WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial satellites

  1. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  2. Artificial earth satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Thiruvenkatachar

    1958-10-01

    Full Text Available A general discussion is given of the scientific and technological problems involved in the launching of earth satellites, covering various aspects such as the dynamical relationships involved, the propulsion and guidance systems, tracking and data transmission etc. The possible uses of satellites for scientific research as well as some of the likely future developments are also briefly indicated.

  3. Attitude stability analyses for small artificial satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the stability of the rotational motion of a symmetrical spacecraft, in a circular orbit. The equilibrium points and regions of stability are established when components of the gravity gradient torque acting on the spacecraft are included in the equations of rotational motion, which are described by the Andoyer's variables. The nonlinear stability of the equilibrium points of the rotational motion is analysed here by the Kovalev-Savchenko theorem. With the application of the Kovalev-Savchenko theorem, it is possible to verify if they remain stable under the influence of the terms of higher order of the normal Hamiltonian. In this paper, numerical simulations are made for a small hypothetical artificial satellite. Several stable equilibrium points were determined and regions around these points have been established by variations in the orbital inclination and in the spacecraft principal moment of inertia. The present analysis can directly contribute in the maintenance of the spacecraft's attitude

  4. Dynamics of Artificial Satellites around Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paulo dos Santos Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planetary satellite of interest at the present moment for the scientific community is Europa, one of the four largest moons of Jupiter. There are some missions planned to visit Europa in the next years, for example, Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO, NASA and Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE, ESA. In this paper, we search for orbits around Europa with long lifetimes. Here, we develop the disturbing potential in closed form up to the second order to analyze the effects caused on the orbital elements of an artificial satellite around Europa. The equations of motion are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in power series of the eccentricity and inclination. We found polar orbits with long lifetimes. This type of orbits reduces considerably the maintenance cost of the orbit. We show a formula to calculate the critical inclination of orbits around Europa taking into account the disturbing potential due to the nonspherical shape of the central body and the perturbation of the third body.

  5. Orbital Dynamics of Space Debris around operational artificial satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Jarbas

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of space debris, orbiting the Earth justifies and requires more efforts to observe and track them to avoid collisions among them and the earth's satellites. In this way, several studies are important to preserve the operability of the artificial satellites. In this work, the orbital dynamics of space debris are studied in the neighborhood of operational artificial satellites. The results show that the collision risks between these objects is high and solutions to avoid these events are necessary.

  6. Are artificial satellites orbits influenced by an expanding Earth?

    OpenAIRE

    G. Scalera

    2006-01-01

    Albeit in the past great theoretical and experimental efforts were made in proposing and searching for G time-decreasing, a major role could be played by an increase of M. A recent analysis (Scalera, 2003a) converges toward an upper limit of the Earth’s mass variation in the order of magnitude of M/M=10-9 /yr. It is here discussed the possible role that can be played by parameters linked to the expanding Earth in the effects we observe in the orbital motion of the artificial satellites. The i...

  7. Are artificial satellites orbits influenced by an expanding Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Albeit in the past great theoretical and experimental efforts were made in proposing and searching for G time-decreasing, a major role could be played by an increase of M. A recent analysis (Scalera, 2003a converges toward an upper limit of the Earth’s mass variation in the order of magnitude of M/M=10-9 /yr. It is here discussed the possible role that can be played by parameters linked to the expanding Earth in the effects we observe in the orbital motion of the artificial satellites. The important result in this short note is the discrimination between the reality of the glacial rebound process and/or the relaxation of the 100m excess of equatorial bulge testified by the high rate of j2 , and the improbable role that glacial rebound can have in driving PM and TPW. It is recommended that the new technology of drag-free satellites be used (Gravity-Probe B is the first step to reveal possible residual orbital parameter variations ascribable to formerly unrecognized fictitious drag terms due to Earth radial increase.

  8. 15:1 Resonance effects on the orbital motion of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kennety S. Formiga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The motion of an artificial satellite is studied considering geopotential perturbations and resonances between the frequencies of the mean orbital motion and the Earth rotational motion. The behavior of the satellite motion is analyzed in the neighborhood of the resonances 15:1. A suitable sequence of canonical transformations reduces the system of differential equations describing the orbital motion to an integrable kernel. The phase space of the resulting system is studied taking into account that one resonant angle is fixed. Simulations are presented showing the variations of the semi-major axis of artificial satellites due to the resonance effects.

  9. Earth albedo effects in the motion of artificial earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, P.

    Different models of the earth albedo values and geographical distribution are compared. Effects of the local cloud cover on the satellite perturbing acceleration are investigated. Resulting changes of the satellite orbit obtained by the method of numerical integration in the spherical coordinate system are given. It is shown that a sufficiently sensitive microaccelerometer on board a special satellite could significantly improve existing models of the earth albedo.

  10. Orbit and attitude determination using artificial satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, T.

    1980-09-01

    Simultaneous determination of orbital as well as attitude parameters of geostationary satellites is proposed in this paper. For this purpose, landmarks contained in the images of the earth taken by such satellites are utilized and attention is focussed on the accuracy of estimates of orbital parameters attained by this method, thus extracting effective informations on the location of the satellite contained in the images. The technology and algorithm for the simultaneous determination of orbit and attitude are actually applied to the geostationary meteorological satellite 'HIMAWARI' of Japan and the experimental results are presented. The precision of orbit determination using landmarks is less than 9 km, and it will offer useful informations to the image processing. The proposed method will be also useful at the emergency when a hazard takes place in the ranging station or ranging devices.

  11. Equilibria of a charged artificial satellite subject to gravitational and Lorentz torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attitude dynamics of a rigid artificial satellite subject to a gravity gradient and Lorentz torques in a circular orbit are considered. Lorentz torque is developed on the basis of the electrodynamic effects of the Lorentz force acting on the charged satellite's surface. We assume that the satellite is moving in a Low Earth Orbit in the geomagnetic field, which is considered to be a dipole. Our model of torque due to the Lorentz force is developed for an artificial satellite with a general shape, and the nonlinear differential equations of Euler are used to describe its attitude orientation. All equilibrium positions are determined and conditions for their existence are obtained. The numerical results show that the charge q and radius ρ0 of the center of charge for the satellite provide a certain type of semi-passive control for the attitude of the satellite. The technique for this kind of control would be to increase or decrease the electrostatic screening on the satellite. The results obtained confirm that the change in charge can affect the magnitude of the Lorentz torque, which can also affect control of the satellite. Moreover, the relationship between magnitude of the Lorentz torque and inclination of the orbit is investigated. (research papers)

  12. Artificial Satellite Theory: Contribution of the Tesseral Harmonic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Palacían

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la teoría del satélite artificial, se presenta aquí el estudio del caso de un satélite artificial moviéndose alrededor de un planeta similar a la Tierra. La fuerza de perturbación considerada es la debida a la inhomogeneidad del potencial gravitacional del planeta. El análisis que se presenta es puramente analítico y considera el truncamiento de las ecuaciones Hamiltonianas a partir del segundo orden, es decir, la influencia de los armónicos zonales y teserales hasta segundo orden. El sistema se formula como un Hamiltoniano con tres grados de libertad. Por medio de tres transformaciones de Lie sucesivas y sin hacer uso de expansiones de Taylor para la excentricidad ni de series de Fourier para las anomalías, el sistema se normaliza hasta orden cinco en un pequeño parámetro. El Hamiltoniano resultante define un sistema de un grado de libertad, que puede ser expresado en el espacio de fases en términos de una colección de variables que tienen en cuenta todas las simetrías del problema. El análisis de este sistema da como resultado la obtención de cuatro regiones de equilibrio relativo y dos tipos de bifurcaciones. La comparación de este problema reducido con el sistema original nos muestra la existencia de varias familias de toroides invariantes, trayectorias periódicas y cuasiperiódicas con el mismo tipo de bifurcaciones.

  13. Flyght Dynamics of Artificial Satellite of the Minor Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Alexander; Eismont, Natan; Ledkov, Anton; Simonov, Alexander; Pol, Vadim

    During last years the scientific interest to the asteroid is constantly growing. It may be explained by different reasons. One of the most important from them is confirmation of the fact that the asteroids present the real hazard to the Earth. The Chelyabinsk event demonstrates strong in support of this statement. Besides, the asteroids exploration promises to supply new data for understanding of the solar system origin and evolution. And the projects aimed to reach this goal have begun from the NASA NEAR mission to Eros. It was the first one when the spacecraft was landed on the surface of the asteroid. The other successive mission was fulfilled by JAXA with Hayabusa spacecraft which has returned to the Earth soil samples of Itokawa asteroid. In the nearest future the mission to RQ 36 asteroid is planned supposing landing and soil samples return. Unavoidable phase of such missions is the spacecraft flight in vicinity of the target asteroid, for example on the asteroid satellite orbit. It should be mentioned that quite visible number of asteroids has geometric form which is far from being sphere. Accordingly the gravity field of such asteroid cannot be presented as the one close to sphere. The problem is that prior to the mission to the asteroid one cannot receive good enough knowledge of its gravity field and even its gravity field constant. In the paper the flight dynamics problem of spacecraft moving along asteroid satellite orbit is explored. It is supposed that the asteroid is comparatively small with diameter (maximum size) about 300 m, like Apophis asteroid has, or less. To approximate the gravity field of asteroid the last is considered as totality of mass points. We assume such approach as more simple and effective as compared with the commonly accepted use of Legendre polynomial expansion. Different orbits near asteroid are analyzed with the sets of orbital parameters determining the size of orbit, its shape and position with respect to the Sun. The goal

  14. Semi-analytical study of the rotational motion stability of artificial satellites using quaternions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study at aims performing the stability analysis of the rotational motion to artificial satellites using quaternions to describe the satellite attitude (orientation on the space). In the system of rotational motion equations, which is composed by four kinematic equations of the quaternions and by the three Euler equations in terms of the rotational spin components. The influence of the gravity gradient and the direct solar radiation pressure torques have been considered. Equilibrium points were obtained through numerical simulations using the softwares Matlab and Octave, which are then analyzed by the Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion

  15. Semi-analytical study of the rotational motion stability of artificial satellites using quaternions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Zanardi, Maria Cecília; Matos, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    This study at aims performing the stability analysis of the rotational motion to artificial satellites using quaternions to describe the satellite attitude (orientation on the space). In the system of rotational motion equations, which is composed by four kinematic equations of the quaternions and by the three Euler equations in terms of the rotational spin components. The influence of the gravity gradient and the direct solar radiation pressure torques have been considered. Equilibrium points were obtained through numerical simulations using the softwares Matlab and Octave, which are then analyzed by the Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion.

  16. An artificial neural network ensemble model for estimating global solar radiation from Meteosat satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimized artificial neural network ensemble model is built to estimate daily global solar radiation over large areas. The model uses clear-sky estimates and satellite images as input variables. Unlike most studies using satellite imagery based on visible channels, our model also exploits all information within infrared channels of the Meteosat 9 satellite. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize selection of model inputs, for which twelve are selected – eleven 3-km Meteosat 9 channels and one clear-sky term. The model is validated in Andalusia (Spain) from January 2008 through December 2008. Measured data from 83 stations across the region are used, 65 for training and 18 independent ones for testing the model. At the latter stations, the ensemble model yields an overall root mean square error of 6.74% and correlation coefficient of 99%; the generated estimates are relatively accurate and errors spatially uniform. The model yields reliable results even on cloudy days, improving on current models based on satellite imagery. - Highlights: • Daily solar radiation data are generated using an artificial neural network ensemble. • Eleven Meteosat channels observations and a clear sky term are used as model inputs. • Model exploits all information within infrared Meteosat channels. • Measured data for a year from 83 ground stations are used. • The proposed approach has better performance than existing models on daily basis

  17. Change in the acceleration of artificial satellites during enhanced geomagnetic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepurnoy, V.N.; Charina, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of disturbances in the acceleration (decrease in the period of rotation) of several artificial satellites during the strong magnetic storms of November 1960 showed that the disturbances occurred at the same time all over the world and coincided approximately with the time of the maximum of geomagnetic disturbances. Use of data on variations in the acceleration of satellites with a large balistic coefficient (ratio of transverse cross section to mass) made a more detailed study of acceleration disturbances during magnetic storms possible. It was found that acceleration disturbances lag approximately 5 hours behind the a/sub p/ indexes and their amplitude increases with height. This suggested global heating of the atmosphere above 200 km in proportion with the a/sub p/ index, leading to an increase in intensity and in satellite drag.

  18. Research of radiation pressure and Poynting–Robertson effect influence on geodesic artificial satellites and space debris motion.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay A. Sorokin; Elena N. Kablova

    2013-01-01

    During space colonization it will be inevitably precision navigation using, that requires non-gravitational effects precise accounting. One of these effects mathematical description - radiation pressure with concomitant Poynting–Robertson effect influence on space objects as artificial satellites and space debris - is examined in this article. Satellite motion is accompanied by the Sun illuminance, with short-time operations in the Earth penumbra and umbra, that influence satellites orbit e...

  19. Simulation on change of generic satellite radar cross section via artificially created plasma sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shen Shou Max; Chuang, Yu-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Recent advancements in antisatellite missile technologies have proven the effectiveness of such attacks, and the vulnerability of satellites in such exercises inspires a new paradigm in RF Stealth techniques suitable for satellites. In this paper we examine the possibility of using artificially created plasma sprays on the surface of the satellite’s main body to alter its radar cross section (RCS). First, we briefly review past research related to RF Stealth using plasma. Next, we discuss the physics between electromagnetic waves and plasma, and the RCS number game in RF Stealth design. A comparison of RCS in a generic satellite and a more complicated model is made to illustrate the effect of the RCS number game, and its meaning for a simulation model. We also run a comparison between finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) codes, and find the RCS results are very close. We then compare the RCS of the generic satellite and the plasma-covered satellite. The incident radar wave is a differentiated Gaussian monopulse, with 3 dB bandwidth between 1.2 GHz and 4 GHz, and we simulate three kinds of plasma density, with a characteristic plasma frequency ω P  =  0.1, 1, and 10 GHz. The electron-neutral collision frequency ν en is set at 0.01 GHz. We found the RCS of plasma-covered satellite is not necessarily smaller than the originally satellite. When ω P is 0.1 GHz, the plasma spray behaves like a dielectric, and there is minor reduction in the RCS. When ω P is 1 GHz, the X-Y cut RCS increases. When ω P is 10 GHz, the plasma behaves more like a metal to the radar wave, and stronger RCS dependency to frequency appears. Therefore, to use plasma as an RCS adjustment tool requires careful fine-tuning of plasma density and shape, in order to achieve the so-called plasma stealth effect.

  20. THE DRAG EXERTED BY AN OBLATE ROTATING ATMOSPHERE ON AN ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KH. I. Khalil

    2002-01-01

    A theory is formulated for the motion of an artificial satellite under the joint effects of Earth oblateness and atmospheric drag. The Hamilton' s equations of motion are derived including the zonal harmonics of the geopotential up to J4 and the drag accelerations. The atmospheric model is an oblate rotating model in which the atmospheric rotation lags behind that of the Earth as the increasing distance from the Earth. The drag free problem is first solved via two canonical transformations to eliminate in succession the short and long period terms. An operator D is then defined and used to formulate the drag acceleration in terms of the double primed variables expressing the solution of the drag-free problem.

  1. Artificial Neural Networks to reconstruct incomplete satellite data: application to the Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pisoni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data can be very useful in applications where extensive spatial information is needed, but sometimes missing data due to presence of clouds can affect data quality. In this study a methodology for pre-processing sea surface temperature (SST data is proposed. The methodology, that processes measures in the visible wavelength, is based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN system. The effectiveness of the procedure has been also evaluated comparing results obtained using an interpolation method. After the methodology has been identified, a validation is performed on 3 different episodes representative of SST variability in the Mediterranean sea. The proposed technique can process SST NOAA/AVHRR data to simulate severe storm episodes by means of prognostic meteorological models.

  2. Delaunay variables approach to the elimination of the perigee in Artificial Satellite Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Martin; San-Juan, Juan F.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.

    2014-09-01

    Analytical integration in Artificial Satellite Theory may benefit from different canonical simplification techniques, like the elimination of the parallax, the relegation of the nodes, or the elimination of the perigee. These techniques were originally devised in polar-nodal variables, an approach that requires expressing the geopotential as a Pfaffian function in certain invariants of the Kepler problem. However, it has been recently shown that such sophisticated mathematics are not needed if implementing both the relegation of the nodes and the parallax elimination directly in Delaunay variables. Proceeding analogously, it is shown here how the elimination of the perigee can be carried out also in Delaunay variables. In this way the construction of the simplification algorithm becomes elementary, on one hand, and the computation of the transformation series is achieved with considerable savings, on the other, reducing the total number of terms of the elimination of the perigee to about one third of the number of terms required in the classical approach.

  3. Data fusion with artificial neural networks (ANN) for classification of earth surface from microwave satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lure, Y. M. Fleming; Grody, Norman C.; Chiou, Y. S. Peter; Yeh, H. Y. Michael

    1993-01-01

    A data fusion system with artificial neural networks (ANN) is used for fast and accurate classification of five earth surface conditions and surface changes, based on seven SSMI multichannel microwave satellite measurements. The measurements include brightness temperatures at 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz at both H and V polarizations (only V at 22 GHz). The seven channel measurements are processed through a convolution computation such that all measurements are located at same grid. Five surface classes including non-scattering surface, precipitation over land, over ocean, snow, and desert are identified from ground-truth observations. The system processes sensory data in three consecutive phases: (1) pre-processing to extract feature vectors and enhance separability among detected classes; (2) preliminary classification of Earth surface patterns using two separate and parallely acting classifiers: back-propagation neural network and binary decision tree classifiers; and (3) data fusion of results from preliminary classifiers to obtain the optimal performance in overall classification. Both the binary decision tree classifier and the fusion processing centers are implemented by neural network architectures. The fusion system configuration is a hierarchical neural network architecture, in which each functional neural net will handle different processing phases in a pipelined fashion. There is a total of around 13,500 samples for this analysis, of which 4 percent are used as the training set and 96 percent as the testing set. After training, this classification system is able to bring up the detection accuracy to 94 percent compared with 88 percent for back-propagation artificial neural networks and 80 percent for binary decision tree classifiers. The neural network data fusion classification is currently under progress to be integrated in an image processing system at NOAA and to be implemented in a prototype of a massively parallel and dynamically reconfigurable Modular

  4. Contribution of MODIS Derived Snow Cover Satellite Data into Artificial Neural Network for Streamflow Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Gokcen; Arda Sorman, Ali; Sensoy, Aynur

    2014-05-01

    Contribution of snowmelt and correspondingly snow observations are highly important in mountainous basins for modelers who deal with conceptual, physical or soft computing models in terms of effective water resources management. Long term archived continuous data are needed for appropriate training and testing of data driven approaches like artificial neural networks (ANN). Data is scarce at the upper elevations due to the difficulty of installing sufficient automated SNOTEL stations; thus in literatures many attempts are made on the rainfall dominated basins for streamflow estimation studies. On the other hand, optical satellites can easily detect snow because of its high reflectance property. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite that has two platforms (Terra and Aqua) provides daily and 8-daily snow images for different time periods since 2000, therefore snow cover data (SCA) may be useful as an input layer for ANN applications. In this study, a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) model is trained and tested with precipitation, temperature, radiation, previous day discharges as well as MODIS daily SCA data. The weights and biases are optimized with fastest and robust Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. MODIS snow cover images are removed from cloud coverage using certain filtering techniques. The Upper Euphrates River Basin in eastern part of Turkey (10 250 km2) is selected as the application area since it is fed by snowmelt approximately 2/3 of total annual volume during spring and early summer. Several input models and ANN structures are investigated to see the effect of the contributions using 10 years of data (2001-2010) for training and validation. The accuracy of the streamflow estimations is checked with statistical criteria (coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, root mean square error, mean absolute error) and the results seem to improve when SCA data is introduced. Furthermore, a forecast study is

  5. Using artificial neural network and satellite data to predict rice yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Rice production in Bangladesh is a crucial part of the national economy and providing about 70 percent of an average citizen's total calorie intake. The demand for rice is constantly rising as the new populations are added in every year in Bangladesh. Due to the increase in population, the cultivation land decreases. In addition, Bangladesh is faced with production constraints such as drought, flooding, salinity, lack of irrigation facilities and lack of modern technology. To maintain self sufficiency in rice, Bangladesh will have to continue to expand rice production by increasing yield at a rate that is at least equal to the population growth until the demand of rice has stabilized. Accurate rice yield prediction is one of the most important challenges in managing supply and demand of rice as well as decision making processes. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to construct a model to predict Aus rice yield in Bangladesh. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based remote sensing satellite data vegetation health (VH) indices (Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used as input variables and official statistics of Aus rice yield is used as target variable for ANN prediction model. The result obtained with ANN method is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%. Therefore, prediction can play an important role in planning and storing of sufficient rice to face in any future uncertainty.

  6. Periodic components of the atmospheric drag of Earth artificial satellites and their dependence on the state of space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendant, Volodymyr; Koshkin, Nikolay; Ryabov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Based on the accumulated in the University Observatory extensive database of evolving orbital elements of low-orbit satellites, the behavior of the parameterwas studied, which characterizes their drag in the atmosphere of the Earth. The time spectra structure of drag of 25 artificial satellites is being studied by applying various methods of spectral analysis. Fifteen artificial satellites with circular orbits and ten artificial satellites with elliptical orbits are studied. The processed information includes ten years of observations that covers: declining and minimum phases of 23 ^{rd}(2005-2008) solar cycle; phases of rise and maximum of 24th(2009-2014) solar cycle. Time-frequency analysis of solar and geomagnetic activity indexes has been conducted. These indexes are: W - Wolf numbers; Sp - the total area of sunspot groups of the northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun, F10.7 - the solar radio flux at 10,7 cm; E - electron flux with energies more than 0,6 MeV i 2 MeV; planetary, high latitude and middle latitude geomagnetic index Ap. Periodograms of satellite's drag data, solar and geomagnetic activity indexes were constructed. In the atmospheric drag dynamics of satellites,the following periodswere detected: 6-year, 2.1-year, annual, semi-annual, 27-days, 13- and 11-days. Similar periods are identified in indexes of solar and geomagnetic activity. The ratios of the amplitudes of the spectral power of these periods vary in different phases of the solar cycle. The tables of the main periods in the drag of the artificial satellites and the main periods in the solar and geomagnetic activity indexes were obtained with the help of spectrograms. Their presence in certain phases of the solar cycle was researched. The calculation of multiple correlation' models of the orbital parameter characterizing the drag of satellites on various orbits, depending on the basic parameters of space weather has been done. These results have practical application for models

  7. Stochastic techniques applied to the smoothing treatment of bias and compression of artificial satellite tracking and telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, V.

    1983-10-01

    Three procedures related with preprocessing of artificial satellite tracking and telemetry data, developed with the aid of stochastic techniques are presented. The first of them consists of a data smoothing procedure by curve fitting developed by the application of the Kalman filter combined with an adaptive technique of state noise evaluation. The second procedure, developed in order to allow an automatic treatment of bias errors in dynamics systems observation data, makes Kalman filter state estimation possible by direct processing of the bias errors corrupted observations. For this, a dynamic compensation scheme is used. Finally, the third procedure, classified as a data compression procedure, has the objective of obtaining, in certain conditions, a processing speed gain in Kalman filter applications to nonlinear dynamic systems state estimation. Validation tests of the procedures were made by digital computer simulation using simulated data related with a low altitude artificial satellite orbit.

  8. Documenting Liquefaction Failures Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, T.; Baise, L. G.; Gens, R.; Prakash, A.; Gupta, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    bands by neighborhood correlation image analysis using an artificial intelligence algorithm called support vector machine to remotely identify and document liquefaction failures across a region; and assess the reliability and accuracy of the thermal remote sensing approach in documenting regional liquefaction failures. Finally, we present the applicability of the satellite data analyzed and appropriateness of a multisensor and multispectral approach for documenting liquefaction related failures.

  9. Inferring anthropogenic trends from satellite data for water-sustainability of US cities near artificial reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, Wondmagegn; Hossain, Faisal

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic activities affect the water cycle and water supply at global and regional spatial scales, and approaches to water management must consider anthropogenic inputs. One of the major inputs in local-to-regional availability of water and the water cycle is land use land cover change as a result of urbanization, artificial reservoirs, and irrigation activity. To understand evolving trends in local hydrologic cycle for water sustainability of growing cities, this study employed a multi-factorial approach involving population trends, water use (and demand), streamflow, and various satellite-derived water-relevant variables. These variables are daily precipitation (from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission-TRMM, 3B42.V7), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS-MOD13A1), land surface temperature (LST) (from MODIS-MOD11A2), and land cover (MODIS-MCD12Q1). Long term trends in such data were used to understand temporal and spatial trends in impounded watersheds hosting a large and growing city. The cities studied for water sustainability were Atlanta, Georgia and Buford dam; Columbia, South Carolina and Saluda dam; Columbus, Ohio and Alum Creek dam; Montgomery, Alabama and Jordan dam; Tulsa, Oklahoma and Keystone dam; and Tuscaloosa, Alabama and Tuscaloosa dam. Our study reveals that daily mean stream flow has been decreasing in all but one (Tulsa) of the areas selected. Satellite data trends between 2000 and 2012 showed a steady decrease in precipitation and NDVI, while LST has gradually increased. We attribute the NDVI (i.e., gradual decrease in vegetation cover) to LST rather than precipitation trends. The results of this research suggest that future temperature projections from climate models can be used in understanding vegetation activity and water availability over the study areas. Cities with larger upstream watershed area are potentially more sustainable and resilient (than those with small

  10. Application of the artificial satellite of the earth to determine the velocity of the gravitational interaction within newtonian gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this paper, additional data are given concerning a gravimeter consisting in a pendulum-laser set proposed in a previous paper of the author (1). This gravimeter could have a sensitivity of 0.1 microgal or even 0.01 microgal in the case of statistical measurements. If processing by an on-line computer is used, the pendulum-laser can constitute a gravimeter which, used in statistical measurements on a long time interval, could reach a sensitivity of 10-12 g. The second part of the paper points out the advantages resulting from determining the velocity of the gravitational reaction in an artificial satellite of the earth. The main advantage is the very fact that this measurement can be achieved by means of the existant gravimeters. The massive reduction of the time error is due to the increase of the ''sinusoid'' frequency resulting from the recording being made on the gravimeter set on an artificial satellite turning around the earth in about 90 minutes

  11. In-flight calibration of satellite ion composition data using artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this report is to evaluate some of the cognitive analyzing techniques that are available and that might be useful for calibration, validation and data analysis of a satellite measurement system. As an example, these cognitive techniques are used to perform a post launch calibration of the three-dimensional ion composition, TICS, on the Freja satellite. 17 refs, 28 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Satellite rainfall monitoring over Africa using multi-spectral MSG data in an artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Grimes, David

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall monitoring over Africa is crucial for a variety of humanitarian and agricultural purposes, and satellites have been used for some time to provide real-time rainfall estimates over the region. Several recent applications of satellite rainfall estimates, such as flash-flood warning systems and crop-yield models, require accurate rainfall totals at daily timescales or below. Multi-spectral Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) data provide information on cloud properties such as optical depth and cloud particle size and phase. These parameters are all relevant to the probability of rainfall occurring from a cloud and the likely intensity of that rainfall, so the use of MSG data should lead to improved satellite rainfall estimates. An artificial neural network (ANN) using multi-spectral inputs from MSG has been trained to provide daily rainfall estimates over Ethiopia, using daily rain-gauge data for calibration. Although ANN methods have previously been applied to the problem of producing rainfall estimates from multi-spectral satellite data, in general precipitation radar data have been used for calibration. The advantage of using rain-gauge data is that gauges are far more widespread over Africa than radar networks, so this method can be easily transferred and if necessary re-calibrated in different climatological regions of the continent. The ANN estimates have been validated against independent Ethiopian gauge data at a variety of time and space scales. The ANN shows an improvement in accuracy at daily timescale when compared to rainfall estimates from the TAMSAT algorithm, which uses only single channel MSG data.

  13. Hydraulic-hydrologic model for the Zambezi River using satellite data and artificial intelligence techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gamito de Saldanha Calado Matos, José Pedro; Schleiss, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The development of hydraulic-hydrologic models is a challenge in the case of large catchment areas with scarce or erroneous measurement data and observations. With his study Mr. Dr. José Pedro Matos made several original contributions in order to overcome this challenge. The scientific developments were applied at Zambezi River basin in Africa in the framework of the interdisciplinary African Dams research project (ADAPT). First of all, procedures and selection criteria for satellite data reg...

  14. GEODYN system support program, volume 4. [computer program for trajectory analysis of artificial satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, N. E.

    1972-01-01

    The GEODYN Orbit Determination and Geodetic Parameter Estimation System consists of a set of computer programs designed to determine and analyze definitive satellite orbits and their associated geodetic and measurement parameters. This manual describes the Support Programs used by the GEODYN System. The mathematics and programming descriptions are detailed. The operational procedures of each program are presented. GEODYN ancillary analysis programs may be grouped into three different categories: (1) orbit comparison - DELTA (2) data analysis using reference orbits - GEORGE, and (3) pass geometry computations - GROUNDTRACK. All of the above three programs use one or more tapes written by the GEODYN program in either a data reduction or orbit generator run.

  15. Ecological effects of artificial reefs in Daya Bay of China observed from satellite and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Chen, Pimao; Tang, Danling; Qin, Chuanxin

    2015-05-01

    Fishery resources along China's coasts have been declining. Could those decline be alleviated by deploying artificial reefs (ARs) in suitable areas? This study investigates effects of a big project conducted in December 2007 that deployed ARs in the southwestern part of Daya Bay. The ARs cover a total dimension of 966.10 × 2850.60 m2 and surface area of 91,500 m2. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations of ecological factors, including Chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl-a), nutrients, attaching organisms and nekton resources, on and around the ARs using both satellite (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) and in situ data. Results showed that the potential affected area of ARs in Daya Bay reached a distance of 4.9 km in the water depth of 12.0-15.2 m. In the study area, Chl-a level reached 2.93 mg m-2 during the post-AR period (2008-2012), that was higher than the pre-AR period (2002-2007) (2.37 mg m-2). Nekton biomass increased by 4.66-16.22 times compared with that in the pre-AR survey, and the species diversity increased by 15%-23%. This parallel trend suggested that ARs might have contribution to the increase in nekton biomass. Long-term observations shall be conducted to understand the response of phytoplankton to ARs.

  16. Communications via the radio artificial earth satellite: Design of the tracking diagram and features for conducting QSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrozhanskiy, V.; Rybkin, V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the operation of a transmitting artifical Earth satellite. A tracking diagram for the satellite is constructed. The zone of radio visibility can be determined based on the techniques proposed.

  17. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Slobodkin

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite. After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  18. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  19. Artificial intelligence systems for rainy areas detection and convective cells' delineation for the south shore of Mediterranean Sea during day and nighttime using MSG satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbi, Mohsene Abdelfettah; Haddad, Boualem

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of cloud classification by means of support vector machines using high resolution images from northern Algeria. The images were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. An automatic system was developed to operate during both day and nighttime by following two steps of data processing. The first aims to detect rainy areas in cloud systems, whereas the second delineates convective cells from stratiform ones. A set of 12 spectral parameters was selected to extract information about cloud properties, which are different from day to night. The training and validation steps of this study were performed by in-situ rainfall measurement data, collected during the rainy season of years 2011 and 2012 via automatic rain gauge stations distributed in northern Algeria. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machine (SVM) were explored, by combining spectral parameters derived from MSG images. Better performances were obtained by the SVM classifier, in terms of Critical Success Index and Probability of Detection for rainy areas detection (CSI = 0.81, POD = 91%), and also for convective/stratiform delineation (CSI = 0.55, POD = 74%).

  20. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  1. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

  2. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  3. Development of the Physical Structure of a Multi-Channel GNSS Signal Detector for Autonomous Coordination and Time Support of Artificial Earth Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkol'nyi, V. N.; Suntsov, S. B.; Karaban, V. M.; Dmitriev, V. D.; Sheerman, F. I.

    2015-11-01

    Physical structure of a multi-channel detector of signals of global navigation satellite systems for autonomous coordination and time support of spacecrafts independent from the terrestrial infrastructure is analyzed. The parameters of multi-channel detector components are determined by mathematical modeling to achieve worldclass tactical and technical specifications. Technologies based on domestic 0.15 μm GaAs pHEMT (Closed JSC "Mikran," Tomsk) and 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS (JSC Research Institute of Molecular Electronics and "Mikron" Plant, Zelenograd) are taken for subsequent practical implementation in monolithic chip components of a navigation detector.

  4. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  6. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  7. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  8. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  9. Artificial noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

  10. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  11. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  12. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  13. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  14. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  15. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  16. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  17. Use of the Doppler technique to track free roaming animals from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of the Doppler effect to track wild animals is discussed, with artificial satellites used to provide wide range coverage. The limitations of radiotelemetry for the purpose of tracking animals are presented. The advantages of the artificial satellite, with specific reference to the Nimbus satellite, are examined.

  18. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  19. Satellite Geomagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade. The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite c...

  20. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  1. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...

  2. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  3. Satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    In 1982 and 1983, six scientific satellites were operated successfully. Two of them, JIKIKEN and ISS-b, performed observations of the Earth's plasma environment. HINOTORI, the solar maximum satellite, observed a number of solar flares. HAKUCHO and newly launched TENMA conducted various observations of cosmic X-ray sources. HIMAWARI-2 is a meteorological satellite but its payload includes a solar particle monitor. EXOS-C was successfully launched in February, 1983, and participants in the MAP (Middle Atmosphere Program). Following these missions, the PLANET-A project comprising two missions, MS-T5 and PLANET-A, is under preparation for the participation in the international cooperative exploration of Comet P/Halley. The third X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-C is currently scheduled for 1987 launch.

  4. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  5. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  6. COSPAR report to United Nations 2004: satellite dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The COSPAR Panel on Satellite Dynamics (PSD) is concerned with the determination of the position, velocity and orientation in space of artificial and natural satellites around the Earth or in the outer space. The following report highlighs representative activities of this panel and provides general information on related international aspects.

  7. Preliminary orbit determination for lunar satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for the determination of orbits of artificial lunar satellites from earth-based range rate measurements developed by Koskela (1964) and Bateman et al. (1966) are simplified and extended to include range measurements along with range rate measurements. For illustration, a numerical example is presented.

  8. Some background about satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  9. Satellite description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, F. C.; Clegg, P. E.; Neugebauer, G.; Langford, D.; Pouw, A.; Irace, W.; Houck, J.

    The onboard computers and their associated software, the attitude control system, and data recording and the communication links of the infrared astronomy satellite (TRAS) are discussed. The IRAS telescope system is considered in detail. Attention is directed towards the cryogenics, thermal control, optics, focal plane assembly, and electronics associated with the telescope system.

  10. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Schuster; Daniel Berrar; Naoyuki Sato

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  11. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  12. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  13. Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Libal, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is rai...

  14. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  15. Satellite Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The usefulness of China’s own global navigation system is being extended by technological breakthroughs China has successfully developed the country’s first navigation chip that is expected to be the heart of the country’s satellite-based navigation system,according to a report released on February 21. The Navigation I chip,developed by the Shanghai Fukong Hualong Micro-system

  16. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  17. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  18. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  19. Artificial ecosystem selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R

    2000-08-01

    Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915

  20. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network Cloud Classification System

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yang; Hsu, K L; Sorooshian, S; Gao, X G

    2004-01-01

    A satellite-based rainfall estimation algorithm, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) Cloud Classification System (CCS), is described. This algorithm extracts local and regional cloud features from infrared (10.7 mum) geostationary satellite imagery in estimating finescale (0.04degrees x 0.04degrees every 30 min) rainfall distribution. This algorithm processes satellite cloud images into pixel rain rates by 1) separating cloud i...

  1. Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary condition for making this argument. Rather than requiring that the system be hermetically sealed to avoid perceptions...

  2. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  3. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  4. Artificial Personality and Disfluency

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, Mirjam; Aylett, Matthew; Tomalin, Marcus; Dall, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is artificial voices with different personalities. Previous studies have shown links between an individual's use of disfluencies in their speech and their perceived personality. Here, filled pauses (uh and um) and discourse markers (like, you know, I mean) have been included in synthetic speech as a way of creating an artificial voice with different personalities. We discuss the automatic insertion of filled pauses and discourse markers (i.e., fillers) into otherwise f...

  5. The Artificial Anal Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, John

    2000-01-01

    The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...

  6. Internetworking with satellite constellations

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, L.

    2001-01-01

    Here, we examine networking and internetworking issues affecting satellite networking in complex satellite constellation networks, and determine what is needed in order to support services based on the TCP/IP suite well in satellite constellations.

  7. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  8. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  9. A Neural Network Approach to Flood Mapping Using Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Sergii Skakun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to flood mapping using satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images that is based on intelligent techniques. In particular, we apply artificial neural networks, self-organizing Kohonen's maps (SOMs), for SAR image segmentation and classification. Our approach was used to process data from different satellite SAR instruments (ERS-2/SAR, ENVISAT/ASAR, RADARSAT-1) for different flood events: the Tisza river, Ukraine and Hungary, 2001; the Huaihe river, China...

  10. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  12. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights

    OpenAIRE

    Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Duffy, James P.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented ...

  13. Artificial ionospheric turbulence (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an analysis of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) arising near the level at which a powerful wave is reflected with ordinary polarization. AIT is an inhomogeneous structure in the ionosphere with a size on the order of centimeters or tens of kilometers and with characteristic frequencies from a fraction of a hertz (aperiodic inhomogeneity) to several megahertz (plasma waves). The authors are primarily concerned with small-scale artificial ionospheric turbulence (SAIT), i.e., with inhomogeneities that are greatly extended along the geomagnetic field with transverse dimensions that are less than the wavelengths of the perturbing waves - the pumping waves (PW) - in a vacuum

  14. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  15. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  16. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  17. Production of artificial radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in the production of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)

  18. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  19. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  20. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  1. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  2. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  3. Natural or Artificial Intelligence?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plzeň (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  5. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  6. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  7. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such ... An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon ...

  8. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  9. China's satellite communications discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  10. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  11. Satellite perturbations and orbital determination; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, June 2-14, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, P.

    1981-04-01

    Papers are presented on the use of point mass models of the geopotential for orbit predictions, on earth ocean tides from long-term analysis of satellite orbits, on the motion of an artificial satellite under the terrestrial radiation pressure, and on the generation of satellite position (and velocity) by a mixed analytical-numerical procedure. Attention is also given to the possibilities of determining the influence of earth body tides on the motion of artificial satellites and to a general time element for orbit integration in Cartesian coordinates.

  12. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  13. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that...... successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well as...

  14. Quasi-satellite dynamics in formation flight

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkola, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-satellite (QS) phenomenon makes two celestial bodies to fly near each other (Mikkola et al. 2006) and that effect can be used also to make artificial satellites move in tandem. We consider formation flight of two or three satellites in low eccentricity near Earth orbits. With the help of weak ion thrusters it is possible to accomplish tandem flight. With ion thrusters it is also possible to mimic many kinds of mutual force laws between the satellites. We found that both a constant repulsive force or an attractive force that decreases with the distance are able to preserve the formation in which the eccentricities cause the actual relative motion and the weak thrusters keep the mean longitude difference small. Initial values are important for the formation flight but very exact adjustment of orbital elements is not important. Simplicity is one of our goals in this study and this result is achieved at least in the way that, when constant force thrusters are used, the satellites only need to detect the...

  15. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  16. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  17. Satellite broadcasting in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1984-05-01

    Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while a second ECS satellite will be used for telephony. Despite plans for the launch of a third, countries in Europe are looking to other organizations such as INTELSAT for greater satellite capacity. Other organizations include Unisat, DFS/Copernicus, GDL, and Videosat. Both satellite and cable networks will increase the program-viewing audience, thus encouraging plans for a pan-European television service intended for an international audience. Although the combination of cable networks and distribution satellites looks promising, high-power broadcasting satellites will play an important role because of flexibility and additional program distribution.

  18. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  19. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  20. Impacts of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Trappl, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book, which is intended to serve as the first stage in an iterative process of detecting, predicting, and assessing the impacts of Artificial Intelligence opens with a short "one-hour course" in AI, which is intended to provide a nontechnical informative introduction to the material which follows. Next comes an overview chapter which is based on an extensive literature search, the position papers, and discussions. The next section of the book contains position papers whose richness...

  1. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Peter E.

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years artificial intelligence has changed from being the preoccupation of a handful of scientists to a thriving enterprise that has captured the imagination of world leaders and ordinary citizens alike. While corporate and government officials organize new projects whose potential impact is widespread, to date few people have been more affected by the transition than those already in the field. I review here some aspects of this transition, and pose some issues that it rai...

  3. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  4. Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise

    OpenAIRE

    Chace, William M.

    1984-01-01

    I rise now to speak with the assumption that all of you know very well what I am going to say. I am the humanist here, the professor of English. We humanists, when asked to speak on questions of science and technology, are notorious for offering an embarrassed and ignorant respect toward those matters, a respect, however, which can all too quickly degenerate into insolent condescension. Face to face with the reality of computer technology, say, or with "artificial intelligence," we humanists ...

  5. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  6. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  7. Multicolour Optical Photometry of Active Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, A.; Wade, G.; Bedard, D.

    Although broadband photometry has been used to infer information about artificial satellites since soon after the launch of Sputnik 1, the development of photometric techniques for non-resolved space object identification or characterisation has been hampered by the large number of variables involved. Many individual studies, and some long ongoing experiments, have used costly metre-class telescopes to obtain data despite other experiments demonstrating that much more flexible and affordable small aperture telescopes may be suitable for the task. In addition, due to the highly time consuming and weather dependent nature of obtaining photometric observations, many studies have suffered from data sets of limited size, or relied upon simulations to support their claims. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted with the aim of determining the utility of small aperture telescopes for conducting broadband photometry of satellites for the purpose of non-resolved space object identification and characterisation. A 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope was used to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution data sets of six active geostationary satellites. The results of the experiment cast doubt on the efficacy of some of the previous approaches to obtaining and analysing photometric data. It was discovered that geostationary satellite lightcurves can vary to a greater degree than has generally been recognised, and colour ratios vary considerably with changes in the illumination/observation geometry, making it difficult to use colour for satellite discrimination. Evidence was also detected of variations in the spectral energy distribution of sunlight reflected off satellite surface materials, which could have implications for surface material characterisation and techniques that aim to separate satellite body and solar panel contributions to the total observed spectra.

  8. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  9. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  10. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems. PMID:16203606

  11. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  12. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  13. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  14. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  15. Automated Wildfire Detection Through Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry; Borne, Kirk; Thomas, Brian; Huang, Zhenping; Chi, Yuechen

    2005-01-01

    We have tested and deployed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) data mining techniques to analyze remotely sensed multi-channel imaging data from MODIS, GOES, and AVHRR. The goal is to train the ANN to learn the signatures of wildfires in remotely sensed data in order to automate the detection process. We train the ANN using the set of human-detected wildfires in the U.S., which are provided by the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) wildfire detection group at NOAA/NESDIS. The ANN is trained to mimic the behavior of fire detection algorithms and the subjective decision- making by N O M HMS Fire Analysts. We use a local extremum search in order to isolate fire pixels, and then we extract a 7x7 pixel array around that location in 3 spectral channels. The corresponding 147 pixel values are used to populate a 147-dimensional input vector that is fed into the ANN. The ANN accuracy is tested and overfitting is avoided by using a subset of the training data that is set aside as a test data set. We have achieved an automated fire detection accuracy of 80-92%, depending on a variety of ANN parameters and for different instrument channels among the 3 satellites. We believe that this system can be deployed worldwide or for any region to detect wildfires automatically in satellite imagery of those regions. These detections can ultimately be used to provide thermal inputs to climate models.

  16. Communication satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  17. GPS Satellites Orbits: Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Danilo Damasceno Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of perturbations due to resonant geopotential harmonics on the semimajor axis of GPS satellites are analyzed. For some GPS satellites, secular perturbations of about 4 m/day can be obtained by numerical integration of the Lagrange planetary equations considering in the disturbing potential the main secular resonant coefficients. Amplitudes for long-period terms due to resonant coefficients are also exhibited for some hypothetical satellites orbiting in the neighborhood of the GPS satellites orbits. The results are important to perform orbital maneuvers of GPS satellites such that they stay in their nominal orbits. Also, for the GPS satellites that are not active, the long-period effects due to the resonance must be taken into account in the surveillance of the orbital evolutions of such debris.

  18. Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Klosko, S. M.; Torrence, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the laser tracking network. The vertical components of the stations, through the tracking geometry provided by the global network and the accurate knowledge of orbital dynamics, are uniquely related to the center of mass of the earth. Attention is given to the observations, the methodologies for reducing satellite observations to estimate station positions, Lageos-observed tectonic plate motions, an improved temporal resolution of SLR plate motions, and the SLR vertical datum.

  19. Handbook of satellite orbits from Kepler to GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Capderou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years after Sputnik, artificial satellites have become indispensable monitors in many areas, such as economics, meteorology, telecommunications, navigation and remote sensing. The specific orbits are important for the proper functioning of the satellites. This book discusses the great variety of satellite orbits, both in shape (circular to highly elliptical) and properties (geostationary, Sun-synchronous, etc.). This volume starts with an introduction into geodesy. This is followed by a presentation of the fundamental equations of mechanics to explain and demonstrate the properties for all types of orbits. Numerous examples are included, obtained through IXION software developed by the author. The book also includes an exposition of the historical background that is necessary to help the reader understand the main stages of scientific thought from Kepler to GPS. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and students working in the field of satellite technology. Engineers, geographers and all those...

  20. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498

  1. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2002-01-01

    Highlighting satellite and earth station design, links and communication systems, error detection and correction, and regulations and procedures for system modeling, integrations, testing, and evaluation, Satellite Communication Engineering provides a simple and concise overview of the fundamental principles common to information communications. It discusses block and feedback ciphering; covers orbital errors; evaluates multi-beam satellite networks; illustrates bus, electrical, and mechanical systems design; analyzes system reliability and availability; elucidates reflector/lens, phased array

  2. Artificial atom and quantum terahertz response in carbon nanotube quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial atom behaviours have been observed in single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) quantum dots (QDs). Two-electron shell structures and the Zeeman splitting of single-particle states were revealed in single-electron transport measurements in low temperatures. To demonstrate that the charging energy of the dot lies in a terahertz (THz) range, the THz photon-assisted tunnelling was tested, and was really observed as a satellite Coulomb peak. Some satellite peaks moved as a frequency was changed, but other peaks did not move. We give possible models to explain the existence of two different satellite peaks.

  3. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  4. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  5. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  6. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  7. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  8. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from a...

  9. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  10. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  11. Satellite communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, BG

    1999-01-01

    The book is very clear and comprehensive. The scope of the book is very large: almost all aspects of current satellite communication systems are studied. Hence, the book keeps its promise in that it provides a quick start for someone who is new to the satellite communications business.

  12. Communications technology satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  13. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W.; Duffy, James P.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.

  14. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  15. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  16. Artificial frustrated spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2015-09-01

    Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.

  17. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  18. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  19. Analytical Prediction of the Spin Stabilized Satellite's Attitude Using The Solar Radiation Torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present an analytical solution for the spin motion equations of spin-stabilized satellite considering only the influence of solar radiation torque. The theory uses a cylindrical satellite on a circular orbit and considers that the satellite is always illuminated. The average components of this torque were determined over an orbital period. These components are substituted in the spin motion equations in order to get an analytical solution for the right ascension and declination of the satellite spin axis. The time evolution for the pointing deviation of the spin axis was also analyzed. These solutions were numerically implemented and compared with real data of the Brazilian Satellite of Data Collection – SCD1 an SCD2. The results show that the theory has consistency and can be applied to predict the spin motion of spin-stabilized artificial satellites

  20. Trajectoire d'un satellite artificiel en chute autour de la terre

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ghabrit, Younes; Zawati, Modar Hilmi

    2011-01-01

    The project consists to determine, mathematically, the trajectory that will take an artificial satellite to fight against the air resistance. During our work, we had to consider that our satellite will crash to the surface of our planet. We started our study by understanding the system of forces that are acting between our satellite and the earth. In this work, we had to study the second law of Newton by taking knowledge of the air friction, the speed of the satellite which helped us to find the equation that relates the trajectory of the satellite itself, its speed and the density of the air depending on the altitude. Finally, we had to find a mathematic relation that links the density with the altitude and then we had to put it into our movement equation. In order to verify our model, we'll see what happens if we give a zero velocity to the satellite.

  1. Artificial Life Meets Computational Creativity?

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    I (briefly) review the history of work in Artificial Life on the problem of the open-ended evolutionary growth of complexity in computational worlds. This is then put into the context of evolutionary epistemology and human creativity.

  2. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications. PMID:20812798

  3. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  4. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  5. Overview of commercial satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakley, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered along with maritime satellite communications, the U.S. domestic satellite systems, Alaskan satellite communications, cable television, broadcast TV stations, print media, the hotel/motel industry as a large market for satellite communications terminals, the opening of a minicable and satellite master antenna TV market for TV receive-only systems, and business telecommunications earth terminals. Attention is also given to future directions regarding satellite positions, the concept of 'video-plus', and direct broadcast satellites.

  6. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  7. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  8. Rewritable Artificial Magnetic Charge Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-01-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge state...

  9. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  10. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  11. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  12. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  13. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  14. Epos TCS Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, Michele; Mandea, Mioara; Fernández-Turiel, José Luis; Stramondo, Salvatore; Wright, Tim; Walter, Thomas; Bally, Philippe; Casu, Francesco; Zeni, Giovanni; Buonanno, Sabatino; Zinno, Ivana; Tizzani, Pietro; Castaldo, Raffaele; Ostanciaux, Emilie; Diament, Michel; Hooper, Andy; Maccaferri, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    TCS Satellite Data is devoted to provide Earth Observation (EO) services, transversal with respect to the large EPOS community, suitable to be used in several application scenarios. In particular, the main goal is to contribute with mature services that have already well demonstrated their effectiveness and relevance in investigating the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and unrest episodes as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The TCS Satellite Data will provide two kinds of services: satellite products/services, and Value-added satellite products/services. The satellite products/services are composed of three (EPOSAR, GDM and COMET) well-identified and partly already operational elements for delivering Level 1 products. Such services will be devoted to the generation of SAR interferograms, DTM and ground displacement maps through the exploitation of different advanced EO techniques for InSAR and optical data analysis. The Value-added satellite products/services are composed of 4 elements (EPOSAR, 3D-Def, Mod and COMET) of Level 2 and 3 products. Such services integrate satellite and in situ measurements and observations to retrieve information on source mechanism, such as the geometry (spatial location, depth, volume changes) and the physical parameters of the deformation sources, through the exploitation of modelling approaches. The TCS Satellite Data will provide products in two different processing and delivery modes: 1- surveillance mode - routinely product generation; 2- on demand mode - product generation performed on demand by the user. Concerning the surveillance mode, the goal is providing continuous satellite measurements in areas of particular interest from a geophysical perspective (supersites). The objective is the detection of displacement patterns changing along time and their geophysical explanation. This is a valid approach for inter-seismic movements and volcanic unrest, post-seismic and post

  15. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  16. Multi-satellite observations of magnetic fields in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common method of detecting electric currents in space has been by virtue of the magnetic perturbations they produce. A satellite can pass through a field-aligned ''Birkeland'' current and measure the in-situ magnetic perturbations. Satellite-borne magnetic field experiments may also be used to observe characteristics of resonant oscillations of the Earth's magnetic field at ULF frequencies. Examples of such measurements with magnetic field experiments on the Viking, AMPTE/CCE, and DMSP-F7 satellites will be presented. The Viking satellite, launched in February, 1986, is Sweden's first satellite and is in a polar orbit with 3.1 R/sub e/ apogee. AMPTE/CCE was launched in August, 1984, with satellites from West Germany and the United Kingdom, for the purpose of creating artificial comets in space. It is in an equatorial orbit with a 8.8 R/sub e/ apogee. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)-F7 satellite was launched in October, 1983 into an 800 km circular sun-synchronous orbit in the 0830-2030 magnetic local time plane. Viking and AMPTE/CCE observed harmonic ULF pulsations when they were near the same flux tube, but separated by about 10 R/sub e/. These unique observations are used to investigate the characteristics and sources of multiple field line resonances of Alfven waves. On another occasion, Viking and DMSP-F7 observed similar magnetic perturbations at widely separated locations. The authors interpret these perturbations as due to a complicated system of large-scale stable Birkeland currents in the morning sector. This multi-satellite data set is in the early stages of exploration, but already confirms the usefulness of coordinated multi-position observations of magnetic fields in space

  17. CHINA LAUNCHES NEW SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  18. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    parameters and stability of Van Allen belt are constantly modified by natural non-seismic and man-made processes. Therefore, in order to identify seismo-associated perturbations, it is needed to reject the "normal" background effects of the e.m. emissions due to: geomagnetic storms, tropospheric phenomena, and artificial sources (such as power lines, VLF transmitters, HF stations, etc.). Currently, the only available large database is that collected by the Demeter satellite and by rare observations made by some previous space missions, non-dedicated to this purpose. The CSES satellite aims at continuing the exploration started by Demeter with advanced multi-parametric measurements. The configuration of the CSES sensors foresees measurements of energetic particle fluxes, ionospheric plasma parameters and electromagnetic fields, in a wide range of energy and frequencies. The main sensors onboard the satellite are: the HEPD (High Energy Particle Detector) developed by the Italian participants, and the following Chinese sensors: LEPD (Low Energy Particle Detector), LP (Langmuir Probes), IDM (Ion Drift Meter), ICM (Ion Capture Meter), RPA (Retarding Potential Analyzer), EFD (Electric Field Detectors) developed in collaboration with Italian team, HPM (High Precision Magnetometer) and SCM (Search-Coil Magnetometer). The research activity is at an advanced phase, being the various payloads already built and, right now, an intense activity is going on for calibration of the various sensors. In particular, the Italian payload HEPD is under test at the laboratories of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) and the Chinese payloads LP, IDM, ICM, RPA and EFD are tested at the INAF-IAPS "Plasma Chamber" in Rome, which is a facility where the response of the sensors, and their compatibility with ionospheric plasma, can be verified in environmental conditions very similar to those met by the satellite in orbit.

  19. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  20. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  1. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  2. An overview of Space Communication Artificial Intelligence for Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Anoosh K.; Schlegelmilch, Richard F.; Petrik, Edward J.; Walters, Jerry L.

    1991-01-01

    A software application to assist end-users of the link evaluation terminal (LET) for satellite communications is being developed. This software application incorporates artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and will be deployed as an interface to LET. The high burst rate (HBR) LET provides 30 GHz transmitting/20 GHz receiving (220/110 Mbps) capability for wideband communications technology experiments with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The HBR LET can monitor and evaluate the integrity of the HBR communications uplink and downlink to the ACTS satellite. The uplink HBR transmission is performed by bursting the bit-pattern as a modulated signal to the satellite. The HBR LET can determine the bit error rate (BER) under various atmospheric conditions by comparing the transmitted bit pattern with the received bit pattern. An algorithm for power augmentation will be applied to enhance the system's BER performance at reduced signal strength caused by adverse conditions.

  3. Dynamics of Natural and Artificial Celestial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretka-Ziomek, Halina; Wnuk, Edwin; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Richardson, David.

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the US/European Celestial Mechanics Workshop organized by the Astronomical Observatory of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland and held in Poznan, from 3 to 7 July 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to identify future research in celestial mechanics and astrometry and encourage collaboration among scientists from eastern and western countries. Also an emphasis was placed on attracting young members of the fields from around the world and encouraging them to undertake new research efforts needed for advancements in those fields. There was a full program of invited and contributed presentations on selected subjects and each day ended with a discussion period on a general subject in celestial mechanics. The discussion topics and the leaders were: Resonances and Chaos -- A. Morbidelli; Artificial Satellite Orbits -- K.T. Alfriend; Near Earth Objects -- K. Muinonen; Small Solar System Bodies -- I. Williams; and Summary -- P.K. Seidelmann. The goal of the discussions was to identify what we did not know and how we might further our knowledge. It was felt, in addition, that Poznan, Poland, with a core of scientists covering a range of ages, would provide an example of how a research and educational group could be developed elsewhere. Also, Poznan is a central location convenient to eastern and western countries. Thus, the gathering of people and the papers presented are to be the bases for building the future of astrometry and celestial mechanics. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0115-0

  4. Satellite Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Somaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essential elements of the electro-optical imaging system EOIS for space applications and how these elements can affect its function. After designing a spacecraft for low orbiting missions during day time, the design of an electro-imaging system becomes an important part in the satellite because the satellite will be able to take images of the regions of interest. An example of an electro-optical satellite imaging system will be presented through this paper where some restrictions have to be considered during the design process. Based on the optics principals and ray tracing techniques the dimensions of lenses and CCD (Charge Coupled Device detector are changed matching the physical satellite requirements. However, many experiments were done in the physics lab to prove that the resizing of the electro optical elements of the imaging system does not affect the imaging mission configuration. The procedures used to measure the field of view and ground resolution will be discussed through this work. Examples of satellite images will be illustrated to show the ground resolution effects.

  5. Electrodynamic Effects connected with the Motion of a Satellite of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnert, B.

    2011-01-01

    Dear Sir, During the International Geophysical Year a number of artificial satellites are planned to be launched into the earth's upper atmosphere. A satellite of the proposed type will move with a velocity of about 7.7 x 103 metres/sec. In the American project the motion is expected to take place in an orbit which has its nearest approach to the earth's surface a t an altitude around 500 km. The satellite will have the shape of a sphere, about 0.5 metr...

  6. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives. PMID:25842566

  7. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  8. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  9. Small satellites - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. K.

    The present review of small satellites examines spacecraft activities in the U.K. and compiles a checklist of advantages and applications for the class. These advantages are illustrated with references to recent small satellite missions and technologies developed to facilitate such launches and projects. Specific programs examined include AMPTE-UKS, Viking, and the UoSAT program, and information is given regarding the Small Explorer program, the RAE Space Technology Research Vehicle, the AEA Argos Program, and space research programs in both Japan and India. Low-cost launches are shown to be available in the form of the Ariane Structure for Auxiliary Payloads, the Pegasus and Delta vehicles, and with the Shuttle Free-flying Getaway Special. Small-satellite technologies that play key roles in their effective implementation are: structure/thermal advances, attitude control systems, on-board communications, and power and data-handling systems.

  10. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  11. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  12. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  13. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  14. Principles of artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graupe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are most suitable for solving problems that are complex, ill-defined, highly nonlinear, of many and different variables, and/or stochastic. Such problems are abundant in medicine, in finance, in security and beyond. This volume covers the basic theory and architecture of the major artificial neural networks. Uniquely, it presents 18 complete case studies of applications of neural networks in various fields, ranging from cell-shape classification to micro-trading in finance and to constellation recognition - all with their respective source codes. These case studies

  15. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhili; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-20

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  16. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  17. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  18. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Latham; Khoo, Jun Yong; Smith, Kendrick

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems.

  19. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Latham; Khoo, Jun Yong; Smith, Kendrick

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems. PMID:26799028

  20. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  1. Oceanography from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  2. Satellites orbits and missions

    CERN Document Server

    Capderou, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Keplerian motion 1.1 Preamble 1.2 Acceleration 1.3 Central acceleration 1.4 Newtonian acceleration 1.5 Keplerian motion : trajectory and period 1.6 The three anomalies 1.7 Representation of the anomalies 1.8 Integrals of motion 1.9 Historical note on universal attraction 1.10 Annex : Ellipses Satellites on keplerian orbit 2.1 Gravitational field 2.2 The N-body and the two-body problem 2.3 Orbital parameters 2.4 Case of quasi-circular orbits 2.5 Keplerian period Satellites on real o

  3. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  4. Multispectral satellite image understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Unsalan, Cem

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of image processing methods, for the analysis of land use in residential areas. Combining a theoretical framework with highly practical applications, this book describes a system for the effective detection of single houses and streets in very high resolution. It features a Foreword by Prof. Dr. Peter Reinartz of the German Aerospace Center. This title provides end-of-chapter summaries and review questions; presents a detailed review on remote sensing satellites; examines the multispectral information that can be obtained from satellite images, with a

  5. MIST Student Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdebäck, Agnes; Haugdahl, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In this report, parts of the systems engineering of a spacecraft are presented. In 2014 the Royal Institute of Technology KTH initiated a new space technology and research platform, the KTH Space Centre. The first student project at KTH Space Centre was the MIST student satellite with the scope of the system design and construction of a real satellite due for launch in 2017. As part of the MIST project this bachelor thesis covers the mission analysis and parts of the system design. The system...

  6. Satellite Control Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of...

  7. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A.; Rybnikova, Nataliya A.; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights. PMID:27386582

  8. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights. PMID:27386582

  9. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Falchi, Fabio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75{\\deg}N and 60{\\deg}S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.

  10. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  11. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an...

  12. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  13. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  14. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  15. Making Artificial Seawater More Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Marine fish will die if placed in fresh water and they cannot live in simple salt water. Instead, they need water that contains a mixture of different ingredients, as found in natural seawater. Conventional methods of making artificial seawater have shortcomings, because the water so achieved is only composed of mineral elements and lacks organic components similar to those in natural seawater.

  16. Artificial Video for Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  17. Advances in satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  18. Learning Through Satellite Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, P. V.

    1975-01-01

    SITE is an experimental project which would provide vital inputs in designing and executing a satellite-based instructional television system, particularly in rural areas, to stimulate national development in India with important managerial, economic, technological, and social implications. (Author/BP)

  19. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝昌明

    2005-01-01

    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  20. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-24

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers. PMID:26252672

  1. Perception via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  2. Artificial Intelligence Databases: A Survey and Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and describes online databases containing references to materials on artificial intelligence, robotics, and expert systems, and compares them in terms of scope and usage. Recommendations for conducting online searches on artificial intelligence and related fields are offered. (CLB)

  3. Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159246.html Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney? Small trial suggests device might be ... themselves of clunky machines, moving about with a "wearable artificial kidney" instead. That's the promise of a ...

  4. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility February 18, 2009 From PinnacleHealth, Harrisburg, PA Welcome to this “OR ... this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has some significant benefits over the previous ...

  5. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  6. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  7. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  8. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  10. Artificial Ant Species on Solving Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Pintea, Camelia-M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years several ant-based techniques were involved to solve hard and complex optimization problems. The current paper is a short study about the influence of artificial ant species in solving optimization problems. There are studied the artificial Pharaoh Ants, Lasius Niger and also artificial ants with no special specificity used commonly in Ant Colony Optimization.

  11. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Precautions During Loading and Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  12. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  13. Artificial ducts caused by HF heating of the ionosphere by HAARP

    OpenAIRE

    Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Mishin, E.; Parrot, Michel; I. Galkin; Reinisch, B.; J. Huba; Joyce, G; Papadopoulos, K.

    2012-01-01

    International audience We report on satellite observations of plasma density enhancements (ducts) in thetopside ionosphere during four HAARP/BRIOCHE campaigns during 2009–2010.Artificial ducts, caused by high-power HF radio wave injections from the HAARPtransmitter toward the magnetic zenith, are detected by the DEMETER and DMSPsatellites on a regular basis when there is a perceptible ionospheric F2 peak density.Overall, the plasma density enhancements detected between 0930 and 1230 LT var...

  14. Utilizing Artificial Intelligence for Achieving a Robust Architecture for Future Robotic Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jaekel, Steffen; Scholz, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel failure-tolerant architecture for future robotic spacecraft. It is based on the Time and Space Partitioning (TSP) principle as well as a combination of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and traditional concepts for system failure detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR). Contrary to classic payload that is separated from the platform, robotic devices attached onto a satellite become an integral part of the spacecraft itself. Hence, the robot needs to be integrated into ...

  15. The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP Operational Linescan System measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cinzano, P; Elvidge, C D; Baugh, K E

    2000-01-01

    We present a method to map the artificial sky brightness across large territories in astronomical photometric bands with a resolution of approximately 1 km. This is useful to quantify the situation of night sky pollution, to recognize potential astronomical sites and to allow future monitoring of trends. The artificial sky brightness present in the chosen direction at a given position on the Earth's surface is obtained by the integration of the contributions produced by every surface area in the surrounding. Each contribution is computed based on detailed models for the propagation in the atmosphere of the upward light flux emitted by the area. The light flux is measured with top of atmosphere radiometric observations made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System. We applied the described method to Europe obtaining the maps of artificial sky brightness in V and B bands.

  16. Artificial neural network classification using a minimal training set - Comparison to conventional supervised classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas; Ritter, Niles; Bryant, Nevin

    1990-01-01

    Recent research has shown an artificial neural network (ANN) to be capable of pattern recognition and the classification of image data. This paper examines the potential for the application of neural network computing to satellite image processing. A second objective is to provide a preliminary comparison and ANN classification. An artificial neural network can be trained to do land-cover classification of satellite imagery using selected sites representative of each class in a manner similar to conventional supervised classification. One of the major problems associated with recognition and classifications of pattern from remotely sensed data is the time and cost of developing a set of training sites. This reseach compares the use of an ANN back propagation classification procedure with a conventional supervised maximum likelihood classification procedure using a minimal training set. When using a minimal training set, the neural network is able to provide a land-cover classification superior to the classification derived from the conventional classification procedure. This research is the foundation for developing application parameters for further prototyping of software and hardware implementations for artificial neural networks in satellite image and geographic information processing.

  17. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  18. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  19. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  20. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth's land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive. The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  1. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  2. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. PMID:26185245

  3. Small Satellites Big Business?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Marchetto, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Biography-Carl A. Marchetto is Senior Vice President and President, ATK Space Systems for Alliant Tech¬systems (ATK). Prior to joining ATK in January 2008, Carl was Executive Vice President and General Manager Space Sys¬tems group for Orbital Sciences, where he led an organization designing, building, and servicing communication, space research and earth imaging satellites for commercial, gov¬ernment and academic customers. Carl’s previous experience includes a decade at Eastman Kodak that sa...

  4. Satellite servicing economic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Therefore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  5. STARBANDSM - Satellite Internet Service

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Internet has become one of the most important communication systems in the present. However people across the continental United States have not been able to get broadband Internet service. StarBand service, with no special phone lines or cable modems required is a feasible solution. StarBand is America’s first consumer two-way, always-on, high-speed satellite Internet service.

  6. Laser ICESat-satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Webredactie M&C

    2010-01-01

    The ICESat satellite, launched in 2003, is equipped with an altimeter that uses a laser beam to determine its distance from the Earth. Forty short laser pulses per second hit an area of Earth's surface that is 70 metres in diameter. These measurement circles are 170 metres apart. Each measurement represents the average vertical shift in the 70m measurement circle. ICESat can detect variations of 1.5 cm a year or more in the elevation of the ice surface.

  7. SAC-A Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Marcos; Roggero, Edgardo; Alonso, Roberto; Anigstein, Pablo; Caruso, Daniel; Bratina, Juan; Vega, Julio; Pena, Ricardo Sanchez

    1996-01-01

    The SAC-A is a Low Cost - Short Schedule - Small Bus dedicated to test equipment and new technologies which may be used in operational or scientific missions with more immunity to failures. The opportunity to fly in a low orbit for a reasonable period of time, allows the characterization of the behavior of this new instrumentation in real world applications and also to compute performance. The 68 kg satellite will have an almost octagonal configuration to be fitted within the Hitchhiker Motor...

  8. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  9. Psychological Studies and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Ringle, Martin

    1983-01-01

    This paper argues for the position that experimental human studies are relevant to most facets of AI research and that closer ties between AI and experimental psychology will enhance the development of booth the principles of artificial intelligence and their implementation in computers. Raising psychological assumptions from the level of ad hoc intuitions to the level of systematic empirical observation, in the long run, will improve the quality of AI research and help to integrate it with r...

  10. Formation of artificial ionospheric ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shroff, H; Chang, C. L.; Wallace, T; E. V. Mishin; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    International audience It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents the first experimental evidence of plasma modifications associated with ion outflows due to HF heating. The experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater during t...

  11. Worldwide variations in artificial skyglow

    OpenAIRE

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Kai Pong Tong; Jonathan Bennie; Ignacio Birriel; Jennifer J. Birriel; Andrew Cool; Arne Danielsen; Davies, Thomas W; den Outer, Peter N.; William Edwards; Rainer Ehlert; Fabio Falchi; Jürgen Fischer; Andrea Giacomelli; Francesco Giubbilini

    2015-01-01

    Despite constituting a widespread and significant environmental change, understanding of artificial nighttime skyglow is extremely limited. Until now, published monitoring studies have been local or regional in scope, and typically of short duration. In this first major international compilation of monitoring data we answer several key questions about skyglow properties. Skyglow is observed to vary over four orders of magnitude, a range hundreds of times larger than was the case before artifi...

  12. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  13. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  14. Artificial Sweeteners versus Natural Sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Neacsu, N.A.; Madar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important dietary nutrient which is mostly used to supply energy to the body, as well as a carbon source for synthesis of other needed chemicals. In addition, mono- and disaccharides are craved because of their sweetness. We present different types of sweeteners, which are the basic contents of foods which we consume every day and are demonstrated the positive and negative effects of natural and artificial sweeteners.

  15. Artificial knowledge an evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Finbar Vincent

    1992-01-01

    I present a new analysis of the problem, situation in Artificial Intelligence (AI), grounded in a Popperian epistemology. I first review arguments purporting to establish that no purely “computational” system can realise genuine mentality. I conclude that the question is still open; but that the more pressing question is whether such a system can even exhibit intelligent behaviour. Attention is thus directed at the computational embodiment of knowledge, and its growth. I suggest that much...

  16. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Debesh; Caulfield, H. John

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving...

  17. Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Laura E.; Michigan Technological University; Kauchak, David; University of California, San Diego

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of massive open online courses has initiated a broad national-wide discussion on higher education practices, models, and pedagogy.  Artificial intelligence and machine learning courses were at the forefront of this trend and are also being used to serve personalized, managed content in the back-end systems. Massive open online courses are just one example of the sorts of pedagogical innovations being developed to better teach AI. This column will discuss and share innovative ed...

  18. Binary Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah

    2013-01-01

    Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitatio...

  19. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  20. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d' A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  2. Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    A common task for many deep space missions is autonomous generation of 3-D representations of planetary surfaces onboard unmanned spacecrafts. The basic problem for this class of missions is, that the closed loop time is far too long. The closed loop time is defined as the time from when a human...... of seconds to a few minutes, the closed loop time effectively precludes active human control.The only way to circumvent this problem is to build an artificial feature extractor operating autonomously onboard the spacecraft.Different artificial feature extractors are presented and their efficiency...... is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard...

  3. Space Communications Artificial Intelligence for Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Anoosh

    1991-01-01

    A software application to assis end-users of the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET) for satellite communication is being developed. This software application incorporates artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and will be deployed as an interface to LET. The high burst rate (HBR) LET provides 30 GHz transmitting/20 GHz receiving, 220/110 Mbps capability for wideband communications technology experiments with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The HBR LET and ACTS are being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The HBR LET can monitor and evaluate the integrity of the HBR communications uplink and downlink to the ACTS satellite. The uplink HBR transmission is performed by bursting the bit-pattern as a modulated signal to the satellite. By comparing the transmitted bit pattern with the received bit pattern, HBR LET can determine the bit error rate BER) under various atmospheric conditions. An algorithm for power augmentation is applied to enhance the system's BER performance at reduced signal strength caused by adverse conditions. Programming scripts, defined by the design engineer, set up the HBR LET terminal by programming subsystem devices through IEEE488 interfaces. However, the scripts are difficult to use, require a steep learning curve, are cryptic, and are hard to maintain. The combination of the learning curve and the complexities involved with editing the script files may discourage end-users from utilizing the full capabilities of the HBR LET system. An intelligent assistant component of SCAILET that addresses critical end-user needs in the programming of the HBR LET system as anticipated by its developers is described. A close look is taken at the various steps involved in writing ECM software for a C&P, computer and at how the intelligent assistant improves the HBR LET system and enhances the end-user's ability to perform the experiments.

  4. Fecundación Artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa. Fidel

    1939-10-01

    Full Text Available Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculos alegres, que un servicio de un caballo puede servir, diluido, por lo menos para cuatro yeguas, según los autores americanos, y para 10 a 15, según otros autores. El toro y el carnero pueden dar esperma suficiente en un servicio para fecundar de 10 a 12 hembras, según,los americanos, y según otros autores, hasta para 40. Los investigadores rusos han podido fecundar hasta 60 vacas con un solo servicio y han logrado con reproductores valiosos, fecundar 10.263 vacas por toro, a pesar de que éstos sólo han servido, durante un periodo de monta de sólo dos meses. Estos mismos han logrado fecundar artificialmente 2.733 ovejas con un solo carnero, y 1.403 con otro Los investigadores americanos han contado 22 servicios a un carnero vigoroso en un periodo de ocho horas, y durante este tiempo produjo esperma suficiente para haber fecundado 200 ovejas artificialmente. La fecundación artificial sirve para evitar la trasmisión de enfermedades que se contagian por el coito, tales como la durina, enfermedad ésta producida por un tripanosoma que por fortuna no existe entre nosotros. A las estaciones de monta llevan con frecuencia hembras afectadas de enfermedades como la vaginitis granulosa de la vaca, que se contagia al toro y de éste a otras hembras. Como el control sanitario de toda hembra llevada al servicio de un reproductor de estas estaciones de monta no siempre puede efectuarse por dificultades de distinta índole, mediante la fecundación artificial

  5. Development of artificial articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M; Ushio, K; Kumar, P; Ikeuchi, K; Hyon, S H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, H

    2000-01-01

    Attempts have been made to develop an artificial articular cartilage on the basis of a new viewpoint of joint biomechanics in which the lubrication and load-bearing mechanisms of natural and artificial joints are compared. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H), 'a rubber-like gel', was investigated as an artificial articular cartilage and the mechanical properties of this gel were improved through a new synthetic process. In this article the biocompatibility and various mechanical properties of the new improved PVA-H is reported from the perspective of its usefulness as an artificial articular cartilage. As regards lubrication, the changes in thickness and fluid pressure of the gap formed between a glass plate and the specimen under loading were measured and it was found that PVA-H had a thicker fluid film under higher pressures than polyethylene (PE) did. The momentary stress transmitted through the specimen revealed that PVA-H had a lower peak stress and a longer duration of sustained stress than PE, suggesting a better damping effect. The wear factor of PVA-H was approximately five times that of PE. Histological studies of the articular cartilage and synovial membranes around PVA-H implanted for 8-52 weeks showed neither inflammation nor degenerative changes. The artificial articular cartilage made from PVA-H could be attached to the underlying bone using a composite osteochondral device made from titanium fibre mesh. In the second phase of this work, the damage to the tibial articular surface after replacement of the femoral surface in dogs was studied. Pairs of implants made of alumina, titanium or PVA-H on titanium fibre mesh were inserted into the femoral condyles. The two hard materials caused marked pathological changes in the articular cartilage and menisci, but the hydrogel composite replacement caused minimal damage. The composite osteochondral device became rapidly attached to host bone by ingrowth into the supporting mesh. The clinical implications of

  6. Risk to space sustainability from large constellations of satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Dolado, J. C.; Lewis, H. G.; Radtke, J.; Krag, H.; Revelin, B.; Cazaux, C.; Colombo, C.; Crowther, R.; Metz, M.

    2016-09-01

    The number of artificial objects in orbit continues to increase and, with it, a key threat to space sustainability. In response, space agencies have identified a set of mitigation guidelines aimed at enabling space users to reduce the generation of space debris by, for example, limiting the orbital lifetime of their spacecraft and launcher stages after the end of their mission. Planned, large constellations of satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO), though addressing the lack of basic internet coverage in some world regions, may disrupt the sustainability of the space environment enabled by these mitigation practices. We analyse the response of the space object population to the introduction of a large constellation conforming to the post-mission disposal guideline with differing levels of success and with different disposal orbit options. The results show that a high success rate of post-mission disposal by constellation satellites is a key driver for space sustainability.

  7. GPS SATELLITE SIMULATOR SIGNAL ESTIMATION BASED ON ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite signal simulator is used to provide realistic test signals for GPS receivers and navigation systems. In this paper, signals arriving the antenna of GPS receiver are analyzed from the viewpoint of simulator design. The estimation methods are focused of which several signal parameters are difficult to determine directly according to existing experiential models due to various error factors. Based on the theory of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), an approach is proposed to simulate signal propagation delay,carrier phase, power, and other parameters using ANN. The architecture of the hardware-in-the-loop test system is given. The ANN training and validation process is described. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANN designed can statistically simulate sample data in high fidelity.Therefore the computation of signal state based on this ANN can meet the design requirement,and can be directly applied to the development of multi-channel GPS satellite signal simulator.

  8. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  9. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  10. UCI Satellite-II

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Keegan; Chen, Geoffrey Hsiao-Wei; Timilsina, Navin; Walter, Scott; Fimbres, Cristhian; Mai, Zaw; Phung, Diane; Kampley, Leann; Lasquete, Kevin W.S.; Patel, Akash; Dunford , Amy; Deason, Ross; Salazar, Eric Salaza; Tarif , Abdullaah R.; Shojaei, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The principal idea involves the utilization of existing solar radiation to degrade model pollutants (midodrine and humic acid) in aqueous solution.  The decomposition of said pollutants will be observed through a photochemical effect known as “fluorescence”, whereby substances emit light after absorbing electromagnetic radiation.  The experiment will be carried out on a Class 2U Cube Satellite; hence the designation of “UCISAT-2.”  In addition, UCISAT-2 will utilize an electric propulsion sys...

  11. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  12. Artificial organic networks artificial intelligence based on carbon networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Espinosa, Hiram; Molina, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes the synthesis and use of biologically-inspired artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHNs) for approximation models associated with machine learning and a novel computational algorithm with which to exploit them. The reader is first introduced to various kinds of algorithms designed to deal with approximation problems and then, via some conventional ideas of organic chemistry, to the creation and characterization of artificial organic networks and AHNs in particular. The advantages of using organic networks are discussed with the rules to be followed to adapt the network to its objectives. Graph theory is used as the basis of the necessary formalism. Simulated and experimental examples of the use of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms with organic neural networks are presented and a number of modeling problems suitable for treatment by AHNs are described: ·        approximation; ·        inference; ·        clustering; ·        control; ·        class...

  13. Assessment of Satellite Precipitation Products in the Philippine Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. D.; Tendencia, E.; Espana, K.; Sabido, J.; Bagtasa, G.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (2) the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH) of NOAA and (3) the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP) and (4) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC) for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN) values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  14. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC50). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  15. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data. PMID:25403541

  16. Artificial intelligence methods for diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist in diagnosis of its nuclear power plants, the Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has been developing skills in Artificial Intelligence for about a decade. Different diagnostic expert systems have been designed. Among them, SILEX for control rods cabinet troubleshooting, DIVA for turbine generator diagnosis, DIAPO for reactor coolant pump diagnosis. This know how in expert knowledge modeling and acquisition is direct result of experience gained during developments and of a more general reflection on knowledge based system development. We have been able to reuse this results for other developments such as a guide for auxiliary rotating machines diagnosis. (authors)

  17. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  18. Logical Foundations Of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The procedures of searching solutions to problems, in Artificial Intelligence, can be brought about, in many occasions, without knowledge of the Domain, and in other situations, with knowledge of it. This last procedure is usually called Heuristic Search. In such methods the matrix techniques reveal themselves as essential. Their introduction can give us an easy and precise way in the search of solution. Our paper explains how the matrix theory appears and fruitfully participates in A I, with feasible applications to Game Theory.

  19. Artificial intelligence a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whitby, Blay

    2012-01-01

    Tomorrow begins right here as we embark on an enthralling and jargon-free journey into the world of computers and the inner recesses of the human mind. Readers encounter everything from the nanotechnology used to make insect-like robots, to computers that perform surgery, in addition to discovering the biggest controversies to dog the field of AI. Blay Whitby is a Lecturer on Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex UK. He is the author of two books and numerous papers.

  20. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  1. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  2. Artificial Neural Networks An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Priddy, Kevin L

    2005-01-01

    This tutorial text provides the reader with an understanding of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and their application, beginning with the biological systems which inspired them, through the learning methods that have been developed and the data collection processes, to the many ways ANNs are being used today. The material is presented with a minimum of math (although the mathematical details are included in the appendices for interested readers), and with a maximum of hands-on experience. All specialized terms are included in a glossary. The result is a highly readable text that will teach t

  3. Satellite Network Hacking & Security Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellites play a significant role in communication, early warning systems, global broadcasting, meteorology, navigation, reconnaissance, remote sensing, and surveillance.Satellite services cover practically every sector, from mobile cellular communication to telemedicine, so any interference with them could have a serious effect. Satellites are a strategic asset for any country and are considered as “critical infrastructure,” therefore they are considerable as privileged targets for a possible cyber attack.

  4. Vibration Testing for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Delbert

    1989-01-01

    Most people involved in the design and construction of small satellites are unfamiliar with vibration testing. Yet most satellites undergo vibration testing to qualify them for flight. Some familiarity with the basic aspects of vibration testing is needed to insure that a vibration test on a satellite is valid. This paper sets forth the basic equipment, practices and concepts of vibration testing. It provides guidelines for specifying a vibration test, designing fixtures, attaching instrument...

  5. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  6. The power relay satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  7. Solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) concept, under evaluation by NASA since 1974, is discussed. A typical system providing a total of 10,000 MW of electrical power to the ground receiving stations is considered. Energy conversion systems, including the photovoltaic device category using single-crystal silicon cells, are taken into account, as are the 2.45-GHz microwave power-transmission link and the ground receiver (or rectenna). Concepts involving space construction of the satellite's large structures (5 x 25 km) are described, noting that a process similar to the familiar roll-forming of light sheet metal parts has been adapted to the space environment. Transportation vehicles are discussed, including the Space Shuttle planned to reach 60 flights per year by the mid 1980's. Electrical power forecasts and advanced systems cost projections are analyzed, together with a description of costs estimates. The indirect economics of energy research and development, and the present NASA/DOE SPS program are noted.

  8. ARTIFICIAL LIVING SYSTEM AND ITS COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongguang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the author shows some artificial living systems, whose basic life characteristics are explored, especially the differentiation in evolution from single cellular to multi-cellular organism. In addition, the author discusses diversity and evolvability also.The author gives a modified entropy function to measure the diversity. Finally, the author drops an open problem about the structure of "gene" of artificial living systems, so that we can measure the evolutionary order between the artificial living systems.

  9. Of Artificial Intelligence and Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2014-01-01

    Can computers, or artificial intelligence, reason by analogy? This essay urges that they cannot, because they are unable to engage in the crucial task of identifying the normative principle that links or separates cases. Current claims, about the ability of artificial intelligence to reason analogically, rest on an inadequate picture of what legal reasoning actually is. For the most part, artificial intelligence now operates as a kind of advanced version of LEXIS, offering research assistance...

  10. Readings in artificial intelligence and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Readings in Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering covers the main techniques and application of artificial intelligence and software engineering. The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence applied to software engineering is automatic programming. Automatic programming would allow a user to simply say what is wanted and have a program produced completely automatically. This book is organized into 11 parts encompassing 34 chapters that specifically tackle the topics of deductive synthesis, program transformations, program verification, and programming tutors. The opening parts p

  11. Methods for Creation and Detection of Ultra-Strong Artificial Ionization in the Upper Atmosphere (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Briczinski, S. J.; Kendall, E. A.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter in Alaska has been used to produce localized regions of artificial ionization at altitudes between 150 and 250 km. High power radio waves tuned near harmonics of the electron gyro frequency were discovered by Todd Pederson of the Air Force Research Laboratory to produce ionosonde traces that looked like artificial ionization layers below the natural F-region. The initial regions of artificial ionization (AI) were not stable but had moved down in altitude over a period of 15 minutes. Recently, artificial ionization has been produced by the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th harmonics transmissions by the HAARP. In march 2013, the artificial ionization clouds were sustained for more the 5 hours using HAARP tuned to the 4 fce at the full power of 3.6 Mega-Watts with a twisted-beam antenna pattern. Frequency selection with narrow-band sweeps and antenna pattern shaping has been employed for optimal generation of AI. Recent research at HAARP has produced the longest lived and denser artificial ionization clouds using HF transmissions at the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency and ring-shaped radio beams tailored to prevent the descent of the clouds. Detection of artificial ionization employs (1) ionosonde echoes, (2) coherent backscatter from the Kodiak SuperDARN radar, (3) enhanced ion and plasma line echoes from the HAARP MUIR radar at 400 MHz, (4) high resolution optical image from ground sites, and (5) unique stimulated electromagnetic emissions, and (6) strong UHF and L-Band scintillation induced into trans-ionospheric signals from satellite radio beacons. Future HAARP experiments will determine the uses of long-sustained AI for enhanced HF communications.

  12. Artificial Compressibility with Entropic Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jonathan; Roberts, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Artificial Compressibility (AC) methods relax the strict incompressibility constraint associated with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Instead, they rely on an artificial equation of state relating pressure and density fluctuations through a numerical Mach number. Such methods are not new: the first AC methods date back to Chorin (1967). More recent applications can be found in the lattice-Boltzmann method, which is a kinetic/mesoscopic method that converges to an AC form of the Navier-Stokes equations. With computing hardware trending towards massively parallel architectures in order to achieve high computational throughput, AC style methods have become attractive due to their local information propagation and concomitant parallelizable algorithms. In this work, we examine a damped form of AC in the context of finite-difference and finite-element methods, with a focus on achieving time-accurate simulations. Also, we comment on the scalability of the various algorithms. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Artificial Shortages and Strategic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We consider a monopolist who manipulates the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods. The approach is to develop an intertemporal model of pricing strategy for a monopolist. Approach: The postulated pricing strategy creates an incentive for producers to reduce current supply and raise current prices and sacrifice current profits in order to increase future profits. The main problem is to explain the precise mathematical conditions under which the pricing strategy will be chosen by a monopolist. Results: We derive the optimal pricing strategy to argue that the monopolist has an incentive to adopt simple market manipulation that calls forth a close examination of issues concerning deregulation. Conclusion: The paper examines two possible strategies for a typical monopolist-strategic pricing vis-a-vis a myopic pricing. The intuition is that the monopolist can manipulate the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods.

  14. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  15. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  16. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  17. A Pathway to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of catalytic systems and the application thereof has proven to be the key to overcome traditional limitations of industrial-scale synthetic processes. Converging organometallic and biocatalytic principles lead to the development of Artificial Metalloenzymes (ArMs) that comprise a synthetic metal catalyst embedded in a protein scaffold, thereby combining the reactivity of the former with the versatility of the latter. This synergistic approach introduces rationally designed building blocks for the catalytic site and the host protein to assemble enzyme-like structures that follow regio-, chemo-, enantio- and substrate-selective principles. Yet, the identification of suitable protein scaffolds has thus far been challenging. Herein we report a rationally optimized fluorescent protein host, mTFP*, that was engineered to have no intrinsic metal binding capability and, owing to its robust nature, can act as scaffold for the design of novel ArMs. We demonstrate the potential of site-specific modifications within the protein host, use protein X-Ray analysis to validate the respective scaffolds and show how artificial mutant binding sites can be introduced. Transition metal Förster Resonance Energy transfer (tmFRET) methodologies help to evaluate micromolar dissociation constants and reveal structural rearrangements upon coordination of the metal centers. In conjunction with molecular insights from X-Ray crystallographic structure determination, dynamics of the binding pocket can be inferred. The versatile subset of different binding motifs paired with transition metal catalysts create artificial metalloenzymes that provide reactivities which otherwise do not exist in nature. As a proof of concept, Diels-Alder cycloadditions highlight the potential of the present mTFP* based catalysts by stereoselectively converting azachalcone and cyclopentadiene substrates. Screens indicate an enantiomeric excess of up to 60% and provide insights into the electronic and

  18. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  19. Satellite-based internet: A tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Li, VOK

    2001-01-01

    In a satellite-based Internet system, satellites are used to interconnect heterogeneous network segments and to provide ubiquitous direct Internet access to homes and businesses. This article presents satellite-based Internet architectures and discusses multiple access control, routing, satellite transport, and integrating satellite networks into the global Internet.

  20. Space Communication Artificial Intelligence for Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Anoosh K.; Schlegelmilch, Richard F.; Petrik, Edward J.; Walters, Jerry L.

    1992-01-01

    A software application to assist end-users of the high burst rate (HBR) link evaluation terminal (LET) for satellite communications is being developed. The HBR LET system developed at NASA Lewis Research Center is an element of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project. The HBR LET is divided into seven major subsystems, each with its own expert. Programming scripts, test procedures defined by design engineers, set up the HBR LET system. These programming scripts are cryptic, hard to maintain and require a steep learning curve. These scripts were developed by the system engineers who will not be available for the end-users of the system. To increase end-user productivity a friendly interface needs to be added to the system. One possible solution is to provide the user with adequate documentation to perform the needed tasks. With the complexity of this system the vast amount of documentation needed would be overwhelming and the information would be hard to retrieve. With limited resources, maintenance is another reason for not using this form of documentation. An advanced form of interaction is being explored using current computer techniques. This application, which incorporates a combination of multimedia and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to provided end-users with an intelligent interface to the HBR LET system, is comprised of an intelligent assistant, intelligent tutoring, and hypermedia documentation. The intelligent assistant and tutoring systems address the critical programming needs of the end-user.

  1. The motion of a satellite in resonance with the second-degree sectorial harmonic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, S. S.; Diehl, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The solution to the motion of a satellite in an eccentric orbit and in resonance with the second-degree sectorial harmonic of the potential field is developed. The method of solution used parallels the well known von Zeipel method of general perturbations. The solution consists of expressions for the variations of the Delaunay variables. These expressions are composed of the perturbations developed by Brouwer in 1959 for the motion of an artificial satellite plus first-order perturbations due to the second-degree sectorial harmonic (in terms of the Legendre normal elliptic integrals of the first and second kind).

  2. The motion of a satellite in resonance with the longitude-dependent harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, S. S.

    1976-01-01

    The solution to the motion of a satellite in an eccentric orbit and in resonance with one or more of the longitude-dependent harmonics of the central planet is developed. The method of solution parallels the well known von Zeipel method of general perturbations. The solution consists of expressions for the variations of the Delaunay variables. These expressions are composed of the perturbations developed by Brouwer in 1959 for the motion of an artificial satellite plus first-order resonant perturbations due to longitude-dependent harmonics (in terms of Legendre normal elliptic integrals of the first and second kind).

  3. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft is...... laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements....

  4. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  5. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo;

    2005-01-01

    Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element for an...

  6. Multicast Routing in Satellite Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠玲; 宋姝; 李磊; 刘志涛; 郭鹏程

    2004-01-01

    There are some problems in the dual-layer satellite MPLs metworks to be composed of LEO and MEO. In order to solve the problems, this paper presents a plan by means of unicast LSP to implement multicast in the dual-layer satellite MPLs networks. It has advantages of saving space and reducing extra charge.

  7. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (108 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  8. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les

    2013-01-01

    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  9. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    1999-01-01

    analysis of the geomagnetic field is performed, and the Q-response, which is the transfer function between the internal (induced) and the external (inducing) expansion coefficients is determined for a specific frequency. In the second approach, known as the geomagnetic depth sounding method, the C...... paper reviews and discusses the possibilities for induction studies using high-precision magnetic measurements from low-altitude satellites. The different methods and various transfer functions are presented, with special emphasis on the differences in analysing data from ground stations and from...... satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results are...

  10. A simple and efficient algorithm to estimate daily global solar radiation from geostationary satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface global solar radiation (GSR) is the primary renewable energy in nature. Geostationary satellite data are used to map GSR in many inversion algorithms in which ground GSR measurements merely serve to validate the satellite retrievals. In this study, a simple algorithm with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling is proposed to explore the non-linear physical relationship between ground daily GSR measurements and Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) all-channel observations in an effort to fully exploit information contained in both data sets. Singular value decomposition is implemented to extract the principal signals from satellite data and a novel method is applied to enhance ANN performance at high altitude. A three-layer feed-forward ANN model is trained with one year of daily GSR measurements at ten ground sites. This trained ANN is then used to map continuous daily GSR for two years, and its performance is validated at all 83 ground sites in China. The evaluation result demonstrates that this algorithm can quickly and efficiently build the ANN model that estimates daily GSR from geostationary satellite data with good accuracy in both space and time. -- Highlights: → A simple and efficient algorithm to estimate GSR from geostationary satellite data. → ANN model fully exploits both the information from satellite and ground measurements. → Good performance of the ANN model is comparable to that of the classical models. → Surface elevation and infrared information enhance GSR inversion.

  11. Artificial neural networks in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial neural networks, simply known as neural networks, have attracted considerable interest in recent years largely because of a growing recognition of the potential of these computational paradigms as powerful alternative models to conventional pattern recognition or function approximation techniques. The neural networks approach is having a profound effect on almost all fields, and has been utilised in fields Where experimental inter-disciplinary work is being carried out. Being a multidisciplinary subject with a broad knowledge base, Nondestructive Testing (NDT) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is no exception. This paper explains typical applications of neural networks in NDT/NDE. Three promising types of neural networks are highlighted, namely, back-propagation, binary Hopfield and Kohonen's self-organising maps. (Author)

  12. Apartes desde la inteligencia artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Torres Soler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y desarrollo de la inteligencia artificial no debe centrarse sólo en la creación de software o hardware que permita realizar procesos algorítmicos o heurísticos en el computador, de tal forma que produzcan soluciones óptimas y eficientes al resolver un problema complejo, ya sea de manejo de información o de toma de decisiones, o crear máquinas que tengan buena apariencia del ser humano; se debe, sobre todo, analizar la parte neurológica y sicológica que presenta el individuo al solucionar problemas. Además, es importante conocer la capacidad intelectual de la persona, de ahí la variedad de carreras profesionales que existen; no puede quedar por fuera de los sistemas inteligentes la concepción del amor o admiración.

  13. An artificial neuro-anatomist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that the human brain visual system is based on stereo-vision is a real handicap when analysing dense 3D representations of the human brain. The success of the methods of analysis based on the 3D proportional system has shown the advantage of using computer based system to interpret such complex images. The underlying strategy, however, is restricted to low level vision, which can not address any issue. Our approach advocates for the development of complete computer vision systems dedicated to the brain, which may be of great help for the future of neuroimaging. In our opinion, indeed, brain imaging is sufficiently focused to be a promising niche for the development of artificial intelligence. (N.C.)

  14. Text Classification using Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms for classifying text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using artificial intelligence technique that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of na\\"ive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of genetic algorithm has been added for final classification. A syste...

  15. Artificial intelligence and process management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques derived from work in artificial intelligence over the past few decades are beginning to change the approach in applying computers to process management. To explore this new approach and gain real practical experience of its potential a programme of experimental applications was initiated by Sira in collaboration with the process industry. This programme encompassed a family of experimental applications ranging from process monitoring, through supervisory control and troubleshooting to planning and scheduling. The experience gained has led to a number of conclusions regarding the present level of maturity of the technology, the potential for further developments and the measures required to secure the levels of system integrity necessary in on-line applications to critical processes. (author)

  16. Introduction to artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Enzo; Buscema, Massimo

    2007-12-01

    The coupling of computer science and theoretical bases such as nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory allows the creation of 'intelligent' agents, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), able to adapt themselves dynamically to problems of high complexity. ANNs are able to reproduce the dynamic interaction of multiple factors simultaneously, allowing the study of complexity; they can also draw conclusions on individual basis and not as average trends. These tools can offer specific advantages with respect to classical statistical techniques. This article is designed to acquaint gastroenterologists with concepts and paradigms related to ANNs. The family of ANNs, when appropriately selected and used, permits the maximization of what can be derived from available data and from complex, dynamic, and multidimensional phenomena, which are often poorly predictable in the traditional 'cause and effect' philosophy. PMID:17998827

  17. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Herbert; Rappaport, Alain

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  18. Artificial fibrous proteins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslot, H

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of natural fibrous proteins have been chosen as models: silk fibroin from Bombyx mori, silks from various species of spiders and collagens. The dragline silk of the spider Nephila clavipes is able to stretch by 30% before breaking and has a high tensile strength. It is stronger per unit weight than high tensile steel. Although the partial sequence of the two components of dragline silk is known, its molecular structure is still far from being clearly established. It is however demonstrated that it contains beta-sheet crystals composed of polyalanine residues. Artificial fibrous proteins have been prepared in vivo using either Escherichia coli or the yeast Pichia pastoris. As these proteins contain repetitive sequences, there is a risk of deletion at the DNA level. This difficulty has been solved by making use of the genetic code degeneracy. One group has successfully synthesized silk-like polymers; prolastin polymers containing both silk-like and elastin-like blocks; proNectin polymers containing the RGD triplet coming from fibronectin and able to fix numerous mammalian cell types; and synthetic collagen analogs. Some of these polymers have been spun into fibers that, up-to-now, do not display any measurable molecular orientation. Another group has studied artificial fibrous proteins able to form beta-sheet crystals of defined thickness and bearing functional groups at their surface, for instance Glu residues, selenomethionine or p-fluorophenylalanine. Apart from university laboratories, a venture capital society, an industrial research center and a US army research center are quite active in this field. A number of patents has been deposited. PMID:9587659

  19. Contribution of artificial intelligence to operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial Intelligence techniques are already used in nuclear plants for assistance to operation: synthesis from numerous information sources may be then derived, based on expert knowledge. Artificial intelligence may be used also for quality and reliability assessment of software-based control-command systems. Various expert systems developed by CEA, EDF and Framatome are presented

  20. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  1. INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL GROUND-WATER RECHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial ground-water recharge has been practiced for scores of years throughout the world. The purpose of artificial recharge is to increase the rate at which water infiltrates the land surface in order to supplement the quantity of ground water in storage. A variety of rechar...

  2. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Sobchak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main issues of artificial intelligence and its implementation in daily life in the form of control systems for mechatronic systems. Due to intensive application of the latest scientific and technological achievements and a new element base, there spring up new technologies of artificial intelligence creation principles and laws realization, examples of which given in the article

  3. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  4. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  5. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility February 18, 2009 From PinnacleHealth, Harrisburg, PA Welcome to this “OR ... this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has some significant benefits over the previous ...

  6. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Porto-Pazos

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.

  7. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  8. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  9. A DISTRIBUTED SMART HOME ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    A majority of the research performed today explore artificial intelligence in smart homes by using a centralized approach where a smart home server performs the necessary calculations. This approach has some disadvantages that can be overcome by shifting focus to a distributed approach where...... the artificial intelligence system is implemented as distributed as agents running parts of the artificial intelligence system. This paper presents a distributed smart home architecture that distributes artificial intelligence in smart homes and discusses the pros and cons of such a concept. The presented...... distributed model is a layered model. Each layer offers a different complexity level of the embedded distributed artificial intelligence. At the lowest layer smart objects exists, they are small cheap embedded microcontroller based smart devices that are powered by batteries. The next layer contains a more...

  10. The exterior tidal potential acting on a satellite. [satellite orbits/satellite perturbation - gravitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, P.

    1975-01-01

    A theory is presented that points out the existence of several long period and 'cross effects' in the coefficients in the expansion of the geopotential and in the motion of satellites. The tidal potential, defined as small periodic variations in the geopotential, was calculated. The influence of these geopotential variations on satellite perturbation is examined. Spherical harmonics were employed.

  11. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  12. An architecture and protocol for communications satellite constellations regarded as multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for satellites regarded as intercommunicating agents. The architecture is based upon a postmodern paradigm of artificial intelligence in which represented knowledge is regarded as text, inference procedures are regarded as social discourse and decision making conventions and the semantics of representations are grounded in the situated behaviour and activity of agents. A particular protocol is described for agent participation in distributed search and retrieval operations conducted as joint activities.

  13. Improvement in the radial accuracy of altimeter-satellite orbits due to the geopotential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.; Wagner, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 91, 1-4 (2008), s. 106-120. ISSN 0012-8252 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003407; GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : orbits of Earth artificial satellites * gravity field of the Earth * radial orbit error Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.558, year: 2008

  14. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery with the Iteratively Re-weighted MAD Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton John; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed method for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery based on the invariance property of the Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) transformation and orthogonal linear regression is extended by using an iterative re-weighting scheme involving n......-change probabilities. The procedure is first investigated with partly artificial data and then applied to multitemporal, multispectral satellite imagery. Substantial improvement over the previous method is obtained for scenes which exhibit a high proportion of change....

  15. Night sky brightness at sites from DMSP-OLS satellite measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Cinzano, Pierantonio; Elvidge, Cristopher D.

    2004-01-01

    We apply the sky brightness modelling technique introduced and developed by Roy Garstang to high-resolution DMSP-OLS satellite measurements of upward artificial light flux and to GTOPO30 digital elevation data in order to predict the brightness distribution of the night sky at a given site in the primary astronomical photometric bands for a range of atmospheric aerosol contents. This method, based on global data and accounting for elevation, Earth curvature and mountain screening, allows the ...

  16. A radio picture of the earth. [microwave remote sensing from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, T. C.; Gloersen, P.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    A technique called passive microwave remote sensing can be used to obtain a new view of the planet earth by means of radio telescopes carried aboard artificial satellites. An important relationship between the observed radio brightness temperature and the surface conditions provides the basis for the new technique. A radio image is presented of the entire earth on the basis of Nimbus microwave-image data taken January 12-16, 1973.

  17. Taking the redpill: Artificial Evolution in native x86 systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sperl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In analogon to successful artificial evolution simulations as Tierra or avida, this text presents a way to perform artificial evolution in a native x86 system. The implementation of the artificial chemistry and first results of statistical experiments are presented.

  18. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  19. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    1989-06-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  20. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities for...... exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...

  1. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David

    1994-01-01

    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  2. Artificial Intelligence Research and Development: Proc. of the 11th International Conference of the Catalan Association for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Alsinet, Teresa; Puyol-Gruart, Josep; Torras, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Research and Development. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the Catalan Association for Artificial Intelligence. Volume 184 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications Peer Reviewed

  3. From natural to artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D

    2013-04-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO(2) levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an 'artificial leaf' able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  4. Superpixel-Based Roughness Measure for Multispectral Satellite Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Antonio Ortiz Toro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of artificial satellites is providing a huge amount of Earth observation images whose exploitation can report invaluable benefits, both economical and environmental. However, only a small fraction of this data volume has been analyzed, mainly due to the large human resources needed for that task. In this sense, the development of unsupervised methodologies for the analysis of these images is a priority. In this work, a new unsupervised segmentation algorithm for satellite images is proposed. This algorithm is based on the rough-set theory, and it is inspired by a previous segmentation algorithm defined in the RGB color domain. The main contributions of the new algorithm are: (i extending the original algorithm to four spectral bands; (ii the concept of the superpixel is used in order to define the neighborhood similarity of a pixel adapted to the local characteristics of each image; (iii and two new region merged strategies are proposed and evaluated in order to establish the final number of regions in the segmented image. The experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the results provided by the original method when both are applied to satellite images with different spectral and spatial resolutions.

  5. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls;

    2012-01-01

    -damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role of the...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...... damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  6. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  7. Visual Data Analysis for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee; Bhate, Sachin; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Visual Data Analysis Package is a collection of programs and scripts that facilitate visual analysis of data available from NASA and NOAA satellites, as well as dropsonde, buoy, and conventional in-situ observations. The package features utilities for data extraction, data quality control, statistical analysis, and data visualization. The Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) satellite data extraction routines from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory were customized for specific spatial coverage and file input/output. Statistical analysis includes the calculation of the relative error, the absolute error, and the root mean square error. Other capabilities include curve fitting through the data points to fill in missing data points between satellite passes or where clouds obscure satellite data. For data visualization, the software provides customizable Generic Mapping Tool (GMT) scripts to generate difference maps, scatter plots, line plots, vector plots, histograms, timeseries, and color fill images.

  8. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  9. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  10. Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Panchal, V K; Kaur, Navdeep; Kundra, Harish

    2009-01-01

    Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researchers are always finding alternative strategies for satellite image classification so that they may be prepared to select the most appropriate technique for the feature extraction task in hand. This paper is focused on classification of the satellite image of a particular land cover using the theory of Biogeography based Optimization. The original BBO algorithm does not have the inbuilt property of clustering which is required during image classification. Hence modifications have been proposed to the original algorithm and...

  11. Role of precoating in artificial vessel endothelialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖乐; 时德

    2004-01-01

    @@ As the progress of vascular surgery, artificial vessels have become the substitute for large and middle diameter vessels but have not for small diameter ones owing to thrombogenesis and occlusion within a short period of time after being applied.Artificial vessel endothelialization is one of the ideal methods to resolve such issue and has been improved continuously since Herring1 in 1978 put forward this term in the first time and utilized vascular endothelial cells (ECs) harvested from living animals to perform the test of artificial vessel endothelialization.

  12. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).

  13. Artificial neural networks in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the accessible literature on the diagnostic applicability of artificial neural networks in coronary artery disease and pulmonary embolism appears to be comparative to the diagnosis of experienced doctors dealing with nuclear medicine. Differences in the employed models of artificial neural networks indicate a constant search for the most optimal parameters, which could guarantee the ultimate accuracy in neural network activity. The diagnostic potential within systems containing artificial neural networks proves this calculation tool to be an independent or/and an additional device for supporting a doctor's diagnosis of artery disease and pulmonary embolism. (author)

  14. Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saitta, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a fundamental mechanism underlying both human and artificial perception, representation of knowledge, reasoning and learning. This mechanism plays a crucial role in many disciplines, notably Computer Programming, Natural and Artificial Vision, Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Art, and Cognitive Sciences. This book first provides the reader with an overview of the notions of abstraction proposed in various disciplines by comparing both commonalities and differences.  After discussing the characterizing properties of abstraction, a formal model, the K

  15. Artificial intelligence in power system optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2013-01-01

    With the considerable increase of AI applications, AI is being increasingly used to solve optimization problems in engineering. In the past two decades, the applications of artificial intelligence in power systems have attracted much research. This book covers the current level of applications of artificial intelligence to the optimization problems in power systems. This book serves as a textbook for graduate students in electric power system management and is also be useful for those who are interested in using artificial intelligence in power system optimization.

  16. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected. PMID:18957747

  17. Improving Tools in Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical origin of the Artificial Intelligence (AI is usually established in the Dartmouth Conference, of 1956. But we can find many more arcane origins [1]. Also, we can consider, in more recent times, very great thinkers, as Janos Neumann (then, John von Neumann, arrived in USA, Norbert Wiener, Alan Mathison Turing, or Lofti Zadeh, for instance [12, 14]. Frequently AI requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it was necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic and so on [1, 2]. Among the things that AI needs to represent are categories, objects, properties, relations between objects, situations, states, time, events, causes and effects, knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in AI can be classified in two general types [3, 5], search problems and representation problems. On this last "peak", there exist different ways to reach their summit. So, we have [4] Logics, Rules, Frames, Associative Nets, Scripts, and so on, many times connected among them. We attempt, in this paper, a panoramic vision of the scope of application of such representation methods in AI. The two more disputable questions of both modern philosophy of mind and AI will be perhaps the Turing Test and the Chinese Room Argument. To elucidate these very difficult questions, see our final note.

  18. Exploration of Artificial Frustrated Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    2015-02-17

    This program encompasses experimental and theoretical studies of arrays of nanometer-scale magnets known as “artificial frustrated magnets”. These magnets are small and closely spaced, so that their behavior as a collective group is complex and reveals insights into how such collections of interacting objects behave as a group. In particular, the placement of the magnets is such that the interactions between them are “frustrated”, in that they compete with each other. These systems are analogs to a class of magnetic materials in which the lattice geometry frustrates interactions between individual atomic moments, and in which a wide range of novel physical phenomena have been recently observed. The advantage to studying the arrays is that they are both designable and resolvable: i.e., the experiments can control all aspects of the array geometry, and can also observe how individual elements of the arrays behave. This research program demonstrated a number of phenomena including the role of multiple collective interactions, the feasibility of using systems with their magnetism aligned perpendicular to the plane of the array, the importance of disorder in the arrays, and the possibility of using high temperatures to adjust the magnet orientations. All of these phenomena, and others explored in this program, add to the body of knowledge around collective magnetic behavior and magnetism in general. Aside from building scientific knowledge in an important technological area, with relevance to computing and memory, the program also gave critical support to the education of students working on the experiments.

  19. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. PMID:26253434

  20. Learning in Artificial Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

  1. Artificial sequences and complexity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Caglioti, Emanuele; Loreto, Vittorio

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we exploit concepts of information theory to address the fundamental problem of identifying and defining the most suitable tools for extracting, in a automatic and agnostic way, information from a generic string of characters. We introduce in particular a class of methods which use in a crucial way data compression techniques in order to define a measure of remoteness and distance between pairs of sequences of characters (e.g. texts) based on their relative information content. We also discuss in detail how specific features of data compression techniques could be used to introduce the notion of dictionary of a given sequence and of artificial text and we show how these new tools can be used for information extraction purposes. We point out the versatility and generality of our method that applies to any kind of corpora of character strings independently of the type of coding behind them. We consider as a case study linguistic motivated problems and we present results for automatic language recognition, authorship attribution and self-consistent classification.

  2. Artificial tanning and suntan salons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A B

    1982-05-15

    Many individuals will seek artificial skin-tanning methods despite recognition of their hazards. The long-wave ultraviolet light (UVA) sources provide a deeper tan and are potentially safer than the short-wave (UVB) sources for most people, hence the use of UVB should be confined to therapeutic purposes. However, there should be adequate warning that UVA is not harmless and, like UVB, will not tan some people's skin effectively. At this moment, there are insufficient data to predict what will be the long-term effect of selective use of UVA both on skin and on eyes. The dosage for a given exposure time will vary from one UVA apparatus to the next and cannot be assessed on the basis of redness, as is with UVB. This is a particularly serious potential hazard for people who purchase UVA units for private use. Adequate eye protection should be mandatory, until proved otherwise. Rigid safety standards are needed for the operation of UVA solaria. PMID:7099071

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Teruo

    After reviewing the recent popularization of the information transmission and processing technologies, which are supported by the progress of electronics, the authors describe that by the introduction of the opto-electronics into the information technology, the possibility of applying the artificial intelligence (AI) technique to the mechanization of the information management has emerged. It is pointed out that althuogh AI deals with problems in the mental world, its basic methodology relies upon the verification by evidence, so the experiment on computers become indispensable for the study of AI. The authors also describe that as computers operate by the program, the basic intelligence which is concerned in AI is that expressed by languages. This results in the fact that the main tool of AI is the logical proof and it involves an intrinsic limitation. To answer a question “Why do you employ AI in your problem solving”, one must have ill-structured problems and intend to conduct deep studies on the thinking and the inference, and the memory and the knowledge-representation. Finally the authors discuss the application of AI technique to the information management. The possibility of the expert-system, processing of the query, and the necessity of document knowledge-base are stated.

  4. Third International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Automation for Space 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Third International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Automation for Space (i-SAIRAS 94), held October 18-20, 1994, in Pasadena, California, was jointly sponsored by NASA, ESA, and Japan's National Space Development Agency, and was hosted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology. i-SAIRAS 94 featured presentations covering a variety of technical and programmatic topics, ranging from underlying basic technology to specific applications of artificial intelligence and robotics to space missions. i-SAIRAS 94 featured a special workshop on planning and scheduling and provided scientists, engineers, and managers with the opportunity to exchange theoretical ideas, practical results, and program plans in such areas as space mission control, space vehicle processing, data analysis, autonomous spacecraft, space robots and rovers, satellite servicing, and intelligent instruments.

  5. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Kawase, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  6. NEGESAR: NEw GEneration Satellite Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Fabrizio; Borghesi, Giancarlo

    2000-01-01

    Reduce to the minimum any analog-based system on board the next generation satellites and replace them with the more performing and reliable digital platforms shall be the challenge for all the Space Business World in the next decade. The micro-size NEGESAT Company (2 experienced Space Engineers) has launched, since early 99, the project called NEGESAR (NEw GEneration Satellite ARchitecture) aiming at this objective: to give the Space User a way to launch active and complex Electronic Equipme...

  7. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Emily; Alvisio, Bruno; Babuscia, Alessandra; Casas, Zachary; Coffee, Brian; Giblin, Sydney; Hallock, Laura; Kingsbury, Ryan; Leaman, Michael; Lynch, Naomi; O'Connor, Michael; Qian, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Frank; de Soria-Santacruz, Maria; Sotomayor, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading cause of component failures for satellites in low and medium Earth orbits (LEO, MEO). Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic waves have been shown to couple energy to high energy radiation belt particles and change their properties. For example, data from the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite suggest that the gap between the inner ...

  8. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Gaussian Entanglement Distribution via Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyse three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in thi...

  10. Satellite medical centers project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arvind

    2002-08-01

    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  11. ARJIS satellite demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Steve; Williams, Carl

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the California Space Authority (CSA) was provided funding by the U. S. Congress through the Defense Appropriations Act to develop a project that would demonstrate the U.S. space enterprise capability that would contribute to the effectiveness of those engaged in Homeland Security. The project was given broad latitude in selecting the area of Homeland Security to be addressed and the nature of the space technology to be applied. CSA became aware of a nascent law enforcement data-sharing project in the San Diego region known as the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS). First developed by the police departments in San Diego, ARJIS is an innovative system that shares criminal justice information among 50 federal, state, and local agencies. ARJIS was completing a pilot project that enabled officers to receive information on handheld computers, which was transmitted wirelessly through cellular networks. The accessed information came from several databases that collectively contained the entire region's crime and arrest reports, traffic citations, and incidents, as well as state and county wants and warrants. The fundamental limitations that plague all cellular-based devices caught CSA's attention and resulted in a cooperative effort to harden the communications link between the patrol officer and critical data. The principal goal of the SATCOM development task was to create a proof-of-concept application that would use SATCOM links to augment the current ARJIS handheld wireless (cellular) capability. The successful technical demonstration and the positive support for satellite communications from the law enforcement community showed that this project filled a need-both for improved information sharing and for highly reliable communications systems.

  12. A satellite for demonstration of Panel Extension Satellite (PETSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yoshiki; Sahara, Hironori; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Greenland, Stephen; Morimoto, Takeshi; Koyama, Kanichi; Kobayashi, Chisato; Kikuchi, Hideaki; Okada, Takanori; Tanaka, Hidenori

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the current status, configuration, architecture, and key technologies of SOHLA-2, the demonstration mission of the PETSAT (Panel ExTension SATellite) concept. The PETSAT proposal is for a modular satellite consisting of any number of unfolding functional panels. These panels are designed around an open architecture and connected through standardized interfaces. The interfaces between panels incorporate a reliable "plug-in" format, such that when combined, the integrated system takes on the intended satellite function in a redundant and distributed manner. By combining the different panel types in any number and configuration, flexibility to mission requirements is achieved. Some panels for performing basic satellite functions will be available as commercial-off-the-shelf components, and others custom developed dependent on the mission. During launch these panels are stowed in a folded low volume configuration, which is then extended on-orbit, realizing a satellite with a large area for the mounting of solar arrays, mission systems, extensible booms, or any other components. SOHLA-2 is both a concept demonstration and a lightning detection mission in the VHF band. It weighs less than 50 kg and consists of six panels: communication, attitude control, propulsion, mission, experiment and bus function. The bus function panel is based on the successful Cubesat XI developed at the University of Tokyo and this acts as the manager of the technology demonstration aspects for the mission. By basing the architecture upon a proven technology, the reliability of the satellite is increased. It is intended that the satellite be launched in early 2008.

  13. CHINA LAUNCHES 2 SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT SATELLITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China placed 2 scientific experiment satellites into preset orbits atop a LM-4B launch vehicle on Sept. 9, 2004. A LM-4B blasted off at 7:14 am from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi Province. Sources from the Xi'an Satellite Monitor and Control Center said that one satellite,

  14. China Launches First Ever Nano-satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    China successfully launched two scientific satellites, including a nano-satellite for the first time, heralding a breakthrough in space technology. A LM-2C rocket carrying Nano-Satellite I (NS-1), which weighs just 25kg and an Experiment Satellite I, weighing 204kg blasted off at 11:59 p.m. on April 18,

  15. Geostationary meteorological satellite systems - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blersch, Donald J.; Probert, Todd C.

    Past and present geosynchronous meteorological satellites developed in the USA, Europe, Japan, India, and the Soviet Union are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the Applications Technology Satellite Program, GOES and SMS/GOES, METEOSAT, GMS/Himawari, the Indian National Satellite, and a Soviet geostationary meteorological satellite program, GOMS.

  16. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  17. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to date but this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has some significant benefits ... facing straight up. The incision that Dr. Beutler uses is a little over an inch long, and ...

  18. Economic modeling using artificial intelligence methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the application of artificial intelligence methods to model economic data. It addresses causality and proposes new frameworks for dealing with this issue. It also applies evolutionary computing to model evolving economic environments.

  19. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  20. Superconducting superlattices 2: Native and artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozovic, I.; Pavuna, D. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This volume is composed of 26 papers presented at the symposium. Topics covered include the following: high-{Tc} superlattices: intrinsic and artificial; low-{Tc} superlattices and multilayers; and theory.

  1. Total artificial hearts: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, William E; Timms, Daniel L; Frazier, O H

    2015-10-01

    A practical artificial heart has been sought for >50 years. An increasing number of people succumb to heart disease each year, but the number of hearts available for transplantation remains small. Early total artificial hearts mimicked the pumping action of the native heart. These positive-displacement pumps could provide adequate haemodynamic support and maintain the human circulation for short periods, but large size and limited durability adversely affected recipients' quality of life. Subsequent research into left ventricular assist devices led to the use of continuous-flow blood pumps with rotating impellers. Researchers have attempted to integrate this technology into modern total artificial hearts with moderate clinical success. The importance of pulsatile circulation remains unclear. Future research is, therefore, needed into positive-displacement and rotary total artificial hearts. PMID:26031698

  2. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spine problems in up to date but this new technology with the use of an artificial disc ... of patients for many, many. Prior to this new technology, we would take out that disc and ...

  3. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems in up to date but this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has ... patients for many, many. Prior to this new technology, we would take out that disc and then ...

  4. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  5. Melt ponds on Arctic sea ice determined from MODIS satellite data using an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rösel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Melt ponds on sea ice strongly reduce the surface albedo and accelerate the decay of Arctic sea ice. Due to different spectral properties of snow, ice, and water, the fractional coverage of these distinct surface types can be derived from multispectral sensors like the Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS using a spectral unmixing algorithm. The unmixing was implemented using a multilayer perceptron to reduce computational costs.

    Arctic-wide melt pond fractions and sea ice concentrations are derived from the level 3 MODIS surface reflectance product. The validation of the MODIS melt pond data set was conducted with aerial photos from the MELTEX campaign 2008 in the Beaufort Sea, data sets from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC for 2000 and 2001 from four sites spread over the entire Arctic, and with ship observations from the trans-Arctic HOTRAX cruise in 2005. The root-mean-square errors range from 3.8 % for the comparison with HOTRAX data, over 10.7 % for the comparison with NSIDC data, to 10.3 % and 11.4 % for the comparison with MELTEX data, with coefficient of determination ranging from R2=0.28 to R2=0.45. The mean annual cycle of the melt pond fraction per grid cell for the entire Arctic shows a strong increase in June, reaching a maximum of 15 % by the end of June. The zonal mean of melt pond fractions indicates a dependence of the temporal development of melt ponds on the geographical latitude, and has its maximum in mid-July at latitudes between 80° and 88° N.

    Furthermore, the MODIS results are used to estimate the influence of melt ponds on retrievals of sea ice concentrations from passive microwave data. Results from a case study comparing sea ice concentrations from ARTIST Sea Ice-, NASA Team 2-, and Bootstrap-algorithms with MODIS sea ice concentrations indicate an underestimation of around 40 % for sea ice concentrations retrieved with microwave algorithms.

  6. Integration of artificial intelligence and numerical optimization techniques for the design of complex aerospace systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new software system called Engineous combines artificial intelligence and numerical methods for the design and optimization of complex aerospace systems. Engineous combines the advanced computational techniques of genetic algorithms, expert systems, and object-oriented programming with the conventional methods of numerical optimization and simulated annealing to create a design optimization environment that can be applied to computational models in various disciplines. Engineous has produced designs with higher predicted performance gains that current manual design processes - on average a 10-to-1 reduction of turnaround time - and has yielded new insights into product design. It has been applied to the aerodynamic preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine, concurrent aerodynamic and mechanical preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine blade and disk, a space superconductor generator, a satellite power converter, and a nuclear-powered satellite reactor and shield. 23 refs

  7. Artificial intelligence techniques for rational decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2014-01-01

    Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon's bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore's Law and artificial intellig

  8. Rotating artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lembessis, V E; Alshamari, S; Siddig, A; Aldossary, O M

    2016-01-01

    We consider the creation of artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields created when a two-level atom interacts with an optical Ferris wheel light field.These fields have the spatial structure of the optical Ferris wheel field intensity profile. If this optical field pattern is made to rotate in space then we have the creation of artificial electromagnetic fields which propagate in closed paths. The properties of such fields are presented and discussed

  9. Interaction Profiles for an Artificial Conversational Companion

    OpenAIRE

    Höhn, Sviatlana; Busemann, Stephan; Max, Charles; Schommer, Christoph; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Using Artificial Companions for tasks requiring long-term interaction like language learning or coaching can be approached by creating local computational models for particular interaction structures, and models reflecting changes in interaction over time. An Artificial Conversational Companion (ACC) that helps to practice conversation in a foreign language is expected to play the role of a language expert in conversation. We apply methods of Conversation Analysis to obtain data- driven model...

  10. Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Valentina Onet

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO, Ant Colony Optimization (ACOand Artificial Bee Colony(ABC.

  11. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  12. Modelling Microwave Devices Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Katkevičius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANN have recently gained attention as fast and flexible equipment for modelling and designing microwave devices. The paper reviews the opportunities to use them for undertaking the tasks on the analysis and synthesis. The article focuses on what tasks might be solved using neural networks, what challenges might rise when using artificial neural networks for carrying out tasks on microwave devices and discusses problem-solving techniques for microwave devices with intermittent characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Distance Concentration-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; WANG Yao-cai; WANG Zhi-jie; MENG Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The diversity, adaptation and memory of biological immune system attract much attention of researchers. Several optimal algorithms based on immune system have also been proposed up to now. The distance concentration-based artificial immune algorithm (DCAIA) is proposed to overcome defects of the classical artificial immune algorithm (CAIA) in this paper. Compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and CAIA, DCAIA is good for solving the problem of precocity,holding the diversity of antibody, and enhancing convergence rate.

  14. Statistical Facts of Artificial Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Yohanes Surya

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports the construction of artificial stock market that emerges the similar statistical facts with real data in Indonesian stock market. We use the individual but dominant data, i.e.: PT TELKOM in hourly interval. The artificial stock market shows standard statistical facts, e.g.: volatility clustering, the excess kurtosis of the distribution of return, and the scaling properties with its breakdown in the crossover of Levy distribution to the Gaussian one. From this point, the arti...

  15. How to Improve Artificial Intelligence through Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian LUPASC

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent agents, intelligent software applications and artificial intelligent applications from artificial intelligence service providers may make their way onto the Web in greater number as adaptive software, dynamic programming languages and Learning Algorithms are introduced into Web Services. The evolution of Web architecture may allow intelligent applications to run directly on the Web by introducing XML, RDF and logic layer. The Intelligent Wireless Web’s significant potential for ra...

  16. Implementing artificial awareness with KnowLang

    OpenAIRE

    Vassev E.; Hinchey M.

    2013-01-01

    To become interaction-aware, an autonomic cyber-physical system needs to be aware of its physical environment and whereabouts and its current internal status. This ability is defined as artificial awareness and it helps intelligent software-intensive systems perceive changes, draw inferences for their own behavior and react. Originally, artificial awareness depends on the knowledge we transfer to a system and how we make the system use that knowledge, so it can exhibit intelligence. Artificia...

  17. Visual Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Araokar, Shashank

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of optical characters is known to be one of the earliest applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a simplified neural approach to recognition of optical or visual characters is portrayed and discussed. The document is expected to serve as a resource for learners and amateur investigators in pattern recognition, neural networking and related disciplines.

  18. CHINA RETRIEVES 19th RECOVERABLE SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China on Sept.25 recovered its 19th recoverable sci-tech experimental satellite 27 days after the satellite orbited in space. The satellite, which was launched on Aug.29 from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu Province, northwest China, touched the ground at 7:55 a.m.on Sept.25. The satellite, atop a Long March 2C carrier rocket, is mainly for

  19. Honeycomb artificial spin ice at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Cohen, Lesley; Branford, Will

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice is a macroscopic playground for magnetically frustrated systems. It consists of a geometrically ordered but magnetically frustrated arrangement of ferromagnetic macros spins, e.g. an arrangement of single domain ferromagnetic nanowires on a honeycomb lattice. Permalloy and cobalt which have critical temperature scales far above 290 K, are commonly used in the construction of such systems. Previous measurements have shown unusual features in the magnetotransport signature of cobalt honeycomb artificial spin ice at temperatures below 50 K which are due to changes in the artificial spin ice's magnetic reversal. In that case, the artificial spin ice bars were 1 micron long, 100 nm wide and 20 nm thick. Here we explore the low temperature magnetic behavior of honeycomb artificial spin ice structures with a variety of bar dimensions, indirectly via electrical transport, as well as, directly using low temperature magnetic imaging techniques. We discuss the extent to which this change in the magnetic reversal at low temperatures is generic to the honeycomb artificial spin ice geometry and whether the bar dimensions have an influence on its onset temperature. The EPSRC (Grant No. EP/G004765/1; Grant No. EP/L504786/1) and the Leverhulme Trust (Grant No. RPG 2012-692) funded this scientific work.

  20. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Crowder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  1. Using Cell Phones From Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

  2. The principles of artificial neural network information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the basic structure of an artificial neuron is first introduced. In addition, principles of artificial neural network as well as several important artificial neural models such as Perceptron, Back propagation model, Hopfield net, and ART model are briefly discussed and analyzed. Finally, the application of artificial neural network for Chinese Character Recognition is also given. (author)

  3. The principles of artificial neural network information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the basic structure of an artificial neuron is first introduced. In addition, principles of artificial neural network as well as several important artificial neural models such as perception, back propagation model, Hopfield net, and ART model are briefly discussed and analyzed. Finally the application of artificial neural network for Chinese character recognition is also given. (author)

  4. VLBI observations of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fengchun; Zhang, Xiuzhong; Zheng, Weimin

    The principle of determining spacecraft angular position with differential VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique is described. The first domestic differential VLBI observations of geosynchronous satellites were performed with participations of Shanghai, Urumqi and Kunming stations. Three strong quasars within angular separation of 15° from target satellites were selected as reference radio sources. The main purpose of such observations is to obtain interferometric fringes of the satellites, and to estimate accuracy of differential VLBI observations. A 2-station FX type correlator at SHAO (Shanghai Astronomical Observatory) was used to do cross-correlations of radio signals in MK3A-C tape format. Strong fringes of the satellites were detected to all stations. The precision of time delay and rate was derived from the correlator output. Based on system errors analysis, we estimated that ΔDOR (Delta Differential One-way Ranging) error was about 41 cm, and ΔDOD (Delta Differential One-way Doppler) error was about 0.148mm/s, which corresponded, respectively, to the position error of 8m and the velocity error of 2.8mm/s for the geosynchronous satellite on the plane of sky.

  5. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  6. Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Xiong, A.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Precipitation Merge Team

    2010-12-01

    A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation is constructed on a 0.25°latitude/ longitude grid over China for a 3 year period from 2005 to 2007 by interpolating gauge reports from ~2000 stations (fig.1) collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration. Gauge-based precipitation analysis is applied to examine the performance of six high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates, including Joyce et al.’s (2004) Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and the arithmetic mean of the microwave estimates used in CMORPH; Huffman et al.’s (2007) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product 3B42 and its real-time version 3B42RT; Turk et al.’s (2004) Naval Research Laboratory blended product; and Hsu et al.’s (1997) Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN). Our results showed the following: (1) all six satellite products are capable of capturing the overall spatial distribution and temporal variations of precipitation reasonably well; (2) performance of the satellite products varies for different regions and different precipitation regimes, with better comparison statistics observed over wet regions and for warm seasons; (3) products based solely on satellite observations present regionally and seasonally varying biases, while the gauge-adjustment procedures applied in TRMM 3B42 remove the large-scale bias almost completely; (4) CMORPH exhibits the best performance in depicting the spatial pattern and temporal variations of precipitation; and (5) both the relative magnitude and the phase of the warm season precipitation over China are estimated quite well, but the early morning peak associated with the Mei-Yu rainfall over central eastern China is substantially under-estimated by all satellite products. The work reported in this paper is an integral part of our efforts to construct an analysis

  7. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. PMID:26945924

  8. Commercial applications of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that in the next decade the oceans' commercial users will require an operational oceanographic satellite system or systems capable of maximizing real-time coverage over all ocean areas. Seasat studies suggest that three spacecraft are required to achieve this. Here, the sensor suite would measure surface winds, wave heights (and spectral energy distribution), ice characteristics, sea-surface temperature, ocean colorimetry, height of the geoid, salinity, and subsurface thermal structure. The importance of oceanographic data being distributed to commercial users within two hours of observation time is stressed. Also emphasized is the importance of creating a responsive oceanographic satellite data archive. An estimate of the potential dollar benefits of such an operational oceanographic satellite system is given.

  9. Gaussian Entanglement Distribution via Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyse three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the trade-off between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation...

  10. The Mexican national satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  11. Dark Matter tested with satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the distribution of velocity dispersion as far as 400kpc around red isolated galaxies was derived from statistical studies of satellites in the SDSS (Klypin & Prada 2009). This could help to constrain dark matter models at intermediate scales. We compare the predictions of different DM distributions, LCDM with NFW or cored profiles, and also modified gravity models, with observations. It is shown how the freedom in the various parameters (radial distribution of satellites, velocity anisotropy, external field effect), prevents to disentangle the models, which all can give pretty good fits to the data. In all cases, realistic radial variations of velocity anisotropy are used for the satellites, and a constant stellar-mass to light ratio for the host galaxies.

  12. Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

  13. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  14. Citizen Explorer. 1; An Earth Observer With New Small Satellite Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Zachary; Dunn, Catherine E.

    2003-01-01

    Citizen Explorer-I (CX-I), designed and built by students at Colorado Space Grant Consortium in Boulder to provide global ozone monitoring, employs a unique mission architecture and several innovative technologies during its mission. The mission design allows K-12 schools around the world to be involved as ground stations available to receive science data and telemetry from CX-I. Another important technology allows the spacecraft to be less reliant on ground operators. Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) allows mission designers to set constraints on the satellite operations. The satellite then automatically adheres to the constraints when the satellite is out of contact with Mission Operations. In addition to SCL, a low level of artificial intelligence will be supplied to the spacecraft through the use of the Automated Scheduling and Planning ENvironment (ASPEN). ASPEN is used to maintain a spacecraft schedule in order to achieve the objectives a mission operator would normally have to complete. Within the communications system of CX-I, internet of CX-I, internet protocols are the main method for communicating with the satellite. As internet protocols have not been widely used in satellite communication, CX-I provides an opportunity to study the effectiveness of using internet protocols over radio links. The Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) on CX-I uses a gravity gradient boom as a means of orienting the satellite's science instruments toward nadir. The boom design is unique because it is constructed of tape measure material. These new technologies' effectiveness will be tested for use on future small satellite projects within the space satellite industry.

  15. A Deep Search for Additional Satellites around the Dwarf Planet Haumea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Luke D.; Ragozzine, Darin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    Haumea is a dwarf planet with two known satellites, an unusually high spin rate, and a large collisional family, making it one of the most interesting objects in the outer solar system. A fully self-consistent formation scenario responsible for the satellite and family formation is still elusive, but some processes predict the initial formation of many small moons, similar to the small moons recently discovered around Pluto. Deep searches for regular satellites around Kuiper belt objects are difficult due to observational limitations, but Haumea is one of the few for which sufficient data exist. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations, focusing on a 10-consecutive-orbit sequence obtained in 2010 July, to search for new very small satellites. To maximize the search depth, we implement and validate a nonlinear shift-and-stack method. No additional satellites of Haumea are found, but by implanting and recovering artificial sources, we characterize our sensitivity. At distances between ∼10,000 and ∼350,000 km from Haumea, satellites with radii as small as ∼10 km are ruled out, assuming an albedo (p≃ 0.7) similar to Haumea. We also rule out satellites larger than ≳40 km in most of the Hill sphere using other HST data. This search method rules out objects similar in size to the small moons of Pluto. By developing clear criteria for determining the number of nonlinear rates to use, we find that far fewer shift rates are required (∼35) than might be expected. The nonlinear shift-and-stack method to discover satellites (and other moving transients) is tractable, particularly in the regime where nonlinear motion begins to manifest itself.

  16. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  17. Natural Satellite Ephemerides at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert Arthur; Brozovic, Marina

    2015-08-01

    There are currently 176 known natural planetary satellites in the solar system; 150 are officially recognized by the IAU and 26 have IAU provisional designations. We maintain ephemerides for all of the satellites at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and make them available electronically through the On-Line Solar System Data Service known as Horizons(http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons) and in the form of generic Spice Kernels (SPK files) from NASA's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/naif). General satellite information such as physical constants and descriptive orbital elements can be found on the JPL Solar System Dynamics Website (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov). JPL's ephemerides directly support planetary spacecraft missions both in navigation and science data analysis. They are also used in general scientific investigations of planetary systems. We produce the ephemerides by fitting numerically integrated orbits to observational data. Our model for the satellite dynamics accounts for the gravitational interactions within a planetary system and the external gravitational perturbations from the Sun and planets. We rely on an extensive data set to determine the parameters in our dynamical models. The majority of the observations are visual, photographic, and CCD astrometry acquired from Earthbased observatories worldwide and the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional observations include optical and photoelectric transits, eclipses, occultations, Earthbased radar ranging, spacecraft imaging,and spacecraft radiometric tracking. The latter data provide information on the planet and satellite gravity fields as well as the satellite position at the times of spacecraft close encounters. In this paper we report on the status of the ephemerides and our plan for future development, specifically that in support of NASA's Juno, Cassini, and New Horizons missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto, respectively.

  18. Rearing the southern green stink bug using an artificial dry diet and an artificial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzi, Antonio Ricardo [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: Panizzi@cnpso.embrapa.br; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali; Carvalho, Diogo Rodrigues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jrpparra@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; E-mail: drcarval@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Santos, Claudia Hirt [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)]. E-mail: clauhirt@yahoo.com.br

    2000-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted with an artificial dry diet to rear nymphs, and with an artificial plant as substrate for egg laying by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). The artificial diet was composed of: soybean protein (15 g); potato starch (7.5 g); dextrose (7.5 g); sucrose (2.5 g); cellulose (12.5 g); vitamin mixture (niacinamide 1 g, calcium pantothenate 1 g, thiamine 0.25 g, riboflavin 0.5 g, pyridoxine 0.25 g, folic acid 0.25 g, biotin 0.02 mL, vitamin B12 1 g - added to 1,000 mL of distilled water) (5.0 mL); soybean oil (20 mL); wheat germ (17.9 g); and water (30 mL). Nymphs showed normal feeding behavior when fed on the artificial diet. Nymphal development time was longer than or similar to that of nymphs fed on soybean pods. Total nymphal mortality was low (ca. 30%), both for nymphs reared on the artificial diet, and for nymphs fed on soybean pods. At adult emergence, fresh body weights were significantly (P<0.01) less on the artificial diet than on soybean pods. Despite the lower adult survivorship and fecundity on artificial plants than on soybean plants, it was demonstrated for the first time that a model simulating a natural plant, can be used as a substrate for egg mass laying, in conjunction with the artificial diet. (author)

  19. Artificial Evolution for the Detection of Group Identities in Complex Artificial Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at detecting the presence of group structures in complex artificial societies by solely observing and analysing the interactions occurring among the artificial agents. Our approach combines: (1) an unsupervised method for clustering interactions into two possible classes, namely i...

  20. Inflatable Dome for Moon, Mars, Asteroids and Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    On a planet without atmosphere, sustaining human life is very difficult and dangerous, especially during short sunlit period when low temperature prevails. To counter these environmental stresses, the author offer an innovative artificial "Evergreen" dome, an inflated hemisphere with interiors continuously providing a climate like that of Florida, Italy and Spain. The "Evergreen" dome theory is developed, substantiated by computations that show it is possible for current technology to construct and heat large enclosed volumes inexpensively. Specifically, a satisfactory result is reached by using magnetic suspended at high altitude sunlight reflectors and a special double thin film as a skin, which concentrates solar energy inside the dome while, at the same time, markedly decreasing the heat loss to exterior space. Offered design may be employed for settlements on the Moon, Mars, asteroids and satellites.

  1. Small satellite solar array substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, John N.; Rosanova, Giulio

    1994-01-01

    The SMall EXplorer (SMEX) Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft was developed to investigate plasma physics of auroral phenomena at high orbital altitude. The FAST satellite comprises a variety of deployable booms with sensors on the ends, and instruments that protrude from the main body of the spacecraft to obtain the plasma and electromagnetic fields data. This required the plasma disturbance around the satellite to be kept to a minimum. A non deployable, body mounted solar array was implemented. This led to the design of a light weight solar array substrate with a high degree of structural integrity.

  2. Telepresence systems for satellite servicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telepresence system concepts for satellite servicing are described which are designed to perform complex tasks at remote worksites. Required performance characteristics are developed for specific satellite service functions, and technology issues are identified. Concepts with the operator both nearby and at a great distance from the worksite, with resulting significant time delays, are addressed. A laboratory program established to support the development of such systems is described and preliminary test conclusions are presented. Technology developments required to resolve outstanding technical issues are identified and associated future flight test programs are discussed

  3. Chameleon gravity and satellite geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, J R

    2014-01-01

    We consider the possibility of the detection of a chameleon effect by an earth orbiting satellite such as LAGEOS, and possible constraints that might be placed on chameleon model parameters. Approximate constraints presented here result from using a simple monopole approximation for the gravitational field of the earth, along with results from the Khoury-Weltman chameleon model, solar system constraints obtained from the Cassini mission, and parameter bounds obtained from the LAGEOS satellite. It is furthermore suggested that a comparison of ground-based and space-based multipole moments of the geopotential could reveal a possible chameleon effect.

  4. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    After billions of years of evolution, nature developed inventions that work, which are appropriate for the intended tasks and that last. The evolution of nature led to the introduction of highly effective and power efficient biological mechanisms that are scalable from micron to many meters in size. Imitating these mechanisms offers enormous potentials for the improvement of our life and the tools we use. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature and we are increasingly reaching levels of advancement where it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. Some of the biomimetic technologies that have emerged include artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision to which significant advances in materials science, mechanics, electronics, and computer science have contributed greatly. One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their operation mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the state-of-the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  5. Approaches to the artificial heart. Invited speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, W S; Myers, J L; Donachy, J H; Rosenberg, G; Landis, D L; Prophet, G A; Snyder, A J

    1981-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the implantable artificial heart has evolved from an idea to a device capable of completely supporting the circulation for periods now exceeding 5 months. Although initial animal studies were limited by thromboembolism and device breakage, the usual causes of death in experimental animals are now infection, atrioventricular valve obstruction, elastomer bladder calcification, or inadequate cardiac output because of the relatively rapid growth of the young calves. As a result of the bulky nature of the energy converter and the substantial risk of infection with large diameter percutaneous tubes, clinical use of their air-powered artificial hearts will be limited to patients who are awaiting or being prepared for heart transplantation. Artificial hearts with implanted energy converters are being developed for permanent heart replacement. These devices require well-designed, durable mechanical components and sophisticated control systems. Although initial designs centered around thermal engines powered by a completely implantable nuclear energy source, the excessive cost and potential dangers have shifted the focus away from the nuclear system. Several electrically driven artificial hearts, based on samarium-cobalt magnet brushless direct-current motors, are now undergoing bench testing and will be ready for long-term animal studies within 2 years. This research will culminate with the availability of an "off-the-shelf" electrically powered artificial heart for use in patients with a wide range of nonrepairable forms of end-stage heart disease. PMID:7256534

  6. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Perkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.

  7. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P.

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology. PMID:27610921

  8. Automatic labeling and characterization of objects using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William J.; Hill, Scott E.; Cromp, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Existing NASA supported scientific data bases are usually developed, managed and populated in a tedious, error prone and self-limiting way in terms of what can be described in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). The next generation Earth remote sensing platforms, i.e., Earth Observation System, (EOS), will be capable of generating data at a rate of over 300 Mbs per second from a suite of instruments designed for different applications. What is needed is an innovative approach that creates object-oriented databases that segment, characterize, catalog and are manageable in a domain-specific context and whose contents are available interactively and in near-real-time to the user community. Described here is work in progress that utilizes an artificial neural net approach to characterize satellite imagery of undefined objects into high-level data objects. The characterized data is then dynamically allocated to an object-oriented data base where it can be reviewed and assessed by a user. The definition, development, and evolution of the overall data system model are steps in the creation of an application-driven knowledge-based scientific information system.

  9. Satellite voice broadcast system study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay, rather than via terrestrial relay stations. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF (26 MHz), VHF (68 MHz), and L-band (1.5 GHz). The geographical areas of interest at HF and L-band include all major land masses worldwide with the exception of the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. In addition, a system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours is developed for the HF band. VHF broadcasts, which are confined to the Soviet Union, are provied by a system of Molniya satellites. Satellites intended for HF or VHF broadcastinbg are extremely large and heavy. Satellite designs presented here are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. Even so, at HF it would take 47 geostationary satellites or 20 satellites in 8-hour orbits to fully satisfy the voice-channel requirements of the broadcast schedule provided by VOA. On the other hand, three Molniya satellites suffice for the geographically restricted schedule at VHF. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. Moreover, these satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for direct broadcast of video program material.

  10. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Steam Generator Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of different Artificial Intelligence methods to predict the values of several continuous variables from a Steam Generator. The objective was to determine how the different artificial intelligence methods performed in making predictions on the given dataset. The artificial intelligence methods evaluated were Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems. The types of neural networks investigated were Multi-Layer Perceptions, and Radial Basis Function. Bayesian and committee techniques were applied to these neural networks. Each of the AI methods considered was simulated in Matlab. The results of the simulations showed that all the AI methods were capable of predicting the Steam Generator data reasonably accurately. However, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system out performed the other methods in terms of accuracy and ease of implementation, while still achieving a fast execution time as well as a reasonable training time.

  11. Machine Learning Optimization of Evolvable Artificial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caschera, F.; Rasmussen, S.; Hanczyc, M.

    2011-01-01

    and an in vitro cell-free expression system are presented as examples of optimization of molecular interactions in high dimensional space of compositions [1,4]. These represent, for instance, the modules or subsystems that could be optimized by "mixing the protocols" to achieve the high level of...... sophistication that artificial cells requires. In addition a replication cycle of oil in water emulsions is presented. They represent the container for the artificial cells. (C) Selection and peer-review under responsibility of FET11 conference organizers and published by Elsevier B.V.......An evolvable artificial cell is a chemical or biological complex system assembled in laboratory. The system is rationally designed to show life-like properties. In order to achieve an optimal design for the emergence of minimal life, a high dimensional space of possible experimental combinations...

  12. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN)

    CERN Document Server

    Mladenov, Valeri; Kasabov, Nikola; Artificial Neural Networks : Methods and Applications in Bio-/Neuroinformatics

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the latest theories on artificial neural networks, with a special emphasis on bio-neuroinformatics methods. It includes twenty-three papers selected from among the best contributions on bio-neuroinformatics-related issues, which were presented at the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, held in Sofia, Bulgaria, on September 10-13, 2013 (ICANN 2013). The book covers a broad range of topics concerning the theory and applications of artificial neural networks, including recurrent neural networks, super-Turing computation and reservoir computing, double-layer vector perceptrons, nonnegative matrix factorization, bio-inspired models of cell communities, Gestalt laws, embodied theory of language understanding, saccadic gaze shifts and memory formation, and new training algorithms for Deep Boltzmann Machines, as well as dynamic neural networks and kernel machines. It also reports on new approaches to reinforcement learning, optimal control of discrete time-delay systems, new al...

  13. Artificial Atoms: from Quantum Physics to Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this workshop is to survey the most recent advances of technologies enabling single atom- and artificial atom-based devices. These include the assembly of artificial molecular structures with magnetic dipole and optical interactions between engineered atoms embedded in solid-state lattices. The ability to control single atoms in diamond or similar solids under ambient operating conditions opens new perspectives for technologies based on nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. The scope of the workshop is extended towards the physics of strong coupling between atoms and radiation field modes. Beyond the traditional atom-cavity systems, artificial dipoles coupled to microwave radiation in circuit quantum electrodynamics is considered. All these technologies mutually influence each other in developing novel devices for sensing at the quantum level and for quantum information processing.

  14. Artificial Radiotracer Applications in Aquatic Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of artificial radiotracers in the environment is analogous to their use in the human body. In both domains they provide data on flow rates and pathways, on exchange with materials and on their final discharge from the studied system. Artificially injected radiotracers have been used to investigate flow in natural waters since the 1950's. Identification of flow paths, diagnosis of blockages or leakage, measurement of flow rates, dispersion and exchange processes, such as biological uptake or sorption, are all aspects to which a wide range of artificial radioactive tracers have been applied. Increasingly radiotracers are used in combination with numerical modelling to improve confidence in the predictive capacity of models used in the management of our water resources and to extend their spatial applicability. In turn this allows us to use less and less tracer and demonstrate that the human and environmental impact of modern radiotracer studies is minimal. (author)

  15. An Introduction to Artificial Prediction Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Prediction markets are used in real life to predict outcomes of interest such as presidential elections. This paper presents a mathematical theory of artificial prediction markets for supervised learning of conditional probability estimators. The artificial prediction market is a novel method for fusing the prediction information of features or trained classifiers, where the fusion result is the contract price on the possible outcomes. The market can be trained online by updating the participants' budgets using training examples. Inspired by the real prediction markets, the equations that govern the market are derived from simple and reasonable assumptions. Efficient numerical algorithms are presented for solving these equations. The obtained artificial prediction market is shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator. It generalizes linear aggregation, existent in boosting and random forest, as well as logistic regression and some kernel methods. Furthermore, the market mechanism allows the aggregation of spec...

  16. Electric propulsion for small satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propulsion is required for satellite motion in outer space. The displacement of a satellite in space, orbit transfer and its attitude control are the task of space propulsion, which is carried out by rocket engines. Electric propulsion uses electric energy to energize or accelerate the propellant. The electric propulsion, which uses electrical energy to accelerate propellant in the form of plasma, is known as plasma propulsion. Plasma propulsion utilizes the electric energy to first, ionize the propellant and then, deliver energy to the resulting plasma leading to plasma acceleration. Many types of plasma thrusters have been developed over last 50 years. The variety of these devices can be divided into three main categories dependent on the mechanism of acceleration: (i) electrothermal, (ii) electrostatic and (iii) electromagnetic. Recent trends in space exploration associate with the paradigm shift towards small and efficient satellites, or micro- and nano-satellites. A particular example of microthruster considered in this paper is the micro-cathode arc thruster (µCAT). The µCAT is based on vacuum arc discharge. Thrust is produced when the arc discharge erodes some of the cathode at high velocity and is accelerated out the nozzle by a Lorentz force. The thrust amount is controlled by varying the frequency of pulses with demonstrated range to date of 1–50 Hz producing thrust ranging from 1 µN to 0.05 mN. (paper)

  17. Electric propulsion for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Zhuang, Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Teel, George; Chiu, Dereck; Lukas, Joseph; Haque, Samudra; Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Propulsion is required for satellite motion in outer space. The displacement of a satellite in space, orbit transfer and its attitude control are the task of space propulsion, which is carried out by rocket engines. Electric propulsion uses electric energy to energize or accelerate the propellant. The electric propulsion, which uses electrical energy to accelerate propellant in the form of plasma, is known as plasma propulsion. Plasma propulsion utilizes the electric energy to first, ionize the propellant and then, deliver energy to the resulting plasma leading to plasma acceleration. Many types of plasma thrusters have been developed over last 50 years. The variety of these devices can be divided into three main categories dependent on the mechanism of acceleration: (i) electrothermal, (ii) electrostatic and (iii) electromagnetic. Recent trends in space exploration associate with the paradigm shift towards small and efficient satellites, or micro- and nano-satellites. A particular example of microthruster considered in this paper is the micro-cathode arc thruster (µCAT). The µCAT is based on vacuum arc discharge. Thrust is produced when the arc discharge erodes some of the cathode at high velocity and is accelerated out the nozzle by a Lorentz force. The thrust amount is controlled by varying the frequency of pulses with demonstrated range to date of 1-50 Hz producing thrust ranging from 1 µN to 0.05 mN.

  18. China Satcom: Innovating Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China Satellite Communications Group Corporation (China Satcom) is a state-owned large-sized key enterprise formally established on Dec. 19, 2001 according to the general deployment of the State Council on telecommunication system reform. Relying on its complete service system, China Satcom provides various users with specialized and high quality information communication service.

  19. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ (Continued) Applications In Global Environment And Natural Disaster Monitoring 1) Application in world crop yield estimation China is now one of the few nations in the world that can provide operational service with both GEO and polar-orbit meteorological satellites.

  20. Introductory Course on Satellite Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Kaspar; Knogl, J. Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Satellite navigation is widely used for personal navigation and more and more in precise and safety-critical applications. Thus, the subject is suited for attracting the interest of young people in science and engineering. The practical applications allow catching the students' attention for the theoretical background. Educational material on the…

  1. Overview of the meteorological satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodaira, Nobuhiko

    1988-01-25

    The geostational meteorological satellite (Himawari) GMS-3 is now in activity. The next satellite GMS-4-4 is to be launched in 1989. GMS is a geostational meteorological satellite with rotates at 100 rpm by the spin stabilization system. The spin axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane across the earth. For imaging of the earth, GMS scans the earth from the west to the east, with a visible IR radiator. With the computer recently introduced, the observation can be successively made every 1 hour interval in the normal condition. The cloud-moving image obtained by the successive observation shows the cloud movement more smoothly, as compared with that obtained by conventional observation every 3 hour interval. The main meteorological observation items which can not be achieved by the present meteorological satellite include rainfall and ground atmospheric pressure. TRMM for measuring rainfalls is under co-investigation of U.S.A. and Japan. Measurement of atomospheric pressure has not reached the practical use stage yet. Typical measuring method utilizes the O/sub 2/ absorption wavelength range with a microwave. (6 figs, 2 tabs, 4 refs)

  2. Small satellites for tropical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Marie-Jose; Bonn, Ferdinand

    1993-11-01

    A number of mission studies were performed to assess the suitability of small satellite systems for tropical data acquisition. These studies took into account the specifics of the tropical user communities and were focused on remote sensing and resource management issues. The requirements and potential solutions for four application areas are discussed. For monitoring of forest and agricultural vegetation, a small synthetic aperture radar is considered with P, C, or X band imaging, possibly supplemented by a high resolution multispectral imager. The radar would have the capability to monitor below cloud cover which is often found in tropical regions. Optical, microwave, or spectrographic imaging would also be useful in small satellites for disaster monitoring (notably of floods), land management, and air pollution monitoring. A small satellite with data storage and forwarding capability is also envisioned to collect data from dependable, low-power, and low-cost ground sensors via a simple ultrahigh frequency uplink and download the data on a very high frequency downlink. All the small satellites would be launched in low inclination orbits to ensure a number of consecutive passes over the targeted tropical area.

  3. Monitoring Global Temperatures From Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Report provides evidence that passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more-precise information on atmospheric temperatures than sparse distribution of thermometers. Accurate temperatures needed for detection of "greenhouse" warming, evaluation of computer models of change in climate, and for understanding important factors in climate system.

  4. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Kasey Pierson,2,* Kamalani Hanamaikai,3,* Luis Santiago-Caban,1 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Samuel F Passi11Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3A T Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, Mesa, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. Keywords: dry eye, tear film, dysfunctional tear syndrome, ophthalmic lubricant, artificial tears, lipid layer, tear osmolarity, TBUT, Systane®, Refresh®, Blink®, GenTeal®, Soothe®, Lacrisert®, ocular surface inflammatory disease, Sjogren

  5. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass budget. The low thrust level enables precise and active nutation damping. Moreover the system offers the possibility of implementing active orbit control or formation flight demonstrations at Mars. Attitude will be determined on-board with an accuracy based on MEMS-technology. TM/TC will be relayed via the parent satellite in the UHF frequency range. Therefore the Electra Lite (ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish

  6. Application Of Artificial Intelligence To Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses potential use of artificial-intelligence systems to manage wind-tunnel test facilities at Ames Research Center. One of goals of program to obtain experimental data of better quality and otherwise generally increase productivity of facilities. Another goal to increase efficiency and expertise of current personnel and to retain expertise of former personnel. Third goal to increase effectiveness of management through more efficient use of accumulated data. System used to improve schedules of operation and maintenance of tunnels and other equipment, assignment of personnel, distribution of electrical power, and analysis of costs and productivity. Several commercial artificial-intelligence computer programs discussed as possible candidates for use.

  7. Artificial atoms based on correlated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannhart, J.; Boschker, H.; Kopp, T.; Valentí, R.

    2016-08-01

    Low-dimensional electron systems fabricated from quantum matter have in recent years become available and are being explored with great intensity. This article gives an overview of the fundamental properties of such systems and summarizes the state of the field. We furthermore present and consider the concept of artificial atoms fabricated from quantum materials, anticipating remarkable scientific advances and possibly important applications of this new field of research. The surprising properties of these artificial atoms and of molecules or even of solids assembled from them are presented and discussed.

  8. Artificial intelligence techniques in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Since the early to mid 1980s much of the effort in power systems analysis has turned away from the methodology of formal mathematical modelling which came from the fields of operations research, control theory and numerical analysis to the less rigorous techniques of artificial intelligence (AI). Today the main AI techniques found in power systems applications are those utilising the logic and knowledge representations of expert systems, fuzzy systems, artificial neural networks (ANN) and, more recently, evolutionary computing. These techniques will be outlined in this chapter and the power system applications indicated. (Author)

  9. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Troyer, G.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system.

  10. Knowledge representation an approach to artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bench-Capon, TJM

    1990-01-01

    Although many texts exist offering an introduction to artificial intelligence (AI), this book is unique in that it places an emphasis on knowledge representation (KR) concepts. It includes small-scale implementations in PROLOG to illustrate the major KR paradigms and their developments.****back cover copy:**Knowledge representation is at the heart of the artificial intelligence enterprise: anyone writing a program which seeks to work by encoding and manipulating knowledge needs to pay attention to the scheme whereby he will represent the knowledge, and to be aware of the consequences of the ch

  11. Machine learning an artificial intelligence approach

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, R; Bradshaw, Gary; Carbonell, Jaime Guillermo; Mitchell, Tom Michael; Michalski, Ryszard Spencer

    1983-01-01

    Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach contains tutorial overviews and research papers representative of trends in the area of machine learning as viewed from an artificial intelligence perspective. The book is organized into six parts. Part I provides an overview of machine learning and explains why machines should learn. Part II covers important issues affecting the design of learning programs-particularly programs that learn from examples. It also describes inductive learning systems. Part III deals with learning by analogy, by experimentation, and from experience. Parts IV a

  12. Electron-electron interactions in artificial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Esa

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in the creation and modulation of graphenelike systems are introducing a science of ``designer Dirac materials.'' In its original definition, artificial graphene is a man-made nanostructure that consists of identical potential wells (quantum dots) arranged in an adjustable honeycomb lattice in the two-dimensional electron gas. As our ability to control the quality of artificial graphene samples improves, so grows the need for an accurate theory of its electronic properties, including the effects of electron-electron interactions. Here we determine those effects on the band structure and on the emergence of Dirac points, and discuss future investigations and challenges in this field.

  13. Artificial Heart and Self-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imachi, Kou

    Artificial heart (AH) study has been started in 1957. After the accomplishments of various difficulties, the AH can become to use clinically as a postcardiotomy cardiac assist or bridge to heart transplantation. However, there remain many obstacles to realize an implantable total artificial heart. The history of AH was the self-making. Although self-making is important in all the experimental sciences, it is the most important factor to develop AH. In this paper, the author would like to introduce the present status of AH and the importance of self-making.

  14. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system

  15. Fundamental research in artificial intelligence at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes basic research at NASA in the field of artificial intelligence. The work is conducted at the Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, primarily under the auspices of the NASA-wide Artificial Intelligence Program in the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology. The research is aimed at solving long-term NASA problems in missions operations, spacecraft autonomy, preservation of corporate knowledge about NASA missions and vehicles, and management/analysis of scientific and engineering data. From a scientific point of view, the research is broken into the categories of: planning and scheduling; machine learning; and design of and reasoning about large-scale physical systems.

  16. A Deep Search for Additional Satellites around the Dwarf Planet Haumea

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Luke D; Brown, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Haumea is a dwarf planet with two known satellites, an unusually high spin rate, and a large collisional family, making it one of the most interesting objects in the outer solar system. A fully self-consistent formation scenario responsible for the satellite and family formation is still elusive, but some processes predict the initial formation of many small moons, similar to the small moons recently discovered around Pluto. Deep searches for regular satellites around KBOs are difficult due to observational limitations, but Haumea is one of the few for which sufficient data exist. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations, focusing on a ten-consecutive-orbit sequence obtained in July 2010, to search for new very small satellites. To maximize the search depth, we implement and validate a non-linear shift-and-stack method. No additional satellites of Haumea are found, but by implanting and recovering artificial sources, we characterize our sensitivity. At distances between $\\sim$10,000 km and $\\sim$3...

  17. DIORAMA Model of Satellite Body Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The DIORAMA GPS satellite platform orientation model is described. Satellites need to keep sensors pointed towards the earth and solar panels oriented to face the sun (when not in the earth’s shadow) while they orbit the earth.

  18. Space Environment Deteation of Chinese Meteorological Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; WANG Shijin; ZHU Guangwu; LIANG Jinbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the space environment detection of Chinese geosynchronous and sun-synchronous meteorological satellites and gives a short perspective of space environment observations on board meteorological satellites.

  19. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  20. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung;

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  1. New Equipment Training Center-Satellite Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Satellite Facility is a 24-hour on-site military satellite transmission and downlink capability to Southwest Asia and all other military OCONUS and CONUS...

  2. A new small satellite goes into orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On 5 November, 2008,a rocket launched the Chuangxin-1(02), a small satellite built by the Shanghai Engineering Center for MicroSatellite under the CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, into its preset orbit.

  3. RFP for the italien satellite AGILE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels;

    1999-01-01

    The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE.......The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE....

  4. Specifics of Small Satellite Propulsion: Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zakirov, Vadim; Sweeting, Martin; Erichsen, Peter; Lawrence, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Small satellite propulsion is a subject of unique constraints and requirements. Based on University of Surrey experience in small satellite building and operation, these features are listed and explained. Available volume is often identified as the most severe constraint for a small satellite with power and cost being the other two major constraints. Mass is often only of secondary importance for small satellites. Propulsion dry mass fraction for a spacecraft grows upon the system scaling-dow...

  5. User Validation of VIIRS Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Don Hillger; Tom Kopp; Curtis Seaman; Steven Miller; Dan Lindsey; Eric Stevens; Jeremy Solbrig; William Straka III; Melissa Kreller; Arunas Kuciauskas; Amanda Terborg

    2015-01-01

    Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite is the finest spatial resolution (375 m) multi-spectral imagery of any operational meteorological satellite to date. The Imagery environmental data record (EDR) has been designated as a Key Performance Parameter (KPP) for VIIRS, meaning that its performance is vital to the success of a series of Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites that will carry this instr...

  6. Mobility Extension for Broadband Satellite Multimedia

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.Fun; Pillai, Prashant; Berioli, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an extension for Broadband Satellite Multimedia (BSM) to support Mobility Management (MM). To support seamless handovers, mobility related entities are proposed in the Satellite Independent Access Function (SIAF) defined over the SI-SAP interface. This enables the mapping of the mobility related primitives between the higher layer and the satellite dependant lower layers via the Satellite Dependent Access Function (SDAF). The proposed MM architecture incorporates the Media...

  7. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Conceptual Design Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  8. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  9. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    2012-01-01

    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.

  10. Small Satellite Space Environments Effects Test Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, JR; Hartley, Kent; Montierth Phillipps, Lisa; Johnson, Robert; Dekany, Justin; Dyer, James

    2014-01-01

    A versatile space environments test facility has been designed and built to study the effects on small satellites and system components. Testing for potentially environmental-induced modifications of small satellites is critical to avoid possible deleterious or catastrophic effects over the duration of space missions. This is increasingly more important as small satellite programs have longer mission lifetimes, expand to more hash env...

  11. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  12. When does a satellite knot fiber?

    OpenAIRE

    Hirasawa, Mikami; Murasugi, Kunio; Silver, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a satellite knot to be fibered. Any knot $\\tilde k$ embeds in an unknotted solid torus $\\tilde V$ with arbitrary winding number in such a way that no satellite knot with pattern $(\\tilde V, \\tilde k)$ is fibered. In particular, there exist nonfibered satellite knots with fibered pattern and companion knots and nonzero winding number.

  13. China Launches Two Natural Disaster Monitoring Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China launched two satellites, HJ-1A and HJ-1B, to monitor the environment and natural disasters at 11:25am on September 6 (Beijing time) from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi Province. The two satellites are expected to improve the country's ability in the rapid monitoring of environmental changes and reducing calamities.

  14. Processor Units Reduce Satellite Construction Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As part of the effort to build the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), Marshall Space Flight Center developed a low-cost telemetry unit which is used to facilitate communication between a satellite and its receiving station. Huntsville, Alabama-based Orbital Telemetry Inc. has licensed the NASA technology and is offering to install the cost-cutting units on commercial satellites.

  15. QRM, Packet Satellites and Spread Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb, Stewart

    1989-01-01

    Digital messaging satellites designed for general use may attract considerable user interest. High interest will mean heavy interference on the satellite uplink channels, which could make the satellite useless. This paper discusses the characteristics of this interference, and proposes a solution using spread-spectrum technology.

  16. An Overview Of Operational Satellites Built By China: Communications Satellites (Part1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Bo

    2008-01-01

    @@ Communications satellite technology has seen great advances since Decemher 1958 when the Americans launched the first experimental communications satellite.Currently, satellite communications account for over 80 percent of the intercontinental communications traffic and 100 percent of international live TV broadcast, while taking part in domestic and regional services. Moreover, the satellite communication service is showing a favorable continuous growth tendency.

  17. Semianalytical Propagation of Satellite Orbits about an Arbitrary Central Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefola, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Precision mean element (PME) satellite theories play a key role in orbit dynamics analyses. These theories employ: nonsingular orbital elements comprehensive force models Generalized Method of Averaging Numerical interpolation concepts The Draper Semianalytical Satellite Theory (DSST) (Refs. 1 - 6), whose development was led by the author, and the independently-developed Universal Semianalytical Method (USM) (Ref. 7) are examples of such theories. These theories provide the capability to tailor the force modeling to meet the desired computational speed vs. accuracy trade-off. The flexibility of such theories is demonstrated by their ability to include complicated atmosphere density models and spacecraft models in the perturbation theory context. The value of high speed satellite theories, in this era of computational plenty, is that they allow new ways of looking at astrodynamical problems such as orbit design (Refs. 8, 9) and atmosphere density updating (Refs. 10, 11). In the mid to late-1980 s, the geodynamics community led the development of very precise geopotential models such as GEM T2 and GEM T3 (Ref. 12), and with the subsequent analysis of the TOPEX flight data, JGM-2 and JGM-3 (Ref. 13). These were high degree and order geopotentials, at least 50 x 50. In 1993, the DSST implementation in the GTDS program was extended to include the 50 x 50 geopotential models (Ref. 14). The 50 x 50 geopotential, J2000 integration coordinate system, and solid Earth tide capabilities were integrated in GTDS by Scott Carter (Ref. 15). This capability demonstrated 1 m accuracy versus the TOPEX Precise Orbit Ephemerides. Subsequently the DSST Standalone program was also extended to include high degree and order geopotential models (Ref. 5). More recently GTDS has been hosted in the Linux PC environment. However, all of these efforts have been limited to modeling the motion of an artificial Earth satellite. They did not consider the additional complexities associated with lunar

  18. Event tree analysis using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, B.W.; Hinton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques used in Expert Systems and Object Oriented Programming are discussed as they apply to Event Tree Analysis. A SeQUence IMPortance calculator, SQUIMP, is presented to demonstrate the implementation of these techniques. Benefits of using AI methods include ease of programming, efficiency of execution, and flexibility of application. The importance of an appropriate user interface is stressed. 5 figs.

  19. Artificial Breeding Techniques of Whitmania pigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Nan; Xu; Ziliang

    2014-01-01

    The artificial breeding technology for juvenile of Whitmania pigra was introduced in the paper,including selection of sites and water quality,construction of spawning pool,hatching pool and escape proof facilities,key technology of leech selection,feeding,cocoon hatching,juvenile feeding and management.

  20. Electronic artificial hand controlled by reconstructed digit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objecive: To treat the loss of part of the forearm with a multi-dimension-freedom electronic artificial hand,which is controlled by a reconstructed finger transplanted from the second toe to the forearm stump.Methods: The female patient was 19 years old, whose right hand and wrist were crushed into pieces by machine at work and her forearm was amputated at the level of 8 cm proximal to the wrist. The second toe of her left foot was transplanted to reconstruct the digit onto the stump of her forearm. Two months after the transplantation, the patient was transferred to the rehabilitation center for further rehabilitation training, which consisted of: training for adaptation to weight bearing, testing and training of sensibility to weight. testing and training for stability of the hand, and testing and training for the controlling function of the reconstructed digit. Results: The transplanted toe survived well. After rehabilitation the reconstructed digit functioned well. In testing the performance under control mandate, the accuracy rate of the electronic artificial hand was 100%.Conclusions: A 100% accuracy rate of the electronic artificial hand can be achieved by transplantation of the toe onto the stump of the forearm. It provides a useful pathway and an example for improvement of control accuracy of a multiple-freedom electronic artificial hand and reduction of false action.

  1. PROCEDURE FOR LOCALLY RAISING THE GROUND ARTIFICIALLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: WO 8909251 (A1) The present invention relates to a procedure for locally raising the ground artificially, wherein an equivalent quantity of the calcite (CaCO3) present in the porous underground limestone formations is converted into gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by inje

  2. Algorithms and architectures of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Tyugu, E

    2007-01-01

    This book gives an overview of methods developed in artificial intelligence for search, learning, problem solving and decision-making. It gives an overview of algorithms and architectures of artificial intelligence that have reached the degree of maturity when a method can be presented as an algorithm, or when a well-defined architecture is known, e.g. in neural nets and intelligent agents. It can be used as a handbook for a wide audience of application developers who are interested in using artificial intelligence methods in their software products. Parts of the text are rather independent, so that one can look into the index and go directly to a description of a method presented in the form of an abstract algorithm or an architectural solution. The book can be used also as a textbook for a course in applied artificial intelligence. Exercises on the subject are added at the end of each chapter. Neither programming skills nor specific knowledge in computer science are expected from the reader. However, some p...

  3. Swimming dynamics of bidirectional artificial flagella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namdeo, S.; Khaderi, S. N.; Onck, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    We study magnetic artificial flagella whose swimming speed and direction can be controlled using light and magnetic field as external triggers. The dependence of the swimming velocity on the system parameters (e. g., length, stiffness, fluid viscosity, and magnetic field) is explored using a computa

  4. The artificial pancreas, a challenge to research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. van Bon

    2013-01-01

    The first attempts for automated glucose control were made in the seventies of the last century. Nowadays several prototypes for closed-loop glucose control are being tested, most of them in clinical research centers. Systems for automated glucose control, also named ‘artificial pancreas’ or ‘closed

  5. Small parietal thrombi in artificial bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, 51 femoro-popliteal polytrafluoroethylene grafts were implanted in patients in the Second Surgical University Clinic, Vienna. In four of these patients an angiogram performed shortly after operation showed numerous small parietal thrombi on the artificial graft, a review of the literature has not shown any similar reports. The clinical importance and consequences of this observation are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  7. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  8. Carbon dioxide fixation by artificial photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibusuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, AIST, MITI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Green plants can absorb atmospheric CO{sub 2} and transform it to sugars, carbohydrates through their photosynthetic systems, but they become the source of CO{sub 2} when they are dead. This is the reason why artificial leaves which can be alive forever should be developed to meet with global warming due to the increase of CO{sub 2} concentration. The goal of artificial photosynthesis is not to construct the same system as the photosynthetic one, but to mimic the ability of green plants to utilize solar energy to make high energy chemicals. Needless to say, the artificial photosynthetic system is desired to be as simple as possible and to be as efficient as possible. From the knowledge on photosynthesis and the results of previous investigations, the critical components of artificial photosynthetic system are understood as follows: (1) light harvesting chromophore, (2) a center for electron transfer and charge separation, (3) catalytic sites for converting small molecules like water and CO{sub 2} (mutilelectron reactions) which are schematically described.

  9. Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Valentina Onet; Ecaterina Vladu

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions) and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO), Ant Colony Op...

  10. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  11. Artificial Cilia : Mimicking Nature Through Magnetic Actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaderi, S. N.; Baltussen, M. G. H. M.; Anderson, P. D.; Ioan, D.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Onck, P. R.; Murthy, SK; Khan, SA; Ugaz, VM; Zeringue, HC

    2009-01-01

    Manipulation of bio-fluids in microchannels faces many challenges in the development of lab-on-a-chip devices. We propose magnetically actuated artificial cilia which can propel fluids in microchannels. These cilia are magnetic films which can be actuated by an external magnetic field, leading to an

  12. Holographic Imaging In Dense Artificial Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Marzwell, Neville

    1996-01-01

    Artificial fog serves as volume-projection medium for display of three-dimensional image. Projection technique enables display of images for variety of purposes, possibly including entertainment, indoor and outdoor advertising, medical diagnostics and image representations for surgical procedures, and education.

  13. Dynamic Restructuring Of Problems In Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.

    1992-01-01

    "Dynamic tradeoff evaluation" (DTE) denotes proposed method and procedure for restructuring problem-solving strategies in artificial intelligence to satisfy need for timely responses to changing conditions. Detects situations in which optimal problem-solving strategies cannot be pursued because of real-time constraints, and effects tradeoffs among nonoptimal strategies in such way to minimize adverse effects upon performance of system.

  14. Yale Artificial Intelligence Project (Research in Progress)

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Gregg

    1981-01-01

    The Yale Artificial Intelligence Project, under the direction of Professor Roger C. Schank, supports a number of research projects. Most of this research is in the02-02 area of attempting to model the processes involved in human understanding, with a current emphasis on memory models and the processes involved in learning.

  15. Artificial neural network applications in ionospheric studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cander

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ionosphere of Earth exhibits considerable spatial changes and has large temporal variability of various timescales related to the mechanisms of creation, decay and transport of space ionospheric plasma. Many techniques for modelling electron density profiles through entire ionosphere have been developed in order to solve the "age-old problem" of ionospheric physics which has not yet been fully solved. A new way to address this problem is by applying artificial intelligence methodologies to current large amounts of solar-terrestrial and ionospheric data. It is the aim of this paper to show by the most recent examples that modern development of numerical models for ionospheric monthly median long-term prediction and daily hourly short-term forecasting may proceed successfully applying the artificial neural networks. The performance of these techniques is illustrated with different artificial neural networks developed to model and predict the temporal and spatial variations of ionospheric critical frequency, f0F2 and Total Electron Content (TEC. Comparisons between results obtained by the proposed approaches and measured f0F2 and TEC data provide prospects for future applications of the artificial neural networks in ionospheric studies.

  16. International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity (IMAG) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts of the International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity Project. Specifically it reviews the NASA Exploration Planning Status, NASA Exploration Roadmap, Status of Planning for the Moon, Mars Planning, Reference health maintenance scenario, and The Human Research Program.

  17. Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Herman

    2002-02-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short- or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge requires permeable surface soils. Where these are not available, trenches or shafts in the unsaturated zone can be used, or water can be directly injected into aquifers through wells. To design a system for artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration rates of the soil must be determined and the unsaturated zone between land surface and the aquifer must be checked for adequate permeability and absence of polluted areas. The aquifer should be sufficiently transmissive to avoid excessive buildup of groundwater mounds. Knowledge of these conditions requires field investigations and, if no fatal flaws are detected, test basins to predict system performance. Water-quality issues must be evaluated, especially with respect to formation of clogging layers on basin bottoms or other infiltration surfaces, and to geochemical reactions in the aquifer. Clogging layers are managed by desilting or other pretreatment of the water, and by remedial techniques in the infiltration system, such as drying, scraping, disking, ripping, or other tillage. Recharge wells should be pumped periodically to backwash clogging layers. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4.

  18. Artificial Intelligence Applications to Videodisc Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, John K.; Banks, Gordon; McLinden, Sean; Moossy, John; Brown, Melanie

    1985-01-01

    Much of medical information is visual in nature. Since it is not easy to describe pictorial information in linguistic terms, it has been difficult to store and retrieve this type of information. Coupling videodisc technology with artificial intelligence programming techniques may provide a means for solving this problem.

  19. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  20. A Starter's Guide to Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Barry A.; McConnell, Nancy J.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of the history and development of artificial intelligence (AI) highlights a bibliography of introductory books on various aspects of AI, including AI programing; problem solving; automated reasoning; game playing; natural language; expert systems; machine learning; robotics and vision; critics of AI; and representative software. (LRW)