote cameras and grid boards at 5 additional sites. On initial exposure, feral swine showed reduced visitations to the uncolored peanut paste and peanut slurry treatments. This reduced visitation subsided by the end of the treatment period, suggesting that feral swine needed time to accept these bait types. The black-colored peanut paste was visited equally to the control throughout the study, and enough of this matrix was consumed to deliver lethal doses of micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite to most feral swine during 1-2 feeding events. None of the treatment matrices reduced visitations by nontarget species, but feral swine dominated visitations for all matrices. It was concluded that black-colored peanut paste achieved

  12. Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nathan P; Halseth, Joseph M; Lavelle, Michael J; Hanson, Thomas E; Blass, Chad R; Foster, Justin A; Humphrys, Simon T; Staples, Linton D; Hewitt, David G; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-01-01

    Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa) cause extensive damage to agricultural and wildlife resources throughout the United States. Development of sodium nitrite as a new, orally delivered toxicant is underway to provide an additional tool to curtail growth and expansion of feral swine populations. A micro-encapsulation coating around sodium nitrite is used to minimize detection by feral swine and maximize stability for the reactive molecule. To maximize uptake of this toxicant by feral swine, development a bait matrix is needed to 1) protect the micro-encapsulation coating so that sodium nitrite remains undetectable to feral swine, 2) achieve a high degree of acceptance by feral swine, and 3) be minimally appealing to non-target species. With these purposes, a field evaluation at 88 sites in south-central Texas was conducted using remote cameras to evaluate preferences by feral swine for several oil-based bait matrices including uncolored peanut paste, black-colored peanut paste, and peanut-based slurry mixed onto whole-kernel corn. These placebo baits were compared to a reference food, whole-kernel corn, known to be readily taken by feral swine (i.e., control). The amount of bait consumed by feral swine was also estimated using remote cameras and grid boards at 5 additional sites. On initial exposure, feral swine showed reduced visitations to the uncolored peanut paste and peanut slurry treatments. This reduced visitation subsided by the end of the treatment period, suggesting that feral swine needed time to accept these bait types. The black-colored peanut paste was visited equally to the control throughout the study, and enough of this matrix was consumed to deliver lethal doses of micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite to most feral swine during 1-2 feeding events. None of the treatment matrices reduced visitations by nontarget species, but feral swine dominated visitations for all matrices. It was concluded that black-colored peanut paste achieved satisfactory

  13. Computer aide design tool for natural and artificial lighting engineering. Computer graphics as a tool for visual comfort and ergonomy; Outil de conception architecturale pour l'eclairage naturel/artificiel. Application de la synthese d'image pour la prise en compte des nations de confort et d'ergonomie visuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, S.

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an computer aided design for the photo-simulation lighting systems. The proposed methods are adapted to the interactive modification of parameters concerning the natural and artificial lighting and the furniture place. The code is based on the hierarchical radiosity method using an adaptive decomposition of the transmitter and receptive surfaces. The chosen original meshing method increase the simulation time and is very efficient for the dynamical aspects management. An adaptive spectral representation is proposed to reduce the memory size. A semi-automatic evaluation of the visual comfort criteria is integrated in the simulation. (A.L.B.)

  14. Artificial Intelligence Applications to Videodisc Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, John K.; Banks, Gordon; McLinden, Sean; Moossy, John; Brown, Melanie

    1985-01-01

    Much of medical information is visual in nature. Since it is not easy to describe pictorial information in linguistic terms, it has been difficult to store and retrieve this type of information. Coupling videodisc technology with artificial intelligence programming techniques may provide a means for solving this problem.

  15. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh; D K Singh

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and...

  16. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Revay, Edita E.; Müller, Gunter C.; Qualls, Whitney A; Kline, Daniel; Naranjo, Diana P.; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yfremova, Zoya; Hausmann, Axel; Beier, John C.; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. Aedes albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait s...

  17. Orchid bee baits attracting bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil: abundance, seasonality, and the importance of odors for dim-light bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima R. N. Knoll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal bees in the genus Megalopta Smith, 1853 are generally collected using artificial light sources. However, between 1993 and 2000, a total of 946 females (no males were captured were captured using aromatic baits commonly used for orchid bees (Euglossini in five localities in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil. Aromatic compounds used in bait traps were: benzyl acetate, eucalyptol, eugenol, skatole, methyl salicylate, and vanillin. The Megalopta species collected were: M. guimaraesi (71.2% of total number of specimens, M. amoena (28.1%, and M. aegis (0.6%. Using the data from these traps, we showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between the abundance of individuals and meteorological factors, rainfall and temperature. Bees were more commonly collected in the spring (September to December and summer (December to March than in the autumn and winter, the latter characterized for being a drier and colder period. Variations in the abundance were also detected among localities and years. The most attractive compounds were eugenol (54%, methyl salicylate (22%, and eucalyptol (16%. The ability to detect smells may have an important role in searching for flowers during dim-light conditions. We suggest the use of aromatic compounds in future studies on the biology of Megalopta in the Neotropical region.

  18. Effects of honeydew-producing hemipteran denial on local argentine ant distribution and boric acid bait performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

    2009-06-01

    The Argentine ant is well known for its affinity for honeydew and is often associated with hemipteran outbreaks in agricultural and urban environments. It has been suggested that Argentine ants may be controlled by restricting access to honeydew, thereby forcing the ants to move or by encouraging increased liquid toxicant intake. We tested this possible control strategy by restricting Argentine ant access to the honeydew-producing terrapin scale within the canopy of red maple trees and monitoring ant numbers with pitfall traps and nest counts in the mulch around the tree base. Argentine ant nest numbers fell dramatically in the mulch around ant-excluded trees; however, there was no reduction in Argentine ant numbers caught in pitfalls around trees with or without canopy access. We added 0.5% boric acid bait stations at the base of the red maples and monitored bait consumption. Pitfall and nest counts were not affected by the addition of boric acid, although bait consumption was lower around ant-excluded trees, suggesting that restricting access to honeydew-producing Hemiptera did not enhance bait performance. We attribute this result to the increased distance Argentine ant workers had to trail from nest to bait station when not tending nearby terrapin scale. We suggest an alternative management strategy concentrating direct insecticidal control of Argentine ants around a few host plants infested with honeydew-producing Hemiptera by controlling Hemiptera in nearby host plants. PMID:19610434

  19. Attractive toxic sugar baits mixed with pyriproxyfen sprayed on plants against adult and larval Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ali; Scott, Jodi M; Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-07-01

    The effect of spraying a mixture of the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen (1 mg/liter) and either 1% boric acid sugar bait or eugenol sugar bait on croton petra plants (Codiaeum variegatum L.) was evaluated against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Treatments were applied to plants and evaluated against adult and larval Ae. albopictus in the laboratory through contact and wash off experiments, respectively. The control treatment lacked an active ingredient and were treated with an attractive sugar bait. The plants treated with attractive toxic sugar baits plus the IGR resulted in 60-100% mortality of laboratory-reared adult Ae. albopictus. The pyriproxyfen solutions collected from the plant wash experiment resulted in 80-100% emergence inhibition to the exposed third- and fourth-instar larvae, compared with the untreated control. Attractive toxic sugar baits mixed with the IGR not only provide effective control of adult mosquitoes, but also provide additional control of larval mosquitoes after being washed off from the treated plants. PMID:25118427

  20. Laboratory tests for group and individual exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slugs to different molluscicide baits

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Stojnić; Marina Vukša; Goran Jokić

    2008-01-01

    Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983) and Wiktor (1989). The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% rela...

  1. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  2. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  3. Colony Size Affects the Efficacy of Bait Containing Chlorfluazuron Against the Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chen; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) against fungus-growing termites is known to vary. In this study, 0.1% chlorfluazuron (CFZ) cellulose bait was tested against medium and large field colonies of Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen). The termite mounds were dissected to determine the health of the colony. Individual termites (i.e., workers and larvae) and fungus combs were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to detect the presence of CFZ. In this study, 540.0 ± 25.8 g (or equivalent to 540.0 ± 25.8 mg active ingredient) and 680.0 ± 49.0 g (680.0 ± 49.0 mg active ingredient) of bait matrix were removed by the medium- and large-sized colonies, respectively, after baiting. All treated medium-sized colonies were moribund. The dead termites were scattered in the mound, larvae were absent, population size had decreased by 90%, and the queens appeared unhealthy. In contrast, no or limited effects were found in large-sized colonies. Only trace amounts of CFZ were detected in workers, larvae, and fungus combs, and the population of large-sized colonies had declined by only up to 40%. This might be owing to the presence of large amount of basidiomycete fungus and a drastic decrease of CFZ content per unit fungus comb (a main food source of larvae) in the large-sized colonies, and hence reduced the toxic effect and longer time is required to accumulate the lethal dose in larvae. Nevertheless, we do not deny the possibility of CSI bait eliminating or suppressing the higher termite if the test colonies could pick up adequate lethal dose by installing more bait stations and prolonging the baiting period. PMID:26470081

  4. Experienced with odour baited insecticide impregnated targets for control of tsetse flies in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse control in Kenya has hitherto been by use of insecticide sprayed from the ground supplemented by limited bush clearing in areas where human trypanosomiasis occurs. Animal trypanosomiasis is controlled by chemotherapy. Due to the occurrence of resistant trypanosome strains on Galana Ranch and in the coastal strip and the demonstration in Zimbabwe that odour-baited deltamethrin-impregnated targets were highly effective control devices against morsitans group tsetse flies. KETRI undertook to test the effectiveness of targets in the Kenya situation on the Galana Ranch. This was in an effort to find an additional trypanosomiasis control strategy. This trial began in January 1986 and lasted three years. The success of the trail resulted in a similar trial being undertaken in the Lambwe Valley. The Lambwe trial began in July 1988 and the objectives were (i) to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of deltamethrin impregnated odour baited targets and (ii) to involve the community in installation and maintenance of targets for their own protection. (author)

  5. Efficiency of time-lapse intervals and simple baits for camera surveys of wild pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Growing concerns surrounding established and expanding populations of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have created the need for rapid and accurate surveys of these populations. We conducted surveys of a portion of the wild pig population on Fort Benning, Georgia, to determine if a longer time-lapse interval than had been previously used in surveys of wild pigs would generate similar detection results. We concurrently examined whether use of soured corn at camera sites affected the time necessary for pigs to locate a new camera site or the time pigs remained at a site. Our results suggest that a 9-min time-lapse interval generated dependable detection results for pigs and that soured corn neither attracted pigs to a site any quicker than plain, dry, whole-kernel corn, nor held them at a site longer. Maximization of time-lapse interval should decrease data and processing loads, and use of a simple, available bait should decrease cost and effort associated with more complicated baits; combination of these concepts should increase efficiency of wild pig surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Lufenuron in solid baits as chemosterilant traps against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lufenuron is a chitin synthesis inhibitor, which prevents the hatching of eggs laid by medflies following ingestion of the compound. Lufenuron was added to protein baits in order to induce ingestion by medflies and has been tested since 1998 in several field trials in various formulations. The protein bait has been continuously improved during the last 4 years, and a solid bait, which has an efficacy of up to one year, has been employed in a new trap. This solid protein bait was both attractive and phagostimulant to medflies over a short distance. In order to attract the medfly from longer distances we placed male (trimedlure) and female (amine compounds) dispensers in the same trap. For this purpose we have developed new male and female dispensers using mesoporous materials. Trimedlure dispensers remain active in the field during 9 months while female ones work for 4 months. In this way, sterilising traps with attractants remain one year in the field and only have to be replaced once in a year, i.e 1 month before the first medfly generation. Several chemosterilant trap densities have been tested and 24 traps per ha were selected as the optimal. The field trials have been running since six years, and the area covered has been increased to cover 3,800 ha during the last three years. All trials were made in large and isolated areas in order to avoid medfly intrusion. As with the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) we can observe a reduction of efficacy when untreated areas are close to a lufenuron-treated area. The efficacy of this treatment was compared to malathion-bait aerial treatments. The medfly population was measured by means of Tephri-Traps and IPM traps with trimedlure. In all cases, lufenuron was more efficient in reducing medfly population than malathion aerial treatments. Moreover, while malathion treatments reduced medfly populations to the same level year after year, control with the lufenuron treatments was incremental year after year. In the

  7. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. PMID:26314020

  8. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neena Singla; Deepia Kanwar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat,Rattus rattus Methods: Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2%zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm.Results:(R. rattus). containing 2% and 5% ESP and all the three concentrations of EA compared to plain bait by female rats and that of baits containing 5% and 10% EA by male rats. In no-choice test, non-significantly higher consumption, number of bouts made and time spent towards bait containing 2% EA was found by rats of both sexes. In poultry farm, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was significantly (P<0.05) more than 2% zinc phosphide bait without additive. No significant difference was, however, found in trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% concentration of EA and ESP placed in the poultry farm.Conclusions:Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait In bi-choice tests, significantly (P<0.05) higher preference was observed for baits to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  9. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  10. Responses of Cerambycidae and Other Insects to Traps Baited With Ethanol, 2,3-Hexanediol, and 3,2-Hydroxyketone Lures in North-Central Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D R; Crowe, C M; Mayo, P D; Silk, P J; Sweeney, J D

    2015-10-01

    In north-central Georgia, 13 species of woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) were attracted to multiple-funnel traps baited with ethanol and one of the following pheromones: (1) racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one; (2) racemic 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one; and (3) syn-2,3-hexanediol. The following species were attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Eburia quadrigeminata (Say), Euderces pini (Olivier), Knulliana cincta (Drury), Neoclytus mucronatus (F.), Neoclytus scutellaris (Olivier), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Clytus marginicollis Castelnau & Gory, and Anelaphus parallelus (Newman) were attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one, whereas traps baited with ethanol and syn-2,3-hexanediol were attractive to Anelaphus villosus (F.), A. parallelus, Neoclytus acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus jouteli jouteli Davis, and Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). Ethanol enhanced catches of seven cerambycid species in traps baited with syn-2,3-hexanediol and 3,2-hydroxyketones. Catches of bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ethanol-baited traps were largely unaffected by the addition of syn-2,3-hexanediol and 3,2-hydroxyketone lures, except for two species. The mean catches of Hypothenemus rotundicollis Wood & Bright and Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama) in ethanol-baited traps increased and decreased, respectively, with the addition of racemic 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one. Traps baited with ethanol and syn-2,3-hexanediol were attractive to Xylobiops basilaris (Say) (Bostrichidae) and Chariessa pilosa (Forster) (Cleridae), whereas Temnoscheila virescens (F.) (Trogossitidae) were attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one. The assassin bug, Apiomerus crassipes (F.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), was attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3,2-hydroxyketones. PMID:26453724

  11. Oral rabies vaccination of raccoons and striped skunks with ONRAB® baits: multiple factors influence field immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Julien; Rees, Erin E; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Bélanger, Denise; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Séguin, Guylaine; Larrat, Sylvain; Lair, Stéphane; Landry, François; Côté, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    Multiple control methods have been used in North America to manage the spread of rabies caused by the raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies virus variant (RRVV). Recently, oral vaccination with ONRAB(®) vaccine baits, which contain an adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant, has been made available as an additional tool for rabies control. Our objectives were to estimate rabies antibody prevalence in wild-caught raccoons and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and identify factors influencing the probability of being antibody positive at the individual level in these species, following oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in which ONRAB was distributed aerially in 2007-2009 in southern Québec, Canada. Following the aerial distribution of 43-155 ONRAB baits/km(2), the annual percentages of antibody-positive raccoons and skunks varied between 35% and 56% and 11% and 17%, respectively. In raccoons, the probability of being antibody positive was positively associated with age and density of ONRAB distributed, and influenced by the number of previous ORV campaigns conducted. Conversely, this probability was negatively associated with estimated abundance of raccoons in the trapping cell and proportion of residential areas near the raccoon capture location. None of the variables examined explained variation in the probability of being antibody positive in skunks. Our results indicate that the ONRAB density applied during ORV campaigns should be adjusted to account for variations in raccoon population density and presence of residential areas to increase the likelihood of creating an effective immunological barrier against RRVV. The high percentage of juvenile raccoons (annual mean =45 ± 3 [SE]%) and skunks (66 ± 2%) captured during post-ORV monitoring suggests that ORV campaigns should be conducted at least annually to account for the recruitment of naïve individuals into the populations. In Québec, the increasing use of ONRAB coincided with the elimination of rabies

  12. Evaluation of different bait stations systems for use in Mediterranean fruit fly sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last years efforts have been done to develop an effective bait station system, less expensive than the current trapping systems. The aim is to develop a cost-effective control method for use by farmers and as part of area-wide SIT programmes to suppress female populations in areas where conventional insecticide bait sprays cannot be used. During three years several experiments were conducted under different climatic conditions and hosts. The following materials were tested: 1) SolBaitGel, 2) GF120 field dilution + 400 ppm Imidachloprid + 7.6% starch, 3) GF120 field dilution + 400 ppm Imidachloprid + 7.6% starch + 1% Model 8 (DSM), 4) GF120 field dilution + 400 ppm Imidachloprid + 7.6% starch + 1% Model 8 (DSM) + 0.2% Methyl Pyrrolidine, 5) GSAA, 6) GS-Patch, 7) GS-ATMAA, 8) Solbait + AA, 9) Solbait + model 20, 10) Solbait + model 24, and 11) AA+TMA patch, to test their effectiveness as female attractants for potential use as bait stations. In conclusion, only the Solbait + model 20 and GS-Patch showed to caPTure significant amounts of medfly females under the climatic conditions of the Madeira Island. (author)

  13. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  14. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  15. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Schuster; Daniel Berrar; Naoyuki Sato

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  16. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  17. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  18. Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Libal, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is rai...

  19. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  20. Pharaoh ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colony development after consumption of pyriproxyfen baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, K M; Williams, D F

    1995-12-01

    Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), colonies were effectively controlled following ingestion of pyriproxyfen formulated in peanut butter oil. Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog, reduced egg production in the queens, decreased the amount of brood due to delayed death in the eggs and larvae, caused death of pupae about 3 wk after treatment, and decreased the number of workers due to attrition and toxic effects. Queens, which continued to produce a small amount of eggs, eventually died. Queen death may have been caused by lack of workers required to tend them, old age or toxic effects. At concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1%, pyriproxyfen was more effective than the once commercially available bait, Pharorid (methoprene) for the control of the Pharaoh ant. PMID:8537545

  1. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  2. Sex attractants for moths of Vietnam: field attraction by synthetic lures baited with known lepidopteran pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Hai; Pham, Kim Son; Inomata, Shin-ichi; Ando, Tetsu

    2002-07-01

    Screening tests of synthetic lepidopteran sex pheromones were carried out at orchards in the Mekong Delta over an approximately two-year period starting from December 1998. Monoenyl acetates with a C10-C14 chain attracted six species distributed mainly in Southeast Asia: Adoxophyes privatana, Archips atrolucens, and Meridemisfurtiva in the Tortricidae family, and Argyrogramma signata. Spodoptera pectinicornis, and Zonoplusia ochreata in the Noctuidae family. These were in addition to three other noctuid species that had been attracted during previous field examinations within a temperate zone. Furthermore, male moths of three species belonging to the Cosmopterigidae, Gelechiidae, or Batrachedridae family were also caught by traps baited with acetates. Trienes with a C18-C21 chain and their monoepoxides. which are stereotypes of pheromones secreted by females in the Geometridae family, failed to attract any geometrid male, but attracted three Noctuidae species and four Arctiidae species. PMID:12199508

  3. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. PMID:26453725

  4. Suppression of the blowfly Lucilia sericata using odour-baited triflumuron-impregnated targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K E; Wall, R

    1998-10-01

    Field trials were carried out in 1995 and 1996 on farms in the south-west of England to assess the extent to which odour-baited targets could be used to suppress populations of the ectoparasitic blowfly, Lucilia sericata, in sheep pastures. Targets were constructed from 41 x 41 cm squares of aluminium sheet, covered by white cloth which had been dipped in a mixture of sucrose solution (50% w/v) and the chitin synthesis inhibitor triflumuron (10% suspension concentrate). Each target was baited with approximately 300 g of liver and sodium sulphide solution (10%). Three matched sheep farms were used in the trials. In 1995, triflumuron-impregnated targets were placed around the periphery of sheep pastures at one of the farms in late June, at approximately one target per hectare. In 1996, triflumuron-impregnated targets were placed around the periphery of sheep pastures of a second of the farms in early May, at approximately five targets per hectare. Each year, five sticky targets, used to monitor the L. sericata populations, were also placed in fields at the experimental and the other two farms, which acted as controls. In 1995, the results provided some, although inconclusive, evidence that the triflumuron-impregnated targets had reduced the numbers of L. sericata relative to the populations on the two control farms. In 1996, however, the density of L. sericata on the experimental farm was reduced to almost zero and remained significantly lower than on two control farms throughout the period during which the triflumuron-impregnated targets remained in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the use of triflumuron-treated targets as a practical means of controlling L. sericata and sheep blowfly strike. PMID:9824828

  5. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  6. Efficacy of broadcast and perimeter applications of S-methoprene bait on the red imported fire ant in grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Matthew D; Mullen, G R; Eubanks, M D

    2006-06-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is a major pest in the United States because of its painful sting. Toxic bait has been an important management tool against fire ants, but site registrations prohibit applications of most baits on grazed pastures. Extinguish, containing the insect growth regulator methoprene, was selected for this study because it has a broad site registration that includes grazed pastures. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy for control of red imported fire ants by using broadcast applications of methoprene bait at a label rate of 1,121 g/ha versus applications around the perimeter of a target area at the reduced rate of 280 g/ha. Grazed pastures in Lee County, Alabama, and Chambers County, Alabama, were selected for this study, with broadcast treatments, perimeter treatments, and controls replicated three times at each site. All mounds were counted and rated using the USDA population index before applications and then at 8 and 16 wk posttreatment. Perimeter applications did not significantly reduce S. invicta mound abundance, but bait treatments significantly reduced mound abundance at 16 wk posttreatment at site 1 where applications were conducted in early evening. However, broadcast applications were not effective at site 2 where treatments were conducted in early morning with warmer temperatures. Emergence of winged alates was observed at 12 wk posttreatment, followed by a high density of incipient mounds that may have masked the full treatment effect of methoprene applications at site 2. Methoprene bait was effective in reducing abundance of S. invicta only when full label rates were applied. PMID:16813290

  7. Visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J

    2016-03-01

    Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes. PMID:26358494

  8. Field trial with redtop flycatcher baited with ready made protein meal for the control of houseflies in Gazipur dairy farm, Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B P

    1994-03-01

    A field trial with Redtop Flycatcher having bait formulated as ready made protein meal a.i 977 gms/kg was carried out for the control of adult housefly Musca domestica domestica L. in Gazipur dairy farm situated at eastern corner of Delhi and observation compared with another field trial with commonly available Baygon bait using scattering method. The observation recorded during the field trial revealed that the new flycatcher was capable of retaining the trapped flies and the protein bait remained active for a period of 35 to 42 days (with peak attractability around the ninth day) without requiring refilling the flycatcher with bait during this period. The flycatcher installed in indoor situation was found to be more effective than that kept outside. Parallel tests with Baygon bait containing 2 per cent Propoxur scattered @ 40 gms a.i/100 m2 were found to kill more flies than the new protein baited flycatcher but required daily replenishment of the insecticide. Fly attractancy of the protein sample was also compared with that of other food sources for the flies available in the study area over a period of five days, independently using the same flycatcher. Wheat flour dough was observed to be the most efficient fly attractant compared to other food sources including protein bait. PMID:7963378

  9. Artificial selection for food colour preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Gemma L.; Endler, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two differ...

  10. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  11. Oral rabies vaccination in raccoons: comparison of ONRAB® and RABORAL V-RG® vaccine-bait field performance in Québec, Canada and Vermont, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Julien; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Slate, Dennis; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The control of rabies in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in North America has been conducted mainly through aerial distribution of oral vaccine-baits. The effectiveness of the vaccine-bait used is therefore of prime importance for disease eradication. In a previous field comparison between the ONRAB(®) bait in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, and RABORAL V-RG(®) bait in the state of Maine, USA, the ONRAB bait produced a higher percentage of antibody-positive raccoons under nearly identical bait distribution for the two vaccines. The main objective of the present study was to conduct a similar cross-border comparison of these two vaccine-baits using raccoon sera collected during post-oral rabies vaccination monitoring in Québec, Canada, and Vermont, USA, where ONRAB and V-RG, respectively, were distributed aerially at a targeted density of 150 baits/km(2). A comparison of the equivalency of two serologic tests used in Canada and the USA was also conducted using sera from raccoons and striped skunks. Rabies virus neutralization assay (USA) yielded similar results to the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Canada), with agreement between the two tests of 92% for raccoon sera and 96% for skunk sera. With both assays, the percentage of antibody-positive raccoons was greater with ONRAB (51%, n=265) than with V-RG (38%, n=66). These new results support the conclusion from the previous study, that ONRAB vaccine-baits may be more effective for the control of rabies in raccoons. PMID:23307388

  12. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  13. Aerial-broadcast application of diphacinone bait for rodent control in Hawai`i: Efficacy and non-target species risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Spurr, Eric B.; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Forbes Perry, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rats (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, and R. norvegicus) have been implicated in the decline or extinction of numerous species of plants and animals in Hawai‘i. This study investigated the efficacy of aerial-broadcast application of Ramik® Green baits containing 50 ppm (0.005%) diphacinone in reducing rat and mouse populations and the risk to non-target species. The study was undertaken in paired 45.56-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. All 21 radio-collared rats in the treatment plot died within nine days of bait application, whereas none of the 18 radio-collared rats in the non-treatment plot died. There was a 99% drop in both the rat capture rate and percentage of non-toxic census bait blocks gnawed by rats in the treatment plot relative to the non-treatment plot three weeks after bait application. The only rat captured in the treatment plot three weeks after bait application was not ear-tagged (i.e., it was not a recapture), whereas 44% of the 52 rats captured in the non-treatment plot were ear-tagged. Most of the bait had disappeared from the forest floor within about one month of application. No birds likely to have eaten bait were found dead, although residues of diphacinone were found in the livers of three species of introduced seed-eating/omnivorous birds captured alive after bait application. No predatory birds were found dead one month or three months after bait application. The remains of a Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius) were found six months after bait application, but it was not possible to determine the cause of death. This study demonstrated the efficacy of aerially broadcast diphacinone bait for control of rats and mice in Hawaiian montane forests, and was part of the dataset submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the national registration of a diphacinone bait for the control of rat populations in conservation areas.

  14. Artificial Life of Soybean Plant Growth Modeling Using Intelligence Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Atris Suyantohadi; Mochamad Hariadi; Mauridhi Hery Purnomo

    2010-01-01

    The natural process on plant growth system has a complex system and it has could be developed on characteristic studied using intelligent approaches conducting with artificial life system. The approaches on examining the natural process on soybean (Glycine Max L.Merr) plant growth have been analyzed and synthesized in these research through modeling using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Lindenmayer System (L-System) methods. Research aimed to design and to visualize plant growth modeling...

  15. An artificial neuro-anatomist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that the human brain visual system is based on stereo-vision is a real handicap when analysing dense 3D representations of the human brain. The success of the methods of analysis based on the 3D proportional system has shown the advantage of using computer based system to interpret such complex images. The underlying strategy, however, is restricted to low level vision, which can not address any issue. Our approach advocates for the development of complete computer vision systems dedicated to the brain, which may be of great help for the future of neuroimaging. In our opinion, indeed, brain imaging is sufficiently focused to be a promising niche for the development of artificial intelligence. (N.C.)

  16. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  17. Visualization in Medieval Alchemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Obrist

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores major trends in visualization of medieval theories of natural and artificial transformation of substances in relation to their philosophical and theological bases. The function of pictorial forms is analyzed in terms of the prevailing conceptions of science and methods of transmitting knowledge. The documents under examination date from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. In these, pictorial representations include lists and tables, geometrical figures, depictions of furnaces and apparatus, and figurative elements mainly from the vegetable and animal realms. An effort is made to trace the earliest evidence of these differing pictorial types.

  18. Differential Geometrically Consistent Artificial Viscosity in Comoving Curvilinear Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Höller, Harald; Dorfi, Ernst; Benger, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Context. High-resolution numerical methods have been developed for nonlinear, discontinuous problems as they appear in simulations of astrophysical objects. One of the strategies applied is the concept of artificial viscosity. Aims. Grid-based numerical simulations ideally utilize problem-oriented grids in order to minimize the necessary number of cells at a given (desired) spatial resolution. We want to propose a modified tensor of artificial viscosity which is employable for generally comoving, curvilinear grids. Methods. We study a differential geometrically consistent artificial viscosity analytically and visualize a comparison of our result to previous implementations by applying it to a simple self-similar velocity field. We give a general introduction to artificial viscosity first and motivate its application in numerical analysis. Then we present how a tensor of artificial viscosity has to be designed when going beyond common static Eulerian or Lagrangian comoving rectangular grids. Results. We find t...

  19. Response of the grass-cutting ant Atta capiguara Gonçalves, 1944 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae to sugars and artificial sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaretto Maria Aparecida Castellani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of toxic baits made of dehydrated citric pulp to control grass-cutting ants can lead to unsatisfactory results because of the low attractiveness of the substrate to worker ants. This work aimed to identify attractive substances, with potential for incorporation in a matrix of granulated baits for grass-cutting ants, among several kinds of sugars and substances used in artificial sweeteners. Experiments were carried out in mature nests of Atta capiguara (Hym.: Formicidae set in pasture. Studied substances were sucrose, fructose, soluble starch, raffinose, maltose, lactose, sorbose, cellobiose, arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, melezitose, saccharine and cyclamate (at 5.0% w/v. Later, on maltose, xylose, sucrose, fructose and glucose solutions were included at 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0% and 20.0% w/v, respectively. Cellulose rectangles were used as vehicle and number of rectangles carried into the colonies was evaluated. Carrying rates were very low with maximum means of 9.6% for lactose and 6.0% for arabinose and cyclamate, at the 5.0% concentration. No differences (P > 0.05 were observed relatively to the control (distilled water. No effects were detected for solution, concentration and for the interaction of these factors. Sugars and artificial sweeteners studied were not attractive to Atta capiguara workers, turning their inclusion as attractants in toxic ant baits not viable.

  20. Artificial ecosystem selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R

    2000-08-01

    Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915

  1. Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njiru, B.N.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background - The successful development of odour-baited trapping systems for mosquitoes depends on the identification of behaviourally active semiochemicals, besides the design and operating principles of such devices. A large variety of 'attractants' has been identified in laboratory investigations

  2. Mirex residues in nontarget organisms after application of experimental baits for fire ant control, southwest Georgia--1971-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, D P; Banks, W A; Wheeler, W B; Jouvenaz, D P; Van Middelem, C H; Lofgren, C S

    1975-12-01

    Mirex, the only compound approved for control of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and the black imported fire ant (Solenopsis richteri), is normally applied at a rate of 1.40 kg/ha. (1.25 lb/acre). Influenced by recent studies showing that low levels of mirex are toxic to certain nontarget organisms, particularly estuarine species, authors report here on a monitoring study of mirex in three large treatment areas of southwest Georgia. Four formulations of bait were applied aerially in 1971-72. Low-level residues were observed in small terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates and in fresh-water inhabitants. Levels detected were about the same for all baits. Maximum residues were detected 1-3 months after treatment and gradually declined to low levels of 0.02-1.16 ppm 1 year after treatment. PMID:1221350

  3. Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary condition for making this argument. Rather than requiring that the system be hermetically sealed to avoid perceptions...

  4. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina) to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro N. Melo; Miriam Gimenes; Antonio Oliveira Neto

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899), Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804) and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869) - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in dif...

  5. Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods decimate populations of Anopheles malaria vectors in arid environments regardless of the local availability of favoured sugar-source blossoms

    OpenAIRE

    Beier John C; Müller Günter C; Gu Weidong; Arheart Kristopher L; Schlein Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods are a new and promising "attract and kill" strategy for mosquito control. Sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes attracted to ATSB solutions, either sprayed on plants or in bait stations, ingest an incorporated low-risk toxin such as boric acid and are killed. This field study in the arid malaria-free oasis environment of Israel compares how the availability of a primary natural sugar source for Anopheles sergentii mosquitoes: f...

  6. Mortality of small cetaceans and the crab bait fishery in the Magallanes area of Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Gibbons, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1974, species of small cetaceans, fur seals, sea lions, sea birds and to some extent sea otters, have been taken deliberately each year for bait in the Chilean artisanal fishery. In recent years, three new trends are contributing to alleviate mortality pressure on marine mammals in Magellanes: a change in fisheries legislation, an increased diversification of the artisanal fishery and an increasing public awareness of the values of marine wildlife.

  7. Detection of the A302S Rdl mutation in fipronil bait-selected strains of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Ling-Hui; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2013-10-01

    Extensive usage and heavy reliance on insecticides have led to the development of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Six field-collected strains of B. germanica from Singapore were used to investigate resistance to fipronil and dieldrin. The three strains (Boat Quay, Cavenagh Road, and Ghimmoh Road) with greatest resistance to fipronil were subjected to selection with fipronil bait up to the F5 generation. Synergism assay and molecular detection of a target site mutation were used to elucidate the mechanism of fipronil resistance in these strains. With the exception of the Cavenagh Road strain, all parental strains were susceptible to dieldrin. This strain exhibited resistance to dieldrin and fipronil with resistance ratios of 4.1 and 3.0, respectively. Piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate were antagonistic toward fipronil toxicity in all strains. Bait selection significantly increased fipronil and dieldrin resistance in the three chosen strains, either in topical bioassay or bait evaluations. There was a significant positive relationship [y = (6,852.69 +/- 1,988.37) x - (708.93 +/- 1,226.28), where x = fipronil toxicity and y = dieldrin toxicity] between dieldrin and fipronil resistance levels, indicating significant cross-resistance between the insecticides. High frequencies of individuals possessing the Rdl gene mutation were found in the F5 generation of the three strains selected with fipronil bait. The synergism assays indicated that monooxygenase and esterase were not involved in fipronil resistance in the strains studied herein. The A302S Rdl mutation was the major mechanism contributing to fipronil and dieldrin resistance in these strains. PMID:24224261

  8. Impact of the commercial fishery on the population of bait shrimp (Penaeus spp.) in Biscayne Bay, 1986

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, W. L.; Berkeley, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Monthly population size of bait shrimp in the Bay was estimated from December 1984 to July 1985. Growth rates for male and female P. duorarum showed that pink shrimp exhibit a mean residence time in the nursery area (Biscayne Bay) of approximately 21 weeks. Monthly mortality rates were determined for each sex of pink shrimp. It was estimated that 23% and 26% of the male and female monthly population size, respectively, was absorbed by both the fishery and ecosystem monthly. Monthly prop...

  9. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  10. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  11. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  12. Artificial Personality and Disfluency

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, Mirjam; Aylett, Matthew; Tomalin, Marcus; Dall, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is artificial voices with different personalities. Previous studies have shown links between an individual's use of disfluencies in their speech and their perceived personality. Here, filled pauses (uh and um) and discourse markers (like, you know, I mean) have been included in synthetic speech as a way of creating an artificial voice with different personalities. We discuss the automatic insertion of filled pauses and discourse markers (i.e., fillers) into otherwise f...

  13. The Artificial Anal Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, John

    2000-01-01

    The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...

  14. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  15. Visual imagery without visual perception?

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Bértolo

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be us...

  16. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  17. Sterilization Effects of Adult-targeted Baits Containing Insect Growth Regulators on Delia antiqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhu, Guodong; Zhao, Haipeng; Wang, Zheng; Xue, Ming; Li, Xianxian; Xu, Huaqiang; Ma, Xiaodan; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    The onion maggot, Delia antiqua, is a devastating pest of liliaceous crops and current control measures fail to avert pesticide residues, threats to agroecosystem, and costly expenditures. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are used as trypetid pest chemosterilants for their suppression on adult fertility and fecundity, but their effects on onion flies are unknown. Here, three IGRs (lufenuron, cyromazine, pyriproxyfen) were incorporated into baits to evaluate their effects on onion fly survival, fecundity, fertility, susceptibility of adults in different ages and offspring development. Lufenuron and cyromazine did not affect survival of new-emerged adults, but lufenuron inhibited adult fertility without affecting fecundity, and cyromazine reduced fertility and fecundity. Differently, pyriproxyfen enhanced fecundity within 10 days after treatment, while it reduced adult survival without affecting fertility. The fertility of younger adults was affected by lufenuron and cyromazine whereas the fecundity was affected with cyromazine and pyriproxyfen. For offspring of onion flies treated with lufenuron or cyromazine, most of larvae died within 5 days after hatch, but surviving larvae pupated and emerged normally. Pyriproxyfen did not affect offspring larval survival or pupation but affected pupal emergence. Thus, lufenuron and cyromazine could be potential chemosterilants for onion flies. PMID:27619006

  18. REACT - Crowd Simulation System for Visual Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Limsäter, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    By using existing knowledge from the game community, which have had a long experience from game artificial intelligence, and new research from the field of artificial intelligence I have implemented REACT, a crowd simulation system for visual effects. REACT is based on high-level behaviour that uses an underlying layer of low-level behaviour. The high-level capabilities gives the digital character means to reasoning about how to achieve certain goals based on a knowledge base of rules and fac...

  19. Visual Language in Visual Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Wang

    2009-01-01

    In visual communication the design information is mainly communicated by visual language, the correct use of which is the standard of evaluation of a graphic design composition. Therefore it is necessary to understand and percept visual language properly. It will be helpful for viewers to percept the desired information from the designer as well as the significance within the work.

  20. A Prototyping Environment for Integrated Artificial Attention Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tünnermann, Jan; Hennig, Markus; Silbernagel, Michael; Mertsching, Bärbel

    2013-01-01

    Artificial visual attention systems aim to support technical systems in visual tasks by applying the concepts of selective attention observed in humans and other animals. Such systems are typically evaluated against ground truth obtained from human gaze-data or manually annotated test images. When applied to robotics, the systems are required to be adaptable to the target system. Here, we describe a flexible environment based on a robotic middleware layer allowing the development and testing ...

  1. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: Three plant-based lures ((E-linalool oxide [LO], (E-linalool oxide and (E-β-ocimene [LO + OC], and a six-component blend comprising (E-linalool oxide, (E-β-ocimene, hexanal, β-pinene, limonene, and (E-β-farnesene [Blend C], were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure (comprising heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal [Blend F] and worn socks in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps were used. Odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide (controls for 18 days in a series of randomized incomplete-block designs of days × sites × treatments. The interactive effect of plant and animal/human odor was also tested by combining LO with either Blend F or worn socks. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors and worn socks in trapping malaria vectors, relative to the controls. Combining LO and worn socks enhanced trap captures of Anopheles species while LO + Blend F recorded reduced trap capture. Carbon dioxide enhanced total trap capture of both plant- and animal/human-derived odors. However, significantly higher proportions of male and engorged female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were caught when the odor treatments did not include carbon dioxide. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide

  2. Visual imagery without visual perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Bértolo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG’s spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  3. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  4. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  5. Monitoring Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fruit Crops Using Pheromone-Baited Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M Fernanda; Romero, Alda; Oyarzun, M Soledad; Bergmann, Jan; Zaviezo, Tania

    2015-10-01

    The citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), is an important pest of fruit crops in many regions of the world. Recently, its sex pheromone has been identified and synthesized. We carried out field experiments with the goal of developing monitoring protocols for P. calceolariae using pheromone-baited traps. Traps checked hourly for 24 hours showed a distinct diel pattern of male flight, between 18:00 and 21:00 h. The presence of unnatural stereoisomers did not affect trap captures, with isomeric mixtures capturing similar amounts of males as the biological active isomer. Dose of isomeric mixture pheromone (0-100 µg) had a nonlinear effect on male captures, with 10, 30, and 50 µg capturing similar amounts. The effective range of pheromone traps was determined by placing traps at different distances (15, 40, and 80 m) from an infested blueberry field, loaded with 0, 1 and 25 µg of the pheromone. For all distances, 25 µg dose captured more males, and was highly attractive up to 40 m. There was a significant effect of lure age on male captures (0-150 d), with similar amount of males captured up to 90-day-old lure, and lower captures in the 150-day-old lure compared with fresh ones. We found significant positive correlations between P. calceolariae males caught in pheromone traps with female abundance and fruit infestation at harvest. Our results show the usefulness of P. calceolariae pheromones for monitoring at field level and provide information for the design of monitoring protocols. PMID:26453728

  6. Optimising stereo baited underwater video for sampling fish and invertebrates in temperate coastal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, R. K. F.; Peters, J. R.; McCloskey, R. M.; Hinder, S. L.

    2014-10-01

    Stereo Baited Remote Underwater Video systems (BRUVs) provide a quantitative sampling method for assessing mobile fauna in a range of habitat types and environments. This non-destructive and cost-effective technique is increasingly used for assessing estuarine, coastal and marine fauna. Although single camera systems have been used to assess the relative abundance (Nmax) of marine fish and invertebrates in low visibility North Atlantic near shore and coastal waters, stereo systems remain in their infancy within such environments and their use requires validation. Stereo systems that measure fish and invertebrate size enable size-frequency analysis of populations, providing critical information about life history and population status. We investigated the performance and efficacy of stereo BRUV systems within Welsh shallow coastal waters to test the effectiveness of this method. Data are presented on the capacity of the system to measure fish and invertebrate size under the constraints of low visibility (diversity. Our study recorded 19 species of mobile fauna with species-time accumulation curves providing evidence that a minimum deployment time of 1 h is required to sample 66% of the fish species, and 2 h to sample 83%. Results suggest that the efficiency of surveys for target species (e.g. gadoids) could be maximised by modifying the sampling duration between 1 h and 2 h. The study also demonstrates that measurements of fish and invertebrate length could be taken on 41% of individuals (of those counted in relative abundance measures using Nmax), a statistic that varies between species. This indicates a need to modify the construction of the equipment for improved fish assemblage size frequency analysis. This is particularly relevant in areas and habitats where seine netting and trawling are not possible. We describe how the system can be modified for optimised usage within low visibility waters and suggest potential uses of the system.

  7. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Malón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h, three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m, and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  8. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  9. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N. Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804 and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869 - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in different months of the year in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent species on vanillin baits and E. flavescens was the most frequent species on benzyl acetate baits. The highest frequency of visits was observed in February and December. Activities started between 5:00 and 9:00 h. In February and November, visits of E. nigrita to the bait were observed daily, following a bimodal pattern. The same activity pattern was observed for E. bombiformis in December. Males of four species of Eulaema occurred in all remaining months in a unimodal daily activity pattern, with a higher frequency before 9:30 h. The correlation between the visiting activity to odor baits and climatic factors was low. This result can be due to bee flight activity occurring within a range of adequate climatic variation, particularly temperature, which in our study ranged from 23 to 32ºC. Daily activity patterns of Euglossina males on odor baits can represent patterns of flower fragrance collection under natural conditions, with visits usually at the time of highest production.

  10. Immune response and protection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of baits containing ONRAB®, a human adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L J; Rosatte, R C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Taylor, J S; Davies, J C; Donovan, D

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the immune response and protection conferred in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits. Forty-two wild-caught, captive raccoons were each offered an ONRAB vaccine bait; 21 controls received no vaccine baits. Blood samples collected from all raccoons before treatment, and each week posttreatment for 16 wk, were assessed for the presence of rabies virus antibody. In the bait group, an individual was considered to have responded to vaccination if serum samples from three or more consecutive weeks were antibody-positive. Using this criterion, 77% (20/26) of raccoons that consumed ONRAB baits with no observed vaccine spillage (full dose) demonstrated a humoral immune response. In the group that received a partial dose (0.05-0.90 mL vaccine recovered), 50% (8/16) of raccoons responded to vaccination. Regardless of the vaccine dose received, among the 28 raccoons that responded to vaccination 18 had antibody initially detectable at week 2 and 22 remained antibody-positive for at least 10 consecutive weeks. Kinetics of the humoral immune response suggest that the best time to conduct postbaiting surveillance for evidence of vaccination would be 6-13 wk following bait deployment, with the highest antibody prevalence expected between weeks 8-10. A sub-sample of 29 raccoons (20 ONRAB, 9 controls) was challenged with raccoon rabies virus variant 350 days posttreatment. Eight of nine controls (89%) developed rabies whereas 15/20 vaccinates (75%) survived. Survival following rabies challenge was significantly higher in raccoons presented ONRAB vaccine baits. PMID:23060502

  11. Detection of potato mop-top virus in soils and potato tubers using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Murad; Rehman, Anayatur; Fahim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The hilly region of Northwest of Pakistan is leading seed potato producing areas of the country. Soil and plant samples were collected from the region and tested for PMTV using both conventional and molecular techniques. The bait plants exhibited PMTV-characteristic v-shaped yellow leaf markings in Nicotiana debneyi plants grown in putative viruliferious soils from 20/26 locations. The results were confirmed by back inoculation of sap from both roots and leaves of bait plant on indicator hosts (N. debneyi, Nicotiana benthamiana). The root samples of bait plants grown in soils of 25 locations and leaves of 24 locations reproduced systemic infection on indicator hosts upon back inoculation. The virus was identified in bait plants grown in soils from 25/26 locations using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS)-ELISA and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The products of the 566bp were amplified from coat protein region of PMTV RNA 3 in both root and leaf samples of baited plants. The virus was detected in 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. The virus was also detected in zoospores of Spongospora subterranea derived from the peels of selected scabby tubers using triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA. The results indicate that a bait plant bioassay, infectivity assay, ELISA and RT-PCR can detect PMTV in roots and leaves of baited plants, field samples, zoospores of S. subterranea and tubers of 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region. PMID:24161813

  12. Artificial ionospheric turbulence (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an analysis of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) arising near the level at which a powerful wave is reflected with ordinary polarization. AIT is an inhomogeneous structure in the ionosphere with a size on the order of centimeters or tens of kilometers and with characteristic frequencies from a fraction of a hertz (aperiodic inhomogeneity) to several megahertz (plasma waves). The authors are primarily concerned with small-scale artificial ionospheric turbulence (SAIT), i.e., with inhomogeneities that are greatly extended along the geomagnetic field with transverse dimensions that are less than the wavelengths of the perturbing waves - the pumping waves (PW) - in a vacuum

  13. Visual art and visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their weight in gold”. I perceive a metabletic (van den Berg, 1956) parallel to philosophy transforming itself into speculative logic games, and psychology going cognitive by freeing itself from phenomen...

  14. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... the learning potential of images and visuality from two perspectives: 1) The perspective of digital media which are assumed to form an increasing part of experience and communication from the use of internet, tv and mobile devices. 2) The perspective of culture where images and visualisations are assumed...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  15. Providing Language Instructor with Artificial Intelligence Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pietroszek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—This paper presents the preliminary results ofdeveloping HAL for CALL, an artificial intelligenceassistant for language instructor. The assistant consists of achatbot, an avatar (a three-dimensional visualization of thechatbot, a voice (text-to-speech engine interface andinterfaces to external sources of language knowledge. Sometechniques used in adapting freely available chatbot for theneed of a language learning system are presented.Integration of HAL with Second Life virtual world isproposed. We will discuss technical challenges and possiblefuture work directions.

  16. Production of artificial radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in the production of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)

  17. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  18. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  19. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  20. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  1. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  2. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  3. Natural or Artificial Intelligence?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plzeň (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  5. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  6. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  7. Efficiency of a new reverse-bait trigger snap trap for invasive rats and a new standardised abundance index

    OpenAIRE

    Theuerkauf, J.; Rouys, S.; Jourdan, Hervé; Gula, R.

    2011-01-01

    We compared trapping and kill efficiency, and by-catch rate of a new reverse-bait trigger rat trap (Ka Mate) with conventional snap traps (Ezeset and Victor), and assessed methods for calculating abundance indices, over 2879 trap nights on Wallis & Futuna and New Caledonia. Ka Mate traps were most effective at killing larger (> 100 g) rats whereas Ezeset traps had the best capture rates of smaller (< 100 g) rodents. Victor mouse traps caught rodents up to 50 g, but were no more efficient than...

  8. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  9. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such ... An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon ...

  10. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  11. Realistic Visualization of Virtual Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    developed and received much attention in recent years: Realistic Virtual View Synthesis. The main goal is a high fidelity representation of virtual scenarios while easing modeling and physical phenomena simulation. In particular, realism is achieved by the transfer to the novel view of all the physical......Computer Graphics allows us today to visualize in real-time innumerable and amazing scenarios with no limits on viewpoint and viewing direction. However, to design accurate object models and to simulate all the physical phenomena occurring in analogous real situations often represents a job that...... can be impractical and sometime impossible. In addition, the artificial nature of data often makes visualized virtual scenarios not realistic enough. Not realistic in the sense that a synthetic scene is easy to discriminate visually from a natural scene. A new field of research has consequently...

  12. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Griffin

    Full Text Available There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula. Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp. and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster. This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  14. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poorly lit spaces, and colors that seem faded. Diabetic retinopathy (pronounced: reh-ton-AH-pa-thee) occurs when ... that is likely to cause visual impairment, many treatments are available. Options may include eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...

  15. A visual display enhancing comfort by counteracting airsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.J.; Bos, J.E.; Gent, R.N.H.W. van

    2011-01-01

    A simulator study has been conducted demonstrating a positive effect on airsickness by utilizing a 3D artificial Earth-fixed visual pattern. Participants were exposed to the same turbulent physical aircraft motion in a simulator three times in a row, each time using a different visual cue. In one co

  16. Comparison of baited and unbaited NGU and biconical traps for Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis and the contribution of odour combinations in Nguruman, Kajiado district, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unbaited biconical, unbaited NGU, baited biconical and baited NGU traps were compared. Acetone dispensed at 150 mg/h, cow urine (1000 mg/h) and 1-octen-3-ol (20 mg/day), i.e. the components of the odour-bait set in the tsetse suppression programme in Nguruman, were used. The contribution of the odours, both singly and in pairs, in catching two tsetse species, was also studied, with the complete odour set as control. The unbaited NGU trap caught 1.74 - 2.5x more female flies than the unbaited biconical trap for G. pallidipes and G. longipennis, the increase being more pronounced for female catches. The index of increase was reduced slightly when both traps were baited. However, the biconical trap improved catches 9-11x when baited for both species. The NGU trap, when baited, increased the catches similarly. Cow urine and acetone appeared to be the most effective odour pair for G. pallidipes, with the odours either acting synergistically or supplementarily. They contributed to over 90% of the total catch. The results were similar for G. longipennis, but at a lower contribution rate. Taken individually, cow urine was the dominant odour attractant for G. pallidipes, being responsible for nearly 60% of the catches. For G. longipennis, 1-octen-3-ol appeared dominant, but with a lower margin. The NGU trap was more effective compared to the biconical trap, especially when the inexpensiveness and simplicity of the former is considered. Cow urine appeared to be the dominant attractant combining well with acetone for both G. pallidipes and G. longipennis. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. PMID:27298428

  18. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that...... successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well as...

  19. Different acute toxicity of fipronil baits on invasive Linepithema humile supercolonies and some non-target ground arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Kuwayama, Naoki; Takeo, Azuma; Ishida, Takanobu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Maki N; Nagai, Takashi; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi; Sawahata, Takuo

    2015-08-01

    Fipronil is one of the most effective insecticides to control the invasive ant Linepithema humile, but its effectiveness has been assessed without considering the genetic differences among L. humile supercolonies. We hypothesized that the susceptibility of the ant to fipronil might differ among supercolonies. If so, dosage and concentration of fipronil may need to be adjusted for effective eradication of each supercolony. The relative sensitivities of four L. humile supercolonies established in Hyogo (Japan) to fipronil baits were examined based on their acute toxicity (48-h LC(50)). Toxicities of fipronil to seven ground arthropods, including four native ant species, one native isopoda, and two cockroaches were also determined and compared to that of L. humile supercolonies using species sensitivity distributions. Marked differences in susceptibility of fipronil were apparent among the supercolonies (P ant is to be controlled using fipronil, this would also affect the local arthropod biodiversity. Only the 'Japanese main supercolony' can be controlled with appropriate bait dosages of fipronil that would have little impact on the other species. PMID:25980487

  20. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  1. Development of an odour-baited insecticidal target system for the suppression of adults of the new world screwworm fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a rapidly deployable supplemental means of effectively suppressing screwworms, the parameters needed to develop an odour-baited insecticidal target system were established. Electro-antennograph studies indicated the relative attractancy of swormlure component, identified candidate attractants and established that 4-methyl phenol and dimethyl sulphide more strongly attract male than female flies. Wind tunnel studies showed that the swormlure stimulates upwind flight and prolonged searching. By means of electric nets it was shown that screwworms fly directly to the target and land without circling. Black is the most effective colour for targets. The optimal size of the target was not identified, but those of 0.25 m2 were found to be as effective as much larger ones. Targets are effective only when baited with swormlure. Excellent control of the rate of release of the attractant mixture was achieved by placing it in 120 micron thick polyethylene sachets with the exception that dimethyl disulphide must be dispensed separately form 1 mm thick polyethylene sachets. Of the insecticides tested when applied to black cloth targets, deltamethrin proved to be the most effective. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  3. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

  4. How to Improve Artificial Intelligence through Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent agents, intelligent software applications and artificial intelligent applications from artificial intelligence service providers maymake their way onto the Web in greater number as adaptive software, dynamic programming languages and Learning Algorithms are introduced intoWeb Services. The evolution of Web architecture may allow intelligent applications to run directly on the Web by introducing XML, RDF and logiclayer. The Intelligent Wireless Web’s significant potential for rapidly completing information transactions may take an important contribution toglobal worker productivity. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the study of the ways in which computers can be made to perform cognitivetasks. Examples of such tasks include understanding natural language statements, recognizing visual patterns or scenes, diagnosing diseases orillnesses, solving mathematical problems, performing financial analyses, learning new procedures for solving problems. The term expert system canbe considered to be a particular type of knowledge-based system. An expert system is a system in which the knowledge is deliberately represented“as it is”. Expert systems are applications that make decisions in real-life situations that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. They areprograms designed to mimic human performance at specialized, constrained problem-solving tasks. They are constructed as a collection of IF-THENproduction rules combined with a reasoning engine that applies those rules, either in a forward or backward direction, to specific problems.

  5. Consistent phosphenes generated by electrical microstimulation of the visual thalamus. An experimental approach for thalamic visual neuroprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FivosPanetsos

    2011-07-01

    Generation of predictable and consistent phosphenes by means of artificial stimulation of the LGN is important for the feasibility of visual prostheses. Here we proved that electrical stimuli to the LGN can generate V1 neural responses that resemble those elicited by natural visual stimuli.

  6. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  7. Impacts of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Trappl, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book, which is intended to serve as the first stage in an iterative process of detecting, predicting, and assessing the impacts of Artificial Intelligence opens with a short "one-hour course" in AI, which is intended to provide a nontechnical informative introduction to the material which follows. Next comes an overview chapter which is based on an extensive literature search, the position papers, and discussions. The next section of the book contains position papers whose richness...

  8. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Peter E.

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years artificial intelligence has changed from being the preoccupation of a handful of scientists to a thriving enterprise that has captured the imagination of world leaders and ordinary citizens alike. While corporate and government officials organize new projects whose potential impact is widespread, to date few people have been more affected by the transition than those already in the field. I review here some aspects of this transition, and pose some issues that it rai...

  10. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  11. Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise

    OpenAIRE

    Chace, William M.

    1984-01-01

    I rise now to speak with the assumption that all of you know very well what I am going to say. I am the humanist here, the professor of English. We humanists, when asked to speak on questions of science and technology, are notorious for offering an embarrassed and ignorant respect toward those matters, a respect, however, which can all too quickly degenerate into insolent condescension. Face to face with the reality of computer technology, say, or with "artificial intelligence," we humanists ...

  12. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  13. Efficacy of different fly baits%不同诱饵对蝇类引诱效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 贾凤龙; 梁焯南; 张韶华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of three kinds of baits (rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar) against flies to offer the ideal option for vector monitoring. Methods Fly traps with different baits were deployed simultaneously in five experimental sites. The captured flies were identified in the laboratory. Results No significant differences in the captured species was found between the baits. Flies captured by the rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar accounted for 66.99%, 32.07% and 0.94%, respectively. Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica were the dominant species in the rotten fish group. Lucilia cuprina was more easily attracted by sugar-vinegar baits. Rotten eggs were more attractive to C. Megacephala and Hemipyrellia ligurriens. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were more easily attracted by rotten fish, while Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae and Anthomyiidae preferred rotten eggs. Conclusion Sugar-vinegar baits did not reflect seasonal changes as they attracted a very small number of flies. Rotten fish attracted a large number of flies from only a few species. Rotten eggs could attract a proper number of flies from a balanced collection of species, and thus could be used for fly monitoring.%目的 比较分析腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃、红糖食醋以及腐败鸡蛋3种诱饵对不同蝇种的引诱力差别,以筛选媒介蝇类监测的最佳诱饵.方法 采用诱蝇笼法,选取5个实验点同时使用3种饵料进行诱集,诱得的蝇类在实验室进行鉴定.结果 3种诱饵诱集的蝇种区别不明显,诱集个体数量上按多少排列依次为腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵、腐败鸡蛋饵、红糖食醋饵,分别占捕蝇总数的66.99%、32.07%和0.94%;不同诱饵诱集的优势种差别较大,腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵诱集的优势种为大头金蝇和家蝇,红糖食醋饵为铜绿蝇,腐败鸡蛋饵为大头金蝇和瘦叶带绿蝇;丽蝇科和蝇科趋向于被腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵吸引,而丽蝇科、麻蝇科和花蝇

  14. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in the laboratory and the field with the Environmental Protection Agency exempt active ingredient eugenol against vector and nuisance mosquitoes. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high...

  15. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  16. Visual tracking: detecting and mapping occlusion and camouflage using process-behaviour charts

    OpenAIRE

    Chandesa, Tissa

    2013-01-01

    Visual tracking aims to identify a target object in each frame of an image sequence. It presents an important scientific problem since the human visual system is capable of tracking moving objects in a wide variety of situations. Artificial visual tracking systems also find practical application in areas such as visual surveillance, robotics, biomedical image analysis, medicine and the media. However, automatic visual tracking algorithms suffer from two common problems: occlusion and camoufla...

  17. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of...... transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project...

  18. Artificial Life: Visual Model with Simulation of a Plant Pet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIChen; QIShen

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an L-system model, which simulates a plant pet. The plant, named Wilson, is able to respond to the change of its virtual environment and to user's behaviors. However it does not speak or move. What users can see are only the changes of its appearance. The connection between the plant's appearance and external inputs is implemented with some parameters embedded in the L-system.

  19. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems. PMID:16203606

  20. CUSTO COMPARATIVO DE CONTROLE À FORMIGA CORTADEIRA Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel 1908, EMPREGANDO-SE ISCAS GRANULADAS COMERCIAIS E UMA ISCA EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE COST CONTROL OF Atta sexdens rubropilosa FOREL 1908 USING COMMERCIAL GRAIN BAITS AND AN EXPERIMENTAL BAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se um experimento de controle à formiga cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa FOREL 1908, nos campos da Universidade Federal de Goiás (dezembro de 1972, com a finalidade de comparar o custo de controle por sauveiro, utilizando-se uma isca granulada experimental “EAV-041-A” idealizada pelo autor, com outras iscas existentes no mercado. Foram realizados 4 tratamentos (Mirex, Isca Shell, EAV-041-A e Agroceres na base de 10 g de cada isca por m² de sauveiro, em 5 repetições, constando cada parcela de 3 formigueiros, perfazendo um total de 60. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso. Para a análise econômica dos resultados, foram utilizados os fatores: custo da isca, sua eficiência percentual e o valor da mão-de-obra requerida, para se determinar o custo médio de controle de um sauveiro extinto. Pelos valores calculados, como resultado, obteve-se o custo médio por sauveiro extinto na seguinte ordem: com a isca “EAV-04l-A” custou Cr$ 2,27; com a “Isca Shell” Cr$ 3,41; com “Agroceres” Cr$ 4,29 e com “Mirex” Cr$ 5,44, evidenciando a economia em favor da "EAV-041-A", tendo em vista o seu menor custo por quilograma (Na época em que os cálculos foram realizados, o valor cambial do Dólar era de Cr$ 6,00.

    An Experiment was conducted using a clorimated experimental bait called EAV-041-A. This experiment was conducted to determine the efficiency of EAV-041-A using the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa as the test. The experiment was executed in Goiânia, Goiás, comparing it with the commercial baits: Mirex, Isca Shell and Agroceres AG-005. Results obtained showed Mirex was superior giving 93.30% control of the nests, EAV-041-A 80.00% and Isca Shell and Agroceres both qave 73.30% control. Total cost of application was calculated based on price of the bait on

  1. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  2. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  3. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  4. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  5. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. RESULTS: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05. Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor

  6. Culicoides latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in brazilian amazon. V: efficiency of traps and baits and vertical stratification in the forest reserve adolpho ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana S. Veras

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly catches were carried out during five days/month in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas, from February 1990 to January 1991 in order to assess the sandfly fauna of that region, evaluate the atractivity of these insects with regard to different kinds of traps and baits and to know vertical stratification of these insects. The traps and baits used in catches were: Disney traps with baits: Didelphis sp., Gallus sp. and Mesocricetus sp.; CDC light traps at three vertical levels (1m, 5m and 10m; Suspended trap (5m and Malaise trap (1m and catches on bases of tree-trunks. The most efficient type was the CDC. Malaise and Suspended did not collect specimens of Culicoides Latreille, 1809. The Disney traps with baits only attracted specimens of C. fusipalpis Wirth & Blanton, 1973. In vertical stratification, the CDC trap placed at 1m caught 898 specimens of nine species; at 5m 895 specimens were collected which belonged to 13 species; and at 10m 224 specimens of 14 species were collected. Two thousand and forty-six specimens of Culicoides were captured, being about 5,66% males and 94,34% females, which belonged to 17 different species; the most frequent were C. fusipalpis (43,05%, followed by C. pseudodiabolicus Fox, 1946 (32,79%, C. hylas Macfie, 1940 (12,31% and C. foxi Ortiz, 1950 (3,71%. The other 13 species totalized 8,15%.

  7. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge from the effluent treatment pond) were discriminated after 14 days of exposure because extremely low percentages of feeding activity were recorded. Previous sub-lethal ecotoxicological assays, already had demonstrated that the habitat function of these soils is compromised. Nevertheless, seasonality has proved to have a significant influence on responses. Thus to strength conclusions about the impact of contaminants, the in situ bait-lamina assay should be performed on different annual seasons, at least for temperate regions. It was also found that some environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture and litter) can act as confounding factors in the bait-lamina assay. - Bait-lamina assay for in situ evaluation of soil functions under site-specific risk assessments.

  8. Simpler is better: fewer nontarget insects trapped with a 4-component chemical lure versus a chemically more complex food-type bait for Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    As baits, fermented food products are generally attractive to many types of insects, making it difficult to sort through nontarget insects to monitor a pest species of interest. We test the hypothesis that a chemically simpler and more defined attractant developed for a target insect is more specifi...

  9. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  10. Comparison of parasitic hymenoptera captured in malaise traps baited with two flowering plants Lobularia maritima (Brassicales:Brassicaceae) and Spermacoce verticillate (Gentianales:Rubiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many adult hymenopterous parasitoids feed on floral nectar, and occasionally pollen. However, flowers differ in both accessibility and attractiveness to these insects. Malaise traps, a type of “passive/interception” trap, were baited with potted flowering plants, Lobularia maritima L. (Brassicaceae)...

  11. Attractive toxic sugar baits: Control of mosquitoes with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on non-target organisms in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of ATSB in the laboratory and the field with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes a...

  12. MULTI-COMPONENT EVALUATION TO MINIMIZE THE SPREAD OF AQUATIC INVASIVE SEAWEEDS AND HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM MICROALGAE VIA LIVE BAIT VECTORS IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to quantify the importance of bait products and associated packing materials as vectors for the introduction of non-indigenous species and harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming microalgae to Long Island Sound. Non-native, invasive seaweeds and HAB-forming...

  13. Sampling of An.gambiae s.s mosquitoes using Limburger cheese, heat and moisture as baits in a homemade trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Ample evidence has shown that odour baited traps are likely to provide an objective monitoring tool for the host-seeking fraction of mosquito vectors of diseases like malaria and bancroftian filariasis. Such traps could eventually become part of primary healthcare systems used to study the vector biology and epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. I hereby, report a study that sampled Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes in a screen house using a homemade trap baited with a combination of Limburger cheese and moisture, Limburger cheese and heat, or Limburger cheese, moisture and heat. Findings Tests on the efficacy of the developed trap to sample An. gambiae s.s, mosquitoes using Limburger cheese, moisture and heat as baits were carried out in a screen house measuring 11.4 × 7.1 × 2.8 m. The studies were done in three phases. In the first phase the efficacy of the trap to sample An. gambiae s.s. using odour and moisture was tested. The second phase was to test the efficacy of the trap to sample An. gambiae s.s. using Limburger cheese and heat. In the third phase a combination of Limburger cheese, moisture and heat was tested. Tests were carried out for 27 consecutive nights. The designed trap collected a total of 59 An. gambiae s.s. in three trials. The trap baited with Limburger cheese and moisture collected 7 An. gambiae s.s in 7 days. The mean catch per day was 1. The trap baited with Limburger cheese and heat collected zero An. gambiae s.s in 11 days. The mean catch per day was therefore 0. The trap baited with Limburger cheese, moisture and heat collected 52 mosquitoes in 27 days and the mean catch was 1.93. Conclusions This study indicates that a non-electric fan driven trap baited with a combination of Limburger cheese, heat and moisture has a potential as an effective sampling tool for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. However, further optimization studies would be necessary. PMID:21835032

  14. Artificial pupil versus contralateral balanced contact lens fit for presbyopia correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago García-Lázaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess and compare the effects of contact lens-based artificial pupil design and contralateral balanced multifocal contact lens combination (CBMCLC on visual performance. Methods: This randomized crossover study conducted at the University of Valencia, Spain included 38 presbyopic patients using an artificial pupil contact lens in the nondominant eye and a CBMCLC. After a month of lens wear, the binocular distance visual acuity (BDVA, binocular near visual acuity (BNVA, defocus curve, binocular distance, and near contrast sensitivity and near stereoacuity (NSA were measured under photopic conditions (85 cd/m2. Moreover, BDVA and binocular distance contrast sensitivity were examined under mesopic conditions (5 cd/m2. Results: Visual acuity at an intermediate distance and near vision was better with the CBMCLC than with the artificial pupil (p<0.05. Statistically significant differences were found in contrast sensitivity between the two types of correction for distance (under mesopic conditions and for near vision, with the CBMCLC exhibiting better results in both cases (p<0.05. The mean NSA values obtained for the artificial pupil contact lens were significantly worse than those for the CBMCLC (p=0.001. Conclusion: The CBMCLC provided greater visual performance in terms of intermediate and near vision compared with the artificial pupil contact lens.

  15. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen;

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....

  16. NDT of the fuel rods with artificial defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.Y.; Min, D.K.; Eom, S.H.; Chun, Y.B.; Min, D.K

    2000-07-01

    Non-destructive examination such as visual inspection, dimensional measurement, eddy current and gamma scanning have been carried out. The objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of spent fuels, and to obtain the basic technical data through the study of long term storage behavior of spent fuels. In the results of visual inspection, there is no observable effects around the part of artificial defect. And there is nothing unusual in the results of gamma scanning. Diameter and ovality the artificial defect were measured. The result obtained from this study will be used as a basic data for the study of behavior for spent fuel under the long term storage condition and the safety evaluation of spent fuel.

  17. Information Processing in Cognition Process and New Artificial Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nanning; Xue, Jianru

    In this chapter, we discuss, in depth, visual information processing and a new artificial intelligent (AI) system that is based upon cognitive mechanisms. The relationship between a general model of intelligent systems and cognitive mechanisms is described, and in particular we explore visual information processing with selective attention. We also discuss a methodology for studying the new AI system and propose some important basic research issues that have emerged in the intersecting fields of cognitive science and information science. To this end, a new scheme for associative memory and a new architecture for an AI system with attractors of chaos are addressed.

  18. Using the DAS-ELISA Test to Establish an Effective Distance Between Bait Stations for Control of Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Natural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinbo; Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Gerard, Patrick; Scott, Simon W

    2015-08-01

    Linepithema humile (Mayr), the Argentine ant, is an invasive pest that has spread throughout the United States and is a problem in natural and managed habitats in South Carolina. Foraging patterns and the effectiveness of liquid baits for control of this pest have been studied in urban areas. However, similar studies have not been conducted in natural areas such as parks, picnic grounds, or campsites. L. humile populations can be large and widespread, making them a major nuisance pest for visitors to these natural areas. The primary objective of this study was to determine an effective distance between bait stations for control of L. humile in a natural area. A double antibody-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) procedure was used to detect individual ants that consumed rabbit immunoglobin (IgG) protein for marking and tracking. In both lab and field conditions, there was a significant difference in the detection of IgG in ants fed protein marker mixed with sugar water compared with ants only fed sugar water. Additional field studies revealed that an individual ant could retain detectable levels of protein marker for 3 d and that an ant feeding on IgG containing bait could be detected over 15 m from the original bait source. Overall, we found that using liquid ant baits, with a placement of 20 m between stations, was effective in reducing L. humile numbers between April to October, 2012 in a natural park area of Lake Greenwood State Park, SC. PMID:26470341

  19. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  20. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  1. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  2. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  3. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from a...

  4. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  5. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  6. 6种饵料对小白鼠引诱作用的初步观察%Preliminary observation of the attracting effect of six mice baits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 邓惠彩; 赵瑾; 郭国汉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the most attractive mice baits for preparation of toxic baits. Methods The attracting effects of six types of bait (peanut, rice, potato, bean cake, fish bait, and cat food) on mice were determined in terms of the respective feeding coefficients. Results Mice showed different preferences for the six baits, of which potatoes and peanuts had the strongest attracting effects with feeding coefficients of 5.90 and 2.49, respectively, and average feeding rates of 60.71% and 25.61%, respectively. Bean cakes and rice followed with feeding coefficients of 1.08 and 1.16 and feeding rates of 14.49% and 11.94%, respectively. The attractive efficiency of fish baits and cat food were the lowest, with the feeding rates of 8.74% and 3.00%, respectively. Conclusion Potatoes and peanuts are the baits of choice when preparing poison baits for mice. Their attracting effects deteriorate with time and become the lowest beyond 48 hours. Furthermore, the nutritional balance or mixing of baits may be considered to improve palatability.%目的 寻找对小白鼠更具引诱力的饵料,为配制毒饵提供一定依据.方法 采用摄食系数测定6种不同饵料(花生、豆饼、稻谷、马铃薯、猫料、鱼饵)对小白鼠的引诱效果.结果 小白鼠对6种饵料的偏好性存在差异.其中马铃薯、花生对小白鼠的引诱效果最强,摄食系数为5.90和2.49,偏好性为优,平均取食率达60.71%和25.61%;豆饼和稻谷的引诱效果次之,摄食系数分别为1.08和1.16,偏好性也为优,取食率分别为14.49%和11.94%;鱼饵和猫料的引诱效果较弱,取食率分别仅为8.74%和3.00%,低于对照饵料——鼠粮的取食率(13.37%).结论 在配制鼠类毒饵时,可优先考虑更具引诱效果的马铃薯和花生;同时,随着投饵后时间的延长,持续引诱作用降低,其中以48 h后的减幅最大.此外,在研制灭鼠剂时,应考虑饵料的营养平衡或不同类型饵料的交替使用,以提高诱饵的适口性.

  7. Timing Matters: The Impact of Immediate and Delayed Feedback on Artificial Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Mecklinger

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the role of immediate and delayed feedback in an artificial grammar learning task. Two groups of participants were engaged in classifying non-word strings according to an underlying rule system, not known to the participants. Visual feedback was provided after each classification either immediately or with a short delay of one second. Both groups were able to learn the artificial grammar system as indicated by an...

  8. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SELECTION WITH CAPABILITY OF EDITING A NEW PARAMETER FOR EOR SCREENING CRITERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ELRADI ABASS; CHENG LIN SONG

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) technique to assist in the selection of an Enhanced Oil Recovery method (EOR). The structure of an expert systems selection based on a new formulated screening criteria, Artificial Intelligence selection developed by a computer software called (EKORA), with an easily and friendly user interface by using visual Basic-6 environment tools is presented. An additional capability provided by this software is the ability of chan...

  9. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was discovered in southern Mexico sometime in 1977 near Tapachula, Mexico. Farmers in Texas and other states of the United States became concerned that the Mediterranean fruit fly would spread northward through Mexico and into the US. In response to this threat to US agriculture, funds were appropriated by Congress to be used by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit flies from Mexico and establish a barrier zone in Guatemala to keep the Mediterranean fruit flies from spreading northward into Mexico. In Mexico and Guatemala, the organisation called MOSCAMED was created to support the programme. Aerially applied malathion bait sprays were used in the suppression programme beginning in Mexico in 1982 and beginning in Guatemala in 1985. Mexico has been free of the Mediterranean fruit fly since 1982, except for outbreaks in the southernmost state of Chiapas, adjacent to Guatemala. The spraying of malathion was banned by the government of Guatemala in early 1996 because of concern regarding possible adverse effects on honey bees. By this time, research had been started to evaluate the use of xanthene dyes as a potential alternative to malathion in protein bait sprays for the suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Liquido et al. 1995). Light-activated toxicity of xanthene dyes has been documented for more than two dozen insect species overall (Heitz 1997). Field trials of xanthene dyes, as a safer alternative to malathion in bait sprays targeting the Mediterranean fruit fly, were begun in Hawaii in 1994 and in Guatemala in 1996 and proved to be promising. By the end of 1996, xanthene dyes were registered as a substitute for malathion to suppress/eradicate Mediterranean fruit flies in the barrier zone. In January, 1997, MOSCAMED-Guatemala began a spray programme with xanthene dyes as the toxicant in a protein bait

  10. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  11. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  12. Temporal visual cues aid speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Xiang; Ross, Lars; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue;

    2006-01-01

    temporal synchronicity of the visual input that aids parsing of the auditory stream. More specifically, we expected that purely temporal information, which does not convey information such as place of articulation may facility word recognition. METHODS: To test this prediction we used temporal features of......BACKGROUND: It is well known that under noisy conditions, viewing a speaker's articulatory movement aids the recognition of spoken words. Conventionally it is thought that the visual input disambiguates otherwise confusing auditory input. HYPOTHESIS: In contrast we hypothesize that it is the...... audio to generate an artificial talking-face video and measured word recognition performance on simple monosyllabic words. RESULTS: When presenting words together with the artificial video we find that word recognition is improved over purely auditory presentation. The effect is significant (p...

  13. Plasticity in the visual system is associated with prosthesis use in phantom limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Preißler

    2013-06-01

    Our data indicate a relationship between prosthesis use and cortical plasticity of the visual stream. This plasticity might present a brain adaption process to new movement and coordination patterns needed to guide an artificial hand.

  14. using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael do Espírito Santo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Multilayer Perceptron implementation – MLP using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is used to infer stimuli performed. Sets of images of brain activation were generated by visual, auditory and finger tapping paradigms in 54 healthy volunteers. These images were used for training the MLP network in a leave-one-out manner in order to predict the paradigm that a subject performed by using other images, so far unseen by the MLP network. The aim in this paper is the exploring of the influence of the number of the Principal Component (PC on the performance of the MLP in classifying fMRI paradigms. The classifier´s performance was evaluated in terms of the Sensitivity and Specificity, Prediction Accuracy and the area Az under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve. From the ROC analysis, values of Az up to 1 were obtained with 60 PCs in discriminating the visual paradigm from the auditory paradigm.

  15. Throwing Down the Visual Intelligence Gauntlet

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheston

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, scientific and technological advances have produced artificial systems that have matched or surpassed human capabilities in narrow domains such as face detection and optical character recognition. However, the problem of producing truly intelligent machines still remains far from being solved. In this chapter, we first describe some of these recent advances, and then review one approach to moving beyond these limited successes – the neuromorphic approach of studying and reverse-engineering the networks of neurons in the human brain (specifically, the visual system). Finally, we discuss several possible future directions in the quest for visual intelligence.

  16. Magnetic Eigenmaps for Visualization of Directed Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fanuel, Michaël; Alaíz, Carlos M; Suykens, Johan A K

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework for visualization of directed networks relying on the eigenfunctions of the magnetic Laplacian, called here Magnetic Eigenmaps. The magnetic Laplacian is a complex deformation of the well-known combinatorial Laplacian. Features such as density of links and directionality patterns are revealed by plotting the phases of the first magnetic eigenvectors. Directed networks being common in social science, biology or computer science, our visualization method may be relevant for the field of complex networks, as well as applied mathematics and machine learning. Illustrations of our method are given for both artificial and real-life networks.

  17. From humans to computers cognition through visual perception

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Viktor Vasilievitch

    1991-01-01

    This book considers computer vision to be an integral part of the artificial intelligence system. The core of the book is an analysis of possible approaches to the creation of artificial vision systems, which simulate human visual perception. Much attention is paid to the latest achievements in visual psychology and physiology, the description of the functional and structural organization of the human perception mechanism, the peculiarities of artistic perception and the expression of reality. Computer vision models based on these data are investigated. They include the processes of external d

  18. Artificial frustrated spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2015-09-01

    Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.

  19. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  20. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  1. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. PMID:22034342

  2. Mirex residues in nontarget organisms after application of 10-5 bait for fire ant control, northeast Florida--1972-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, W B; Jouvenaz, D P; Wojcik, D P; Banks, W A; VanMiddelem, C H; Lofgren, C S; Nesbitt, S; Williams, L; Brown, R

    1977-12-01

    The 10-5 bait formulation of mirex insecticide was applied to a 20,000-acre area of northeast Florida. For 24 months after application, samples of a wide variety of fauna were collected and analyzed for mirex content. Insects accumulated mirex to the greatest extent in the first 6 months after application; most residues had decreased greatly by 12 months. Other invertebrates showed low mirex levels during the first 9 months after application and none after 12 months. Fish possessed low levels of insecticides for 9 months; amphibians showed mirex residues for 12 months after application. In general, reptiles had low levels throughout the 24-month period and mammals had higher levels, particularly in fat tissues. Birds consistently had low to moderate mirex levels. After a single application of 10-5 mirex bait, only relatively low levels of insecticide were detected in exposed fauna. After 24-months, mirex was found infrequently and at low levels. PMID:609513

  3. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps. PMID:27065593

  4. Artificial Life Meets Computational Creativity?

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    I (briefly) review the history of work in Artificial Life on the problem of the open-ended evolutionary growth of complexity in computational worlds. This is then put into the context of evolutionary epistemology and human creativity.

  5. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications. PMID:20812798

  6. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  7. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  8. Artificial selection for food colour preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gemma L; Endler, John A

    2015-04-01

    Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two different-coloured moving stimuli: red and blue spots. A response to selection was only seen for chase behaviours towards the red, with realized heritabilities ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. Despite intense selection, no significant chase response was recorded for the blue-selected lines. This lack of response may be due to the motion-detection mechanism in the guppy visual system and may have novel implications for the evolvability of responses to colour-related signals. The behavioural response to several colours after five generations of selection suggests that the colour opponency system of the fish may regulate the response to selection. PMID:25740894

  9. Attractiveness of copperleaf-based bait to leaf-cutting ants Atratividade de iscas à base de acalifa para formigas cortadeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Satoru Nagamoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of copperleaf (Acalypha spp. are greatly accepted by leaf-cutting ants and therefore used to maintain colonies in the laboratory. In order to determine the attractive potential of granulated bait of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves versus citrus pulp, currently used in commercial baits, an evaluation was performed, by using the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa as model. The handmade non-toxic baits contained powder (90% w/w of either citrus pulp or A. wilkesiana were offered simultaneously in the foraging arena until the total loading of one of them. Results showed that copperleaf baits are less attractive than the citrus ones, which invalidates the viability of the substitution.Folhas de acalifa (Acalypha spp. são de grande aceitação pelas formigas cortadeiras e, por isso, utilizadas na manutenção de colônias em laboratório. Baseado nesses fatos, procedeu-se a uma avaliação da atratividade de isca granulada feita com folhas de Acalypha wilkesiana, usando a formiga cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa como modelo, com o objetivo de determinar o seu potencial atrativo frente ao citros, atualmente utilizado na formulação comercial de iscas formicidas. Foram formuladas artesanalmente iscas atóxicas, contendo pó (90% p/p de polpa cítrica ou de A. wilkesiana. As iscas foram colocadas simultaneamente em uma arena de forrageamento até o carregamento total de uma delas. Os resultados mostram que a isca de acalifa é menos atrativa que a de citros, o que inviabiliza a substituição.

  10. Lipid-formulated bcg as an oral-bait vaccine for tuberculosis: vaccine stability, efficacy, and palatability to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Martin L; Henderson, Ray J; Lambeth, Matthew R; Buddle, Bryce M; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (Tb), due to infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to New Zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). An oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against Tb, based on formulation of the human Tb vaccine (M. bovis BCG) in edible lipid matrices. Here BCG bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix formulation for over 8 mo in freezer storage, for 7 wk under room temperature conditions, and for 3-5 wk under field conditions in a forest/pasture margin habitat (when maintained in weatherproof bait-delivery sachets). Samples of the lipid matrix were flavored and offered to captive possums in a bait-preference study: a combination of 10% chocolate powder with anise oil was identified as the most effective attractant/palatability combination. In a replicated field study, 85-100% of wild possums were shown to access chocolate-flavored lipid pellets, when baits were applied to areas holding approximately 600-800 possums/km(2). Finally, in a controlled vaccination/challenge study, chocolate-flavored lipid vaccine samples containing 10(8) BCG bacilli were fed to captive possums, which were subsequently challenged via aerosol exposure to virulent M. bovis: vaccine immunogenicity was confirmed, and protection was identified by significantly reduced postchallenge weight loss in vaccinated animals compared to nonvaccinated controls. These studies indicate that, appropriately flavored, lipid delivery matrices may form effective bait vaccines for the control of Tb in wildlife. PMID:19617486

  11. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  12. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  13. Rewritable Artificial Magnetic Charge Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-01-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge state...

  14. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  15. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  16. A novel method for the multiplexed target enrichment of MinION next generation sequencing libraries using PCR-generated baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2015-01-01

    The enrichment of targeted regions within complex next generation sequencing libraries commonly uses biotinylated baits to capture the desired sequences. This method results in high read coverage over the targets and their flanking regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released an USB3.0-interfaced sequencer, the MinION. To date no particular method for enriching MinION libraries has been standardized. Here, using biotinylated PCR-generated baits in a novel approach, we describe a simple and efficient way for multiplexed enrichment of MinION libraries, overcoming technical limitations related with the chemistry of the sequencing-adapters and the length of the DNA fragments. Using Phage Lambda and Escherichia coli as models we selectively enrich for specific targets, significantly increasing the corresponding read-coverage, eliminating unwanted regions. We show that by capturing genomic fragments, which contain the target sequences, we recover reads extending targeted regions and thus can be used for the determination of potentially unknown flanking sequences. By pooling enriched libraries derived from two distinct E. coli strains and analyzing them in parallel, we demonstrate the efficiency of this method in multiplexed format. Crucially we evaluated the optimal bait size for large fragment libraries and we describe for the first time a standardized method for target enrichment in MinION platform. PMID:26240383

  17. A novel method for the multiplexed target enrichment of MinION next generation sequencing libraries using PCR-generated baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2015-12-15

    The enrichment of targeted regions within complex next generation sequencing libraries commonly uses biotinylated baits to capture the desired sequences. This method results in high read coverage over the targets and their flanking regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released an USB3.0-interfaced sequencer, the MinION. To date no particular method for enriching MinION libraries has been standardized. Here, using biotinylated PCR-generated baits in a novel approach, we describe a simple and efficient way for multiplexed enrichment of MinION libraries, overcoming technical limitations related with the chemistry of the sequencing-adapters and the length of the DNA fragments. Using Phage Lambda and Escherichia coli as models we selectively enrich for specific targets, significantly increasing the corresponding read-coverage, eliminating unwanted regions. We show that by capturing genomic fragments, which contain the target sequences, we recover reads extending targeted regions and thus can be used for the determination of potentially unknown flanking sequences. By pooling enriched libraries derived from two distinct E. coli strains and analyzing them in parallel, we demonstrate the efficiency of this method in multiplexed format. Crucially we evaluated the optimal bait size for large fragment libraries and we describe for the first time a standardized method for target enrichment in MinION platform. PMID:26240383

  18. Trapping of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) from Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with an in-hive baited trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Arbogast, Richard T; Van Engelsdorp, Dennis; Willms, Steven; Purcell, Dusti; Boucias, Drion; Tumlinson, James H; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of two lures for trapping the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, by means of in-hive traps was tested by field trials in apiaries located in Florida, Delaware, and Pennsylvania during 2003-2005. Both lures included a mixture (pollen dough) consisting of bee pollen and commercial pollen substitute formulated with or without glycerol and honey. Before it was used in the traps, the dough was conditioned either by the feeding of adult small hive beetles or by inoculation with the yeast Kodamaea ohmeri (NRRL Y-30722). Traps baited with conditioned dough captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, and traps positioned under the bottom board of a hive captured significantly more beetles than traps located at the top of a hive. In fact, baited in-hive bottom board traps nearly eliminated the beetles from colonies at a pollination site in Florida. However, when these honey bee colonies were moved to an apiary, trap catch increased markedly over time, indicating a resurgence of the beetle population produced by immigration of beetles from nearby hives or emerging from the soil. In tests at three Florida apiaries during 2006, yeast-inoculated dough baited bottom board traps captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, showing the effectiveness of yeast-inoculated dough as a lure and its potential as a tool in managing the small hive beetle. PMID:18284723

  19. Is the capture success of orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea influenced by different baited trap designs? A case study from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Veiga Sydney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchid bees are increasingly applied on Neotropical biomonitoring and bioindication studies due to the relative easiness of sampling and identification when compared to other bee groups. A considerable number of orchid bee community studies have been adopting baited traps as a sampling method, especially for replication purposes. However, the trap attributes are variable, and hitherto no evaluation of different designs was carried out. Here, five attributes of baited traps were tested: trap volume, number of entrance holes, presence of landing platform, kind of landing platform, and fixation content. We use Mann-Whitney tests to access differences in richness and abundance capture rates for each trap design. We found that volume, number of entrance holes, and fixation content do not influence orchid bees capture. However, the design without landing platforms had a significantly higher capture rate for richness when compared with sanded landing platforms. On the other hand, analyzing the kind of landing platform, we detected a significantly higher richness and abundance for the trap with landing platforms glued with sand. Despite the fact that the effects of different designs tested here were very punctual, we consider that results from samples taken with different baited trap designs are comparable. Some adjustments on trap design can be done according to the particularities of future studies.

  20. Visual search in ecological and non-ecological displays: evidence for a non-monotonic effect of complexity on performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chassy

    Full Text Available Considerable research has been carried out on visual search, with single or multiple targets. However, most studies have used artificial stimuli with low ecological validity. In addition, little is known about the effects of target complexity and expertise in visual search. Here, we investigate visual search in three conditions of complexity (detecting a king, detecting a check, and detecting a checkmate with chess players of two levels of expertise (novices and club players. Results show that the influence of target complexity depends on level of structure of the visual display. Different functional relationships were found between artificial (random chess positions and ecologically valid (game positions stimuli: With artificial, but not with ecologically valid stimuli, a "pop out" effect was present when a target was visually more complex than distractors but could be captured by a memory chunk. This suggests that caution should be exercised when generalising from experiments using artificial stimuli with low ecological validity to real-life stimuli.

  1. Mirex residues in bobwhite quail after aerial application of bait for fire ant control, South Carolina--1975-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, R J; Noblet, R; Hair, J D; Jackson, H B

    1977-09-01

    Mirex, the organochlorine compound used for control of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), was applied aerially under supervision of the South Carolina Plant Pest Regulatory Service in October 1975 to a game management area in Hampton County, S.C. Influenced by recent reports indicating that low levels of mirex were toxic to certain nontarget organisms in laboratory studies, authors initiated a program for monitoring mirex residues in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Pretreatment residues were recorded on a dry-weight basis in bobwhite quail breast and adipose tissue; conversion factors for determining wet-weight concentrations are approximately as follows: fat, 0.77; and breast, 0.29. Residues ranged from 0.000-0.178 ppm and 0.247-2.763 ppm, respectively. Mirex residues in quail adipose tissue showed up to five-fold increase within the first month after treatment and declined thereafter. A residue peak was noticed the spring following mirex treatment, corresponding with insect emergence. Mirex residues in quail collected in summer 1976 following a fall bait application showed slightly higher residue levels than had birds taken in summer 1975; however, little, if any, human food chain contamination would result in the consumption of birds with residue levels found in this study. PMID:600676

  2. ViA: a perceptual visualization assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Chris G.; St. Amant, Robert; Elhaddad, Mahmoud S.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes an automated visualized assistant called ViA. ViA is designed to help users construct perceptually optical visualizations to represent, explore, and analyze large, complex, multidimensional datasets. We have approached this problem by studying what is known about the control of human visual attention. By harnessing the low-level human visual system, we can support our dual goals of rapid and accurate visualization. Perceptual guidelines that we have built using psychophysical experiments form the basis for ViA. ViA uses modified mixed-initiative planning algorithms from artificial intelligence to search of perceptually optical data attribute to visual feature mappings. Our perceptual guidelines are integrated into evaluation engines that provide evaluation weights for a given data-feature mapping, and hints on how that mapping might be improved. ViA begins by asking users a set of simple questions about their dataset and the analysis tasks they want to perform. Answers to these questions are used in combination with the evaluation engines to identify and intelligently pursue promising data-feature mappings. The result is an automatically-generated set of mappings that are perceptually salient, but that also respect the context of the dataset and users' preferences about how they want to visualize their data.

  3. Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Ratajski; Roman Olik; Tomasz Suszko; Jerzy Dobrodziej; Jerzy Michalski

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of tim...

  4. Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachni...

  5. Technical optimization of termite-killing bait bag application by orthogonal experiment%用正交试验优化白蚁诱饵包使用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世璋; 陈立志; 张岚; 董勇; 陈冰勇; 陈静; 康勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To look for a solution to the problem of rotting baits buried in soil in the areas with high temperature and moist climate before they are found by subterraneous termites. Methods Four woodlands seriously damaged by subterraneous termites in the Cinnamomun camphora forest in Nanshan Forestry Center in Nan' an District of Chongqing City were selected as the experimental sites. Based on the requirements for the design of the orthogonal experiment in L9 (34), nine treatments were implemented in each experimental site. The interval distance between treatments was 5 meters with four bail bags used in each treatment area. Put in place, every bait bag was checked every 7 days. Four consecutive checks were done during the period of experiment, the amount of baits in each bag fed by termites and the rotten degree of the baits estimated. Results Field experiment results indicated that when the bait bags were applied in the mode of AiB3C3, which meant that dry branches of C. camphora were used to enwrap the bait bag, which was buried 2 cm under soil and the plastic membrane and soil were covered on the bait bag, the bait bags fed by termites amounted to more than 75% with no bait bag decay at 4 weeks after application. The bait bags fed by termites was less than 75% with the bait bags having varying degrees of putrefaction when the bait bags were applied in other modes in this experiment. Conclusion The technique for application of bait bags can be optimized by orthogonal experiment. This optimization is expected to greatly decrease the risk of rotting bait bags and significantly enhance the amount of bait bags fed by termites. It is suggested that this new application technique deserve to be promoted for termite control.%目的 解决高温、潮湿地区埋在地下的诱饵在黑翅土白蚁工蚁未发现前就腐烂变质的问题.方法 在重庆市南岸区南山林场的樟树林内,选择4个白蚁危害严重的区域作为试验

  6. Artificial Life of Soybean Plant Growth Modeling Using Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atris Suyantohadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The natural process on plant growth system has a complex system and it has could be developed on characteristic studied using intelligent approaches conducting with artificial life system. The approaches on examining the natural process on soybean (Glycine Max L.Merr plant growth have been analyzed and synthesized in these research through modeling using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Lindenmayer System (L-System methods. Research aimed to design and to visualize plant growth modeling on the soybean varieties which these could help for studying botany of plant based on fertilizer compositions on plant growth with Nitrogen (N, Phosphor (P and Potassium (K. The soybean plant growth has been analyzed based on the treatments of plant fertilizer compositions in the experimental research to develop plant growth modeling. By using N, P, K fertilizer compositions, its capable result on the highest production 2.074 tons/hectares. Using these models, the simulation on artificial life for describing identification and visualization on the characteristic of soybean plant growth could be demonstrated and applied.

  7. Why Teach Visual Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  8. Artificial larviposition sites for field collections of the puparia of tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes and G. m. morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzari, M O; Hargrove, J W

    2005-06-01

    Tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. morsitans morsitans Westwood deposit their larvae in warthog burrows, in August-November, at Rekomitjie Research Station, Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Artificial burrows, made from 200-l steel drums, were used to sample these flies and to collect their puparia. Sand-filled plastic trays in the burrows served as a substrate for larval deposition. The sand was covered with c. 2 cm of leaf litter after it was shown that only 3% of larvae were deposited on bare sand if both substrates were available. Other burrow modifications - artificially shading the burrow entrance, increasing the relative humidity inside the burrow, or reducing the size of the burrow entrance - significantly decreased deposition rates. The use of burrows in the hot season results in a reduction in the temperature experienced by the puparium towards an assumed optimum level of 26 degrees C. Artificial burrows maintained a mean temperature of 28.5 degrees C during October-November 1998, c. 2.5 degrees C cooler than ambient; earlier work has shown that natural burrows can be c. 5 degrees C cooler than ambient at these times. This may explain why natural burrows in full sunlight were used for larviposition, whereas artificial burrows were used only when they were in deep shade, and why significantly higher proportions of G. pallidipes were found in natural (66%) than in artificial burrows (34%). Better-insulated artificial burrows might produce more puparia with higher proportions of G. pallidipes. Burrows become waterlogged during the rains and may be too cool for optimum puparial development during the rest of the year. The percentages of G. m. morsitans in catches of females from artificial burrows, refuges and odour-baited traps were 34, 26 and Traps are biased in favour of G. pallidipes; artificial burrows may show a bias in favour of G. m. morsitans that is a function of temperature. Artificial warthog burrows provide a convenient way of studying the

  9. Data Visualization and Infographics

    OpenAIRE

    Prepared by Mathematica Policy Research

    2014-01-01

    Data visualization translates complex ideas and concepts into a simple visual context. Patterns, trends, and relationships that might go undetected in text are conveyed at a glance in effective data visualization.

  10. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  11. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified. PMID:26357285

  12. Controle de Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae com a isca Landrin-F, em área anteriormente coberta com Eucalyptus Control of Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, with Landrin-F bait, in areas previously covered with Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora muitos produtos tenham sido testados como princípio ativo de iscas formicidas, o mercado predominantemente utilizava produtos à base de dodecacloro. Com a proibição deste último composto, surgiram as iscas à base de sulfluramida ou de clorpirifós, constituindo, atualmente, dois dos princípios ativos de iscas formicidas, disponíveis no mercado. Este trabalho objetivou testar a isca Landrin-F (clorpirifós 0,45% no controle da formiga cortadeira Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, comparado à isca Mirex-S (sulfluramida 0,3%. Foram utilizados tratamentos com a aplicação de 30 a 120 gramas da isca Landrin-F por olheiro; aplicação de 8g/m² de formigueiro da isca Landrin-F; aplicação de 8 g/m² de formigueiro da isca Mirex-S e; testemunha, sem aplicação de isca formicida. Após 24 e 48 horas, avaliaram-se o transporte e/ou devolução das iscas, e aos 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 e 210 dias, a atividade dos formigueiros, os quais foram sondados e escavados, aos 180 dias, e feita a avaliação final de atividade aos 210 dias. A utilização da metodologia de aplicação da isca Landrin-F por olheiro ativo aumentou consideravelmente a quantidade de isca aplicada, em relação à metodologia de aplicação por metro quadrado de formigueiro. Como a isca Landrin-F mostrou eficiência semelhante nas duas metodologias de aplicação, recomenda-se que a mesma seja aplicada na dosagem de 8g/m² de formigueiro para o controle de A. laevigata.Although many insecticides have been tested as baits against leaf cutting ants, the market was dominated by those with dodecachlor. This compound was banned and the new baits for these pests have either sulfluramid or chlorpirifos. The objective of this work was to test the Landrin-F (chlorpirifos 0.45% bait against the leaf cutting ant Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae compared to Mirex-S (sulfluramid 0.3% bait. Treatments used were: application of 30 to

  13. A Client-Server Computational Tool for Integrated Artificial Intelligence Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lawrence B.; Cook, Diane J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a Web-based multimedia delivery method of increasing students' interest in artificial intelligence (AI). The course material features an integrated simulation environment that allows students to develop and test AI algorithms in a dynamic and uncertain visual environment. Evaluated the effect of the simulation on the…

  14. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives. PMID:25842566

  15. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  16. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  17. Comparative population assessments of Nautilus sp. in the Philippines, Australia, Fiji, and American Samoa using baited remote underwater video systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Barord

    Full Text Available The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS to make quantitative photographic records as a means of estimating population abundance of Nautilus sp. at sites in the Philippine Islands, American Samoa, Fiji, and along an approximately 125 km transect on the fore reef slope of the Great Barrier Reef from east of Cairns to east of Lizard Island, Australia. Each site was selected based on its geography, historical abundance, and the presence (Philippines or absence (other sites of Nautilus fisheries The results from these observations indicate that there are significantly fewer nautiluses observable with this method in the Philippine Islands site. While there may be multiple possibilities for this difference, the most parsimonious is that the Philippine Islands population has been reduced due to fishing. When compared to historical trap records from the same site the data suggest there have been far more nautiluses at this site in the past. The BRUVS proved to be a valuable tool to measure Nautilus abundance in the deep sea (300-400 m while reducing our overall footprint on the environment.

  18. Attraction of the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Traps Baited with Semiochemical Stimuli Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Agnello, Arthur; Bergh, J Christopher; Dively, Galen P; Hamilton, George C; Jentsch, Peter; Khrimian, Ashot; Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Kuhar, Thomas P; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Morrison, William R; Polk, Dean F; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Shearer, Peter W; Short, Brent D; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Walgenbach, James F; Weber, Donald C; Welty, Celeste; Whalen, Joanne; Wiman, Nik; Zaman, Faruque

    2015-06-01

    A recent identification of the two-component aggregation pheromone of the invasive stink bug species, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in association with a synergist, has greatly improved the ability to accurately monitor the seasonal abundance and distribution of this destructive pest. We evaluated the attraction of H. halys to black pyramid traps baited with lures containing the pheromone alone, the synergist methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (MDT) alone, and the two lures in combination. Traps were deployed around areas of agricultural production including fruit orchards, vegetables, ornamentals, or row crops in Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia from mid-April to mid-October, 2012 and 2013. We confirmed that H. halys adults and nymphs are attracted to the aggregation pheromone season long, but that attraction is significantly increased with the addition of the synergist MDT. H. halys adults were detected in April with peak captures of overwintering adults in mid- to late May. The largest adult captures were late in the summer, typically in early September. Nymphal captures began in late May and continued season long. Total captures declined rapidly in autumn and ceased by mid-October. Captures were greatest at locations in the Eastern Inland region, followed by those in the Eastern Coastal Plain and Pacific Northwest. Importantly, regardless of location in the United States, all mobile life stages of H. halys consistently responded to the combination of H. halys aggregation pheromone and the synergist throughout the entire season, suggesting that these stimuli will be useful tools to monitor for H. halys in managed systems. PMID:26313981

  19. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  20. Principles of artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graupe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are most suitable for solving problems that are complex, ill-defined, highly nonlinear, of many and different variables, and/or stochastic. Such problems are abundant in medicine, in finance, in security and beyond. This volume covers the basic theory and architecture of the major artificial neural networks. Uniquely, it presents 18 complete case studies of applications of neural networks in various fields, ranging from cell-shape classification to micro-trading in finance and to constellation recognition - all with their respective source codes. These case studies

  1. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhili; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-20

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  2. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  3. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  4. Snowflake Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliven, L. F.; Kucera, P. A.; Rodriguez, P.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Snowflake Video Imagers (SVIs) enable snowflake visualization at diverse field sites. The natural variability of frozen precipitation is a complicating factor for remote sensing retrievals in high latitude regions. Particle classification is important for understanding snow/ice physics, remote sensing polarimetry, bulk radiative properties, surface emissivity, and ultimately, precipitation rates and accumulations. Yet intermittent storms, low temperatures, high winds, remote locations and complex terrain can impede us from observing falling snow in situ. SVI hardware and software have some special features. The standard camera and optics yield 8-bit gray-scale images with resolution of 0.05 x 0.1 mm, at 60 frames per second. Gray-scale images are highly desirable because they display contrast that aids particle classification. Black and white (1-bit) systems display no contrast, so there is less information to recognize particle types, which is particularly burdensome for aggregates. Data are analyzed at one-minute intervals using NASA's Precipitation Link Software that produces (a) Particle Catalogs and (b) Particle Size Distributions (PSDs). SVIs can operate nearly continuously for long periods (e.g., an entire winter season), so natural variability can be documented. Let’s summarize results from field studies this past winter and review some recent SVI enhancements. During the winter of 2009-2010, SVIs were deployed at two sites. One SVI supported weather observations during the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. It was located close to the summit (Roundhouse) of Whistler Mountain, near the town of Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. In addition, two SVIs were located at the King City Weather Radar Station (WKR) near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Access was prohibited to the SVI on Whistler Mountain during the Olympics due to security concerns. So to meet the schedule for daily data products, we operated the SVI by remote control. We also upgraded the

  5. Artificial neural network does better spatiotemporal compressive sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young; Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2012-06-01

    Spatiotemporal sparseness is generated naturally by human visual system based on artificial neural network modeling of associative memory. Sparseness means nothing more and nothing less than the compressive sensing achieves merely the information concentration. To concentrate the information, one uses the spatial correlation or spatial FFT or DWT or the best of all adaptive wavelet transform (cf. NUS, Shen Shawei). However, higher dimensional spatiotemporal information concentration, the mathematics can not do as flexible as a living human sensory system. The reason is obviously for survival reasons. The rest of the story is given in the paper.

  6. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  7. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an...

  8. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  9. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  10. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  11. Making Artificial Seawater More Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Marine fish will die if placed in fresh water and they cannot live in simple salt water. Instead, they need water that contains a mixture of different ingredients, as found in natural seawater. Conventional methods of making artificial seawater have shortcomings, because the water so achieved is only composed of mineral elements and lacks organic components similar to those in natural seawater.

  12. Artificial Video for Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  13. Effects of Two Temperature Storage Regimes on the Efficacy of 3 Commercial Gel Baits against the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Oz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To compare the effectiveness of 3 commercial gel bait formulations containing fipronil (Goliathã Cockroach Gel 0.05% AI, chlorpyrifos-A (Clean Baitã Gel, 2% AI, and chloropyrifos-B (Serpaã Gel 2% AI against German cock­roaches (Blattella germanica when stored at 23°C and 30° C after treatment."nMethods: Laboratory bioassays consisted of placing groups of fifteen cockroaches (a random combination of adult, mixed sex and large nymphs-stage 6 into a 5 L cylindrical plastic container with one drop of product (avg 0.10 g ± 0.01 g applied to a 76 mm x 26 mm glass microscope slide affixed to the bottom of each container (one product tested per container. Cumula­tive mortality was assessed at 6 h, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after application. To determine the further effects of storage tempera­ture after treatment on residual activity of the gels, a drop of each product was applied to separate glass microscope slides and stored at either 23º C (warm or 30º C (hot under dark conditions for 0, 1, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60 and 90 d after applica­tion."nResults: Freshly applied baits (day 0 containing fipronil provided complete cockroach mortality (100% within 5 d whereas chloryrifos-A and chlorpyrifos-B provided »72% and 88% mortality, respectively. Generally, cockroach mortality was greater when gels were stored at 30°C compared with 23º C."nConclusion: The fipronil gel formulation proved to be as efficacious as the chlorpyrifos gels and in some instances sur­pased the latter formulations depending on storage time and temperature by providing »90% mortality at 90 d post treat­ment.

  14. VISUAL LANDSCAPE PERCEPTION

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Fürüzan; Aslan, Edanur; Atik, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    Landscape, the way that people perceive, is described as areas the characteristics of which are made up as a result of the interaction and activity of natural and/or human factors. The composition which is formed as a result of this interaction of natural and cultural components sets forth the visual landscape conception.In the scope of study landscape, perception, visual landscape concepts, visual design factors and visual design principles in support of related descriptions and the visuals ...

  15. Visual thinking & digital imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Blevis, Eli; Churchill, Elizabeth; Odom, William; Pierre, James; Roedl, David; Wakkary, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery—which subsumes digital imagery—goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broa...

  16. Artificial Intelligence Databases: A Survey and Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and describes online databases containing references to materials on artificial intelligence, robotics, and expert systems, and compares them in terms of scope and usage. Recommendations for conducting online searches on artificial intelligence and related fields are offered. (CLB)

  17. Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159246.html Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney? Small trial suggests device might be ... themselves of clunky machines, moving about with a "wearable artificial kidney" instead. That's the promise of a ...

  18. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility February 18, 2009 From PinnacleHealth, Harrisburg, PA Welcome to this “OR ... this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has some significant benefits over the previous ...

  19. Hebbian Learning of the Statistical and Geometrical Structure of Visual Input

    OpenAIRE

    Bednar, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments on the visual system of carnivorous mammals have revealed complex relationships between the geometry and statistical properties of the visual world, and the geometry and statistical properties of the primary visual cortex. This review surveys an extensive body of modelling work that shows how a relatively simple set of general-purpose neural mechanisms can account for a large fraction of this observed relationship. The models consist of networks of simple artificial neurons with i...

  20. A comparison of commercial light-emitting diode baited suction traps for surveillance of Culicoides in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Andrew; Gubbins, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Denison, Eric; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Baylis, Matthew; Carpenter, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background The response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to artificial light sources has led to the use of light-suction traps in surveillance programmes. Recent integration of light emitting diodes (LED) in traps improves flexibility in trapping through reduced power requirements and also allows the wavelength of light used for trapping to be customized. This study investigates the responses of Culicoides to LED light-suction traps emitting different wavelengths of ligh...

  1. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  2. DEM interpolation based on artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yaolin

    2005-10-01

    This paper proposed a systemic resolution scheme of Digital Elevation model (DEM) interpolation based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In this paper, we employ BP network to fit terrain surface, and then detect and eliminate the samples with gross errors. This paper uses Self-organizing Feature Map (SOFM) to cluster elevation samples. The study area is divided into many more homogenous tiles after clustering. BP model is employed to interpolate DEM in each cluster. Because error samples are eliminated and clusters are built, interpolation result is better. The case study indicates that ANN interpolation scheme is feasible. It also shows that ANN can get a more accurate result by comparing ANN with polynomial and spline interpolation. ANN interpolation doesn't need to determine the interpolation function beforehand, so manmade influence is lessened. The ANN interpolation is more automatic and intelligent. At the end of the paper, we propose the idea of constructing ANN surface model. This model can be used in multi-scale DEM visualization, and DEM generalization, etc.

  3. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  4. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  5. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  6. Artificial Ant Species on Solving Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Pintea, Camelia-M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years several ant-based techniques were involved to solve hard and complex optimization problems. The current paper is a short study about the influence of artificial ant species in solving optimization problems. There are studied the artificial Pharaoh Ants, Lasius Niger and also artificial ants with no special specificity used commonly in Ant Colony Optimization.

  7. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Precautions During Loading and Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  8. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  9. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E Legge

    Full Text Available Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms.Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135 and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900 conditions, and a Narrow Field (8° condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating.With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition.If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  10. The simple fly larval visual system can process complex images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Elizabeth Daubert; Macedonia, Nicholas James; Hamilton, Catherine; Condron, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Animals that have simple eyes are thought to only detect crude visual detail such as light level. However, predatory insect larvae using a small number of visual inputs seem to distinguish complex image targets. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster larvae, which have 12 photoreceptor cells per hemisphere, are attracted to distinct motions of other, tethered larvae and that this recognition requires the visual system but not the olfactory system. In addition, attraction to tethered larvae still occurs across a clear plastic barrier, does not occur significantly in the dark and attraction occurs to a computer screen movie of larval motion. By altering the artificial attractant movie, we conclude that visual recognition involves both spatial and temporal components. Our results demonstrate that a simple but experimentally tractable visual system can distinguish complex images and that processing in the relatively large central brain may compensate for the simple input. PMID:23093193

  11. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  12. Universal visualization platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Alexander G.; Li, Hongli; Yu, Min; Smrtic, Mary Beth; Cvek, Urska; Goodell, Howie; Gupta, Vivek; Lawrence, Christine; Zhou, Jainping; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Grinstein, Georges G.

    2005-03-01

    Although there are a number of visualization systems to choose from when analyzing data, only a few of these allow for the integration of other visualization and analysis techniques. There are even fewer visualization toolkits and frameworks from which one can develop ones own visualization applications. Even within the research community, scientists either use what they can from the available tools or start from scratch to define a program in which they are able to develop new or modified visualization techniques and analysis algorithms. Presented here is a new general-purpose platform for constructing numerous visualization and analysis applications. The focus of this system is the design and experimentation of new techniques, and where the sharing of and integration with other tools becomes second nature. Moreover, this platform supports multiple large data sets, and the recording and visualizing of user sessions. Here we introduce the Universal Visualization Platform (UVP) as a modern data visualization and analysis system.

  13. Body ownership affects visual perception of object size by rescaling the visual representation of external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoort, Björn; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Size perception is most often explained by a combination of cues derived from the visual system. However, this traditional cue approach neglects the role of the observer's body beyond mere visual comparison. In a previous study, we used a full-body illusion to show that objects appear larger and farther away when participants experience a small artificial body as their own and that objects appear smaller and closer when they assume ownership of a large artificial body ("Barbie-doll illusion"; van der Hoort, Guterstam, & Ehrsson, PLoS ONE, 6(5), e20195, 2011). The first aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this own-body-size effect is distinct from the role of the seen body as a direct familiar-size cue. To this end, we developed a novel setup that allowed for occlusion of the artificial body during the presentation of test objects. Our results demonstrate that the feeling of ownership of an artificial body can alter the perceived sizes of objects without the need for a visible body. Second, we demonstrate that fixation shifts do not contribute to the own-body-size effect. Third, we show that the effect exists in both peri-personal space and distant extra-personal space. Finally, through a meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the own-body-size effect is independent of and adds to the classical visual familiar-size cue effect. Our results suggest that, by changing body size, the entire spatial layout rescales and new objects are now perceived according to this rescaling, without the need to see the body. PMID:24806404

  14. Comparison between deep intracornual artificial insemination (dIAI and conventional artificial insemination (AI using low concentration of spermatozoa in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Meirelles

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the pregnancy rate using the conventional artificial insemination (AI or deep intracornual artificial insemination (DIAI, with low number of spermatozoa (4.0 million sperm in 270 Nelore cows. The animals were divided in two groups (G: G1 (135 cows conventional AI was performed (=semen deposition in the uterine body and in G2 (135 cows to DIAI, in ipsilateral horn where the dominant follicle in the ovary had previously been detected, by ultrasound examinations. For both the methods, a single artificial insemination was carried out after visual estrus observation, checked three times a day (morning, afternoon and evening. The pregnancy diagnosis after 45 days was conducted by ultrasound. Results showed a better pregnancy rate in the DIAI group (67.4% - p<0.01, when compared to conventional AI (48.8% with low spermatozoa concentration.

  15. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  16. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  17. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. PMID:26185245

  18. Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inger, Richard; Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered. PMID:24874801

  19. Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Inger

    Full Text Available Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered.

  20. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  1. Psychological Studies and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Ringle, Martin

    1983-01-01

    This paper argues for the position that experimental human studies are relevant to most facets of AI research and that closer ties between AI and experimental psychology will enhance the development of booth the principles of artificial intelligence and their implementation in computers. Raising psychological assumptions from the level of ad hoc intuitions to the level of systematic empirical observation, in the long run, will improve the quality of AI research and help to integrate it with r...

  2. Formation of artificial ionospheric ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shroff, H; Chang, C. L.; Wallace, T; E. V. Mishin; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    International audience It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents the first experimental evidence of plasma modifications associated with ion outflows due to HF heating. The experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater during t...

  3. Worldwide variations in artificial skyglow

    OpenAIRE

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Kai Pong Tong; Jonathan Bennie; Ignacio Birriel; Jennifer J. Birriel; Andrew Cool; Arne Danielsen; Davies, Thomas W; den Outer, Peter N.; William Edwards; Rainer Ehlert; Fabio Falchi; Jürgen Fischer; Andrea Giacomelli; Francesco Giubbilini

    2015-01-01

    Despite constituting a widespread and significant environmental change, understanding of artificial nighttime skyglow is extremely limited. Until now, published monitoring studies have been local or regional in scope, and typically of short duration. In this first major international compilation of monitoring data we answer several key questions about skyglow properties. Skyglow is observed to vary over four orders of magnitude, a range hundreds of times larger than was the case before artifi...

  4. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  5. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  6. Artificial Sweeteners versus Natural Sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Neacsu, N.A.; Madar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important dietary nutrient which is mostly used to supply energy to the body, as well as a carbon source for synthesis of other needed chemicals. In addition, mono- and disaccharides are craved because of their sweetness. We present different types of sweeteners, which are the basic contents of foods which we consume every day and are demonstrated the positive and negative effects of natural and artificial sweeteners.

  7. Artificial knowledge an evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Finbar Vincent

    1992-01-01

    I present a new analysis of the problem, situation in Artificial Intelligence (AI), grounded in a Popperian epistemology. I first review arguments purporting to establish that no purely “computational” system can realise genuine mentality. I conclude that the question is still open; but that the more pressing question is whether such a system can even exhibit intelligent behaviour. Attention is thus directed at the computational embodiment of knowledge, and its growth. I suggest that much...

  8. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Debesh; Caulfield, H. John

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving...

  9. Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Laura E.; Michigan Technological University; Kauchak, David; University of California, San Diego

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of massive open online courses has initiated a broad national-wide discussion on higher education practices, models, and pedagogy.  Artificial intelligence and machine learning courses were at the forefront of this trend and are also being used to serve personalized, managed content in the back-end systems. Massive open online courses are just one example of the sorts of pedagogical innovations being developed to better teach AI. This column will discuss and share innovative ed...

  10. An evaluation of the suppression of Glossina pallidipes by the odour-baited insecticide-coated targets in the Lambwe valley, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From August 1988, odour-baited insecticide-coated targets have been placed and maintained every three months in Ruma National Park, Lambwe Valley, western Kenya, to eliminate G. pallidipes from the area. The extent of tsetse suppression was assessed from estimates of absolute and apparent densities, age grades and insemination performance of monthly samples using odour-baited biconical traps from January-December 1990. On the basis of data obtained before targets had been deployed, the monthly reduction rates in absolute and apparent densities varied between 96.5-99%, respectively. The highest reductions occurred consistently during the first month following each target servicing cycle after which flies recovered gradually until the next operation. Age grading showed that females and males of all age groups were present throughout. The recapture of marked individuals of either sex at or over three months old indicated that flies could mate, breed and survive over two successive target servicing occasions. There was no evidence of break-down in males/females encounters by targets as samples of non-teneral females were all adequately inseminated. Results showed that probably hundreds of thousands of satisfactorily reproducing flies still existed in Ruma National Park. Thus, although a relatively high level of suppression of G. pallidipes was attained, eradication is still far from being achieved. (author)

  11. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  12. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d' A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  14. Calibration of a shock wave position sensor using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the calibration of a shock wave position sensor. The position sensor works by using artificial neural networks to map cropped CCD frames of the shadows of the shock wave into the value of the shock wave position. This project was done as a tutorial demonstration of method and feasibility. It used a laboratory shadowgraph, nozzle, and commercial neural network package. The results were quite good, indicating that artificial neural networks can be used efficiently to automate the semi-quantitative applications of flow visualization.

  15. Artificial reefs as a conservation tool: biodiversity assessment and perspectives in SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Soeth; André Pereira Cattani; Alberto Teodorico Correia

    2015-01-01

    Artificial reefs (ARs) has been suggested as a possible tool for reef fish restoration and biodiversity rehabilitation. In Brazil, and since 1996, ARs has been implemented in the continental shelf between latitudes of 25.6-25.8 S. Underwater visual censuses (UVC) of fishes were conducted from 2010 to 2015 at both artificial (AR) and natural rocky (NR) reefs to assess similarity at local sites. NR were natural formations with an average depth of 10 meters, and UVC were performed between 6 to 8...

  16. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SELECTION WITH CAPABILITY OF EDITING A NEW PARAMETER FOR EOR SCREENING CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELRADI ABASS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of an Artificial Intelligence (AI technique to assist in the selection of an Enhanced Oil Recovery method (EOR. The structure of an expert systems selection based on a new formulated screening criteria, Artificial Intelligence selection developed by a computer software called (EKORA, with an easily and friendly user interface by using visual Basic-6 environment tools is presented. An additional capability provided by this software is the ability of changing and editing the parameters of EOR methods which emerged or tested in current implementation projects. Other commercial expert systems either offer limited or no capabilities for changing and editing the EOR parameters of screening rule.

  17. Fecundación Artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa. Fidel

    1939-10-01

    Full Text Available Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculos alegres, que un servicio de un caballo puede servir, diluido, por lo menos para cuatro yeguas, según los autores americanos, y para 10 a 15, según otros autores. El toro y el carnero pueden dar esperma suficiente en un servicio para fecundar de 10 a 12 hembras, según,los americanos, y según otros autores, hasta para 40. Los investigadores rusos han podido fecundar hasta 60 vacas con un solo servicio y han logrado con reproductores valiosos, fecundar 10.263 vacas por toro, a pesar de que éstos sólo han servido, durante un periodo de monta de sólo dos meses. Estos mismos han logrado fecundar artificialmente 2.733 ovejas con un solo carnero, y 1.403 con otro Los investigadores americanos han contado 22 servicios a un carnero vigoroso en un periodo de ocho horas, y durante este tiempo produjo esperma suficiente para haber fecundado 200 ovejas artificialmente. La fecundación artificial sirve para evitar la trasmisión de enfermedades que se contagian por el coito, tales como la durina, enfermedad ésta producida por un tripanosoma que por fortuna no existe entre nosotros. A las estaciones de monta llevan con frecuencia hembras afectadas de enfermedades como la vaginitis granulosa de la vaca, que se contagia al toro y de éste a otras hembras. Como el control sanitario de toda hembra llevada al servicio de un reproductor de estas estaciones de monta no siempre puede efectuarse por dificultades de distinta índole, mediante la fecundación artificial

  18. Development of artificial articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M; Ushio, K; Kumar, P; Ikeuchi, K; Hyon, S H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, H

    2000-01-01

    Attempts have been made to develop an artificial articular cartilage on the basis of a new viewpoint of joint biomechanics in which the lubrication and load-bearing mechanisms of natural and artificial joints are compared. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H), 'a rubber-like gel', was investigated as an artificial articular cartilage and the mechanical properties of this gel were improved through a new synthetic process. In this article the biocompatibility and various mechanical properties of the new improved PVA-H is reported from the perspective of its usefulness as an artificial articular cartilage. As regards lubrication, the changes in thickness and fluid pressure of the gap formed between a glass plate and the specimen under loading were measured and it was found that PVA-H had a thicker fluid film under higher pressures than polyethylene (PE) did. The momentary stress transmitted through the specimen revealed that PVA-H had a lower peak stress and a longer duration of sustained stress than PE, suggesting a better damping effect. The wear factor of PVA-H was approximately five times that of PE. Histological studies of the articular cartilage and synovial membranes around PVA-H implanted for 8-52 weeks showed neither inflammation nor degenerative changes. The artificial articular cartilage made from PVA-H could be attached to the underlying bone using a composite osteochondral device made from titanium fibre mesh. In the second phase of this work, the damage to the tibial articular surface after replacement of the femoral surface in dogs was studied. Pairs of implants made of alumina, titanium or PVA-H on titanium fibre mesh were inserted into the femoral condyles. The two hard materials caused marked pathological changes in the articular cartilage and menisci, but the hydrogel composite replacement caused minimal damage. The composite osteochondral device became rapidly attached to host bone by ingrowth into the supporting mesh. The clinical implications of

  19. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators. PMID:25286349

  20. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  1. Visualizing Knowledge Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Katy; Chen, Chaomei; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews visualization techniques for scientific disciplines and information retrieval and classification. Highlights include historical background of scientometrics, bibliometrics, and citation analysis; map generation; process flow of visualizing knowledge domains; measures and similarity calculations; vector space model; factor analysis;…

  2. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  3. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  4. Visual experience and blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Blindsight is classically defined as residual visual capacity, e.g., to detect and identify visual stimuli, in the total absence of perceptual awareness following lesions to V1. However, whereas most experiments have investigated what blindsight patients can and cannot do, the literature contains...... several, often contradictory, remarks about remaining visual experience. This review examines closer these remarks as well as experiments that directly approach the nature of possibly spared visual experiences in blindsight....

  5. Visual Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Daniel A.; Ward, Matthew O.

    2002-01-01

    Never before in history has data been generated at such high volumes as it is today. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data has become increasingly difficult. Information visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There are a large number of information visualization techniques that have been developed over the last two decades to suppo...

  6. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  7. Tools for software visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanova, Aleksandra; Stojkovic, Natasa; Bikov, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Software visualization is a kind of computer art, and in the same time is a science for generating visual representations of different software aspects and of software development process. There are many tools that allow software visualization but we are focusing on some of them. In this paper will be examined in details just four tools: Jeliot 3, SRec, jGrasp and DDD. Visualizations that they produce will be reviewed and analyzed and will be mentioned possible places for their application. A...

  8. Visualization Techniques in Space and Atmospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P. (Editor); Bredekamp, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Unprecedented volumes of data will be generated by research programs that investigate the Earth as a system and the origin of the universe, which will in turn require analysis and interpretation that will lead to meaningful scientific insight. Providing a widely distributed research community with the ability to access, manipulate, analyze, and visualize these complex, multidimensional data sets depends on a wide range of computer science and technology topics. Data storage and compression, data base management, computational methods and algorithms, artificial intelligence, telecommunications, and high-resolution display are just a few of the topics addressed. A unifying theme throughout the papers with regards to advanced data handling and visualization is the need for interactivity, speed, user-friendliness, and extensibility.

  9. Professional Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Randolph, Nick; Anderson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    A must-have guide that covers all the new features of Visual Studio 2010. Visual Studio allows you to create and manage programming projects for the Windows platform, and the new 2010 version has undergone a major overhaul comprised of significant changes. Written by an author team of veteran programmers and developers, Professional Visual Studio 2010 gets you quickly up to speed on what you can expect from the newest version of Visual Studio. This book's first section is dedicated to familiarizing you with the core aspects of Visual Studio 2010. Everything you need is contained in the first f

  10. Python data visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  11. Visualization system on ITBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visualization systems PATRAS/ITBL and AVS/ITBL, which are based on visualization software PATRAS and AVS/Express respectively, have been developed on a global, heterogeneous computing environment, Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL). PATRAS/ITBL allows for real-time visualization of the numerical results acquired from coupled multi-physics numerical simulations, executed on different hosts situated in remote locations. AVS/ITBL allow for post processing visualization. The scientific data located in remote sites may be selected and visualized on a web browser installed in a user terminal. The global structure and main functions of these systems are presented. (author)

  12. Beginning Visual Basic 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Thearon

    2010-01-01

    A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste

  13. Artificial organic networks artificial intelligence based on carbon networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Espinosa, Hiram; Molina, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes the synthesis and use of biologically-inspired artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHNs) for approximation models associated with machine learning and a novel computational algorithm with which to exploit them. The reader is first introduced to various kinds of algorithms designed to deal with approximation problems and then, via some conventional ideas of organic chemistry, to the creation and characterization of artificial organic networks and AHNs in particular. The advantages of using organic networks are discussed with the rules to be followed to adapt the network to its objectives. Graph theory is used as the basis of the necessary formalism. Simulated and experimental examples of the use of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms with organic neural networks are presented and a number of modeling problems suitable for treatment by AHNs are described: ·        approximation; ·        inference; ·        clustering; ·        control; ·        class...

  14. Visual perception and visual cognition in healthy and pathological ageing

    OpenAIRE

    MarkW.Greenlee; AllisonB.Sekuler

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of visual perception and visual cognition has advanced considerably over the last decades. The effects of ageing on visual perception and visual cognition are less well understood. This Research Topic features state-of-the-art approaches to determining the effects of ageing on visual perception, visual attention, visual memory and visually guided behaviour. Studies using methods that incorporate psychophysics, eye movements, electrophysiology, structural and functional neuro...

  15. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC50). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  16. Visualization Learning for Visually Impaired People

    OpenAIRE

    Salamin, Patrick; Thalmann, Daniel; Vexo,Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Virtual Environments (VE) are mainly visual experiments that exclude visually impaired people. In this paper we present an application that should allow almost everybody to ``see'' or at least to perceive 3D shapes. We will first describe the mandatory aspects of such an application, the tests we made and finally conclude by the results we obtained with geometrically basic shapes that are very promising.

  17. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data. PMID:25403541

  18. Artificial intelligence methods for diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist in diagnosis of its nuclear power plants, the Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has been developing skills in Artificial Intelligence for about a decade. Different diagnostic expert systems have been designed. Among them, SILEX for control rods cabinet troubleshooting, DIVA for turbine generator diagnosis, DIAPO for reactor coolant pump diagnosis. This know how in expert knowledge modeling and acquisition is direct result of experience gained during developments and of a more general reflection on knowledge based system development. We have been able to reuse this results for other developments such as a guide for auxiliary rotating machines diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  20. Logical Foundations Of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The procedures of searching solutions to problems, in Artificial Intelligence, can be brought about, in many occasions, without knowledge of the Domain, and in other situations, with knowledge of it. This last procedure is usually called Heuristic Search. In such methods the matrix techniques reveal themselves as essential. Their introduction can give us an easy and precise way in the search of solution. Our paper explains how the matrix theory appears and fruitfully participates in A I, with feasible applications to Game Theory.

  1. Artificial intelligence a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whitby, Blay

    2012-01-01

    Tomorrow begins right here as we embark on an enthralling and jargon-free journey into the world of computers and the inner recesses of the human mind. Readers encounter everything from the nanotechnology used to make insect-like robots, to computers that perform surgery, in addition to discovering the biggest controversies to dog the field of AI. Blay Whitby is a Lecturer on Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex UK. He is the author of two books and numerous papers.

  2. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  3. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  4. Artificial Neural Networks An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Priddy, Kevin L

    2005-01-01

    This tutorial text provides the reader with an understanding of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and their application, beginning with the biological systems which inspired them, through the learning methods that have been developed and the data collection processes, to the many ways ANNs are being used today. The material is presented with a minimum of math (although the mathematical details are included in the appendices for interested readers), and with a maximum of hands-on experience. All specialized terms are included in a glossary. The result is a highly readable text that will teach t

  5. ARTIFICIAL LIVING SYSTEM AND ITS COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongguang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the author shows some artificial living systems, whose basic life characteristics are explored, especially the differentiation in evolution from single cellular to multi-cellular organism. In addition, the author discusses diversity and evolvability also.The author gives a modified entropy function to measure the diversity. Finally, the author drops an open problem about the structure of "gene" of artificial living systems, so that we can measure the evolutionary order between the artificial living systems.

  6. Of Artificial Intelligence and Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2014-01-01

    Can computers, or artificial intelligence, reason by analogy? This essay urges that they cannot, because they are unable to engage in the crucial task of identifying the normative principle that links or separates cases. Current claims, about the ability of artificial intelligence to reason analogically, rest on an inadequate picture of what legal reasoning actually is. For the most part, artificial intelligence now operates as a kind of advanced version of LEXIS, offering research assistance...

  7. Readings in artificial intelligence and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Readings in Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering covers the main techniques and application of artificial intelligence and software engineering. The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence applied to software engineering is automatic programming. Automatic programming would allow a user to simply say what is wanted and have a program produced completely automatically. This book is organized into 11 parts encompassing 34 chapters that specifically tackle the topics of deductive synthesis, program transformations, program verification, and programming tutors. The opening parts p

  8. Artificial Compressibility with Entropic Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jonathan; Roberts, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Artificial Compressibility (AC) methods relax the strict incompressibility constraint associated with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Instead, they rely on an artificial equation of state relating pressure and density fluctuations through a numerical Mach number. Such methods are not new: the first AC methods date back to Chorin (1967). More recent applications can be found in the lattice-Boltzmann method, which is a kinetic/mesoscopic method that converges to an AC form of the Navier-Stokes equations. With computing hardware trending towards massively parallel architectures in order to achieve high computational throughput, AC style methods have become attractive due to their local information propagation and concomitant parallelizable algorithms. In this work, we examine a damped form of AC in the context of finite-difference and finite-element methods, with a focus on achieving time-accurate simulations. Also, we comment on the scalability of the various algorithms. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Artificial Shortages and Strategic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We consider a monopolist who manipulates the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods. The approach is to develop an intertemporal model of pricing strategy for a monopolist. Approach: The postulated pricing strategy creates an incentive for producers to reduce current supply and raise current prices and sacrifice current profits in order to increase future profits. The main problem is to explain the precise mathematical conditions under which the pricing strategy will be chosen by a monopolist. Results: We derive the optimal pricing strategy to argue that the monopolist has an incentive to adopt simple market manipulation that calls forth a close examination of issues concerning deregulation. Conclusion: The paper examines two possible strategies for a typical monopolist-strategic pricing vis-a-vis a myopic pricing. The intuition is that the monopolist can manipulate the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods.

  10. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  11. Flying by Ear: Blind Flight with a Music-Based Artificial Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brian D.; Brungart, Douglas S.; Dallman, Ronald C.; Yasky, Richard J., Jr.; Romigh, Griffin

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in actual flight operations to evaluate an audio artificial horizon display that imposed aircraft attitude information on pilot-selected music. The first experiment examined a pilot's ability to identify, with vision obscured, a change in aircraft roll or pitch, with and without the audio artificial horizon display. The results suggest that the audio horizon display improves the accuracy of attitude identification overall, but differentially affects response time across conditions. In the second experiment, subject pilots performed recoveries from displaced aircraft attitudes using either standard visual instruments, or, with vision obscured, the audio artificial horizon display. The results suggest that subjects were able to maneuver the aircraft to within its safety envelope. Overall, pilots were able to benefit from the display, suggesting that such a display could help to improve overall safety in general aviation.

  12. A Pathway to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of catalytic systems and the application thereof has proven to be the key to overcome traditional limitations of industrial-scale synthetic processes. Converging organometallic and biocatalytic principles lead to the development of Artificial Metalloenzymes (ArMs) that comprise a synthetic metal catalyst embedded in a protein scaffold, thereby combining the reactivity of the former with the versatility of the latter. This synergistic approach introduces rationally designed building blocks for the catalytic site and the host protein to assemble enzyme-like structures that follow regio-, chemo-, enantio- and substrate-selective principles. Yet, the identification of suitable protein scaffolds has thus far been challenging. Herein we report a rationally optimized fluorescent protein host, mTFP*, that was engineered to have no intrinsic metal binding capability and, owing to its robust nature, can act as scaffold for the design of novel ArMs. We demonstrate the potential of site-specific modifications within the protein host, use protein X-Ray analysis to validate the respective scaffolds and show how artificial mutant binding sites can be introduced. Transition metal Förster Resonance Energy transfer (tmFRET) methodologies help to evaluate micromolar dissociation constants and reveal structural rearrangements upon coordination of the metal centers. In conjunction with molecular insights from X-Ray crystallographic structure determination, dynamics of the binding pocket can be inferred. The versatile subset of different binding motifs paired with transition metal catalysts create artificial metalloenzymes that provide reactivities which otherwise do not exist in nature. As a proof of concept, Diels-Alder cycloadditions highlight the potential of the present mTFP* based catalysts by stereoselectively converting azachalcone and cyclopentadiene substrates. Screens indicate an enantiomeric excess of up to 60% and provide insights into the electronic and

  13. Visual Attention: from Bio-Inspired Modeling to Real-Time Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouerhani, Nabil; Hügli, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Visual Attention: From Bio-Inspired Modeling to Visual attention is the ability of a vision system, be it biological or artificial, to rapidly select the most salient and thus the most relevant data about the environment in which the system is operating. The main goal of this visual mechanism is to drastically reduce the amount of visual information that must be processed by high level and thus complex tasks, such as object recognition, which leads to a considerable speed up of the entire vis...

  14. Application of artificial neural networks for modeling localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to modeling localized corrosion of Incoloy Alloy 825 in simulated J - 13 well water. ANN as a non linear models can represent accurately localized corrosion phenomena caused by an environment containing chlorides, nitrates, fluorides and sulfates at various temperature ranges. Although the nature of the dependent variable of the ANN models, the visual rating of the localized corrosion is qualitative, a good correspondence between the output of the model and the actual indications is determined. Accurate ANN modeling has been carried out by using the visual inspection of the specimen surface, in contrast to linear modeling where in order to get a sound correlation between the system variables, a complex dependent parameter, having no clear physical meaning has been chosen. It has also been found that one can extrapolate to a certain extent, beyond the ability to interpolate (as with linear models). The ANN model predicted with a low relative error the visual rating of the corrosion rate of records which where part of the testing set of the ANN and belonging to the original full factorial design experiment. Thus, such models can be used for detailed analysis procedures as sensitivity, knowledge acquisition and optimization. (author). 7 refs, 9 figs

  15. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  16. Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-04-01

    Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps. PMID:21510204

  17. Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, vectors of Orbiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delécolle Jean-Claude

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates. Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides. Methods/results Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France, with 3 replicates of a 4 sites × 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species. Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed. Conclusions Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  19. Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, A.R. [School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester(United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Light is defined as that part of the electromagnetic spectrum (about 380-780 nm) that gives rise to a visual sensation. Lighting in buildings, whether through use of daylight or by artificial means, is designed primarily for the visual needs of the occupants and their expected tasks within a given space. However, solar radiation, and, depending on spectral output of the source, artificial radiation, has other effects on human physiology and behaviour. Blue light affects the circadian rhythm, mood and behaviour; at shorter wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) the detriments of photo aging and sunburn are balanced by the benefits of Vitamin D synthesis. (author)

  20. Deliberate ambiguity in a finite environment: The urban ecology of artificial items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Akkerman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is made between visual declaration and virtual usage of artificial items within a physical environment, such as a street. Visual declaration is a formal pictorial designation, or a function, e.g. “decoration,” of an item, such as a “planter.” Virtual usage refers to the item when it is used in lieu of another item. The formal designation, “sitting,” customarily designated to an item such as “bench,” could also be a virtual usage of the item “planter.” The question asked is, “What is the relationship between items, given their formal, visual declaration and their informal, virtual, usage?” An artificial item, according to its visual declaration, is referred to as a ‘visual’ or ‘real item’. Each visual item has the property of being used as another item by virtue of its undeclared usage. Pending on the item's design and configuration, a visual item can be then substituted for another visual item. An artificial item, thus, attains deliberate ambiguity between its formal designation and its virtual usage. This ambiguity between visual declaration and virtual usage can be quantified. Within the full domain of n possible usages, this relationship can be conveniently presented in a nonnegative matrix. It is shown that the inverse of this matrix belongs to a class of well-known matrices. This being the case, the relationship between visual and virtual properties of items within the environment can be formalized. The formalization throws further light on the emerging opportunities in streetscape design.