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Sample records for artificial root caries

  1. Estimation of lesion progress in artificial root caries by swept source optical coherence tomography in comparison to transverse microradiography.

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    Natsume, Yuko; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) could estimate the lesion depth and mineral loss quantitatively without the use of polarization sensitivity, and to examine a relationship between OCT data and transverse microradiography (TMR) lesion parameters. Twenty-four bovine root dentin specimens were allocated to three groups of 4-, 7-, and 14-day demineralization. Cross-sectional images of the specimens before and after the demineralization were captured by OCT at 1319 nm center wavelength. Following the demineralization, these specimens were cut into sections for TMR analysis. Correlations between the OCT data and TMR lesion parameters were examined. TMR images of the specimens showed cavitated lesions (lesion depth or LD(TMR): 200 to 500 μm, ΔZ or mineral loss: 10,000 to 30,000 vol % μm). The OCT images showed "boundaries," suggesting the lesion front. Integrated dB values before and after the demineralization and their difference (R(D), R(S), and ΔR, respectively) were calculated from the lesion surface to the corrected depth of boundary (LD(OCT)). A statistically significant correlation was found between LD(OCT) and LD(TMR) (p < 0.05, r = 0.68). Similarly, statistically significant correlations were found between ΔZ and R(D) or ΔR. The OCT showed a potential for quantitative estimation of lesion depth and mineral loss with cavitated dentin lesions in vitro.

  2. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  3. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p tobacco use and alcohol...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services...

  4. Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Morse, Douglas E; Waldemar, Gunhild;

    2012-01-01

    doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00560.x Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease Objective:  To identify indicators of root caries among persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background:  Few studies have investigated dental caries...

  5. Actinomyces spp. gene expression in root caries lesions

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    Dame-Teixeira, Naile; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Maltz, Marisa; Tugnait, Aradhna; Devine, Deirdre; Do, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries. Objective The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries. Design The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected. The total bacterial RNA was extracted, and the mRNA was isolated. Samples with low RNA concentration were pooled, yielding a final sample size of SRS=10 and RC=9. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina® HiSeq 2500 system. Sequence reads were mapped to eight Actinomyces genomes. Count data were normalized using DESeq2 to analyse differential gene expression applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate [FDR]0.05), except for Actinomyces OT178 (p=0.001) and Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.004), which had higher read counts in the SRS. Genes that code for stress proteins (clp, dnaK, and groEL), enzymes of glycolysis pathways (including enolase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), adhesion (Type-2 fimbrial and collagen-binding protein), and cell growth (EF-Tu) were highly – but not differentially (p>0.001) – expressed in both groups. Genes with the most significant upregulation in RC were those coding for hypothetical proteins and uracil DNA glycosylase (p=2.61E-17). The gene with the most significant upregulation in SRS was a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (log2FC=−6.00, FDR=2.37E-05). Conclusion There were similar levels of Actinomyces gene expression in both sound and carious root biofilms. These bacteria can be commensal in root surface sites but may be cariogenic due to survival mechanisms that allow them to exist in acid environments and to

  6. Microarray Analysis of the Microflora of Root Caries in Elderly

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    Preza, Dorita; Olsen, Ingar; Willumsen, Tiril; Boches, Susan K.; Cotton, Sean L.; Grinde, Bjørn; Paster, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The present study used a new 16S rRNA-based microarray with probes for over 300 bacterial species better define the bacterial profiles of healthy root surfaces and root caries (RC) in the elderly. Materials Supragingival plaque was collected from 20 healthy subjects (Controls) and from healthy and carious roots and carious dentin from 21 RC subjects (Patients). Results Collectively, 179 bacterial species and species groups were detected. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the Controls as compared to Patients. Lactobacillus casei/paracasei/rhamnosus and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus were notably associated with most root caries samples. Streptococcus mutans was detected more frequently in the infected dentin than in the other samples, but the difference was not significant. Actinomyces were found more frequently in Controls. Conclusion Actinomyces and S. mutans may play a limited role as pathogens of RC. The results from this study were in agreement with those of our previous study based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing with 72% of the species being detected with both methods. PMID:19039610

  7. Caries detection and quantification with DIAGNOdent: prospects for occlusal and root caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, R; Wicht, M J

    2004-10-01

    A possible consequence of light absorption as the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules of the tooth's hard substances is, apart from the emission of heat, fluorescence. It was demonstrated that the emission spectra of enamel, dentin, and caries look alike upon excitation with red light; however, fluorescence increases with the process of carious destruction. Based on that, the DIAGNOdent System was developed, which simultaneously injects red light into the tooth surface and detects the resulting fluorescence. Due to this design, clinical application is currently limited to accessible occlusal and smooth surfaces. For occlusal caries detection, it was shown that validity and reproducibility could be optimized over classical diagnostic tests for deep dentin lesions with seemingly intact surfaces. The detection of root caries does not play a relevant role in the directly accessible areas, but estimation of the lesion's activity and progression rate is a prerequisite for differentiated lesion management Excellent reproducibility of the laser fluorescence measurements was confirmed for this scenario. Lesions with a soft surface texture show significantly higher fluorescence values than leathery or hard lesions, and values also increase with increasing cavity depth. DIAGNOdent offers the potential to improve follow-ups and estimation of the prognosis and to support clinical management of primary carious lesions.

  8. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

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    D Gutiérrez Acero

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio oral tienen una relación muy directa con las bacterias de la caries radicular y del biofilm que forman.The root caries is one of most important bucodental problems that affect to the old patient. The root caries is the decay process that produce on the expose root. The principals pathogens relying are Streptococos mutans, Actinomyces viscosus and Lactobacillus acidofilus, that produce the organics acids demineralizating of root cement and dentin producing the cavitation of the root. The changes producing in the mouth have a direct relation with the bacteria and its biofilm.

  9. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

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    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  10. Development and evaluation of two root caries controlling programmes for home-based frail people older than 75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    (i) Initially, to devise and examine the validity of a system for determining lesion activity on root surfaces, and (ii) compare the effectiveness of two preventive programmes in controlling root caries in elderly people using the devised system....

  11. Assessment of root caries removal by Er,Cr:YSGG laser

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    Geraldo-Martins, Vinícius R.; Marques, Márcia M.

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare root caries removal by air turbine and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and examine morphological changes after these caries removal techniques under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Seventy two extracted human carious-free third molars were used in this study. After the in vitro root caries induction using S. mutans, the carious lesions were removed by the conventional technique, using burs (control), and by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, using 13 different parameters, between 1 and 4,0 W. During caries removal, preparation time was recorded for all groups. The results appointed out that the conventional method was the fastest one. When only laser treatment was evaluated, the higher parameters seemed to remove caries faster then the lower ones. SEM revealed that the surfaces treated by air turbine were smooth, but with debris. The laser groups demonstrated smooth undulations, with little or absence of smear layer, and no signs of carbonization. These results suggest that caries removal by Er,Cr:YSGG laser was effective. Therefore, this equipment requires training on cavity preparation, in order to avoid damages in dental hard tissues.

  12. The effect of chlorhexidine varnish on root caries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, D.E.; Vaandrager, N.C.; Loveren, C. van; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Weijden, G.A. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the present literature on the effect of chlorhexidine varnish (CHX-V) on root caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE-PubMed, the Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched through December 2010 to identify any appropriate stu

  13. Mineral density, morphology and bond strength of natural versus artificial caries-affected dentin.

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    Joves, Gerardo José; Inoue, Go; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate an artificial caries-affected dentin (ACAD) model for in vitro bonding studies in comparison to natural caries-affected dentin (NCAD) of human teeth. ACAD was created over 7 days in a demineralizing solution. Mineral density (MD) at different depth levels (0-150 µm) was compared between NCAD and ACAD by transverse microradiography. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBS) of two two-step self-etch adhesives to sound dentin, NCAD and ACAD were evaluated. Caries-affected dentin type was not a significant factor when comparing MD at different lesion levels (p>0.05). Under SEM, the dentinal tubules appeared occluded with crystal logs 1-2 µm in thickness in the NCAD; whereas they remained open in the ACAD. The µTBS to caries-affected dentin was lower than sound dentin, but was not affected by the type of caries (p>0.05). In spite of their different morphologies, the ACAD model showed similar MD and µTBS compared to NCAD.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

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    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  15. Quantifying the remineralization of artificial caries lesions using PS-OCT

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    Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    New optical imaging methods are needed to determine whether caries lesions (tooth decay) are active and progressing or have become remineralized and arrested and are no longer progressing. The objective of this study was to use Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) to image the fluoride enhanced remineralization of artificial enamel lesions. Artificial lesions were created by an acetate buffer on smooth enamel surfaces and were exposed for 20 days to a 2 ppm fluoride containing remineralization solution. PS-OCT images revealed the presence of a low scattering surface zone after the artificial lesions were remineralized. These samples displayed intact nondepolarizing surface zones when analyzed with Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). No statistical difference in lesion depth before and after remineralization was found with both PS-OCT and PLM. The remineralized lesions showed a significant decrease in the overall integrated reflectivity compared with the demineralized lesions. Digital Microradiography confirmed the increase in mineral volume of the remineralized surface zone. This study determined that PS-OCT can image the restoration of the surface zone enamel after fluoride-enhanced remineralization of artificial in vitro dental caries.

  16. Amounts of Sr and Ca eluted from deciduous enamel to artificial saliva related to dental caries.

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    Enomoto, Ayaka; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kawagishi, Shigenori; Nakashima, Hideaki; Watanabe, Koji; Maki, Kenshi

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the relationship between dental caries and the levels of Sr and Ca eluted from enamel, and to examine whether these elements are useful as factors to assess caries risk. The available 103 (Sr) and 108 (Ca) samples were obtained among 111 collected deciduous teeth. The healthy regions of enamel were decalcified in artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 5.5. The eluted levels of these elements from enamel were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Sr and Ca levels were not affected by the sex nor tooth type. Sr levels of the caries-experienced tooth (CE) group were 2.6-fold (pH 6.2) and 2.2-fold (pH 5.5) higher than those of the sound tooth (ST) group, respectively. Furthermore, the Sr levels were significantly higher in the teeth with treated than in those with untreated caries. Only at pH 6.2 was a significant difference found in Ca levels between the ST and CE groups. In the ST group, at pH 5.5, both the Sr and Ca levels significantly increased when the children had six or more carious teeth. The Sr and Ca elution levels were significantly inhibited in the teeth receiving fluoride application every 3 or 4 months compared to those that were not. These findings indicate that Sr can be an indicator of the acid resistance of teeth, and a useful factor to assess future caries risk.

  17. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries

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    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A – deionized water; group B – casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C – 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman®); group D – nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen®); and group E – tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. Results: After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. Conclusions: All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The

  18. Root caries in areas with and without fluoridated water at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate root caries prevalence in areas with and without water fluoridation at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, in the adult population, employees of public and private schools, and elderly population. Epidemiological surveys were conducted according to the World Health Organization guidelines (1997, including 1,475 dentate individuals aged 35 to 44 years and 65 to 74 years, living in cities representing the southeast of São Paulo State, with (n=872 or without (n=603 fluoridated water supply. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of root caries was 15.6% for the 35-44-year-old age group and 31.8% for the 65-74-year-old age group . There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the occurrence of root caries according to water fluoridation, although individuals living at non-fluoridated areas presented higher percentage of missing teeth; also, there was higher mean number of intact roots at fluoridated areas (p<0.05. Most individuals with gingival recession, both adults and elderly, did not have root caries experience. In this study, root caries prevalence was lower in areas with fluoridated water. Due to the reduced prevalence of edentulism and increased number of people keeping their natural teeth for a longer period, a future increase in root caries is expected, highlighting the importance of studies related to water fluoridation and its relationship with the oral health of adults and elderly, especially referring to tooth root.

  19. Risk indicators of coronal and root caries in Greek middle aged adults and senior citizens

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    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay of multiple determinants which may change overtime. Therefore, periodic surveys of caries experience and redetermination of the risk indicators of the disease are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of coronal and root caries in Greeks aged 35-44 and 65-74-year-old in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Furthermore, trends in coronal caries experience of the 35-44-year-olds were investigated. Methods A sample of 1188 35-44-year-old and 1093 65-74-year-old individuals was selected in 2005 according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys. Caries was assessed in dentate subjects using the DMFT, DMFS, RDFS and RCI indices. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the effect of socio-demographic parameters. Results The mean DMFT and DMFS scores of the adults were 14.06 and 45.78 respectively, while those of the senior citizens were 20.63 and 89.82. Among the 35-44-year-ods, men and those having a higher educational attainment had significantly lower DMFS values (women OR = 1.679, CI: 1.243-2.267 and >12 years of education OR = 0.321, CI: 0.193-0.535 respectively, while educational level was the only predictor of DMFS in senior citizens (OR = 0.279, CI: 0.079-0.992. The mean DMFT score of the 35-44-year-olds has not improved since 1985, but there was a remarkable reduction in the number of DT related to a simultaneous increase in the number of FT. The mean RDFS rose from 0.39 in adults to 2.66 in senior citizens. The mean RDFS score of the middle aged adults was significantly correlated with education (OR = 0.346, CI: 0.180-0.664. The RCI was almost four times greater in seniors (9.73 than in adults (2.53. There were significant differences in caries experience between the surveyed regions. MS and RDS were the major components of the

  20. Clinical outcome of root caries restorations using ART and rotary techniques in institutionalized elders

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    Alberto Carlos CRUZ GONZALEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of root caries restorations after a six-month period using two methods, a conventional technique with rotary instruments and an atraumatic restorative technique (ART, in an institutionalized elderly population in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Root caries represents a multifactorial, progressive, chronic lesion with softened, irregular and darkened tissue involving the radicular surface; it is highly prevalent in the elderly, especially in those who are physically or cognitively impaired. A quasi-experimental, double-blind, longitudinal study was carried out after cluster randomization of the sample. Two different experienced dentists, previously trained, performed the restorations using each technique. After six months, two new investigators performed a blind evaluation of the condition of the restorations. The results showed a significantly higher rate of success (92.9% using the conventional technique (p < 0.03. However, we concluded that ART may have been the preferred technique in the study population because 81% of those restorations survived or were successful during the observation period.

  1. Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Lars G; Magnusson, Kerstin; Hakestam, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria on primary root caries lesions (PRCL) in older adults. Materials and methods. After informed consent, 160 healthy subjects, 58-84 years of age, with at least two PRCL were recruited and randoml...

  2. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

    OpenAIRE

    D Gutiérrez Acero; L Alós Cortés; García Gómez, F.; A González Sanz

    2006-01-01

    La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio ...

  3. A Study on the Diagnostic Detection Ability of the Artificial Proximal Caries by Digora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Ran; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    Digora system is an intraoral indirect digital radiography system utilizing storage phosphor image plate. It has wide dynamic range which allows it to decrease the patient's exposure time and may increase diagnostic ability through image processing (such as edge enhancement, grey scale conversion, brightness change, and contrast enhancement). And also, it can transmit and storage image information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries between Conventional radiograph and Digora images (unenhanced image, brightness and contrast controlled image, and edge enhanced image). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, paired t-tests, and F-tests were done for the statistical evaluation of detectability. The following results were acquired: 1. In Grade I lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.953, 0.933, 0.965, 0.978 (p>0.05). 2. In Grade II lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.969, 0.964, 0.988, 0.994. Among theses areas, there was just statistical significance between Diagnostic abilities of Digora edge enhanced image and Conventional radiograph (p<0.05). 3. In the Interobserver variability, the ROC curve areas of Digora edge enhanced image was lowerest in these areas, regardless of the Carious lesion depths. In conclusion, intraoral indirect digital system, Digora system, has the potential possibility as an alternative of Conventional radiograph in the diagnosis of proximal caries.

  4. Artificial Root Exudate System (ARES): a field approach to simulate tree root exudation in soils

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    Lopez-Sangil, Luis; Estradera-Gumbau, Eduard; George, Charles; Sayer, Emma

    2016-04-01

    The exudation of labile solutes by fine roots represents an important strategy for plants to promote soil nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Compounds exuded by roots (mainly sugars, carboxylic and amino acids) provide energy to soil microbes, thus priming the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the consequent release of inorganic nutrients into the rhizosphere. Studies in several forest ecosystems suggest that tree root exudates represent 1 to 10% of the total photoassimilated C, with exudation rates increasing markedly under elevated CO2 scenarios. Despite their importance in ecosystem functioning, we know little about how tree root exudation affect soil carbon dynamics in situ. This is mainly because there has been no viable method to experimentally control inputs of root exudates at field scale. Here, I present a method to apply artificial root exudates below the soil surface in small field plots. The artificial root exudate system (ARES) consists of a water container with a mixture of labile carbon solutes (mimicking tree root exudate rates and composition), which feeds a system of drip-tips covering an area of 1 m2. The tips are evenly distributed every 20 cm and inserted 4-cm into the soil with minimal disturbance. The system is regulated by a mechanical timer, such that artificial root exudate solution can be applied at frequent, regular daily intervals. We tested ARES from April to September 2015 (growing season) within a leaf-litter manipulation experiment ongoing in temperate deciduous woodland in the UK. Soil respiration was measured monthly, and soil samples were taken at the end of the growing season for PLFA, enzymatic activity and nutrient analyses. First results show a very rapid mineralization of the root exudate compounds and, interestingly, long-term increases in SOM respiration, with negligible effects on soil moisture levels. Large positive priming effects (2.5-fold increase in soil respiration during the growing

  5. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

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    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  6. A randomized clinical trial of the anti-caries efficacy of 5,000 compared to 1,450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste on root caries lesions in elderly disabled nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Poulsen, J.E.; Hede, B.;

    2013-01-01

    Root caries is prevalent in elderly disabled nursing home residents in Denmark. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of tooth brushing with 5,000 versus 1,450 ppm of fluoridated toothpaste (F-toothpaste) for controlling root caries in nursing home residents. The duration of the study was 8...... months. Elderly disabled residents (n = 176) in 6 nursing homes in the Copenhagen area consented to take part in the study. They were randomly assigned to use one of the two toothpastes. Both groups had their teeth brushed twice a day by the nursing staff. A total of 125 residents completed the study...

  7. Conservation of root regeneration potential of cell aggregates from horseradish hairy roots used as artificial seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repunte, V.; Taya, M.; Tone, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1996-10-20

    The effects of water content in agar gel used as a medium and oxygen level in the gas phase on the adventitious root regeneration of cell aggregates (CA) derived from horseradish hairy roots were investigated in cultures at 25{degree}C. The number of roots emerging from CA was highly dependent on water content of the agar gel and no root regeneration was observed at a gel water content of 66% during culture time of 20 days. CA root regeneration was suppressed when the CA were kept for 20 days in an atmosphere oxygen composition of 10%, but was restored upon transfer of the CA to normal atmosphere of 21% oxygen. On the basis of these findings, an artificial seed was proposed using the CA as a cell inclusion material encapsulated in alginate gels covered with coats. From the perspective of conserving the root regeneration potential of the CA by preventing the drying of alginate gel while keeping oxygen availability to the CA, different coating materials of ethylene vinyl acetate acrylic acid terpolymer, paraffin and polyorganosiloxane were tested. Paraffin was selected as a suitable coating material because of its efficient drying tolerance and adequate permeability to oxygen. A regeneration efficiency of 90% could be obtained from the CA, stored in alginate gel covered with a paraffin coating of 0.40 mm thickness at 25{degree}C for 60 days in air, when sucrose concentration in the gel was over 240 mol m{sup -3}. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  8. CLINICAL OBSERVING AND ANALYSES OF ROOT-CARIES(197 CASES)%根面龋临床观察与分析(附197例)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 谢晓莉; 米大丽

    2001-01-01

    Root-caries is the disease which is often occured in old people.We investigated 197 patients(40~85 years old) in stomatological clinic,and found that there were 114 patients who had root-caries,an the incidence of root-caries is 57.87 percent.There was a significantly different in incidence between middle-aged people and old ones(P<0.01),and no significantly diferent in incidence between men and women(P>0.05).This conclusion is different from some domestic reports.Root-Caries Index (RCI) is 0.26.The incidecnce of root-caries and value of RCI are directly proportionate with age,but value of RCI in group of 40~49 years old is higher than it in the group of 50~59 years old.Gingival atrophy is relate to root-caries closely.Root-caries is mostly occurred in mandibular molar teeth,and is seldom seen in mandibular front teeth.%根面龋是老年人常见的口腔疾病,我们对口腔门诊40~85岁197例患者进行调查,发现患根面龋人数114例,根龋发病率57.87%,中、老年人发病率有高度显著性差异(P<0.01),男女发病率差异无显著性(P>0.05),与国内有些报道相异。根龋指数RCI为0.26。受检患者根龋发病率、RCI值与年龄呈正相关,但40~49岁年龄组RCI数据高于50~59岁组。调查发现,牙龈退缩与根面龋密切相关。根龋发生最多的牙位是下磨牙,最少的是下前牙。

  9. Detection of artificial occlusal caries in a phosphor imaging plate system with two types of LCD monitors versus three different films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgüy, Mehmet; Dinçer, Semanur; Ilgüy, Dilhan; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic performance of a storage phosphor plate system Digora Optime (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) with two types of LCD monitor in the detection of artificial caries when compared to Ultraspeed (D), Ektaspeed Plus (E), and Insight (F) radiographic films. Seventy extracted human molars-with artificial caries-were radiographed under identical standardized conditions using (1) a storage phosphor plate system Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), (2) Insight, (3) Ektaspeed Plus, and (4) Ultraspeed (Carestream Health Inc, Rochester, NY). All digital images and radiographs were examined by three observers for the presence or absence of artificial caries using a five-point confidence scale. Digital images were evaluated both on a LCD computer monitor (Philips 170S, Holland) and medical monitor-3 megapixel monochrome display (Me355i2, Totoku, Tokyo)-with brightness and contrast enhancement. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and other measurements for diagnostic accuracy. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor demonstrated higher mean A (z) values (0.70 +/- 0.08) than digital images with computer monitor and conventional films. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor presented the highest score, 0.97, 0.90, 0.94, for each observer, respectively. Also, true positive observations (0.82) and positive likelihood ratios (2.71) were higher in enhanced storage phosphor images with medical monitor. Caries detection of mechanically created lesions by experienced radiologists is roughly comparable when examining D-speed film images and Digora images on both the computer and medical LCD monitors, and appears to be poorer on E- and F-speed film images.

  10. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volovnik S. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  11. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S. R.; Moraes, M.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Youssef, M. N.; Brugnera Junior, A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm-2  +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC-C group. It was concluded that CO2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used.

  12. Fine roots refilling process in an artificial gap in a Picea mongolica forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chun-jing; Ma Yong-liang; Zhang Chao; Xu Wen-duo

    2007-01-01

    Picea mongolica is an endemic but endangered species in China. The spruce forest is only found in sandy forest-steppe ecotones. In this study, we examined the initial response of the quantity and refilling process of fine roots in an artificial canopy gap with a diameter of 36 m in a P. mongolica forest. Under the canopy, the fine root length densities of trees, shrubs and herbs were 2,622, 864 and 3,086 m·m-2, respectively. The fine root biomass of trees, shrubs and herbs were 148, 62 and 65 g·m-2, respectively.In the gap, the fine root length density of trees was 151 m·m-2. The mean fine root densities of shrubs and herbs in the gap were 756 and 2,568 m·m-2. The fine root biomass of trees, shrubs and herbs were 9, 52 and 47 g·m-2, respectively. Two growing seasons after the gap creation, hardly any fine tree roots were found in the middle of the gap. The living tree roots in the gap edge zone were mainly located within a 4.5 m distance from the standing trees. Indices developed to show the influence of trees on fine root length density clearly revealed the effect of the vicinity of living trees on fine root length density. The root densities of shrubs and herbs did not show a clear response to gap creation despite the increase of their foliage. Our results suggest that in P mongolica forests a gap disturbance creates a distinct tree root gap and that the gap edge trees do not extend their root systems rapidly into the formed root gap.

  13. Root Ecological Niche Index and Root Distribution Characteristics of Artificial Phytocommunities in Rehabilitated Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jianzhong; Zhen Jiali; Shen Jingyu

    2006-01-01

    In the implementation phase of the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland (CCFG) project in China,it is important,from a scientific point of view,to recognize phytocommunities' characteristics,species compatibility,and ecological function.The ecological niche that roots occupy,their abundance and distribution,and the factors that affect them must be acknowledged.Following the methodology of community ecology,the total root mass of a phytocommunity is measured as cubic volume.Root biomass,length,and the number of roots in every diameter class,for each soil layer and for each plant species,are regarded as observation variables.In the first instance therefore,a new method to calculate the root ecological niche index (REND is proposed,embracing the entire phytocommunity of plantations.Using the new method,the roots of pbytocommunities in Datong County,Qinghai Province (one of the counties selected for the national CCFG experiment),are dealt with in this paper.The results show that most of the vertical distributions of plant roots belong to the type wherein the roots are concentrated in the topsoil layer (0-20 cm),far more than those in the lower soil layers.The RENI of pbytocommunities is higher than that of pure stands or monocultures.The distribution of RENI by root diameter can be divided into four types:J-type,inverse J-type,recumbent S-type,and U-type.RENI is positively correlated with the wet biomass of aboveground level stems,branches,and plant leaves,and with the species richness of phytocommunities.Although the RENIs of plantations in rehabilitated fields are a little lower than those of natural forests,they are higher than those of cultivated crops.The RENIs of three community types (Picea crassifolia+Hippophae rhamnoides ssp.sinensis,H.rhamnoides ssp.sinensis,and P.crassifolia) in rehabilitated fields benefit greatly from the restoration project.The implementation of the CCFG project is important for the increase in RENI and the multiple functions of

  14. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  15. Hybrid Artificial Root Foraging Optimizer Based Multilevel Threshold for Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Junfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new plant-inspired optimization algorithm for multilevel threshold image segmentation, namely, hybrid artificial root foraging optimizer (HARFO), which essentially mimics the iterative root foraging behaviors. In this algorithm the new growth operators of branching, regrowing, and shrinkage are initially designed to optimize continuous space search by combining root-to-root communication and coevolution mechanism. With the auxin-regulated scheme, various root growth operators are guided systematically. With root-to-root communication, individuals exchange information in different efficient topologies, which essentially improve the exploration ability. With coevolution mechanism, the hierarchical spatial population driven by evolutionary pressure of multiple subpopulations is structured, which ensure that the diversity of root population is well maintained. The comparative results on a suit of benchmarks show the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Finally, the proposed HARFO algorithm is applied to handle the complex image segmentation problem based on multilevel threshold. Computational results of this approach on a set of tested images show the outperformance of the proposed algorithm in terms of optimization accuracy computation efficiency. PMID:27725826

  16. Simulation of the fluid dynamics in artificial aortic roots: comparison of two different types of prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Christoph L; Verhey, Janko F

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the growing number of elderly people, the incidence of degenerative aortic diseases continues to increase. Often, artificial aortic roots are needed to replace the native tissue. Some physical characteristics of the artificial aortic root, however, are quite different from native aorta and need to be optimized. The supposed benefit of a prosthesis with artificial sinuses of Valsalva could first be checked by numerical calculations. Two simplified base geometries were used for simulating the flow and pressure distributions, especially in the coronary arteries. One model approximates the ascending aorta as a tube, and the other uses a design with toroidal dilation of the aortic root to approximate the native geometry of the sinuses of Valsalva. The flow and pressure distributions in both models were compared in the ascending aorta as well as in the right and the left coronary arteries. Both the pressure and the velocity distribution in the coronary artery region were not significantly higher in the model with the sinus design compared to the tube model. The sinus design only slightly increased the mean pressures and the velocities in both the ascending aorta and in the coronary arteries. Higher pressure in the coronary arteries should improve the blood circulation and decrease the risk of a surgery-related coronary incident. The sinus design did not show the hoped-for benefits, and therefore it is only a minor factor in optimizing future aortic root prostheses.

  17. Efficacy of two calcium phosphate pastes on the remineralization of artificial caries:a randomized controlled double-blind in situ study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somkamol Vanichvatana; Prim Auychai

    2013-01-01

    To test the efficacy of two calcium phosphate pastes compared to that of fluoride toothpaste on remineralizing artificial caries in situ, this study had a double-blind crossover in situ design, involving three experimental phases of 14 days each, with an 8-day washout period between phases. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. The subjects wore removable palatal appliances mounted with six human enamel slabs with artificial caries lesions, and in each of the experimental phases, used one of the following methods two times/day:group A, brushing with 1.0 g of Colgate Regular Flavor, followed by applying 0.25 g of Tooth Mousse Plus;group B, brushing with 0.25 g of Clinpro Tooth Cre`me;and group C, brushing with 1.0 g of Colgate Regular Flavor. After 14 days, the enamel slabs (54 slabs/group) were embedded in resin, sectioned and examined with a polarized-light microscope, and the lesion areas were quantified using Image-Pro Plus. All experimental groups showed a significant reduction in lesion area compared to the initial lesion area (paired t-test, P,0.001). The mean reduction in lesion area of Groups A, B and C were (0.02960.010), (0.03060.009) and (0.02760.009) mm2, respectively. There were no statistical differences between groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, P.0.05). All three groups remineralized the enamel slab lesions, indicating model sensitivity to fluoride. Given the differences in usage amounts and treated regimens, Clinpro Tooth Cre`me provided similar benefits to the fluoride toothpaste;however, no additional benefit of Tooth Mousse Plus was observed when used in conjunction with the fluoride toothpaste.

  18. Mixed artificial grasslands with more roots improved mine soil infiltration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Yang, Zheng; Cui, Zeng; Liu, Yu; Fang, Nu-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Soil water is one of the critical limiting factors in achieving sustainable revegetation. Soil infiltration capacity plays a vital role in determining the inputs from precipitation and enhancing water storage, which are important for the maintenance and survival of vegetation patches in arid and semi-arid areas. Our study investigated the effects of different artificial grasslands on soil physical properties and soil infiltration capacity. The artificial grasslands were Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Agropyron mongolicum, Lespedeza davurica, Bromus inermis, Hedysarum scoparium, A. mongolicum + Artemisia desertorum, A. adsurgens + A. desertorum and M. sativa + B. inermis. The soil infiltration capacity index (SICI), which was based on the average infiltration rate of stage I (AIRSI) and the average infiltration rate of stage III (AIRS III), was higher (indicating that the infiltration capacity was greater) under the artificial grasslands than that of the bare soil. The SICI of the A. adsurgens + A. desertorum grassland had the highest value (1.48) and bare soil (-0.59) had the lowest value. It was evident that artificial grassland could improve soil infiltration capacity. We also used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine that the main factors that affected SICI were the soil water content at a depth of 20 cm (SWC20), the below-ground root biomasses at depths of 10 and 30 cm (BGB10, BGB30), the capillary porosity at a depth of 10 cm (CP10) and the non-capillary porosity at a depth of 20 cm (NCP20). Our study suggests that the use of Legume-poaceae mixtures and Legume-shrub mixtures to create grasslands provided an effective ecological restoration approach to improve soil infiltration properties due to their greater root biomasses. Furthermore, soil water content, below-ground root biomass, soil capillary porosity and soil non-capillary porosity were the main factors that affect the soil infiltration capacity.

  19. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  20. In-vitro detection of artificial caries on vertical dental cavity walls using infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.; Vu, Jaclyn T.; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the ability of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (PTR) and modulated luminescence (LUM) to detect secondary caries lesions on the walls of restorations (wall lesions). Changes in experimental PTR-LUM signals due to sequential demineralization on entire vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples were investigated. In addition, transverse micro-radiography (TMR) analysis (used as a gold standard) was conducted to measure the degree of demineralization that occurred in each sample. Statistical correlation between TMR results and PTR-LUM signals was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. LUM signals were found to be dominated by the scattered component of the incident laser beam. The more clinically relevant cases of localized demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls were also investigated to examine whether PTR-LUM signals are sensitive to demineralization and remineralization of much smaller areas. The overall results demonstrated that PTR-LUM is sensitive to progressive demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples.

  1. In vitro effect of fluoride oral hygiene tablets on artificial caries lesion formation and remineralization in human enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremniczky Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this in-vitro-study was to assess the remineralization potential of a tooth cleaning tablet with different fluoride content. Methods Twenty three caries free impacted third molars were examined, enamel surfaces were wax coated leaving two 3 × 4 mm windows for exposure to demineralization/remineralization cycles. The teeth were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 control and 6 experimental teeth. Demineralization by standardised HEC-gel, pH 4.7 at 37°C for 72 h, was alternated by rinsing in remineralization solution, pH 7.0 at 37°C for 72 h, total challenge time 432 h. The negative control group N was treated during remineralization cycles with saline; positive control group P was treated with remineralization solution; experimental group D1 was exposed to remineralization solution containing Denttabs®-tablets with 1450 ppm F; experimental group D2 was exposed to remineralization solution and Denttabs®-tablets with 4350 ppm F. Each tooth was cut into serial sections and analyzed by polarized light microscopy for assessment of the different zones of white-spot lesions in 3 representative sections. Statistical analysis was based on the Mann-Whitney-Test. Results Both control groups N(- and P(+ exhibited characteristic white-spot lesions. The remineralization and the demineralization inhibition of the lesions increased considerably from N®-2 administration showed partial/total remineralization including lamination and/or disappearance of the body of the lesion. The different results of all 4 groups were statistically highly significant (p Conclusion Based on these results the novel Denttabs® formulation represents a highly effective oral hygiene product and the remineralization is correlated to the fluoride content.

  2. The effect research of the ICON penetrating resin restoration on artificial enamel caries leukoplakia%ICON渗透树脂修复人工釉质龋白斑的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余和东; 刘彩云; 陈永吉; 柴红波; 冷卫东

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价ICON渗透树脂修复人工釉质龋白斑的效果。方法:选取因正畸而拔除的前磨牙28颗,制备人工釉质龋后,随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组采用ICON渗透树脂修复人工釉质龋白斑,对照组采用涂氟处理,测量并比较釉质龋白斑修复后的表面微硬度和龋白斑面积减少百分比,最后采用SPSS17.0软件进行统计分析。结果:治疗修复后实验组釉质龋的表面微硬度值显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);修复后实验组龋白斑所占面积百分比低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:ICON渗透树脂能提高人工釉质龋白斑表面的微硬度,并能大大降低龋白斑的面积百分比,推荐临床使用。%Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of ICON penetrating resin restoration on artificial enamel caries leukoplakia. Method:Select 28 bicuspids removed for orthodontic,prepare artificial enamel caries,and then randomly divide them into experimental group and controlled group. The ICON penetrating resin restoration on artificial enamel caries leuko-plakia is employed in the experimental group while the fluoride treatment is employed in the controlled group. Measure and compare the surface micro hardness of the enamel caries leukoplakia after restoration and the reduction percentage of the caries leukoplakia area. Finally use SPSS17.0 software for statistical analysis. Result:The surface micro hardness value of the enamel caries in the experimental group is significantly higher than that in the controlled group after treatment and the difference is statistically significant (P <0.05);the area of caries leukoplakia in the experimental group is smaller than that in the controlled group after repair and the difference is statistically significant as well (P<0.05). Conclusion:ICON pene-trating resin can improve the surface micro hardness of the artificial enamel caries

  3. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidlin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the re-hardening potential of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD and self-assembling peptides in vitro, hypothesizing that these materials may increase the mineralization of artificial carious lesions and improve hardness profiles. Material and Methods Forty-eight enamel samples were prepared from extracted bovine lower central incisors. After embedding and polishing, nail varnish was applied, leaving a defined test area. One third of this area was covered with a flowable composite (non-demineralized control. The remaining area was demineralized in an acidic buffer solution for 18 d to simulate a carious lesion. Half the demineralized area was then covered with composite (demineralized control, while the last third was left open for three test and one control treatments: (A Application of enamel-matrix proteins (EMD - lyophilized protein fractions dissolved in acetic acid, Straumann, (B self-assembling peptides (SAP, Curodont, or (C amine fluoride solution (Am-F, GABA for 5 min each. Untreated samples (D served as control. After treatment, samples were immersed in artificial saliva for four weeks (remineralization phase and microhardness (Knoop depth profiles (25-300 µm were obtained at sections. Two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine differences between the areas (re-hardening or softening. Results Decalcification resulted in significant softening of the subsurface enamel in all groups (A-D. A significant re-hardening up to 125 µm was observed in the EMD and SAP groups. Conclusions This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect.

  4. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  5. 广州市513名老年人根面龋流行状况及危险因素分析%The prevelance and risk factors analysis of root caries among 513 elderly in Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林珊; 吴补领; 陆笑

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of root caries among the elderly in Guangzhou city in order to provide reference information for the prevention of root caries in the elderly. Methods Cross-sectional study was carried out in 513 people aged 65-74 years who were studying at the University for the elderly. Oral examination was taken by a trained and standardized dentist, the root caries index and other clinical variables were recorded. Question-naires were administered to collect socioeconomic, sociodemographic and oral hygiene data. Statistical analyses were per-formed using parametric tests. Results The prevalence of root caries was 65. 7%. The mean DFT was 2. 19 ± 1. 92. The prevalence and the mean DFT of men were 68. 8% and 2. 34 ± 2. 01, while 62. 7% and 1. 98 ± 1. 75 for women. The prevalence of root caries showed no significant difference between genders ( P=0. 147) , the mean DFT showed significant difference between genders ( P<0. 001) . Statistically differences of the caries prevalence were observed across food im-paction ( P=0. 016) , and were higher in dry mouth ( P<0. 001) . Those who were with dry mouth and/or with food im-paction had more root caries. Conclusion Strengthening the oral health education and forming a good oral health behav-ior are helpful to prevent the elderly root caries.%目的 探讨广州市老年人群根面龋的患病情况以及危险因素,为老年人根面龋的预防提供参考信息.方法 选取广州市岭海老年大学海珠分校为调查点,采用招募志愿者的方法,为该校65~74岁的在读学员513名进行口腔健康检查及问卷调查.结果 广州市513名老年人根面龋患病率为65.7%,龋均为2.19±1.92.男性68.8%,龋均为2.34±2.01;女性62.7%,龋均为1.98±1.75.患龋率在性别间差异无统计学意义(χ2=2.105,P=0.147),龋均在性别间差异有统计学意义(t=1.96,P=0.03).Logistic回归分析结果显示:食物嵌塞(P=0.016)及口干症状(P<0.001)为老

  6. Effect of a CO2 Laser on the Inhibition of Root Surface Caries Adjacent to Restorations of Glass Ionomer Cement or Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC or composite resin (CR restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control: cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm2; G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF. The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations.

  7. 渗透树脂对人工龋损显微硬度影响的研究%Effect of resin infiltration on microhardness of artificial caries lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永红; 邓辉; 唐龙妹; 张志勇

    2015-01-01

    目的 比较渗透树脂、氟保护漆和窝沟封闭剂处理人工龋损即刻和二次脱矿后釉质表面及纵剖面显微硬度的变化,为渗透树脂的临床应用提供依据.方法 选取40颗牛下切牙制备人工龋,按照随机数字表法随机分为A(渗透树脂)、B(氟保护漆)、C(窝沟封闭剂)、D(空白对照)4组,每组10颗牙.垂直于样本牙唇面将其一分为二,一半样本牙测量釉质表面及纵剖面(唇面断缘下40、80及120 μm 3个层面)不同深度的显微硬度值,将另一半样本牙再次置于脱矿液中,二次测量上述测量平面的显微硬度值.使用扫描电镜观察样本牙纵剖面3种材料的渗透情况.结果 4组组内比较均显示釉质表面显微硬度值最高,随着纵剖面深度增加,釉质显微硬度值下降,且在不同深度断面,4组的显微硬度值相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).3种方法处理人工龋损后,初次测量样本牙组间比较,在釉质表面和纵剖面40 μm处A、B、C3组的显微硬度值均显著高于D组(P<0.05);在纵剖面80 μm处,A组显微硬度值[(324± 17) kg/mm2]与C组[(316±20) kg/mm2]间差异无统计学意义,但两组均显著高于D组[(294±23) kg/mm2] (P<0.05),D组与B组[(303±13) kg/mm2]间差异无统计学意义;在纵剖面120 μm处,A组显微硬度值显著高于其他3组(P<0.05).二次脱矿后再次测量样本牙釉质表面的显微硬度值,结果同初次测量;在纵剖面40 μm处的测量结果与初次测量80 μm处相同;在纵剖面80及120 μm处,A组均显著高于其他3组.结论 渗透树脂能有效加强人工龋损釉质表面和不同深度纵剖面的显微硬度.%Objective To compare the changes of enamel surface and cross-sectional microhardness of artificial caries immediately and after the twice demineralization through coating resin infiltration, fluoride varnish and fissure sealant.Methods A total of forty bovine lower incisors enamel samples with artificial caries

  8. Observation of genetic diversity in dental plaque of elder people with root caries%老年根面龋牙菌斑群落组成的多样性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马善奋; 梁景平; 姜云涛; 朱彩莲

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bacterial community in dental plaque of elder people was analyzed to learn about the microhabitat composition and diversity. METHODS: Dental plaque samples were collected from 25 elders. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to evaluate the microbial diversity by displaying PCR-generated 16SrDNA fragments that migrate at different distances, reflecting the different sequence of fragment. SPSS12.0 software was used to analyze the variance of genotypes between different groups of bacteria. RESULTS: Genotypes of bacteria in dental plaques in the root caries group was significantly more than the other two groups. Crown caries group and caries free group had no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS:The genetic diversity of the dental plaque microflora in the root caries group is significantly higher than coronal caries group and caries-free group. Supported by Programme of "the Eleventh-Five Year" Plan, Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2007BAI18B01) and Bio-medical Project of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality(074119513).%目的:对老年人牙菌斑进行群落分析,以了解根面龋微生境构成的多样性.方法:提取25例不同龋敏感性老年人牙菌斑细菌DNA,使用PCR-DGGE技术分析细菌遗传多样性.采用SPSS12.0软件包对不同组间细菌基因型数量做方差分析.结果:分布于根龋组牙菌斑内的细菌基因型比另外2组显著增多.冠龋组与无龋组间无显著性差异.结论:老年人根龋患者牙菌斑细菌群落多样性明显高于冠龋患者及无龋者.

  9. Modeling Root Length Density of Field Grown Potatoes under Different Irrigation Strategies and Soil Textures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Sepaskhah, A R; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    Root length density (RLD) is a highly wanted parameter for use in crop growth modeling but difficult to measure under field conditions. Therefore, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were implemented to predict the RLD of field grown potatoes that were subject to three irrigation strategies and three...... under a range of soil physical conditions with a high degree of accuracy and may be used in crop growth modeling....

  10. 流动性纳米修复剂修复老年人根面龋的临床疗效%Clinical effects of liquid nanocomposite treatment on root caries cases in elder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世涛

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of liquid nanocomposite on the treatment of root caries in elderly patients. METHODS: Three hundred and sixty teeth with root caries were randomly divided into three groups, with 120 teeth in each group. The teeth were filled with liquid nanocomposite resin, glass ionomer cement and composite resin respectively. Filling effects were observed at 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: The respective success rates were 96. 67% , 66. 67% and 82. 50% in liquid nanocomposite resin, glass ionomer and composite resin groups. Of the three groups, liquid nanocomposite resin group had the best outcome, and the effects of composite resin filling were clearly superior to glass inonomer cement treatment. The restorative effects of the three composites differed significantly (P <0. 05). CONCLUSION: Liquid nanocomposite resin is an ideal filling material for root caries restoration in elderly patients.%目的:观察流动性纳米修复剂修复老年人根面龋的临床效果.方法:360个患牙随机分为3组,分别用流动性纳米修复剂、玻璃离子水门汀、光固化复合树脂修复,随访2年.结果:3种材料修复成功率分别为96.67%、66.67%、82.50%.流动性纳米修复剂组优于光固化复合树脂组,光固化复合树脂组优于玻璃离子组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:流动性纳米修复剂是一种较理想的修复老年人根面龋的材料.

  11. The influence of volume, type of irrigant and flushing method on removing artificially placed dentine debris from the apical root canal during passive ultrasonic irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Der Sluis, LWM; Gambarini, G; Wu, MK; Wesselink, PR

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the influence of volume, irrigant and method of flushing on the removal of artificially-placed dentine debris from the apical part of root canals during passive ultrasonic irrigation. Methodolgy Access cavities were prepared in 15 canine teeth and their root canals instrumented to s

  12. Effect of a glass ionomer cement and a fluoride varnish on cross-sectional microhardness values of artificial occlusal caries: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MWM Souchois

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: This in vitro study demonstrated that the use of GIC over an artificial active WSLs and exposed to an artificially HRCC setting tend to express some effect in increased surface KHN values.

  13. Artificial Plant Root System Growth for Distributed Optimization: Models and Emergent Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Weixing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant root foraging exhibits complex behaviors analogous to those of animals, including the adaptability to continuous changes in soil environments. In this work, we adapt the optimality principles in the study of plant root foraging behavior to create one possible bio-inspired optimization framework for solving complex engineering problems. This provides us with novel models of plant root foraging behavior and with new methods for global optimization. This framework is instantiated as a new search paradigm, which combines the root tip growth, branching, random walk, and death. We perform a comprehensive simulation to demonstrate that the proposed model accurately reflects the characteristics of natural plant root systems. In order to be able to climb the noise-filled gradients of nutrients in soil, the foraging behaviors of root systems are social and cooperative, and analogous to animal foraging behaviors.

  14. Root dynamics in an artificially constructed regenerating longleaf pine ecosystem are affected by atmospheric CO(2) enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, S G.; Davis, M A.; Mitchell, R J.; Prior, S A.; Boykin, D L.; Rogers, H H.; Runion, G B.

    2001-08-01

    Differential responses to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration exhibited by different plant functional types may alter competition for above- and belowground resources in a higher CO(2) world. Because C allocation to roots is often favored over C allocation to shoots in plants grown with CO(2) enrichment, belowground function of forest ecosystems may change significantly. We established an outdoor facility to examine the effects of elevated CO(2) on root dynamics in artificially constructed communities of five early successional forest species: (1) a C(3) evergreen conifer (longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.); (2) a C(4) monocotyledonous bunch grass (wiregrass, Aristida stricta Michx.); (3) a C(3) broadleaf tree (sand post oak, Quercus margaretta); (4) a C(3) perennial herbaceous legume (rattlebox, Crotalaria rotundifolia Walt. ex Gemel); and (5) an herbaceous C(3) dicotyledonous perennial (butterfly weed, Asclepias tuberosa L.). These species are common associates in early successional longleaf pine savannahs throughout the southeastern USA and represent species that differ in life-form, growth habit, physiology, and symbiotic relationships. A combination of minirhizotrons and soil coring was used to examine temporal and spatial rooting dynamics from October 1998 to October 1999. CO(2)-enriched plots exhibited 35% higher standing root crop length, 37% greater root length production per day, and 47% greater root length mortality per day. These variables, however, were enhanced by CO(2) enrichment only at the 10-30 cm depth. Relative root turnover (flux/standing crop) was unchanged by elevated CO(2). Sixteen months after planting, root biomass of pine was 62% higher in elevated compared to ambient CO(2) plots. Conversely, the combined biomass of rattlebox, wiregrass, and butterfly weed was 28% greater in ambient compared to high CO(2) plots. There was no difference in root biomass of oaks after 16 months of exposure to elevated CO(2). Using root and shoot

  15. Effects of fluoridated milk on root dentin remineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H Arnold

    Full Text Available The prevalence of root caries is increasing with greater life expectancy and number of retained teeth. Therefore, new preventive strategies should be developed to reduce the prevalence of root caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoridated milk on the remineralization of root dentin and to compare these effects to those of sodium fluoride (NaF application without milk.Thirty extracted human molars were divided into 6 groups, and the root cementum was removed from each tooth. The dentin surface was demineralized and then incubated with one of the following six solutions: Sodium chloride NaCl, artificial saliva, milk, milk+2.5 ppm fluoride, milk+10 ppm fluoride and artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarized light microscopy and quantitative morphometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The data were statistically evaluated using a one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons.The depth of the lesion decreased with increasing fluoride concentration and was the smallest after incubation with artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. SEM analysis revealed a clearly demarcated superficial remineralized zone after incubation with milk+2.5 ppm fluoride, milk+10 ppm fluoride and artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. Ca content in this zone increased with increasing fluoride content and was highest after artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride incubation. In the artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride group, an additional crystalline layer was present on top of the lesion that contained elevated levels of F and Ca.Incubation of root dentin with fluoridated milk showed a clear effect on root dentin remineralization, and incubation with NaF dissolved in artificial saliva demonstrated a stronger effect.

  16. Bioactive glass effects on remineralization of early artificial enamel caries%生物活性玻璃对早期人工釉质龋的再矿化*★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尹; 王瑀; 董波; 张婷; 陈思杰; 曲媛媛

    2013-01-01

      背景:生物活性玻璃具有良好的生物相容性,且具有抑制口腔致龋细菌和牙周相关细菌及抗牙本质过敏的作用。目的:评价生物活性玻璃促进早期人工釉质龋再矿化的作用。方法:将新鲜拔除的30颗牛切牙制成人工龋模型,将标本在37℃人工脱矿液内脱矿72 h,用扫描电镜观察脱矿后釉质表面的平滑情况,用显微硬度仪测量脱矿后釉质的显微硬度。然后随机分为3组,每组10个。采用pH循环法模拟人口腔环境,将3组标本分别浸泡在生物活性玻璃溶液、氟化钠溶液及人工唾液内,3次/d,10 min/次,循环浸泡20 d,扫描电镜检测标本脱矿及再矿化情况,用显微硬度计检查牙釉质显微硬度。结果与结论:浸泡在生物活性玻璃溶液中的牙釉质表面较浸泡在其他两溶液中的牙釉质表面光滑平整,无空隙存在;浸泡在生物活性玻璃溶液中的牙釉质表面显微硬度高于浸泡在其他两溶液中的牙釉质表面显微硬度(P <0.05)。说明生物活性玻璃在体外实验中能促进早期釉质龋的再矿化。%BACKGROUND: Bioactive glass has good biocompatibility and could control oral bacteria and protect against dentin hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate remineralization effect of bioactive glass on early artificial enamel caries. METHODS: Thirty bovine incisors fresh were made to artificial caries models, and were placed in a container with demineralization iquid at 37 ℃ for 72 hours. Micro hardness tester was used to detect hardness value after demineralization, and the enamel surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope. Then, the samples were randomly divided into three groups, 10 in each group. Using pH cycle way method, the oral environment of human beings was copied. Samples were respectively soaked in bioactive glass solution, sodium fluoride solution and artificial saliva solution, three times a day and 10 minutes

  17. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  18. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  19. Observation on Clinical Efficacy of Four Methods for Repairing Root Caries in the Elderly%老年根面龋四种修复方法的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑜蕾; 姜巧玲; 朱鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较4种方法修复老年根面龋的临床疗效。方法:选择141例60岁及以上患者的240颗根面龋患牙分为4组,分别采用FX-Ⅱ玻璃离子直接充填(A组)、光固化纳米复合树脂直接充填(B组)及排龈后FX-Ⅱ玻璃离子充填(C组)、排龈后光固化纳米复合树脂充填(D组)4种方法修复根面龋,术后随访1年。结果:充填后1年A组、B组、C组和D组的成功率分别为83.3%、81.7%、86.7%和96.7%,其中D组显著高于前三组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:对累及龈缘及龈下的老年根面龋用排龈后光固化纳米复合树脂充填修复效果好。%Objective:To compare the clinical efficacy of four methods for repairing root caries in the elderly.Method:240 teeth of 141 elderly patients(≥60 y) with root caries were randomly divided into 4 groups,group A was treated by FX-Ⅱglass ionomer(non-gingival retraction),group B was treated with light cured composite resin(non-gingival retraction),group C was treated with FX-Ⅱglass ionomer(gingival retraction),and group D was treated with light cured composite resin(gingival retraction),the patients were followed up for one year.Result:The successful rate of group A was 83.3%,group B was 81.7%, group C was 86.7%and group D was 96.7%after 1 year.Group D was significantly different from the other three groups(P0.05).Conclusion:Light cured composite resin with gingival retraction used in margin and subgingival root caries in the elderly is effective.

  20. 渗透树脂治疗对人工釉质龋表面微硬度影响的研究%Effect of resin infiltration on enamel surface microhardness of artificial enamel caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓一; 高学军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同脱矿程度人工釉质龋经渗透树脂治疗后其表面微硬度的提高程度。方法:制备牛牙釉质样本60个,随机分为6组,分别置脱矿液中脱矿10、20、30、40、50、60 d;然后用ICON渗透树脂对各组人工釉质龋病损部位进行处理;分别于脱矿前、脱矿后、渗透树脂后用韦氏微硬度仪检测各组病损表面的微硬度值,用3D激光扫描显微系统观察病损表面的形貌。结果:各组样本脱矿前表面微硬度值基本一致(P>0.05),脱矿后均明显降低(P<0.05);经渗透树脂处理后,病损表面微硬度均显著提高(P<0.05),但低于基线水平(P<0.05),依次为脱矿60 d<50 d<40 d<30 d<20 d<10 d,10、20、30、40 d各组间无显著性差异(P>0.05)外,其他各组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。抛光后的釉质表面无树脂残留。结论:渗透树脂能提高釉质龋病损表面的微硬度,但不能达到正常釉质的水平;提高程度与病损脱矿程度相关。%AIM:To evaluate the effect of resin infiltration treatment on enamel surface microhardness (SMH)of artificial caries lesions.METHODS:60 bovine enamel specimens were divided into 6 groups (n=10)and were demineralized for 10 d,20 d,30 d,50 d and 60 d (group 1,2,3,4,5,and 6)respectively.The caries le-sions were etched with 37%phosphoric acid gel and infiltrated with ICON resin.The SMH of the specimens before and after demineralization,and after resin infiltration was determined by Laser Microscope 3D&Profile Measurement.RE-SULTS:The specimens of all groups exhibited the same baseline level of SMH(P>0.05 ).After demineralization, the SMH of all groups was time-dependently reduced(P<0.05 ).SMH in all groups incteased after resin infiltration and polishing (P<0.05),but not achieved to the baseline.No significant difference in the amount of SMH re-hard-ening was detected between each 2 of group 1

  1. Effect of various particle size hydroxyapatite on remineralization of artifi-cial initial enamel caries%不同粒径羟基磷灰石对人工早期龋再矿化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成霞; 申晓青; 徐平平

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究不同粒径羟基磷灰石( HA)对人工早期龋的再矿化作用。方法:应用离体人恒前磨牙制备早期釉质龋标本50个,随机分为5组(n=10):阳性对照组(NaF溶液)、阴性对照组(去离子水)、30 nm HA组、60 nm HA组和12μm HA组,用显微硬度计检测标本脱矿前后表面显微硬度,并用扫描电镜观察各组样本脱矿前后的形态;按照分组进行早期龋体外循环实验12 d,同法测定体外循环后各组样本的表面显微硬度,并观察其形态。结果:与阴性对照组相比,各HA组均能提高标本的表面显微硬度,且随着粒径的减小,其表面显微硬度增大( F=86.272,P<0.001)。扫描电镜下观察,30 nm HA组和60 nm HA组的脱矿区有针状或短棒状晶体颗粒沉积,表面变得均匀、平整,且以30 nm HA组的再矿化效果更佳,12μm HA组的再矿化效果不明显。结论:HA能有效促进早期釉质龋的再矿化;纳米级HA优于微米级HA,且随着粒径的减小,其再矿化效果更佳。%Aim:To explore the effect of various particle size hydroxyapatite ( HA) on remineralization of artificial ini-tial enamel caries .Methods:Fifty human premolars were prepared for artificial enamel caries specimens , and these speci-mens were randomly allocated into 5 groups(n=10):positive control group(NaF solution), negative control group(deion-ized water), 30 nm HA group, 60 nm HA group and 12 μm HA group.Before and after demineralization, the surface mi-crohardness of the specimens was measured by microhardness tester and the morphologies of the specimens were observed by scanning electron microscope .Then after the experiment of 12 d cycling in vitro , the surface microhardness of each group′s specimens was measured and the morphologies were observed again .Results:Compared with negative control group , all the 3 HA groups could significantly improve the surface microhardness of

  2. 全光纤OCT量化检出早期釉质龋的研究%Quantification detecting artificial early enamel caries with all All-fiber-OCT system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晖; 李燕妮; 王冠华; 姚晓天; 孟卓; 靳书凤; 梁燕; 张林朴; 刘铁根

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sensibility of All-fiber opficM coherence tomography(An-fiberOCT)system for early quantification detecting of artificial caries in vitro.Methods Prepared 2 min×3 mm experimental windows in adamant slippery surfaces of 7 fresh uprooted permanent teeth,demineralized the teeth surfacesin the windows area to ereat early stage of artificial caries mould,by aciding the experimental teeth surfaces of 0~120 hours with demineralized liquid(pH4.5)in vitro.Detected the demineralized changes on the experimental teeth surfaces by dental All-fiber-OCT system,which were newly developed by our research group,and compared the detecting resuhs with clinical diotal photomicrography(DPM)and polarimicroscopy(PMS)on the same tooth sample,to checkout the sensibility and feasibility of All-fiber-OGT for early quantification detecting of artificial caries in vitro.Results Our All-fiber-OCT system could accurately detect surface demineralization changes on the experimental windows of artificial dental caries as earlyas 12haciding treatment,earlier than the survey results obtained by DPM;the surface Integrity of the experimental windows decrease progressively with the increasing Aciding hours,while the demineralized depth increased progressively with the increasing aciding hours.It was shown that quantification detectingdata by OCT has hish correlation to those by PMS,There are no significant differences between data obtained from OCT and PMS(P>0.05).Conclusion All-fiber-OCT system could accurately detect early artificial dental caries without trauma in our model.Quantification detecting data of demineralized depth by OCT has hiigh correlation to those by PMS.It has shown exact detection efficacy on enamel early cariesin our experiment and might become a potential new optical detecting technique for early diagnosis,quantifieation process monitoring and early intervention of dental carles in vivo after the All-fiber OCT system further being consummated

  3. Assessment of in vitro Antacid Activity of Different Root Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea (L) Pers by Modified Artificial Stomach Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandhya S; Venkata Ramana K; Vinod K R; Chaitanya Rsnakk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present investigation is to rule out the antacid activity of Tephrosiapurpurea root by in vitro method using a self fabricated and modified artificial stomach model. The reason for selecting in vitro method was to minimize the usage of experimental animals. Method:In this work we have used air bubbles from an aerator to mimic the peristaltic movements of stomach. Sodium bicarbonate and water were used as reference and control respectively. The parameters evaluated were neutralizing effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity and effect of temperature on pH. We evaluated the potency of the plant by extracting with three solvents in increasing order of polarity. Results: The neutralization effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity were found to be higher for methanol root extract than sodium bicarbonate, whereas ethyl acetate and chloroform extract produced moderately good response but less when compared to standard drug but higher than water. Conclusion: Hence this plant can be an effective alternative for sodium bicarbonate which is reported to have side effects like edema n the feet, alteration in systemic pH, belching etc.

  4. The effect of undissociated acetic-acid concentration of buffer solutions on artificial caries-like lesion formation in human tooth enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, A.; Theuns, H.M.; Dijk, J.W.E. van; Driessens, F.C.M.

    1984-01-01

    A chemical system for lesion production was used. The influence on lesion characteristics of the concentration of undissociated acetic acid in a calcium and phosphate-containing buffer solution was investigated. Artificial lesions obtained after demineralization in buffers with a pH of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0

  5. Effect of fluoride iontophoresis treatment on remineralization of human root caries in vitro%氟离子导入对人工根面龋再矿化作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 陈亚明; 冯颢; 郑春雷

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between fluoride iontophoresis and remineralization of human root caries in vitro.Methods:Thirty-five human root samples were demineralized by acid-etching, randomly divided into five groups , then pretreated with 1.23%fluoride foam, 4%NaF solution with iontophoresis , 4%NaF solution simply and physiological saline with iontophoresis re-spectively.Then the samples were remineralized by pH-cycling, and the effects of remineralization were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) while lesions were photoed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM).Results:Observed by SEM, the two groups pretreated with 1.23%fluoride foam and 4%NaF solution with iontophoresis had smoother surfaces and they had significant differences in reducing demineralized depth and area compared with other groups (P0.05).Conclusions:Both fluoride iontophoresis and fluoride foam can promote remineral-ization of root caries , but have no significant differences in reducing demineralized depth and area .%目的:体外实验比较氟离子导入与氟化泡沫对人工根面龋再矿化作用的差异,探讨氟离子导入的作用机制。方法:制备人工早期根面龋模型35个,随机分为5组:空白对照组、1.23%氟化泡沫组、氟离子导入组、氟化钠溶液组及生理盐水导入组。各组样本经过pH循环处理后,于扫描电镜和激光共聚焦显微镜下拍摄图像,并分析结果。结果:氟离子导入组及氟化泡沫组样品表面较其余各组光滑,可见明显的再矿化沉积物;二者脱矿深度与荧光面积相对于其余各组显著减小(P<0.01),但两组间无显著差异( P>0.05)。结论:氟离子导入与1.23%氟化泡沫对早期人工根面龋均有明显再矿化作用,两者再矿化效果无显著差异。

  6. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  7. Interannual variation in root production in grasslands affected by artificially modified amount of rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland), highland (wet Cirsium grassland), and mountain (Nardus grassland) grasslands were studied during five years (2006-2010). A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry), rainfall increased by 50% (wet), and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient). The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation.

  8. Interannual Variation in Root Production in Grasslands Affected by Artificially Modified Amount of Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Fiala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland, highland (wet Cirsium grassland, and mountain (Nardus grassland grasslands were studied during five years (2006–2010. A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry, rainfall increased by 50% (wet, and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient. The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation.

  9. Caries prevalence in older persons with and without dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;

    2008-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability.......To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability....

  10. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  11. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  12. 甘肃临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况的抽样调查与分析%Incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture:a sampling survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司庆宗; 安晓莉; 李淼; 马占海; 马玉梅; 赵望泓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. Methods Root caries in 436 Hui elderly people aged 65 -74 years and their clinical examination were investigated with questionnaire by random sampling according to the third national oral health survey standards and methods. Results The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture was 28. 90% , with mean number of root caries of 0. 42. No significant difference was found in the incidence of root caries between urban and rural areas and between male and female (P >0.05). The filling rate of root caries was only 0. 68%. The root caries index ( RCI) value was 2. 85% and 2.76% , respectively, in the distal and mesial surfaces. The RCI value was higher in maxillary teeth than in corresponding mandibular teeth. Root caries involving one root surface was detected in 88. 7% of Hui elderly people. Logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of teeth brushing and sugar food intake was closely related with the occurrence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture ( OR; 0. 492,95%C7:0.317 to 0.764,P =0.002;OR:l. 654,95%C/:1.033 to 2.648,P =0.036). Conclusion The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture is low due to their good oral health and life habits. However, root caries is rarely treated, thus needing instructions on their oral health and taking more preventive measures against their oral diseases.%目的 了解并分析甘肃省临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况.方法 按照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样方法对436例临夏回族65 ~ 74岁老年人进行问卷调查及根面龋的口腔临床检查.结果 临夏市65 ~ 74岁回族老年人恒牙根面龋患病率为28.90%,龋均为0.42.患龋率和龋均在城乡和性别

  13. Effectiveness of the self-adjusting file versus ProTaper systems to remove the smear layer in artificially induced internal root resorption cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Yigit Özer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smear layer removal from artificially prepared internal root resorption (IRR cavities using the self-adjusting file (SAF system with activated continuous irrigation or the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland with conventional syringe/needle irrigation was compared. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated and 20 of them were randomizedly splited along the coronal plane into labial and lingual sections, and artificial IRR cavities were prepared in both walls. Tooth segments were rejoined and teeth were divided into two groups. Each group (n = 10 was prepared using the SAF or ProTaper system with 12-mL 5.25% NaOCl and 12-mL 17% EDTA. Root canals were prepared in six intact positive control teeth using the SAF or ProTaper system with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. As negative controls, two intact teeth were prepared using NaOCl only. Roots were than split longitudinally from the rejoined segments and samples were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy using a five-point scoring system. Results: Most SAF (87% and ProTaper (83% samples (P > 0.05, had scores of 1 and 2 indicating clean canal walls for the IRR cavities. Conclusions: SAF with activated continuous irrigation and ProTaper with conventional syringe/needle irrigation both successfully removed the smear layer from artificially prepared IRR cavities

  14. Nutrient Deficiency Affects Root Architecture of Young Seedlings of Malus hupehensis (Pamp) Rehd. Under Conditions of Artificial Medium Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei-guo; YANG Hong-qiang

    2007-01-01

    What the researchers go in for is to establish models between root architecture (RA) changes and nutrition, mold ideal root architecture of apple trees, improve the nutrient uptake efficiency, and further explore the functional mechanism of nutrient elements during the course of RA construction. The cultivation system of filter paper is utilized to research the effect of nutrient deficiency on the RA of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. There may be eight types of RA. In complete Hogland solution, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root". With the lack of P, K or Ca, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper region primary root", and the "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root" types of RA decrease. But with shortage of P, the type of lateral roots clustering in the upper and lower regions of primary root increases, and the type of lateral roots clustering in the middle region of primary root decreases, with the types of RA diversified. Under the condition of K deficiency, the type of no lateral root increases and types of lateral roots clustering in the middle region of primary root decrease, and the percentage of such types as "no lateral root", "lateral roots clustering in the upper region of primary root", and "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root" accounts for 97.9% in all, with the types of RA simplified.With lack of Fe, Mg or Zn, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root",but the type of lateral roots evenly-distributed on primary root increases. The main type of RA is "lateral roots evenlydistributed on primary root", under the condition of N deficiency, and the types of RA turn out to be diversified. There exists a close relation between nutrient deficiency and RA changes. Owing to various forms of nutrient deficiency,correspondingly different types of RA have

  15. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  16. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  17. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  18. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  19. Ozone and caries: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor

    2012-05-01

    Ozone, either in gaseous form or as ozonated water, has been available for use as a treatment for dental caries for a decade. This paper reviews the literature on the subject by examining the findings of publications in the peer review literature. Eighteen papers were identified by a literature search. From the review of these, it was concluded that, while some laboratory studies and some short duration clinical studies have suggested that ozone may be effective in the treatment of root caries or killing of oral micro-organisms, the clinical evidence for the use of ozone in treatment of caries is not compelling.

  20. Influence of Pu'er Tea Water Extracts on Artificial Caries Microhardness%普洱茶水浸液对人工龋齿显微硬度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 梁迎东; 杨华甫; 田富明; 蓝海

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of the chemical composition of Pu'er tea on the hardness of the artificial caries. Methods:Put the bovine-cut-enamel into the demineralization solution pH=4 to remineralization to formulation artifical tooth decay. Select 72 demineralization bovine teeth, which hardness is about 310 kg/mm2, and put them into 12 groups in random:20 mg/L NaF group(positive control), deionized water group(negative control), and 96 mg/mL, 48 mg/mL, 24 mg/mL, 12 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL cooked tea group as well as raw tea groups same concentration as above. Use microhardness meter measure the hardness date of the cattle incisive after be handle by different solutions and observe the vary date of the microhardness of the surface enamel before and after remineralization. Results: The enamel demineralization samples were 96 mg/mL raw tea group, 48 mg/mL raw tea group, 24 mg/mL raw tea group, 96 mg/mL cooked tea group, 48 mg/mL cooked tea group, 20 mg/mL NaF group, after treatment, each group enamel hardness mean value was significantly higher than the baseline (P0.05). Conclusion:High concentrations of raw tea and cooked tea extract on enamel demineralization of bovine incisors were significantly promote remineralization and no significant difference(P>0.05), but not as good as remineralization 20 mg/mL NaF(P0.05).结论:高浓度的生茶、熟茶水浸液对脱矿牛切牙牙釉质均有显著促进再矿化作用且差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但再矿化作用不如20 mg/mL NaF(P<0.05).

  1. Potential of sub-ablative pulsed CO{sub 2} laser irradiation on inhibition of artificial caries-like lesion progress in bovine dental enamel; Potencial de inibicao da progressao da carie artificial por irradiacao sub-ablativa com laser de CO{sub 2} pulsado em esmalte dental bovino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcella Esteves

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether sub-ablative pulsed C0{sub 2} laser (1 0,6 {mu}m) irradiation is capable of reducing the susceptibility of the dental enamel to demineralization, and thus achieving a potential caries-protective effect. The crowns of 51 bovine front teeth, embedded in acrylic resin and polished until exposure of flat enamel surface, were used. The samples were cut in cubes of 10x10 mm, and totally coated with acid-resistant nail varnish, except for an enamel exposed window of 16 mm square. Three groups (n=17) were obtained: control group (CG) not irradiated; group laser A (LA) and group laser B (LB) where the samples were irradiated. The conditions were 60 mJ, 100 Hz, 0,3 J/cm{sup 2} for LA and 135 mJ, 10 Hz, 0,7 J/cm{sup 2} for LB. Two samples of each group were submitted to SEM analysis and fifteen to demineralization in 3 ml acetate buffer solution (0,1 mol/L) with pH 4,5 for 24h at 37 deg C, with regular agitation. After the specimens were removed from the solution, the calcium and phosphorous content were measured with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and 2 more samples of each were submitted to SEM analysis. The obtained Ca and P means in {mu}g/ml and the calculated Ca/P molar ratio were: CG (367,88 {+-} 33,47; 168,91 {+-} 14,55; 1,70 {+-} 0,07) ; LA (372,70 {+-} 41,70; 161,46 {+-} 15,26; 1,79 {+-} 0,07) and LB (328,87 {+-} 24,91; 145,02 {+-} 11,04; 1,77 {+-} 0,05). The ANOVA statistical test revealed statistically significant difference for [Ca], [P] e Ca/P content between the groups (p<0,05). The Tukey test results showed that LB had significantly lower means of Ca and P content in demineralization solution than the other groups (p<0,01), and between LA and control there was not statistically significant difference. For the Ca/P molar ratio LA and LB means were significantly higher than the control (p<0,01) and there was not statistical difference between the two irradiated groups. SEM observations

  2. 银粉玻璃离子和银汞合金用于治疗老年根面龋的疗效观察%Clinical effect of glass ionomer silver reinforced restorative and amalgam on the treatment of aged posterior root caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀清

    2012-01-01

      Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of filling posterior root caries with glass ionomer silver reinforced restorative and amalgam for elderly patients. Methods 325 teeth with posterior root caries were divided into two groups randomly and filled with glass ionomer silver reinforced restorative, amalgam respectively, followling up for two years. Results The success rate of glass ionomer silver reinforced restorative group reached 91.41%, which of amalgam restorative group is 67.28%. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Filling posterior root caries with glass ionomer silver reinforced restorative for elders achieved a better effect.%  目的观察银粉玻璃离子和银汞合金治疗老年患者后牙根面龋的临床疗效.方法将325颗根面龋坏后牙随机分为两组,分别采用银粉玻璃离子、银汞合金两种材料进行充填,随访观察2年.结果银粉玻璃离子填充组的成功率达91.41%,高于银汞合金填充组的7.28%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论银粉玻璃离子治疗老年后牙根面龋疗效较好.

  3. Observation of clinical effects on early root-surface caries with sealed after irradiation with pulsed laser%激光照射加窝沟封闭治疗中老年人早期根面龋的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管志江; 刘振卿; 张学云; 朱雪华

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察Nd:YAG激光照射后光敏窝沟 封闭剂封闭,治疗中老年人早期根面龋的临床 效果。方法:用脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射龋损区,然后用光敏窝沟封闭 剂封闭,定期复查。结果 :治疗组83例早期根面龋齿中,成功69例,有效11例,失败3例,疗效明显优于对照组。结论:Nd:YAG激光照射后用窝沟封闭剂封闭对早期根面龋有较好的疗效。%AIM: To observe the treatment effects of seale d after irradiation with pulsed Nd:YAG laser for early root surface caries. METHOD: The root surface caries is irradiated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser, then s ealed with light-cured sealant. RESULTS: In 83 cases of c ario us tooth of the treatment group, the success rate, effective rate and fail ure rate we re 83.13%, 13.25% and 3.61%, respectively. The effects of the treatment group w as much bette r than the control group(P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The study in dicated that the light cured sealant sealed after Nd:YAG laser irradiation was a good theraputic method for early root-surface caries.

  4. Effect of the gap width around a restoration on the formation of artificial caries lesion%充填物边缘缝隙宽度对人工继发龋形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万山; 赵信义

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effect of the gap width around a restoration on the formation of artificial caries lesion.METHODS:Each of bovine enamel blocks was invested into a metal ring and then was cut longitudinal-ly into 2 equal portions.One portion was inserted into the ring again and the cut surface of the enamel block was ad-hered with a plastic space sheet,with a thickness(μm)of 25,50,100,190 and 270 respectively,followed by inser-tion of a restorative material (Charisma and Fuji Ⅶ respectively)into the residual space of the ring.All restoration specimens were immersed in water for 7 d and then in demineralization solution for 72 h,followed by filling each gap with a light curing sealant resin.Each specimen was cut vertically through the gap to obtain slices of 150 μm thick for the observation under a polarized light microscope and the depths of outer lesion and wall lesion of each specimen were measured using image analysis software.RESULTS:All specimens presented a deeper outer lesion than wall lesion (P<0.05)and Charisma group presented deeper outer lesion than FujiⅦgroup(P<0.05).The depth of wall lesion increased with the increase of the gap width within 100 μm and the Charisma group showed deeper wall lesion than FujiⅦ group(P<0.05 )when the gap width was within 50 ~100 μm.CONCLUSION:The artificial secondary caries model with controlled marginal gap can present obvious out lesion and wall lesion and present the difference of fluoride-releasing materials and non-fluoride-releasing materials in preventing wall lesion.%目的:评价充填物边缘缝隙宽度对人工继发龋形成的影响,确定继发龋模型合适的缝隙宽度。方法:把牛牙釉质块包埋到圆环状模具内,然后对半纵切包埋后的试样,将其中一半重新放入模具内,用充填修复材料(Charisma,FujiⅦ)充填剩余空间,在材料与釉质纵切面间放置缝隙型片(厚度25、50、100、190、270μm),制备釉质与材料间有

  5. Microbiology and microleakage of root surface caries restored with different silvermercury fillings: an in vitro study%不同银汞粘接剂修复根面龋的细菌学和微渗漏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志庆; 单春城; 刘明方; 魏信汉

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较不同的银汞粘接剂修复根面龋的充填体边缘细菌学和微渗漏情况.方法 将制备洞型后的100颗离体牙按随机数字表法分为5组(银汞充填组、树脂加强型玻璃离子联合银汞合金组、玻璃离子组、全酸蚀粘接剂联合银汞合金组、自酸蚀粘接剂联合银汞合金组)材料充填,进行细菌培养并菌落计数,染色法观察微渗漏,并进行统计学分析.结果 5组材料的细菌学和微渗漏实验结果间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),树脂加强型玻璃离子组细菌数量和微渗漏显著少于其他组,其次分别为全酸蚀粘接剂组、自酸蚀粘接剂组、玻璃离子组,银汞合金组则最为严重.结论 用树脂加强型玻璃离子作银汞合金粘接修复的粘接剂能更有效地预防继发龋和充填物脱落.%Objective To compare the abilities of different adhesive materials to prevent bacteria and microleakage in silver-mercury bonded amalgam restorations of the root surface caries. Methods One hundred isolated teeth with cavity preparation were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each group filled with 5 different materials (Amalgam, Amalgam &resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, glass-ionomer cement, Amalgam &total-etch adhesive cement, and Amalgam &self-etch adhesive cement). Each tooth was then evaluated the bacteria and microleakage by colony counting and staining. Results There were significant differences in the results of bacteria and microleakage among the 5 groups (P < 0.05 ). The Amalgam & resin-modified glass-ionomer cement showed the lowest amount of bacteria and incident of microleakage, the highest occurrence was Amalgam, followed by Amalgam &total-etch adhesive cement, Amalgam &self-etch adhesive cement and glass-ionomer cement. Conclusion Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement can well prevent secondary caries and filling material from being broken off.

  6. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  7. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  8. Remediation of Urban River Water by Pontederia Cordata Combined with Artificial Aeration: Organic Matter and Nutrients Removal and Root-Adhered Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dungang; Xu, Huan; He, Yan; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Macrophyte combined with artificial aeration is a promising in situ remediation approach for urban rivers polluted with nutrients and organic matter. However, seasonal variations and aeration effects on phytoremediation performance and root-adhered microbial communities are still unclear. In this study, Pontederia cordata was used to treat polluted urban river water under various aeration intensities. Results showed that the highest removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and total nitrogen (TN) were attained under aeration of 30 L min(-1) in spring and summer and 15 L min(-1) in autumn, while total phosphorus (TP) removal reached maximum with aeration of 15 L min(-1) in all seasons. Moderate aeration was beneficial for increasing the diversity of root-adhered bacteria communities, and the shift of bacterial community structure was more pronounced in spring and autumn with varying aeration intensity. The dual effect, i.e. turbulence and dissolved oxygen (DO), of aeration on the removal of COD(Cr) and TN prevailed over the individual effect of DO, while DO was the most influential factor for TP removal and the root-adhered bacterial community diversity. P. cordata combined with 15 L min(-1) aeration was deemed to be the best condition tested in this study.

  9. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  10. Prevalência de cárie radicular e condição periodontal em uma população idosa institucionalizada de Piracicaba - SP Prevalence of root caries and periodontal conditions in an elderly institutionalized population from Piracicaba - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Castro MENEGHIM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A evolução dos procedimentos preventivos e curativos em Odontologia, verificados nas duas últimas décadas, levou a uma maior longevidade dos elementos dentários, acarretando com isso, uma maior demanda por tratamento periodontal e, em especial, cárie radicular no paciente idoso. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar as condições periodontais e lesões radiculares, de uma amostra de população institucionalizada do município de Piracicaba - SP. Nesse estudo, foram examinados 151 idosos com idade entre 54 e 93 anos. Os sextantes foram examinados e classificados do ponto de vista de saúde periodontal, necessidade de tratamento periodontal, presença de retração gengival e lesões radiculares, utilizando-se como critérios os indicadores da OMS (1999. Comparando-se duas faixas etárias: de pacientes com idade entre 50 e 75 anos e pacientes com idade acima de 75 anos, constatou-se que há um aumento na prevalência de lesões de cárie e outras afecções radiculares, como erosão e abrasão, indicando aumento na susceptibilidade a tais lesões com o passar da idade.Preventive and invasive dental procedures have improved in the last two decades, leading to a greater longevity of teeth. As a result, teeth are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and, consequently, to root caries. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of both periodontal diseases and root caries in an institutionalized population from Piracicaba - SP, Brazil. In this study, 151 subjects, aging 54 to 93 years, were examined. The sample was divided into two groups: a group of subjects aging 50 to 75 years and a group of subjects over 75 years old. The sextants were examined and classified as to periodontal health, periodontal treatment needs, prevalence of gingival recession and root lesions. In conclusion, a high prevalence of root caries was verified. That indicates an increase in the susceptibility to these lesions, which is associated with

  11. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...

  12. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  13. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  14. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  15. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  16. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  17. Development of a new diagnosis method for caries in human teeth based on thermal images under pulse heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Kaneko, Kenji

    2001-03-01

    A new diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for the incipient caries of human teeth. Experimental study was made on the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth in various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. Coefficients of the temperature descent were obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i.e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from temperature descent coefficients.

  18. Aquaporin 5 Interacts with Fluoride and Possibly Protects against Caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Anjomshoaa

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQP are water channel proteins and the genes coding for AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 are clustered in 12q13. Since AQP5 is expressed in serous acinar cells of salivary glands, we investigated its involvement in caries. DNA samples from 1,383 individuals from six groups were studied. Genotypes of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the aquaporin locus were tested for association with caries experience. Interaction with genes involved in enamel formation was tested. The association between enamel microhardness at baseline, after creation of artificial caries lesion, and after exposure to fluoride and the genetic markers in AQP5 was tested. Finally, AQP5 expression in human whole saliva, after exposure to fluoride in a mammary gland cell line, which is known to express AQP5, and in Wistar rats was also verified. Nominal associations were found between caries experience and markers in the AQP5 locus. Since these associations suggested that AQP5 may be inhibited by levels of fluoride in the drinking water that cause fluorosis, we showed that fluoride levels above optimal levels change AQP5 expression in humans, cell lines, and rats. We have shown that AQP5 is involved in the pathogenesis of caries and likely interacts with fluoride.

  19. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  20. Prognosis of caries increment with past caries experience variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Palenstein Helderman, W H; van't Hof, M A; van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to select past caries experience variables as caries predictors and to compare their prognostic accuracy with the variables used in a method of caries prognosis developed in a Swiss child population. The data used for the analyses originated from an 8-year longitudinal study starting in 1980 on caries of 7.5-year-old Dutch children. Stepwise logistic regression analyses provided predictor variables. The newly introduced variables D23fi, D(123)i and D23pifi were interchangeable and the most powerful caries predictors. For the sake of uniformity and ease of application, D23fi (number of fissures of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries lesions) was chosen as the first variable in the logistic regression equations. The gain in accuracy of the second and third predictor variables (number of sound primary molars and the number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries) in the regression equations was limited. The D1 condition of surfaces could be omitted from the prediction models. The present forced three-predictor-regression equations for 7.5-, 9.5- and 11.5-year-old children were evaluated to assess their prognostic performance by using the area under the ROC curve as a measure of prognostic quality. For the present regression equations, the area under the ROC curve was 81-87%, which was higher compared to the Swiss regression equations for caries prognosis.

  1. [Micromorphology of decayed tooth tissues covered with artificial crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Shved, I A

    2014-01-01

    Pathomorphological changes in dentine covered with artificial crown were studied in 40 decalcified teeth extracted from patients aged 35-61 years. The study of the decayed dentin microscopic structure revealed the uniform mineralization of dentinal tubules in 20% of cases, while in the absence of visually apparent caries it was present in 80% of cases. Irregular dentin structure was seen in 45% of caries cases and in 30% of observations with no signs of caries. Predentine distrophy and odontoblasts elimination in the decayed teeth was found in 55% of the observations while in the absence of caries lesions these features were seen in 70% of cases.

  2. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient......, and aid in the development of an individualized and targeted preventive and management plan....

  3. Efeito de substrato artificial no enraizamento de estacas de calanchoe (Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. singapur, crassulaceae Artificial substract effect on the rooting of calanchoe (Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. singapur, crassulaceae cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Gonçalves

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Dez misturas artificiais foram estudadas para avaliar o efeito sobre o enraizamento de estacas apicais de Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. Singapur, da família Crassulaceae. Essas misturas foram as seguintes: vermiculita + casca de arroz tostada nas proporções 1:1, 2:1 e 3:1; vermiculita + torta de filtro Oliver nas proporções 1:1, 2:1 e 3:1; vermiculita + turfa da região de Atibaia-SP, nas proporções 1:l, 2:le3:l; vermiculita + casca de pinheiro (mistura comercial. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a mistura vermiculita + torta de filtro Oliver em todas as proporções, vermiculita + casca de arroz tostada 3:1 e vermiculita + turfa 3:1. Os piores desempenhos foram os das misturas vermiculita + casca de pinheiro e vermiculita + turfa 1:1.Ten different artificial mixtures were studied as rooting media for Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. Singapur cuttings. They were: vermiculite + toasted rice hulls (1:1, 2:1, 3:1; vermiculite + Oliver filter cake (1:1, 2:1, 3:1; vermiculite + peat (1:1, 2:1, 3:1; and vermiculite + pine bark (commercial mixture. The best results were observed for vermiculite + Oliver filter cake (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, vermiculite + toasted rice hulls (3:1 and vermiculite + peat (3:1. The worst results were observed with vermiculite + pine bark and vermiculite + peat (1:1.

  4. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  5. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  6. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Surrinder

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66% patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  7. Prediction of dental caries activity

    OpenAIRE

    Crossner, Claes-Göran

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to find a test for prediction of caries activity which would be useful in routine clinical work.Correlations between oral health, general health, food habits and socioeconomic conditions were investigated in 4- and 8-year-old children. It was found that the salivary secretion rate and the prevalence of oral lactobacilli were factors which might be useful in caries prediction.In 5- and 8-year-old children negative correlations between caries frequency and secr...

  8. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  9. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  10. 折裂和龋坏形成的残冠残根牙冠延长术后的临床效果比较%Comparison of clinical effect of crown lengthening surgery between residual crowns and roots caused by teeth fracture or caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范亚贤; 刘桂荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of crown lengthening surgery of different kinds of residual crowns and roots and its influencing factors. Methods A total of 120 residual crowns and roots of 96 patients were selected for crown lengthening in this study. The 120 teeth were divided into two groups according to the reasons that lead to residual crowns and roots,group F ( caused by fracture) and group C ( caused by caries) . The locations of defects and probing depths of subgingival margin of the residual crowns and roots were recorded and compared before surgery. The patients were followed up for 4 to 6 weeks after surgery and the clinical effects evaluated and compared. Results In group F,the teeth defects were mainly located on palatal( lingual) sides,and in group C,the teeth defects were located on proximal or labial ( buccal ) sides. Probing depths of teeth margin before surgery in group F were much higher than those in group C(P<0. 01). Thirty-four teeth(54. 8%) in group F (total 62) and 48 teeth (82. 8%) in group C (total 58)obtained satisfactory effect(P<0. 01). Conclusion Residual crowns and roots caused by caries could achieved better clinical effect than those caused by fracture for crown lengthening.%目的:比较不同类型残冠、残根行牙冠延长术后的临床疗效及影响因素。方法选取来我科就诊,需行牙冠延长术的96名患者,行牙冠延长术的残冠、残根120颗。根据残冠残根形成的原因分为2组,折裂组和龋坏组。记录并比较2组牙体缺损所累及的牙面,及术前断缘的探诊深度,观察术后4~6周根断面暴露情况。结果2组缺损累及牙面不同,折裂组多发生在腭(舌)侧,龋坏组多发生在邻面或唇(颊)侧( P<0.01);折裂组术前断缘的探诊深度明显高于龋坏组(P<0.01);62颗牙因折裂行冠延长术后满意者34颗牙(54.8%),58颗牙因龋坏行冠延长术后满意者48颗牙(82.8%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)

  11. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hoceini

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  12. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  13. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  14. Carisolv技术与Giomer Ⅱ聚合体修复老年人根面龋的临床疗效观察%Clinical effect observation on Carisolv technique treating senile root caries by using Giomer Ⅱ ion polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹东; 夏建国

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价Carisolv技术与Giomer Ⅱ聚合体修复老年人根面龋的临床效果.方法:选择双侧双尖牙或磨牙患根面龋老年人120例,240颗患牙,随机分为Carisolv组和常规各组,每组各120颗患牙,分别采用Carisolv技术和临床常规治疗方法预备洞型后,每组中一侧以Giomer Ⅱ聚合体充填,另一侧以玻璃离子充填.记录患者在治疗过程中的疼痛程度及1年后的治疗效果.结果:试验组治疗时的疼痛程度明显低于对照组(P0.05).Carisolv技术下,Giomer Ⅱ聚合体和玻璃离子充填的修复成功率分别为90.00%和73.33%,差异有显著性(P0.05). In Carisolv technique of group, the success rate of Giomer II ion polymer group was 90%, that of glass ionomer group was 73.33%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). In conventional treatment of group, the success rate of Giomer II ion polymer group was 91.67%, that of glass ionomer group was 75%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion: The Carisolv technique treating senile cement caries by using Giomer II ion polymer Carisolv seem to be a safe, painless and effective procedure. A future appliance is suggested.

  15. Analysis of community composition in dental plaque of elder people with root caries%老年根面龋牙菌斑细菌组成的聚合酶链反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马善奋; 梁景平; 姜云涛; 朱彩莲

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究老年人根面龋牙菌斑内细菌群落构成,以期为今后深入研究根面龋的病因提供依据.方法 提取9例60岁以上根面龋患者9颗患牙的牙菌斑细菌DNA,应用聚合酶链反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳( PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,PCR-DGGE)技术扩增,克隆、测序并与核酸序列数据库进行比对,鉴定优势菌属种类.结果 老年人根面龋牙菌斑中共检测到114个细菌基因型,分属于不动杆菌属[0.9% (1/114)]、放线杆菌属[1.8% (2/114)]、放线菌属[15.8%( 18/114)]、Aggregatibacter菌属[0.9%(1/114)]、二氧化碳嗜纤维菌属[14.0% (16/114)]、棒状杆菌属[0.9% (1/114)]、嗜血杆菌属[0.9% (1/114)]、动弯杆菌属[0.9% (1/114)]、纳西杆菌属[0.9%(1/114)]、奈瑟球菌属[10.5% (12/114)]、卟啉单胞菌属[0.9% (1/114)]、普氏菌属[12.3%(14/114)]、新月单胞菌属[6.1% (7/114)]、葡萄球菌属[1.8% (2/114)]、口腔链球菌群[6.1%(7/114)]和变异链球菌群[7.9% (9/114)]、Tannerella菌属[0.9% (1/114)]、密螺旋体[1.8%(2/114)]和韦永球菌属[10.5% (12/114)],以及两例未获培养的不知名菌种[1.8% (2/114)].未获培养的基因型占总数的19.3%(22/114).革兰阳性细菌的基因型占31.6%(36/114),革兰阴性细菌的基因型占66.7% (76/114).结论 老年人根面龋牙菌斑中细菌基因型多且分布较广,以革兰阴性菌占多数;未发现特异性致龋细菌基因型.%Objective To analyze the community in dental plaque of elder people with root caries.Methods Total DNAs were extracted from the root caries dental plaques of nine elders over 60 years of age.Polymerase chaid reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the microbial composition,DGGE bands were excised from the gels for sequencing and identification.Results The dominant genus in root caries dental plaque of elder people were:Acinetobacte [0.9% (1

  16. Development of a New Diagnosis Method for Incipient Caries in Human Teeth Based on Thermal Images under Pulse Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Nakashima, Shoji; Kaneko, Kenji

    A new noninvasive diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for incipient caries of human teeth. Experiments were conducted to study the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth with various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. A coefficient of the temperature descent was obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i. e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from the temperature descent coefficient. Further the proposed technique was applied to the detection of natural incipient caries in an extracted human molar tooth. It was found that natural incipient caries was also clearly identified in the thermal images.

  17. Nutrition and Experimental Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    田村,俊吉; タムラ, シュンキチ; Shunkichi, TAMURA

    1983-01-01

    Nutrition is an effective factor for the inhibition of the development of dental caries. The constitution of diet has a strong bearing on the development of dental caries. However the theoretical background regarding the development of dental caries has not been sastifactorily established. Experimentally, we have clarified the relation of nutrition and dental caries in rats. Experimental animals used in this study were Wistar strain Albino rats (closed colony, Tamura, 1950). Young rats of 21 ...

  18. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  19. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up ra...

  20. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  1. 复合树脂加玻璃离子夹层修复老年后牙根面龋24例%Composite Resin and Glass Ionomer Cement Sandwich in Restoring the 24 Elderly Patients with Root Surface Caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical repair effect of composite resin and glass ionomer dissection for caries. Methods:48 cases (96 teeth), root surface caries in elder patients were randomly divided into two groups, 24 patients (48 teeth) using fixation of composite resin and glass ionomer as a sandwich technique as the observation group, 24 patients (48 teeth) separate glass ionomer to repair as a control group, a return visit two groups of patients 6 months to 1 year, 6 months after the repair was observed when repairing effect. Results:6 months after the repair, to observe the success of the number of teeth of the group of 24 patients by a total of 48 teeth for 46 (95.83%), the success of the number of teeth of the control group, 24 cases of 48 teeth and 44 (91.66%), the success of the number of teeth of the two groups of patients no significant difference (P>0.05). 1 year after the repair, the teeth of the observation group, 24 patients with a total of 48 teeth successfully for 46 (95.83%), the success of the number of teeth of the control group, 24 cases of 48 teeth and 38 (79.17%), 1 year after the repair of the two groups of patients successfully teeth had a significant difference (P0.05)。修复后1年时,观察组24例共48牙成功牙数为46(95.83%),对照组24例共48牙成功牙数为38(79.17%),两组患者修复后1年时成功牙数有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论:采用复合树脂加玻璃离子夹层修复老年后牙根面龋结合了两者优势,可明显提高修复效果,值得临床推广应用。

  2. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than......PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  3. A novel caries risk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Galligan, Joyce; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2007-03-01

    A diagnostic test is particularly beneficial if it reveals the level of susceptibility prior to onset of a disease process. In the case of childhood caries, such a diagnostic test affords the opportunity for preventive measures to be implemented before caries begins. Salivary glycoproteins contain a wealth of individually specific oligosaccharide motifs. Depending on microbial compatibilities and individual genotypes, the glycoproteins that form the pellicle coating of teeth may provide attachment sites that foster colonization leading to cariogenesis. Alternatively, certain oligosaccharides, when present in nonpellicle glycoproteins, can interact with planktonic bacteria and lower their ability to interact with the tooth surface. We have found that in young adults the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides present in resting saliva exhibits a strong correlation with caries history (DFT: number of decayed and filled teeth). Oligosaccharide moieties associated with the test are quantitated in dried spots of whole saliva on nitrocellulose using commercially available biotinylated lectins with a variety of reporters. A combination of multiple linear regression and neural net analyses were used to develop the algorithms that describe the relationship between oligosaccharide patterns and DFT. During test development several different groups of adults and children have been studied. The correlation algorithms routinely exceed an R(2) (coefficient of determination) of 0.96. When the test is applied to the saliva of children, it yields a projection of their future caries history. Modifying the test result metric to reflect the groups of teeth with caries in young adults, the test identifies those teeth at risk for future caries in children. This test outcome can then be accompanied with suggested specific preventive measures for each tooth group-based risk level.

  4. Secondary caries formation in vitro around glass ionomer-lined amalgam and composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, P; Kotsanos, N; Papadogianis, Y

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro secondary caries study was to examine the glass-ionomer liner's effect on wall-lesion inhibition when a conventional and a light-cured glass ionomer liner was placed under amalgam and composite resin restorations. Class V preparations in extracted upper premolars were used and ten restorations were used for each of the following groups: (i) two layers of copal varnish and amalgam; (ii) conventional glass-ionomer and amalgam; (iii) light-cured glass-ionomer and amalgam; (iv) bonding agent and light-cured composite resin; (v) conventional glass-ionomer, bonding agent and light-cured composite resin; (vi) light-cured glass-ionomer, extended 0.3 mm short of the enamel margin bonding agent and light-cured composite resin; and (vii) light-cured glass-ionomer, extended 1 mm short of the enamel margin, bonding agent and light-cured composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled and artificial caries were created using an acid-gel. The results of this study showed that artificial recurrent caries can be reduced significantly (P amalgam restorations. The results also showed that when the light-cured glass-ionomer liner was placed 0.3 mm from the cavosurface margin under composite resin restoration, the artificial recurrent caries reduced significantly (P < 0.05).

  5. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed i...

  6. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical appl

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  8. Analysis of Wideband Beamformers Designed with Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 0-90-1 ANALYSIS OF WIDEBAND BEAMFORMERS DESIGNED WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS by Cary Cox Instrumentation Services Division...included. A briel tutorial on beamformers and neural networks is also provided. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF PAGES Artificial neural networks Fecdforwa:,l...Beamformers Designed with Artificial Neural Networks ". The study was conducted under the general supervision of Messrs. George P. Bonner, Chief

  9. Asociación entre el consumo de macronutrientes de la dieta y caries en adultos y adultos mayores diabéticos tipo 2 Association between dietary macronutrients and caries in type 2 diabetic adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Giacaman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Se ha reportado una mayor tasa de caries en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM, probablemente debido a cambios en los patrones de dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existe una asociación entre la composición de macronutrientes de la dieta y la caries en sujetos con DM. Métodos: Una muestra compuesta por 33 sujetos con DM y 37 controles sin la patología fue examinada para determinar la experiencia de caries mediante el índice COPD y la prevalencia de caries radiculares con ICDAS II. Se aplicó una encuesta de dieta de reporte de 24 horas. Para determinar la composición de la dieta, los alimentos fueron clasificados acorde al contenido de macronutrientes; carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos (gramos/día, kilocalorías y porcentaje del nutriente/día. Resultados: Los resultados fueron analizados mediante Kruskal-Wallis y Mann-Whitney. Un análisis de correlación y un modelo de regresión lineal se utilizaron para analizar la asociación entre composición de macronutrientes y la tasa de caries coronales y radiculares, con un nivel de significancia del 95%. Resultados: Los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 mostraron mayor número de dientes perdidos por caries, más dientes obturados y más caries radiculares (pObjectives: Higher caries rates have been reported for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (DM. Changes in dietary patterns may be partly responsible. The aim of this study was to examine a potential association between dietary macronutrient composition and caries experience in DM patients. Methods: Thirty three adults with DM and thirty seven controls, not affected by DM, were examined to assess coronal caries through DMFT index and root caries by ICDAS II. A 24-hr diet recall survey was used to determine dietary macronutrient composition supplemented with standardized tables and expressed as grams /day, kilocalories/nutrient and percentage of nutrient/day. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and

  10. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries (tooth decay is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old with caries (n = 20 and without caries (n = 20 were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05. The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05. Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05. The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries.

  11. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021

  12. First step toward translation of thermophotonic lock-in imaging to dentistry as an early caries detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Ashkan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of the most prevalent oral disease worldwide, i.e., dental caries, still remains as one of the major challenges in dentistry. The current dental standard of care relies on caries detection methods, such as visual inspection and x-ray radiography, which lack the sufficient specificity and sensitivity to detect caries at early stages of formation when they can be healed. We report on the feasibility of early caries detection in a clinically and commercially viable thermophotonic imaging system. The system incorporates intensity-modulated laser light along with a low-cost long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 to 14 μm) camera, providing diagnostic contrast based on the enhanced light absorption of early caries. The LWIR camera is highly suitable for integration into clinical platforms because of its low weight and cost. In addition, through theoretical modeling, we show that LWIR detection enhances the diagnostic contrast due to the minimal LWIR transmittance of enamel and suppression of the masking effect of the direct thermal Planck emission. Diagnostic performance of the system and its detection threshold are experimentally evaluated by monitoring the inception and progression of artificially induced occlusal and smooth surface caries. The results are suggestive of the suitability of the developed LWIR system for detecting early dental caries.

  13. Research on optical properties of dental enamel for early caries diagnostics using a He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan

    2008-12-01

    A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.

  14. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  15. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Amaechi, Bennet T.

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  16. The evaluation of removal of calcium hydroxide paste from an artificial standardized groove in the apical root canal using different irrigation methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wu, M. K.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the capacity to remove a calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) paste from the root canal and to evaluate the efficacy of Ca(OH)(2) removal during passive ultrasonic irrigation using either sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or water as an irrigant. Methodology: Sixteen mandibular premolars were us

  17. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...... (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained...

  18. Understanding Caries From the Oral Microbiome Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Anne C R; Kressirer, Christine A; Faller, Lina L

    2016-07-01

    Dental caries is a major disease of the oral cavity with profound clinical significance. Caries results from a transition of a healthy oral microbiome into an acidogenic community of decreased microbial diversity in response to excessive dietary sugar intake. Microbiological cultivation, molecular identification, gene expression and metabolomic analyses show the importance of the entire microbial community in understanding the role of the microbiome in the pathology of caries.

  19. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  20. Parents and nursing-bottle caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen, T; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of the parent in the phenomenon of nursing bottle caries is investigated. The main goal is to try to assess whether differences exist between parents and their children who suffer from nursing bottle caries and parents and children who are not affected by this form of dental decay. To this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Results showed that, in contrast to parents of non-caries children, more parents of caries children give a bottle straight from birth. These bottles more often contain sugared drinks and are given during daytime as well as at night. Children with caries and non-caries children differ in two respects: caries children on the whole are older and they have been sick more often than non-caries children. Finally, habit seems to be the major factor contributing to the use of a bottle to a relatively high age. Discussion focuses on the characterization of "typical" caries parents and their children and the implication for educational programs such a characterization could have.

  1. Dental caries, periodontal disease, and cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling older persons aged 80 and older: is there a link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Morse, Douglas E

    2005-01-01

    lesions had 2.8 times higher odds (95% confidence interval=1.1-7.0) of arrhythmia than persons without active coronal caries, but there was no greater risk for persons with three or more coronal caries lesions. There was no association between periodontal disease and arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: The findings......OBJECTIVES: To examine whether caries or periodontitis is associated with cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling people aged 80 and older. SETTING: Urban, community-based population in Stockholm, Sweden. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible persons were identified through...... by a physician or the Stockholm Inpatient Register. Active root caries, active coronal caries, and periodontitis were assessed using previously defined National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The primary finding of the multivariate logistic regression analysis...

  2. Antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and glucosyltransferases in caries-free and caries-active military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hus in 't Veld, J; Bannet, D; Van Palenstein Helderman, W; Camargo, P S; Backer-Dirks, O

    1978-01-01

    1) Plaque samples from caries-active recruits showed a higher incidence of S. mutans than plaque samples from caries-free recruits. The persistance of the S. mutans serotypes in the individual plaque samples attested to the consistency of S. mutans in human dental plaque. 2) S. mutans serotype d is predominantly present in approximal plaque of caries-active subjects. 3) Serum antibody titers against S. mutans are higher in caries-active individuals. 4) Sera from caries-free or caries-active individuals inhibit the insoluble glucan synthesis by the cellbound GTF to the same extent. 5) It is unlikely that antibodies against S. mutans in parotid saliva or serum play a major role in the protection against dental caries in Dutch military recruits.

  3. Cognitive Impairment, Oral Self-care Function and Dental Caries Severity in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer JJ; Chen, Hong; Naorungroj, Supawadee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether oral self-care function mediates the associations between cognitive impairment and caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. Background Cognitive impairment significantly affects activities of daily living and compromises oral health, systemic health and quality of life in older adults. However, the associations among cognitive impairment, oral self-care capacity and caries severity remain unclear. This increases difficulty in developing effective interventions for cognitively impaired patients. Materials and methods Medical, dental, cognitive and functional assessments were abstracted from the dental records of 600 community-dwelling elderly. 230 participants were selected using propensity score matching and categorised into normal, cognitive impairment but no dementia (CIND) and dementia groups based on their cognitive status and a diagnosis of dementia. Multivariable regressions were developed to examine the mediating effect of oral self-care function on the association between cognitive status and number of caries or retained roots. Results Cognitive impairment, oral self-care function and dental caries severity were intercorrelated. Multivariable analysis showed that without adjusting for oral self-care capacity, cognition was significantly associated with the number of caries or retained roots (p = 0.003). However, the association was not significant when oral self-care capacity was adjusted (p = 0.125). In contrast, individuals with impaired oral self-care capacity had a greater risk of having a caries or retained root (RR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.15, 2.44). Conclusion Oral care capacity mediates the association between cognition and dental caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23758583

  4. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  5. Evaluation of dental enamel caries assessment using Quantitative Light Induced Fluorescence and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Marly Araújo; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; de L Campello, Sergio; Gomes, Anderson Stevens Leônidas; Karlsson, Lena

    2016-06-01

    An in vitro study of morphological alterations between sound dental structure and artificially induced white spot lesions in human teeth, was performed through the loss of fluorescence by Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) and the alterations of the light attenuation coefficient by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). To analyze the OCT images using a commercially available system, a special algorithm was applied, whereas the QLF images were analyzed using the software available in the commercial system employed. When analyzing the sound region against white spot lesions region by QLF, a reduction in the fluorescence intensity was observed, whilst an increase of light attenuation by the OCT system occurred. Comparison of the percentage of alteration between optical properties of sound and artificial enamel caries regions showed that OCT processed images through the attenuation of light enhanced the tooth optical alterations more than fluorescence detected by QLF System. QLF versus OCT imaging of enamel caries: a photonics assessment.

  6. Dental biothermophotonics: How photothermal methods are winning the race with X-rays for dental caries diagnostic needs of clinical dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelis, A.; Jeon, R.; Matvienko, A.; Abrams, S. H.; Amaechi, B. T.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends in biothermophotonics of teeth are presented. The presentation is centered on the development of clinical-level frequency-domain photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence to address issues associated with the early diagnosis of demineralization caries in human teeth. Biothermophotonic principles and applications to the detection of the carious state in human teeth as embodied by laser photothermal radiometry are presented and further supported by modulated luminescence. The emphasis is on recent developments with regard to abilities of these techniques to diagnose interproximal lesions between teeth, etching with phosphoric acid and with an artificial demineralization gel in order to simulate early demineralization, as well as demineralization and remineralization of dental crown enamel and root dentin. These are lesions which normally go undetected by X-ray radiographs. Comparisons with X rays, Micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT) and Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) are discussed. A theoretical model involving coupled diffuse photon density and thermal-wave fields is developed and applied to frequency scans from demineralized artificial lesions to produce quantitative values for optical and thermophysical parameters of teeth as well as the thickness of the induced lesion.

  7. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...

  8. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  9. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and the Electronic Caries Monitor have been introduced. For caries prevention, oral hygiene measures, fluoride application, pit-and-fissure sealants, the use of xylitol, the development of a dental caries vaccine, and the role of the primary caregiver for infants are briefly discussed. PMID:26064846

  10. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  11. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  12. Assessing caries increments in elderly patients with and without dementia: a one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a study to determine one-year coronal and root caries increments in patients newly diagnosed as having Alzheimer disease (AD), other dementia (OD) or no dementia. METHODS: The authors recruited patients from two hospital memory clinics in Copenhagen. The oral...

  13. Assessing caries increments in elderly patients with and without dementia A one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, B.; Holm-Pedersen, P.; Morse, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The authors conducted. a study to determine one-year, coronal and root caries increments in patients newly diagnosed as having Alzheimer disease (AD), other dementia (OD) or no dementia. Methods. The authors recruited patients from two hospital memory clinics in Copenhagen. The oral...

  14. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  15. Diabetes, periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Manz, Michael C; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2004-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus, is a common chronic disease, and its prevalence in the United States, particularly type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Complications associated with diabetes impose a heavy burden on many people, especially among certain minority populations. Periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss also are common conditions in the United States, but their prevalence is generally decreasing. Nevertheless, among important subgroups of the population, particularly certain minority and economically disadvantaged groups, there is a disproportionately higher burden of periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss. This article reviews the post-1960 English-language literature on the relationship between diabetes and oral health, specifically focusing on periodontal disease, dental caries, and tooth loss. Substantial evidence exists to support the role of diabetes and poorer glycemic control as important risk factors for periodontal disease. Additionally, the evidence provides support for viewing the relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases as bidirectional. However, additional research is necessary to firmly establish that treating periodontal infections can contribute to glycemic control management and possibly to the reduction of type 2 diabetes complications. The literature does not describe a consistent relationship between type 2 diabetes and dental caries. It reports increased, decreased, and similar caries experiences between those with and without diabetes. This review suggests that currently there is insufficient evidence to determine whether a relationship between diabetes and risk for coronal or root caries exists. Most of the reviewed studies reported greater tooth loss in people with diabetes. However, the differences were slight and not significant in several of the reports. Furthermore, this review of the association between diabetes and tooth loss reveals that valid population-based evidence generalizable to the US

  16. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  17. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  18. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children.

  19. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  20. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  1. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  3. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  4. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  5. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Carounanidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  6. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels on root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tavares Borges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries is still the main cause of restoration replacement, especially on the root surface OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the cariostatic effects of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels, on root dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized complete block design was used to test the effects of the restorative systems, fluoride regimes and the interactions among them at different distances from restoration margins. Standardized cavities were prepared on 240 bovine root specimens and randomly assigned to 15 groups of treatments (n=16. Cavities were filled with the following restorative materials: Ketac-Fil (3M-ESPE; Vitremer (3M-ESPE; Dyract/Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply; Charisma/Gluma One Bond (Heraeus Kulzer and the control, Z250/Single Bond (3M-ESPE. The specimens were subjected to a pH-cycling model designed to simulate high-caries activity. During the cycles, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, 2.0% neutral sodium fluoride or deionized/distilled water (control was applied to the specimens for 4 min. The surface Knoop microhardness test was performed before (KHNi and after (KHNf the pH cycles at 100, 200 and 300 mm from the margins. Dentin microhardness loss was represented by the difference in initial and final values (KHNi - KHNf. Data were analyzed by Friedman's and Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%. RESULTS: The interaction of restorative systems and topical treatments was not significant (p=0.102. Dentin microhardness loss was lowest closer to the restoration. Ketac-fil presented the highest cariostatic effect. Vitremer presented a moderate effect, while Dyract and Charisma did not differ from the control, Z250. The effects of neutral and acidulated fluoride gels were similar to each other and higher than the control. CONCLUSION: Conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements as well as neutral and acidulated fluoride gels inhibit the progression of artificial caries

  7. Evidence for dental caries decline among children in an East European country (Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöke, J.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren......Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren...

  8. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitha Animireddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  9. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amina Hoceini; Nihel Klouche Khelil; Ilhem Ben-Yelles; Amine Mesli; Sara Ziouani; Lotfi Ghellai; Nadia Aissaoui; Fatima Nas; Mounia Arab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare oral hygiene practices, education and social background, food intake and oral malodor of Algerian adults suffering from dental caries with normal controls, and to determine and compare the bacterial composition of the supragingival plaques from the above-mentioned groups.Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth index according to the criteria laid down by the World Health Organization. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 50 caries-free adults(CF) and 50 caries-active adults(CA). Standard procedures of culture and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were used. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.Results: A total of 117 bacterial strains were isolated from supragingival plaques in CF group subjects, 76(64.96%) of them belonged to 9 aerobic genera, and 41(35.04%) to 9anaerobic genera(P < 0.05). While in the second group, 199 strains were isolated, 119(59.80%) of the strains belonged to 10 aerobic genera and 80(40.20%) to 10 anaerobic bacteria(P < 0.05). Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecium, Aerococcus viridans,Actinomyces meyeri, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Eubacterium limosum showed a significantly higher prevalence in the CA group(P < 0.05). The findings revealed that CA group had a high sugar intake(80%). A significantly higher frequency of tooth brushing(P < 0.000) and a significantly less self-reported oral malodor(P < 0.000) and tooth pain(P < 0.000) were found in CF group, while there was no association of socioeconomic levels and intake of meal snacks with dental caries.Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries.Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  10. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.

  11. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  12. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    OpenAIRE

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method...

  13. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  14. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitha Animireddy; Venkata Thimma Reddy Bekkem; Pranitha Vallala; Sunil Babu Kotha; Swetha Ankireddy; Noorjahan Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...

  15. [Caries status in diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Dinya, E; Tamás, G

    1991-09-01

    Clinical dental examination of 1600 diabetics (815 type 1 insulin dependent and 761 type 2 non-insulin dependent patients) has been performed according to the WHD criteria. According to examination results higher DMF mean value, less uncared of teeth with caries (D) and, in the age group of 19 years and above 30 years, more edentulousness has been found than with healthy individuals. The number of filled and crowded teeth (F) below the age of 35 years in diabetics (p 0.0001), above 45 years in the control group (p 0.0001) was higher. Concerning cared of teeth there was no deviation in the number of filled teeth between diabetic and healthy individuals whereas the number of crown covered teeth was higher with diabetics. (p 0.01). As to the distribution of individuals with healthy teeth and toothless ones it was found characteristic that while among diabetic individuals but 1%, in the control 1.4% possessed retained healthy teeth. The number of completely toothless individuals was higher (11.83%) with diabetics than with healthy individuals (2.25%).

  16. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hoffmeister

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of caries in this young group is concerning. The factors associated with caries identified in this study could help in the design of preventive interventions at early ages.

  17. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  18. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D

    2004-01-01

    important predictor of whether children had caries and this factor persisted in children from disadvantaged communities. 90% of children with lactobacillus had caries. CONCLUSIONS: Parental beliefs and attitudes play a key role in moderating oral health related behaviour in young children and in determining...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....

  19. High-frequency heterodyne lock-in thermography (HeLIT): A highly sensitive method to detect early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Jun-yan; Yang, Jun-han; Oliullah, Md.; Wang, Xiao-chun; Wang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, a nonlinear photothermal characteristic of dental tissues has been verified by photothermal radiometry at a given frequency with changing of the laser intensity. Subsequently, the high-frequency heterodyne lock-in thermography (HeLIT) scheme has been introduced to overcome shortages of the low infrared camera frame rate and the poor signal-noise ratio. The smooth surface tooth was artificially demineralized at a different time, and then it was detected by HeLIT, Results illustrated that the phase delay increases with the extension of the demineralized treatment time. The comparison experiments between HeLIT and the homodyne lock-in thermography for detecting artificial caries were carried out. Experimental results illustrated that the HeLIT has the merits of high sensitivity and specificity in detecting early caries.

  20. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  1. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  2. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's...

  3. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser,...

  4. PUFA - an index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Dental caries is a global public health problem, especially in children. Most caries in developing countries remains untreated. Only limited data are available on the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries because there is no measure to quantify the prevalence and severity of or

  5. Host and microbiological factors related to dental caries development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Soet, J.J.; van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; Laine, M.L.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Morré, S.A.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies on dental caries suggest that in severe cases it may induce a systemic immune response. This occurs particularly when caries progresses into pulpal inflammation and results in abscess or fistula formation (AFF). We hypothesized that severe dental caries will affect the general health of chil

  6. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  7. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgert, L.A.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was a

  8. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  9. CARI-7A: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kyle

    2017-01-10

    Aircrew members can be exposed to higher annual doses of natural ionizing radiation than members of the general population in most parts of the world. The principal ionizing radiation to which they are exposed is galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Among the particles present in the primary spectrum are heavy ions: relativistic nuclei of lithium and heavier elements. These ions have very high radiation weighting factors and can contribute significantly to the effective dose at altitudes above the Pfotzer maximum. This report describes the latest version of the US Federal Aviation Administration's GCR flight dose calculation software, CARI-7A. Unlike its predecessor, CARI-6, CARI-7A directly includes heavy ion transport, using a database of atmospheric particle spectra generated by incident GCR ions pre-calculated with MCNPX 2.7.0. to enable calculations to the edge of space. Results are compared with measurements aboard commercial passenger aircraft, high altitude research aircraft and similar calculations by others.

  10. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".

  11. Inhibition of secondary caries in a bacterial based in vitro caries model

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of fluoride precipitation with calcium hydroxide on secondary caries in a bacterial based in vitro caries model. Caries-free, retained wisdom teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=30). The enamel was cut off and cylindrical cavities 3 mm in diameter and 1,5 mm in depth were prepared on each dentine surface. The cavities of Group A and B were restored with composite (Z100) only. A fluoride solution (43,500 ppm Fˉ as magne...

  12. A vaccine against dental caries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, S M; Katz, J; Childers, N K

    2001-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a costly and prevalent oral disease. Research efforts towards developing a well tolerated and effective vaccine against dental caries were initiated following the demonstration of a specific bacterial aetiology for this disease. The cariogenic mutans streptococci are the principal bacteria causing this disease. Specific immune defence against these bacteria is provided mainly by secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies present in saliva, which are generated by the common mucosal immune system. Progress in the development of a vaccine against dental caries has increased due to both advancements in molecular biology and our understanding of the mucosal immune system and mucosal vaccines. Advancements in molecular biology have facilitated the cloning and functional characterisation of virulence factors of the mutans streptococci, including the cell-surface fibrillar proteins, which mediate adherence to the tooth surface, and the glucosyltransferase enzymes, which synthesise adhesive glucans and allow microbial accumulation on the teeth. Current strategies for immunisation against dental caries are using these virulence factors as key antigens and incorporating them into novel mucosal vaccine systems and delivering them with or without adjuvants to mucosal IgA inductive sites. The most popular routes of mucosal immunisation are via the oral or nasal route. The mucosal immune system is functional in newborn infants, who develop salivary IgA antibodies as they become colonised by oral micro-organisms. Mucosal immunisation strategies result in the induction of salivary IgA antibody responses and pose fewer problems than parenteral injection of antigen. Therefore, mucosal immunisation of infants prior to the appearance of their first teeth may be a well tolerated and effective way to induce immunity against the colonisation of teeth by mutans streptococci and protection against subsequent dental caries. The purpose of this article is to

  13. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction includin

  14. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  15. Dietary pattern of Finnish children with low high caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemola-Kujala, E; Räsänen, L

    1979-08-01

    The correlations between dietary patterns and caries were studied in a series consisting of 534, 5-, 9- and 13-year-old Finnish rural children from low-fluoride areas (0.10-0.46 parts/10(6)). The food consumption of the children was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The consumption of sweets was estimated by the dietary history method. Caries was diagnosed by clinical inspection. Children with a low and children with a high caries experience were compared with regard to food and nutrient intakes per 1000 kcal. The intakes of most foods and nutrients were similar in the low-caries and in the high-caries groups. However, the diet of the high-caries groups of 5- and 13-year-olds contained less iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid than the diet of the low-caries groups. The intake of sugar and sugar-containing products per unit of energy was higher in the high-caries groups. This was true for soft drinks in particular. Among the 9-year-olds the proportion of sugar consumed as such was greater in the high-caries than in the low-caries children. With regard to the total monthly consumption of sweets no significant differences were observed between the high- and low-caries groups. Analysis of the energy-standardized consumption of food and nutrients thus showed that the relative proportion of sugar and sugar-containing products was somewhat greater in the diet of the high-caries children than in the diet of the low-caries children, but not as high as could be expected. These products replaced foods with a higher nutritive value with the result that the diet of the high-caries groups was on the whole more refined than the diet of the low-caries groups.

  16. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  17. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  18. Prosthetic crowns and other clinical risk indicators of caries among old-old Swedish adults: findings from the KEOHS Project. Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte;

    2002-01-01

    The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, Sweden. This paper explored possible clinical risk indicators of coronal and root caries among the KEOHS subjects....

  19. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  20. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  1. The caries balance: the basis for caries management by risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, John D B

    2004-01-01

    Dental caries progression or reversal depends upon the balance between demineralization and remineralization. The 'Caries Balance' is determined by the relative weight of the sums of pathological factors and protective factors. Minimally invasive dentistry aims at the least possible removal of enamel or dentin, including reducing pathological factors and enhancing remineralization to avoid any removal of hard tissues. A structured caries risk assessment should be carried out based upon the concept of the caries balance. Following the risk assessment a treatment plan is devised which leads to the control of dental caries for the patient. The balance between pathological and preventive factors can be swung in the direction of caries intervention and prevention by the active role of the dentist and his/her auxiliary staff. Much is now understood about the mechanism of dental caries. We have known for a long time that demineralization of enamel, dentin or cementum is caused by organic acids that are generated by so-called acidogenic bacteria in the plaque when these bacteria feed upon fermentable carbohydrates (Silverstone, 1973; Featherstone, 2000; Loesche, 1986). The natural repair process is remineralization, which occurs when the pH rises again and calcium and phosphate from saliva together with fluoride enter the subsurface region of the lesion and form a new veneer on the existing crystal remnants in the lesion (Ten Cate and Featherstone, 1991). This veneer is less soluble than the original mineral and resists further acid attacks. The key to improved dental health for all is now for the dental profession to embrace this knowledge and put it into practice in the real world, to inhibit caries formation and progression, and to enhance the natural repair process.

  2. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  3. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  4. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  5. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  6. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nyvad; W. Crielaard; A. Mira; N. Takahashi; D. Beighton

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial composi

  7. Dental caries vaccine: some problems solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D L; Mallett, C P; Doyle, G

    1985-10-01

    The interest in a dental caries vaccine has been great over the past few years. Studies have shown two possible problems using Streptococcus mutans as an immunogen: (i) the production of heart reactive antibody, and (ii) the need to protect against several serotypes. Possible solutions to these problems are discussed.

  8. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  9. Declining caries trends: are we satisfied?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Lagerweij; C. van Loveren

    2015-01-01

    WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % red

  10. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers w...

  11. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...

  12. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  13. Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Andrea; Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Gamboa, Luis Fernando;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs...... to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken...... of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed...

  14. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  15. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content,...

  16. Characterization of caries progression on dentin after irradiation with Nd:YAG laser by FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, P. A.; Brito, A. M. M.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C. C. C.

    2015-06-01

    Considering the use of high intensity lasers for preventing dental caries, this blind in vitro study evaluated the compositional and fluorescence effects promoted by Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) when applied for prevention of progression of dentin caries, in association or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Sixty bovine root dentin slabs were prepared and demineralized by 32h in order to create early caries lesions. After, the slabs were distributed into six experimental groups: G1- untreated and not submitted to a pH-cycling model; G2- untreated and submitted to a pH-cycling model; G3- acidulated phosphate fluoride application (APF); G4- Nd:YAG irradiation (84.9 J/cm2, 60 mJ/pulse); G5- treated with Nd:YAG+APF; G6- treated with APF+Nd:YAG. After treatments, the samples of groups G2 to G6 were submitted to a 4-day pH-cycling model in order to simulate the progression of early caries lesions. All samples were characterized by the micro-attenuated total reflection technique of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (μATR-FTIR), using a diamond crystal, and by a fluorescence imaging system (FIS), in which it was used an illuminating system at λ= 405±30 nm. Demineralization promoted reduction in carbonate and phosphate contents, exposing the organic matter; as well, it was observed a significant reduction of fluorescence intensity. Nd:YAG laser promoted additional chemical changes, and increased the fluorescence intensity even with the development of caries lesions. It was concluded that the compositional changes promoted by Nd:YAG, when associated to APF, are responsible for the reduction of demineralization progression observed on root dentin.

  17. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  18. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  19. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  20. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  1. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie...

  2. Effects of Autolog Saliva on Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries and Caries-free Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Paramita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva and Streptococcus mutans play role in biofilm formation. Saliva and S.mutans virulence are different between subjects with and without caries. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autolog saliva on biofilm formation of S. mutans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects. Materials and Methods: Saliva and plaque samples are obtained from caries and caries-free subjects. Plaque samples were cultured on TYS20B for 3 days. Selected colonies were picked and cultured on TSB for 3 days. After colony counting, biofilm assay was conducted and inoculated for one day. The biofilm was tested using crystal violet binding assay and quantified by measuring the optical density at 655 nm wavelength. Result: The optical density of S. muttans biofilm isolated from subjects with caries were different from taste with no caries. Biofilm formation of S. muttans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects with and without the presence of autolog saliva were different. Conclusion: Autolog saliva influences S. mutans biofilm formation and there is a tendency that is higher than those from subjects with no caries.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i2.48

  3. Efficacy of Two Caries Detector Dyes in the Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Etemad-Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two caries detector dyes in the diagnosis of dental caries.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk.The tooth halves were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Caries Detector (CD and Caries Check (CC detector dyes. Access cavities were prepared followed by caries removal and dye application. All cavities were arbitrarily divided into two right and left sections and excavation of the stained areas was performed on the left parts, while the right sections remained untouched. Bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using Gram-stained decalcified sections under light microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of both dyes were calculated.Results: The sensitivity of CD and CC were 74% and 71%,respectively. The specificity obtained for both dyes was 100%.Conclusion: Considering the low sensitivity of the dyes evaluated in the present study, it seems that they may not be reliable when used as the sole diagnostic technique for detection of carious lesions in posterior teeth.

  4. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born term (G2), in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95) was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07) p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926). One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  6. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  7. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  8. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2016-01-01

    process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...... caries should explore the relationship between the function and the structural composition of these biofilms to understand the role of occlusal biofilms in caries development. State-of-the-art measures to evaluate risk for occlusal caries lesion activity, caries incidence, and progression should include...... the assessment of the occlusal biofilm and the stage of tooth eruption. Careful clinical examination of non-cavitated lesions, including assessment of the lesion activity status, remains the major tool to determine the immediate treatment need and to follow on the non-operative treatment outcome. Even medium...

  9. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  10. Pulp and plaque microbiotas of children with severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Chalmers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Bacterial invasion into pulps of primary teeth can lead to infection and premature tooth loss in children. This pilot study aimed to explore whether the microbiota of carious exposures of dental pulps resembles that of carious dentin or that of infected root canals. Design: Children with severe early childhood caries were studied. Children were consented and extent of caries, plaque, and gingivitis measured. Bacteria were sampled from carious lesion biofilms and vital carious exposures of pulps, and processed by anaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized from partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and identified by comparison with taxa in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (http://www.HOMD.org. The microbiotas of carious lesions and dental pulps were compared using univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: The microbiota of cariously exposed pulps was similar in composition to that of carious lesion biofilms except that fewer species/taxa were identified from pulps. The major taxa identified belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (mainly streptococci and Actinobacteria (mainly Actinomyces species. Actinomyces and Selenomonas species were associated with carious lesions whereas Veillonella species, particularly Veillonella dispar was associated with pulps. Other bacteria detected in pulps included Streptococcus mutans, Parascardovia denticolens, Bifidobacterium longum, and several Lactobacillus and Actinomyces species. By principal, component analysis pulp microbiotas grouped together, whereas those in caries biofilms were widely dispersed. Conclusions: We conclude that the microbiota of cariously exposed vital primary pulps is composed of a subset of species associated with carious lesions. Vital primary pulps had a dominant Firmicutes and Actinobacteria microbiota which contrasts with reports of endodontic infections which can harbor a gram-negative microbiota. The microbiota of exposed primary pulps may provide

  11. Retracted: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-02-15

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  12. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  13. Malnutrition and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there are deficiencies in protein, energy foods or both, relative to a body's needs. This paper reviews the association of early childhood malnutrition with: (1) dental caries, (2) enamel hypoplasia, (3) salivary gland hypofunction, and (4) delayed eruption. Studies suggest that caries of the primary dentition is associated with early childhood malnutrition, though the effect on caries of the permanent dentition has essentially not been studied. Enamel ...

  14. Fluoride varnish: a primary prevention tool for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Neerrajah

    2008-01-01

    Fluoride varnish is an effective tool that has been proven to prevent dental caries both in primary and permanent dentition. Its ease of use, acceptability and efficacy make it an important tool in the primary prevention of dental caries in high-caries-risk children. There has been an increase in third-party reimbursement for fluoride varnish applications in high-risk children and adults.

  15. Prevention, diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Study the news overtures to prevention, diagnosis and therapy of caries disease. Methods: We conducted one randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), one cross-sectional study and one systematic review with meta-analysis. The RCT evaluated the efficacy of the Carisolv and CeraBur. In the cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy of a new device to detect caries lesions: DIAGNOcam. The systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate efficacy of polyols in caries pr...

  16. DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review o...

  17. Clinical evaluation of sodium flouride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, S S; Tandon, S; Aithal, K S

    1999-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage flouride content were prepared using two varities of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low flouride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  18. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  19. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  20. Modern approaches to caries management of the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, N P T; Evans, D J P

    2013-06-01

    When prevention of dental caries fails, and a child is exposed to the risk of pain and infection, the disease must be managed to reduce this risk. There is growing evidence supporting more 'biological' and fewer 'surgical' approaches to managing dental caries in primary teeth. These biological methods include partial and stepwise caries removal procedures, as well as techniques where no caries is removed. An overview of clinical trials comparing these biological methods to complete caries removal shows that they perform as well as traditional methods and have the advantage of reducing the incidence of iatrogenic pulpal exposures. The Hall Technique is one biological approach to managing caries in primary molars which involves sealing caries beneath preformed metal (stainless steel) crowns. The crown is cemented over the tooth without caries removal, tooth preparation or use of local anaesthesia. The clinical steps for the Hall Technique are straightforward but, as with all dental care provision, appropriate treatment planning for the procedure requires skill. The Hall Technique offers another method of managing early to moderately advanced, active carious lesions in primary molars, with good evidence of effectiveness and acceptability. This evidence aligns with the positive findings of other studies on biological strategies for managing caries in primary teeth.

  1. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  2. Identification of Microbial and Proteomic Biomarkers in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a univariate and multivariate analysis of genomic microbial data and salivary mass-spectrometry proteomic profiles for dental caries outcomes. In order to determine potential useful biomarkers for dental caries, a multivariate classification analysis was employed to build predictive models capable of classifying microbial and salivary sample profiles with generalization performance. We used high-throughput methodologies including multiplexed microbial arrays and SELDI-TOF-MS profiling to characterize the oral flora and salivary proteome in 204 children aged 1–8 years (n=118 caries-free, n=86 caries-active. The population received little dental care and was deemed at high risk for childhood caries. Findings of the study indicate that models incorporating both microbial and proteomic data are superior to models of only microbial or salivary data alone. Comparison of results for the combined and independent data suggests that the combination of proteomic and microbial sources is beneficial for the classification accuracy and that combined data lead to improved predictive models for caries-active and caries-free patients. The best predictive model had a 6% test error, >92% sensitivity, and >95% specificity. These findings suggest that further characterization of the oral microflora and the salivary proteome associated with health and caries may provide clinically useful biomarkers to better predict future caries experience.

  3. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Miula Portelinha Braga; Augusta Piovesan; Natália Valarini; Sandra Mara Maciel; Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade; Regina Célia Poli-Frederico

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between t...

  4. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Mohammadi T.; Hajizamani A.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by v...

  5. Artificial ribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J R

    1994-01-01

    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  6. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Mohammadi T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by various authors. Some extensive reviews regarding this have emphasized the need for a unique system for the diagnosis of such caries. Thus, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS emerged as a benchmark for detection and assessment of dental caries. The main objective of the new system is to improve the level of information to help make informed decision about diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of caries at both individual and public health levels.This study aimed to review traditional caries diagnosis methods and also describe the philosophy of the new ICDAS system for diagnosis and assessment of caries and also demonstrate how it can serve as a basis and benchmark for clinical and epidemiological research.

  7. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  8. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  9. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  10. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  11. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSING ON CARIES LESION DEVELOPMENT IN SHARK ENAMEL - AN INSITU CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; ROLLA, G; DIJKMAN, T; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    Shark enamel consists of nearly pure fluorapatite and has been shown to demineralize in an in situ caries model. The present study was conducted to investigate whether additional fluoride supplementation in the form of mouthrinsing would inhibit lesion development in shark enamel. The study slabs of

  12. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  13. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschau, H.E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Wissenschaftsbereich Angewandte Kernphysik); Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedische und Kinderstomatologie)

    1990-04-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug. (orig.).

  14. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  15. Fluorides in caries prevention and control: empiricism or science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, J M

    2004-01-01

    The caries-preventive effects of fluoride are beyond any reasonable doubt! Inclusion of fluoride use in caries prevention protocols has resulted in significant reduction in caries prevalence in the majority of the population. Nevertheless, even in low-caries prevalence populations up to 20% of individuals may suffer to an unacceptable degree from caries. In the history of caries research various phases can be discerned. Starting with the initial - laboratory - studies to reveal the mode of action of fluoride, attention later shifted to intra-oral studies and in situ product testing. Currently much emphasis is given to evidence-based dentistry and guidelines for clinical practice, which trend has also focussed the research on fluoride and caries. While on some topics, such as the efficacy of fluoride toothpastes, evidence is convincing, additional research is indicated to resolve remaining questions. One such question is that of high-prevalence individuals for which a comprehensive research programme focussing both on caries aetiological and behavioural aspects should be further developed. Efforts should continue to be directed at improving our understanding of fluoride, in particular on topics where success so far has failed.

  16. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to ex

  17. Estimation of caries experience by multiple imputation and direct standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A.A.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  18. Estimation of Caries Experience by Multiple Imputation and Direct Standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A. A.; van Buuren, S.

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  19. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple...

  20. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to e

  1. Dental Caries and General Health in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    Caries is a biofilm-mediated noncommunicable disease fueled by dietary sugar, neglected oral hygiene, and reduced saliva flow. General diseases may influence the oral environment through its pathogenesis, medication, and/or the caring of the condition. Associations between caries and chronic...

  2. Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicca, Claudio; Bobbio, Elena; Quartuccio, Natale; Nicolò, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to review medical and non medical treatments for prevention of caries. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of the most relevant and updated published studies from 01/01/2002 through December 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding the efficacy of strategies and treatments aiming to prevent the development of caries was performed selecting papers on the basis of the Evidence-based Medicine Criteria. Results We identified thirty systematic reviews on prevention of caries. Analyzing the data the retrieved literature, performance of prevention treatments seems to be high. Conclusions Prevention treatments may have a relevant impact on the avoiding the development of caries planning. Key words:Dental caries, prevention, fluoride. PMID:27957278

  3. Risk factors for early childhood caries in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson

    2011-11-01

    Early childhood caries is a significant international public health problem. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence of the risk factors for dental caries in disadvantaged children under 6 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, and PubMed database searches were conducted. Systematic reviews were used where available, or meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (in that order). Studies were restricted to those published in English from 1990 to October 2010. Early childhood caries has a complex etiology with biological, behavioral, and sociodemographic influences. Evidence suggests that young children are most likely to develop caries if Streptococcus mutans is acquired at an early age, although this is influenced by other factors, such as oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, dental visit patterns, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and health literacy. Etiological pathways should be taken into consideration when designing interventions to prevent dental caries in disadvantaged preschool children.

  4. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  5. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......-precipitation and designed to bind to bacteria in biofilms, impede biofilm build-up without killing the microflora, and release phosphate ions to buffer bacterial acid production if the pH decreases below 6. Analysis of biofilm formation and pH in a five-species biofilm model for dental caries showed that treatment......H always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  6. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

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    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  7. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  8. DIAGNOdent: an optical method for caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, A; Hibst, R; Paulus, R

    2004-01-01

    The onset of caries is characterized by demineralization of dental hard tissues. Optimal fluoridation with respective oral hygiene habits and diet may stop the progression of a lesion and even allow for its remineralization. The aim of modern dentistry must be a preventive approach rather than invasive repair of the disease. This is possible only with early detection and respective preventive measures. Some of today's diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough to detect this early onset of destruction. Tools based on fluorescence could have the possibility to overcome this problem. This overview will focus on today's knowledge of one possible tool, the DIAGNOdent.

  9. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  10. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  11. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

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    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  12. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y.

  13. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  14. Inflammatory root resorption in primary molars: prevalence and associated factors

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    Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence of inflammatory root resorption and associated factors in 1068 primary mandibular molars in 453 children 3 to 12 years of age. Age, dental history and medical history were recorded using a questionnaire administered to the children's parents/caregivers. Previously trained and calibrated examiners assessed radiographic images of the primary molars by direct observation, with the aid of a viewing box. Root resorption (physiological or inflammatory, dental crown status (healthy, carious with no pulp involvement, carious with pulp involvement and evidence of restoration, and pulpotomy or pulpectomy were determined. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, the chi-square test and a multiple logistic regression (p < 0.05. The prevalence of inflammatory root resorption was 16.2% (n = 173. The male gender (OR: 1.4; 95% CI, the 3-to-7-years age bracket (OR: 1.5; 95% CI, an unhealthy dental crown (OR: 8.7; 95% CI, caries with pulp involvement (OR: 7.4; 95% CI, pulpotomy (OR: 3.1; 95% CI, and pulpectomy (OR: 5.4; 95% CI were risk factors for the occurrence of inflammatory root resorption in primary molars. In conclusion, the prevalence of inflammatory root resorption in the present sample was 16.2%. Gender, age, an unhealthy tooth, caries with pulp involvement, pulpotomy, pulpectomy, and the absence of a restoration were associated with a higher occurrence of inflammatory root resorption in primary molars.

  15. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

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    Miula Portelinha Braga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of genes for serotypes and mutacins with dental caries. However, there was a statistically significant and a strong association between the higher genotypic diversity in the subjects with caries (r = 0.72, p = 0.001. There was an increase in the number of genotypes with increasing age (p <0.01.

  16. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

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    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the

  17. Caries-resistant bonding layer in dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-Na; Hu, Lin; Jiao, Kai; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-Juan; Tay, Franklin R; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-09-07

    The present study examined the mechanism for caries resistance and the pulp responses in vital teeth following the use of the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique. Dentin adhesives were applied to the surface of sound dentin disks in 4 experimental groups: non-antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (N-G), non-antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (N-H), antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (A-G), antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (A-H). The depth of demineralization induced by biological or chemical demineralization models was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Pulp responses of vital dog's teeth to the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique were evaluated using light microscopy. Depth of demineralization was significantly affected by "adhesive type" and "intensity of adhesive displacement" for biological demineralization. For chemical demineralization, only "intensity of adhesive displacement" showed significant influence on lesion depth. Pulp response of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa groups showed only moderate disorganization of the odontoblast layer at 24 hours that completely re-organized after 3 weeks. Augmented-pressure adhesive displacement improves the caries resistance property of bonded dentin and does not cause irreversible pulpal damage to vital teeth when the air pressure employed is equal or smaller than 0.3 MPa.

  18. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  19. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  20. Diagnosis in vivo of Occlusal Dental Caries Lesions with Diode Laser

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    Caio Gorgulho Zanet

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the efficiency of Laser diode (DiagnodentTM 2095, Kavo/Germany in occlusal caries diagnosis, in comparison with the visual method. Method: The sample was composed by 39 permanent tooth (18 molars and 21 premolars, which presented visible macrocospic alteration that could indicate initial caries lesions, in a total of 60 sites. Evaluations (visual and laser were conducted by two examiners. Visual diagnose was done with the aid of a buccal mirror and artificial light, without a dental explorer. For diagnosis using Diagnodent, each site had 3 measurements, obtaing an average. The sites classified as sound had been excluded, and the sites classified as injured had been selected to evidence the diagnosis methods, through invasive handling. After that, it was verified the real situation of the injured tissue through visual inspection for both examiners. Intra-examiner and inter-examiner repeatability were calculated for each diagnostic system using the kappa statistic method. The accord index between the examiners was k = 0.82 for visual method and k = 0.93 for diagnosis with Diagnodent. The correspondence between the two methods of diagnosis was k = 0.70 for examiner 1 and 0.77 for examiner 2. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated on the basis of obtained data after invasive handling. Results: For the visual method, the specificity was 59.5% and the sensibility was 88.9%, while for the Diagnodent method was 69.1% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The diagnosis using Diagnodent is effective in incipient occlusal caries identification when compared with the visual method, and may be used as a complementary examination.

  1. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities.

  2. Low levels of caries in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review

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    Sulugodu Ramachandra Srinivas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged <30 years (older individuals can also be affected and is characterized by a young age of onset, rapid rate of disease progression, and familial aggregation of cases. Dental caries is caused by the dissolution of enamel by acid-producing bacteria present in the plaque biofilm, especially when the biofilm reaches critical mass due to improper oral hygiene. The association between caries level and aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down’s syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.

  3. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

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    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  4. Reactionary Dentinogenesis and Neuroimmune Response in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couve, E; Osorio, R; Schmachtenberg, O

    2014-08-01

    Reactionary dentin formation is an adaptive secretory response mediated by odontoblasts to moderate dentin injury. The implications of this process for neuroimmune interactions operating to contain pathogens have not been fully appreciated. The purpose of the present study was to describe the relationship between reactionary dentinogenesis, the neurogenic changes of dental pulp innervation, and dendritic cell recruitment to caries progression, using a comparative immunohistochemical approach in human teeth from young adult individuals. Reactionary dentin formation during dentin caries progression is associated with changes in the integrity of junctional complexes within the odontoblast layer. Diminished coexpression of Cx43 and zonula occludens 1 implies a reduced level of intercellular connectivity between odontoblasts. Dentin caries also causes overexpression of growth-associated protein 43, a modulator of neural plasticity that promotes extensive sprouting of nerve endings into the reactionary dentin matrix. At the same time, an elevated number of HLA-DR-positive dendritic cells infiltrate the odontoblast layer and subsequently invade reactionary dentin formed underneath the early caries-affected regions. Simultaneous odontoblast layer remodeling, nerve fiber sprouting, and activation of dendritic cells during caries progression suggest a coordinated neuroimmune response to fight caries pathogen invasion and to promote dentin-pulp healing. We propose that reactionary dentin formation hinders pathogen invasion and supports defensive neuroimmune interactions against infection. The eventual understanding of this complex scenario may contribute to the development of novel approaches to dental caries treatment.

  5. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  6. Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men

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    Sumartono, Wasis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534. Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job, tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400 and never smokers (BI = 0. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1-399 and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37-1.53 and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59 – 1.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

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    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  8. Minimal intervention dentistry II: part 7. Minimal intervention in cariology: the role of glass-ionomer cements in the preservation of tooth structures against caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, H; Opsahl-Vital, S

    2014-05-01

    Glass-ionomer cements (GICs) are essential materials in clinical practice because of their versatility, self-adhesion to enamel and dentine, and good biocompatibility. In addition, being chemically cured, with no shrinkage stress, makes them well suited for minimally invasive restorative techniques. This article looks at some of the clinical situations where the chemical adhesion and high biocompatibility of GIC are important for clinical success: excavation of deep carious lesions, fissure sealing and protection of root surfaces against caries.

  9. The colony number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva of dental caries and free caries children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Pradopo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans are regarded as the main initiator microorganism of caries, with Lactobacilli participating on caries progression, due to its carcinogenic capacity. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp in children with in children’s saliva with dental caries and free caries. Twenty children attending the Paediatric Dental Clinic in Airlangga University participated in our study. Their age ranged from 1–14 years old. Subject was divided into two groups, which were study group consisting of 10 children with 3–5 dmft/DMFT and control group with 10 caries free children. Subjects were examined and their caries number was recorded using WHO index. Stimulated saliva was collected from each subject for bacterial assessment. Colony counting of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp count in each saliva sample group were done. The study showed that subject with 3–5 dmft/DMFT had higher number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp than caries free.

  10. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE, la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de caries en la dentición permanente. Resultados: El promedio de dientes temporales cariados, extraídos y obturados (ceod y dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD fue de 2,48 (2,82 (ceod > 0 = 58,9% y 0,40 (0,98 (CPOD > 0 = 18,2%, respectivamente. El índice SiC (índice de caries significativa, calculado en la dentición temporal fue de 5,85 para los niños de 6 años de edad. En el análisis de regresión logística multivariado permanecieron significativas, después de ajustar por variables de exposición a fluoruros, la mayor edad (odds ratio [OR] = 2,99, el ceod > 0 (OR = 5,46, la menor escolaridad de la madre (OR = 1,57 y una interacción entre sexo y defectos del esmalte. Conclusiones: Las caries en la dentición temporal y permanente fueron relativamente menores que las observaciones publicadas por otros estudios en México. Los resultados confirmaron que la caries en la dentición temporal se asoció fuertemente con la caries en la dentición permanente. No hubo una relación significativa entre las fuentes de fluoruro y la caries dental en la dentición permanente.Objective: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old

  11. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  12. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  13. Prevalence of caries and is relationship with the type of feeding in babies in the Cândida Vargas Maternity hospital

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    Débora de Araújo Milfont

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with the type of feeding, oral hygiene habits, and gender of children at the Cândida Vargas Maternity hospital in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. Methods: The study population included 50 mentally and physically healthy children ranging from 12 the 48 months of age. This was descriptive study using direct documentation (forms and the clinical examinations performed by one calibrated examiner (Kappa = 1. Dental caries diagnosis was according to World Health Organization criteria. Interviews were conducted with the parents for information about the children’s oral hygiene and dietary habits. Data was analysed by means of descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages and statistical analyses, using the Pearson Chi – Square and Fisher tests. Results: the prevalence of dental caries was 28%; the majority of the parents cared for the children’s daytime oral hygiene (60%, and the prevalent type of feeding was with powdered milk. The average dmf-t was 0.28 and 16% of children had early childhood caries. There was no statistically significant association with any of the variables studied.Conclusion: the prevalence of caries–free children was high. However, the poor oral hygiene after nocturnal breast-feeding and the early introduction of artificial milk, especially with bottle feeding suggests the need to reinforce educational strategies for the parents.

  14. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

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    Noha Samir Kabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  15. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  16. RECENT ADVANCES IN DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES

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    Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries , a progressive bacterial damage to teeth , is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods , particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologi es as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technolog ies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting and diagnosis ofdental caries at the earliest stage of its formation , assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion , and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time .

  17. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-documented effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries, little is known about other chemical effects. Since other ions in drinking water may also theoretically influence caries, as well as binding of fluoride in the oral environment, we hypothesized that the effect...... of drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations...... in the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control...

  18. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed...... using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray technology. Samples from 174 individuals with dental caries and 447 from a control cohort were compared using frequency and levels of identified bacterial taxa/clusters as endpoints. Differences at taxon/cluster level were analyzed using Mann......-Whitney's test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles. A reduced bacterial diversity was observed in samples from subjects with dental caries. Five bacterial taxa (Veillonella parvula, Veillonella atypica...

  19. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  20. [Microabrasive tooth preparation for early caries prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrova, A G; Kulakov, A A; Vinnichenko, Iu A; Monastyreva, E G

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 4-year experience with the method of air-abrasion treatment on the stages of treatment and prevention of dental caries in the article provides data on the indications for its use, benefits and complications.

  1. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  2. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended additional method available for daily clinical practice.

  3. Changes in Caries Risk and Activity of a 9-Year-Old Patient with Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

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    Késsia Suênia Fidelis Mesquita-Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This case report describes the changes in caries risk and activity and dental treatment of a 9-year-old patient who presented with signs and symptoms of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC. Treatment. The preventive dental treatment included instructions to caregivers for oral hygiene and diet. A calcium hydroxide pulpotomy and restorative dental treatments were performed in a dental office with desensitization techniques and behavioral management. The patient was attended every 3 months for the control of dental plaque biofilm, for topical fluoride application, and for observing the pulpotomized tooth. Results. The bacterial plaque biofilm was being adequately controlled by the caregiver. After 2 years, the clinical and radiographic examination of the pulpotomized tooth showed the absence of internal root resorption and bone rarefaction, and clinical examination showed tooth sensitivity, dental pain, and gingival swelling. Conclusion. The pulpotomy prevented clinical and radiographic success. Dentists must be aware of and be able to identify systemic and local aspects associated with caries risk of children with NPC disease. Furthermore, dentists must employ stringent preventive measures and provide instructions to caregivers to reduce caries risk.

  4. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Franco Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico dental en una muestra estratificada aleatoria de 1292 adolescentes en el año 2005; los examinadores fueron previamente entrenados y calibrados (Kappa > 0,65. Se realizaron pruebas chi cuadrado, Kruskal - Wallis y de Mann - Whitney (α = 5%. Resultados y Conclusiones: Los valores promedio y desviación estándar del índice CPOD y el Índice Significante de Caries fueron 4,5±2,8 y 2,8±3,3 y 11,3 y 6,2 en los jóvenes de 17 años de colegios públicos y privados respectivamente. Estos resultados indican un incremento en la prevalencia de caries para este grupo poblacional y además de ello la polarización del problema en un grupo reducido de jóvenes cuyas características deben estudiarse cuidadosamente. Las autoridades de salud deberán enfocar la atención y la intervención sobre ambos problemas.Introduction: inequities in coverage of preventive programs and access to care may affect the indicators of oral health of adolescents. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence and history of dental caries among adolescents of Medellin; to evaluate the tendency of the indicators, and to evaluate possible re-emerging of these problem. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from dental examinations of a stratified randomized sample of 1292 students in 2005, performed by trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.65. Chi - square, Kruskal - Wallis, and Mann - Whitney tests were used (α = 5%. Results and conclusions: The

  5. A systematic approach to deep caries removal end points: the peripheral seal concept in adhesive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, David S; Magne, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present evidence-based protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of deep caries lesions in vital teeth. These protocols combine caries-detecting dye with anatomical and histologic knowledge to arrive at ideal caries removal end points for adhesive restorations. DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technology can also be used to confirm these end points. These ideal caries removal end points generate a peripheral seal zone that can support long-term biomimetic restorations. A review of the published literature since 1980 on caries, caries diagnosis, and caries treatments and their relationships to adhesive bonding techniques was carried out. Combining anatomical measurements and pathologic and histologic knowledge with caries-detecting dye and DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technologies can produce ideal caries removal end points for adhesive dentistry without exposing vital pulps.

  6. Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M M; Liu, Y; Kalra, R; Perry, S; Adewumi, A; Xu, X; Primosch, R E; Burne, R A

    2013-07-01

    Arginine metabolism by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the local pH, which can neutralize the effects of acidification from sugar metabolism and reduce the cariogenicity of oral biofilms. To explore the relationship between oral arginine metabolism and dental caries experience in children, we measured ADS activity in oral samples from 100 children and correlated it with their caries status and type of dentition. Supragingival dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces that were caries-lesion-free (PF) and from dentinal (PD) and enamel (PE) caries lesions. Regardless of children's caries status or type of dentition, PF (378.6) had significantly higher ADS activity compared with PD (208.4; p caries status. Mixed-model analysis showed that plaque caries status is significantly associated with ADS activity despite children's age, caries status, and dentition (p caries.

  7. Deciduous teeth occlusal caries detection with 655-nm diode laser confirmed by surface scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Danilo; Fonseca, Yara P. C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    The morphological complexity of the occlusal surface of deciduous molar teeth is considered as a factor to increase vulnerability to caries lesion. Occlusal surface of these teeth shows sulcus, pits and fissures which allow retention of both micro-organisms and food debris which make them more susceptible to caries. In the last decades there was a significant reduction on caries of smooth surface but not on the occlusal surface where dentinal caries develops under fissures which are apparently caries-free under eye observation. This is known as a hidden caries. The occlusal surface of sound extracted deciduous molar teeth were examined using a 655 nm diode laser (DIAGNOdent - KaVo) in order to detect hidden caries. When there was indication of a hidden caries, the area was examined using SEM and confirm or not the diagnosis. The authors concludes that the diagnosis of caries using 655 diode laser is reliable and precise method.

  8. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Kabil; Sherif Eltawil

    2017-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contri...

  9. Comparison of two different methods of detecting residual caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütük, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Yalçın Çakır, Filiz; Gürgan, Sevil

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) device to detect residual caries by comparing conventional methods in vivo. Materials and Methods A total of 301 females and 202 males with carious teeth participated in this study. The cavity preparations were done by grade 4 (Group 1, 154 teeth), grade 5 (Group 2, 176 teeth), and postgraduate (Group 3, 173 teeth) students. After caries excavation using a handpiece and hand instruments, the presence of residual caries was evaluated by 2 investigators who were previously calibrated for visual-tactile assessment with and without magnifying glasses and trained in the use of a FACE device. The tooth number, cavity type, and presence or absence of residual caries were recorded. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, the Fisher's Exact test, or the McNemar test as appropriate. Kappa statistics was used for calibration. In all tests, the level of significance was set at p = 0.05. Results Almost half of the cavities prepared were Class II (Class I, 20.9%; Class II, 48.9%; Class III, 20.1%; Class IV, 3.4%; Class V, 6.8%). Higher numbers of cavities left with caries were observed in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 for all examination methods. Significant differences were found between visual inspection with or without magnifying glasses and inspection with a FACE device for all groups (p < 0.001). More residual caries were detected through inspection with a FACE device (46.5%) than through either visual inspection (31.8%) or inspection with a magnifying glass (37.6%). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the FACE device may be an effective method for the detection of residual caries. PMID:28194364

  10. INTERFERENCE POSSIBILITIES OF HABITAT OF CARIES IN CHILDHOOD IN BLANSKO

    OpenAIRE

    Vašíčková, Pavlína

    2007-01-01

    The tooth decay is the most widespread disease. The preschool and school age is important period for the tooth decay prevention. The nutrition of children is one of the most important part in interference occurrence of the tooth decay, dental care is also necessary by using chemical and mechanical agents. It is very important for choldren to know the caries prevention. There was found by this research that the nutrition of children do not correspond to the caries prevention, the good and qual...

  11. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries ...

  12. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation upon the microflora of carious cavities and root canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Nekrylov, Valery; Mazo, Leonid

    1995-04-01

    Laser stomatology- a relatively young branch of stomatology -has been developing actively lately. Bactericidal action of laser radiation enables to use it widely for processing carious cavities and root canals in the treatment of caries and its complications. 113 patients were studied by us. The 40 patients had antiseptic procedure of the caries cavity and then the procedure of laser therapy, so micro-organisms were found out in 26% cases. The 63 patients had antiseptic procedure only, so micro-organisms were found out in 70% cases. Control group were consisted of patients, where laser therapy was carried out without antiseptic remedies.

  13. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25 was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17 or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37 presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68 and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87. Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  14. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model which deals with interception of disease at different stages and possible reversal of the disease process. The key to medical paradigm is determination of caries risk in an individual and effective early detection of initial carious lesions. There are various equipments available in market which uses different principles for diagnosing caries susceptibility in an individual. In the years of thorough research different agents have been investigated for their role in caries prevention and reversal. There is a separate treatment plan for managing patients falling in different risk category. This article outlines the need for the medical management of dental caries and how it can be a viable option in dental decay management.

  15. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  16. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  17. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng-Yu Yang; Wan-Lu Lu; Xiao-Qian Wang; Jiao Chen; Yun Feng; Xue-Dong Zhou; Ping Zhang; Wen-Jie Zhou; Yue Du; Song-Tao Wu; Wen-Wen Yuan; Yu Yu; Lin Su; Yang Luo; Jie-Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries.Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asignificantly decreased concentration of salivaryPR3was notedwith increasing severity of dental caries (P,0.01); a positive correlation (r50.87; P,0.01; Pearson’s correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pHand PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng?mL21 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P,0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3.

  18. Factors Used for Caries Prediction in First Infancy

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    Lívia Azeredo Alves ANTUNES

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the early presence of caries cavitation and active white spots (AWS in maxilary anterior teeth in the primary dentition associating them with other factors (diet, fluor exposure, precocious ocorrence of mutans streptococci, oral hygiene with the purpose of predict future caries lesion in posterior primary teeth. Method: The examination of the charts was done by the evaluation including anamnesis and clinical examination recorder in 250 files (young children with 18 - 36 months attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic from a public University Dental School of Rio de Janeiro in 2000 - 2003. Results: After data analysis, the result agree with other studies: the early experience of caries in anterior primary teeth was the best predictor of caries cavitation in deciduos molares (74,49%, other risks factors also have been significance in the prediction. After carie, the second most important variable was anterior teeth with white spots (58,82%, followed by high consuption of sugar (54% and natural breastfeeding after 12 months of age (49,59%. Conclusion: This way this study could establish that dental caries is the best predictor, so preventive operatives shoud be done in early primary dentition.

  19. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

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    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  20. Saliva microbiota carry caries-specific functional gene signatures.

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    Fang Yang

    Full Text Available Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis.

  1. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. V. K. Santosh; Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R. Venkata; Reddy, S. Pavani; Divya, D.; Pratyusha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. Statistical Analysis: The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. Results: In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). In community-based settings, Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The CMCR technique was superior to the mechanical caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings. PMID:27403059

  2. Dental caries in relation to socio-behavioral factors of 6-year-old school children of Udaipur district, India

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    Santhosh Kumar Tadakamadla

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent′s occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.

  3. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

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    Michael W. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate.

  4. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series.

  5. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

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    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  6. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

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    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  7. C-shaped mandibular primary first molar diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography: A novel case report and literature review of primary molars′ root canal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gozde Ozcan; Ahmet Ercan Sekerci; Fatma Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the different anatomical variations in root canal system of dedicious dentition will improve the practice of the pediatric dentists. The teeth with C-shaped root canal configurations are definitely a problem in endodontic treatment. Dentists who are specialists of endodontics must have adequate knowledge about various root canal morphologies of primary tooth that have a tendency for rapid progression of dental caries to achieve a technically satisfactory outcome. This report pres...

  8. Caries en una población militar española Dental caries in a Spanish military population

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    R. Mombiedro Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de caries de la población militar española de la base "General Almirante" Marines, Valencia. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal para el que se seleccionó una muestra de 387 militares para un IC del 95%. En el gabinete dental de la base se realizó la exploración oral siguiendo los criterios de la OMS (1997, 4ª edición. Un solo profesional experimentado con un explorador patrón llevó a cabo la encuesta entre diciembre del 2003 y julio del 2004. Resultados: El índice de dientes con caries, ausentes y obturados (CAO-D fue de 4,05. El 23% de la muestra estaba libre de caries. Presentaban caries sin tratar el 40% de los explorados, siendo significativamente superior el porcentaje en la tropa y en los que referían no cepillarse de forma regular. El índice de restauración (% O/ CAO-D fue del 60%. La población de tropa presentó con significación estadística mas caries y menos dientes con caries tratada (A,O que el grupo de oficiales y suboficiales. Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de la población encuestada precisa tratamiento por caries. Estrategias de asistencia basadas en políticas preventivas de diagnostico precoz y de asistencia personalizada en función del riesgo individual de caries, adaptadas al medio militar, pudieran ser la clave para poder desplegar en un futuro tropas que no ocasionen emergencias en futuras operaciones.Object: The target of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in a population of Spanish military personnel at the "General Almirante " base at Marines (Valencia. Material and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of a sample of 387 military personnel, (95% CI. The oral examinations were conducted at the dental clinic at the base, in accordance with the WHO (1997, 4th ed. criteria, by a single dentist calibrated against an experienced examiner. The survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Results: The decayed, missed and

  9. Occlusal caries detection and quantification by DIAGNOdent and Electronic Caries Monitor: in vitro comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2002-12-01

    The Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM) and the recently introduced laser-based KaVo DIAGNOdent have been developed as clinical diagnostic aids in the detection and quantification of occlusal carious lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare their reproducibility and validity. The ability of DIAGNOdent to retrieve sites of occlusal carious lesions without reference to photographs or drawings from previous assessments was also tested. The material comprised 87 premolar teeth: the occlusal surfaces were sound or exhibited non-cavity carious lesions of varying severity. All were photographed and measured by DIAGNOdent and ECM on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. The teeth were then sectioned into 300 microm thick slices. Two observers independently classified the sections according to the histopathology, into 5 categories, ranging from sound to dentinal caries in the inner part of the dentin. Statistical analysis comprised intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to test reproducibility and regression analysis of validity. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated for detection of D3 lesions for both devices. DIAGNOdent recorded maximum readings at identical sites on both occasions in 89% of the teeth. The ICC for readings on 2 separate occasions was 0.97 for DIAGNOdent and 0.71 for ECM. The correlations with histology were r = 0.93 and 0.83, for DIAGNOdent and ECM, respectively. For detection of D3 lesions, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.8 and 1 for DIAGNOdent and 0.75 and 0.88 for ECM. In this in vitro study, DIAGNOdent was superior to ECM for occlusal caries detection.

  10. Epidemiological investigation of dental caries on 12, 14 years old students in Pinghu City of Zhejiang Province%浙江省平湖市12、14岁学生龋病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲英

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解平湖市城乡12、14岁年龄组学生恒牙龋齿状况及相关发病因素,为龋病预防提供科学依据。方法采取随机抽样调查方法,按照WHO口腔调查基本方法中的龋病诊断标准对平湖市城乡12岁1030名和14岁1012名学生进行口腔龋病及相关因素调查。结果1030名12岁学生患龋率为56.02%,龋均为1.30,显著性龋均指数3.06,充填率9.71%,残冠残根率10.98%,有80.10%儿童偏好甜食和饮料或二者同时兼食。14岁1012名学生患龋率为60.87%,龋均为1.71,显著性龋均指数3.98,充填率19.96%,残冠残根率17.89%,89.43%学生偏好甜食和饮料或二者同时兼食。两组女性患龋率均高于男性,差异有统计学(P0.05)。结论平湖市12、14岁学生患龋率高,残冠残根率较高,治疗率低,偏好甜食和饮料者多。%Objective To investigate the permanent dental caries status and related risk factors on 12, 14 years old stu-dents in Pinghu City, to provide the scientific evidence of caries disease prevention. Methods 1030 cases of 12 years old students and 1012 cases of 14 years old students were selected to investigate the permanent dental caries status and related risk factors according to random sampling method and WHO oral survey basic method in Pinghu City. Re-sults Dental caries rate of 12 years old students among 1030 cases was 56.02%, average caries was 1.30, significant caries index was 3.06, dental caries filling ratio was 9.71%, the residual crown and residual root rate was 10.98%, 80.10% children were enjoyed with sweet food and drinks or both of them. Dental caries rate of 14 years old students among 1012 cases was 60.87%, average caries was 1.71, significant caries index was 3.98, dental caries filling ratio was 19.96%, the residual crown and residual root rate was 17.89%, 89.43% children were enjoyed with sweet food and drinks or both of them. The dental caries rate in female was higher than that in male in both groups, the

  11. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  12. Fracture Resistance of Roots after Application of Different Sealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibaji, Fatemeh; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Bidkhori, Babak; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vertical root fracture inevitably leads to tooth extraction. Thus, root filling with obturating materials and sealers that can reinforce the tooth would be an ideal way to reduce fracture in root treated teeth. This study aimed to assess the fracture resistance of roots following the application of different sealers including Epiphany, iRoot sealer and AH-plus. Methods and Materials: Fifty extracted human single-canal premolars without caries, curvature or cracks were used in this study. Tooth crowns were cut to yield 13-mm-long roots. Five roots were put in the negative control group and were left unprepared. Forty-five canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files up to F3 and were then randomly divided into three groups based on the sealer type (n=15). The root canals were filled using cold lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and AH-Plus sealer, gutta-percha and iRoot sealer and Resilon and Epiphany sealer, in groups one to three, respectively. The roots were then mounted in acrylic molds for fracture resistance testing and subjected to compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean fracture resistance was 673.38±170.42 N in AH-Plus, 562.00±184.68 N in iRoot, 708.03±228.05 N in Resilon and 592.59±117.29 N in the control group. No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups and the negative control group (P=0.26). Conclusion: Application of AH-Plus, bioceramic and Resilon sealers did not change the fracture resistance of roots compared to that of unprepared root canals. PMID:28179924

  13. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R

    2011-10-01

    A sex difference in oral health has been widely documented through time and across cultures. Women's oral health declines more rapidly than men's with the onset of agriculture and the associated rise in fertility. The magnitude of this disparity in oral health by sex increases during ontogeny: from childhood, to adolescence, and through the reproductive years. Representative studies of sex differences in caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease are critically reviewed. Surveys conducted in Hungary, India, and in an isolated traditional Brazilian sample provide additional support for a significant sex bias in dental caries, especially in mature adults. Compounding hormonal and reproductive factors, the sex difference in oral health in India appears to involve social and religious causes such as son preference, ritual fasting, and dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Like the sex difference in caries, tooth loss in women is greater than in men and has been linked to caries and parity. Results of genome wide association studies have found caries susceptible and caries protective loci that influence variation in taste, saliva, and enamel proteins, affecting the oral environment and the micro-structure of enamel. Genetic variation, some of which is X-linked, may partly explain how sex differences in oral health originate. A primary, but neglected, factor in explaining the sex differential in oral health is the complex and synergistic changes associated with female sex hormones, pregnancy, and women's reproductive life history. Caries etiology is complex and impacts understanding of the sex difference in oral health. Both biological (genetics, hormones, and reproductive history) and anthropological (behavioral) factors such culture-based division of labor and gender-based dietary preferences play a role.

  14. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

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    Bernhard Glodny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3, number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4, periodontitis (Wald 8.6, and male gender (Wald 11 were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality.

  15. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

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    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  16. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  17. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P <0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P <0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  18. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  19. Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M

    2001-05-01

    Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.

  20. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Isberg, Per-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren.......To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren....

  1. Dental caries and its association with sociodemographics, erosion, and diet in schoolchildren from southeast Brazil.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Auad, Sheyla Marcia

    2009-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of caries in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren, test associotions between caries, sociodemographics, and erosion, and investigate potential dietary factors common to both conditions.

  2. Reinforcement of thin-walled root canal structures for placement of esthetic dowels: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Bahannan, Salma A; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2011-01-01

    Thin-walled root canals always present a challenge to dentists to select a restorative treatment that does not further weaken the thin tooth structure. The prognosis of dowel and core restorations can be unpredictable. This clinical report describes the treatment of a patient with extensive caries extending into the root canal of an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor. The use of a flowable composite resin in combination with a quartz fiber reinforced post is described, resulting in the rehabilitation of a structurally compromised root canal with satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes.

  3. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  4. Spectral characteristics of caries-related autofluorescence spectra and their use for diagnosis of caries stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyeong-Hoon; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify factors useful for diagnosis of the caries stage from laser-induced autofluorescence (AF) spectra. Affected teeth were accurately staged and allocated to four groups: sound, stage II, stage III, or stage IV. A 405-nm laser was used to produce AF spectra. The spectrum factors analyzed were spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm, spectral area from 500 and 590 nm, and intensity ratio of peaks 625 and 667 nm (625/667 nm). DIAGNOdent was used as control measurement. AF spectra of sound teeth had a peak near 500 nm followed by a smooth decline to 800 nm. As caries progressed, some specimens in stages II to IV showed one or two peak(s) near 625 and 667 nm. Slopes at 550 to 600 nm and areas under the curve at 500 to 590 nm were significantly different (p<0.001) for each stage. Two-peak ratios were also significantly different (p<0.001) except for stage III and stage IV. DIAGNOdent readings for sound and stage II and stage III and IV were not significantly different. Among the studied factors, the spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm and area under curve at 500 to 590 nm could be useful treatment decision-making tools for carious lesions.

  5. Bonding ability of adhesive resins to caries-affected and caries-infected dentin Capacidade de união de resinas adesivas à dentina afetada e infectada por cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yoshiyama

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridized dentin permits dental treatments that were previously impossible with conventional techniques, opening new frontiers in modern adhesive dentistry. We have investigated the adhesive property of current bonding systems to caries-infected dentin by a microtensile bond strength test (µTBS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and suggested that bonding resin could infiltrate into caries-infected dentin partially to embed carious bacteria within hybrid layers. We have named this concept of caries control as modified sealed restoration (MSR. On the other hand, Kuraray Medical Inc. (Tokyo, Japan has developed an antibacterial adhesive system (ABF, now marketed in USA as Protect Bond. So as to evaluate the effectiveness of ABF on root caries control, we have examine the microtensile bond strengths (µTBS of ABF to normal versus carious root dentin and the interfacial morphology by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. ABF could form the hybrid-like structures by infiltrating into the surfaces of the root carious dentin, and the mean value of µTBS of ABF to root carious dentin was 23.0 MPa. These results suggested that MSR combined with ABF might be an advantageous minimal invasive therapy for root caries.As técnicas adesivas permitiram inovações nos tratamentos restauradores da atualidade. Este estudo investigou a qualidade de união de diferentes sistemas adesivos ao substrato dentinário afetado e infectado por cárie, através de testes de microtração e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura (MET. Os resultados sugerem que a resina adesiva pôde infiltrar na dentina infectada e envolver as bactérias na camada híbrida. Esse conceito de controle da cárie foi denominado de "Restauração-Selante Modificada" (RSM. Por outro lado, a empresa Kuraray Med. Inc .(Japão desenvolveu um sistema adesivo com propriedades anti-bacterianas (ABF, o qual é comercializado nos EUA como Protect Bond. Para avaliar a efetividade do

  6. The antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 is associated with caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A; Famili, P; Vieira, A R

    2010-06-01

    Genetics is an important component in the determination of individual susceptibility to caries and periodontal diseases. Since beta defensin 1 (DEFB1) localizes in the oral cavity, we tested if variation in DEFB1 is associated with caries and periodontitis. We analyzed 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DEFB1 in DNA samples from unrelated individuals. Carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs11362 (G-20A) increased the DMFT and DMFS scores more than five-fold. Also, carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs179946 (G-52A) correlated with low DMFT scores. We found a high-caries-experience haplotype (GCA), which increased DMFT scores two-fold, and a low- caries-experience haplotype (ACG), which decreased DMFT scores two-fold, in the DEFB1 promoter. No association between DEFB1 genetic markers and periodontal disease was found. Our results suggest that functional polymorphisms of DEFB1 are potential markers for caries.

  7. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  8. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... fluorosis in low-caries communities but not in socially deprived high-caries populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforced the outstanding role of fluoride toothpaste as an effective caries preventive measure in children.......AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... of the study. The targeted papers were critically assessed concerning design, methodology and performance according to a pre-determined checklist. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 179 papers of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence that daily use of fluoride toothpaste has...

  9. Ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz, Merve Erkmen; Sönmez, Işıl Şaroğlu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to assess the effectiveness of ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries, reviewing clinical and in vitro studies. Ozone has proven to be effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In dentistry, most of the published articles are based on ozone's antimicrobial effects and the treatment of caries. Most of the clinical studies reported ozone to be a promising alternative to conventional methods for caries management. However, a few studies have shown ozone to be insufficient for preventing caries and reducing microorganisms in open occlusal carious lesions. Ozone might be a useful tool to reduce and control oral infectious microorganisms in dental plaque and dental cavity. However, the results of in vitro studies are controversial; while some researchers reported that ozone therapy had a minimal or no effect on the viability of microorganisms, others suggested ozone to be highly effective in killing both gram-positive and gram-negative oral microorganisms. Therefore, more evidence is required before ozone can be accepted as an alternative to present methods for the management and prevention of caries.

  10. Oratest: A new concept to test caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.

  11. Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  12. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested.

  13. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  14. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  15. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashri Prabakar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that high prevalence of caries was found in primary dentition than permanent dentition and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. This study emphasize the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage and parents should be made aware of caries preventive measures for their children.

  17. Typing of Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from caries free and susceptible subjects by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Nabinejad, Abdolreza; Shirian, Hannaneh; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Tahmourespour, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    This study was evaluated the clonal diversity of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active subjects using MLEE. Strains from caries-free subjects were grouped in a single taxon. Unrooted dendrogram showed that different strains clustered in four different clades, also showed that more than one clonal type can be found in a same individual.

  18. Modernisation of the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2002 the International Consensus Workshop on Caries Clinical Trials was organised in Scotland. The meeting was an initiative of both academic and industrial partners, in order to arrive at a consensus about ways to modernise the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents (Cari

  19. [Secular trends of caries prevalence among 6 and 12 year-old youths in the Netherlands].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Schuller, A.A.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; Mulder, J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the development of caries prevalence and caries experience among Dutch youth, a meta-analysis was carried out on epidemiological caries data collected in 5 and 6 and 11 and 12 year-olds between 1980 and 2009. From the present analysis it appears that after the mid-1980'

  20. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  1. Effect of different irrigation techniques on the removal of calcium hydroxide paste from an artificial root canal cavity of internal root resorption:an in vitro study%不同冲洗技术去除模拟牙内吸收窝洞中氢氧化钙糊剂效果的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贺; 钱君荣; 耿海霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:评估不同冲洗技术去除模拟牙内吸收窝洞内氢氧化钙糊剂的效果。方法:收集110颗单根离体牙, ProTaper预备至F3。将牙根纵向劈成两半,制备标准化的模拟牙内吸收窝洞后将两半牙根复位。5颗牙齿作为阴性对照组,不向根管内导入氢氧化钙糊剂。105颗牙齿导入氢氧化钙糊剂,其中5颗作为阳性对照组不去除根管中的氢氧化钙糊剂,其余100颗牙齿根据使用的不同冲洗技术随机分成5组(n=20):常规冲洗针头冲洗组、主尖锉清理组、根管刷刷洗组、超声荡洗组、音波震荡组。体式显微镜下观察使用5种不同冲洗技术去除模拟牙内吸收窝洞后氢氧化钙糊剂剩余的量,使用van der Sluis 4级评分系统进行评分,Kruskal-Wallis检验以及Mann-Whitney检验(P<0.05)对数据进行统计分析。结果:超声荡洗组、音波震荡组较其他组模拟牙内吸收窝洞内氢氧化钙糊剂剩余的量较少(P<0.05)。超声荡洗组与音波震荡组间无明显统计学差异(P>0.05)。常规冲洗针头冲洗组、主尖锉清理组和根管刷刷洗组间无明显统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:超声荡洗和音波震荡去除模拟牙内吸收窝洞内氢氧化钙糊剂效果较好。%Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of different irrigation techniques to remove calcium hydroxide(CH) from a simulated internal root resorption cavity. Method:110 clinically extracted teeth with single root were collected and prepared using the ProTaper system to size F3.The roots were split longitudinally,standardized simulated internal root re-sorption cavities were prepared in the two root halves,and the root halves were reassembled. The root canals of 5 teeth that were not filled with CH served as the negative control group. The root canals of 105 teeth were filled with CH,5 of them were not subjected to the CH removal procedure,antoher 100 teeth were

  2. Biological synthesis of tooth enamel instructed by an artificial matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhan; Newcomb, Christina J; Bringas, Pablo; Stupp, Samuel I; Snead, Malcolm L

    2010-12-01

    The regenerative capability of enamel, the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body, is fundamentally limited due to cell apoptosis following maturation of the tissue. Synthetic strategies to promote enamel formation have the potential to repair damage, increase the longevity of teeth and improve the understanding of the events leading to tissue formation. Using a self-assembling bioactive matrix, we demonstrate the ability to induce ectopic formation of enamel at chosen sites adjacent to a mouse incisor cultured in vivo under the kidney capsule. The resulting material reveals the highly organized, hierarchical structure of hydroxyapatite crystallites similar to native enamel. This artificially triggered formation of organized mineral demonstrates a pathway for developing cell fabricated materials for treatment of dental caries, the most ubiquitous disease in man. Additionally, the artificial matrix provides a unique tool to probe cellular mechanisms involved in tissue formation further enabling the development of tooth organ replacements.

  3. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truin, G J; van't Hof, M A

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction including non-cavitated lesions. The treatment effect of fluoride gel was calculated as preventive fraction (PF). When enamel lesions were included in DFS count (D(2) grade), the PF was 22% as compared to 26% counting dentinal lesions. The PFs showed that the mean effect of professionally applied fluoride gel was highest (71%) for D(3)S in the permanent dentition and lowest for d(3)s in the primary dentition (5%). The PFs for approximal and buccal and lingual surfaces of the permanent dentition significantly decreased from 80 to 25% and from 60 to 37% when enamel lesions (D(2)S) were included. With the exception of the buccal and lingual surfaces, in the primary dentition the PFs varied slightly when enamel lesions were included. Inclusion of non-cavitated lesions in the treatment effect statistics did not change the former conclusion that the treatment effect of fluoride gel application on dental caries reduction in a low-caries child population was considered not clinically relevant.

  4. Artificiality in Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Rennard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  5. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  6. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....

  7. Caries diagnosis with the DIAGNOdent laser: a user's product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, G

    1999-03-01

    In the study, the DIAGNOdent has shown itself to be very accurate in the diagnosis of pit and fissure lesions. In the clinical situation, it showed a 92.1 per cent accuracy in diagnosing lesions, as well as their severity. In addition, when the unit showed a reading of less than 30, it was 100 per cent accurate in the virgin teeth. When the unit indicated that there was no caries in extracted teeth, it was accurate 98.1 per cent of the time. Now, for the first time, dentists can do research as to the speed of progression of caries, as well as what percentage of caries becomes arrested and what percentage deteriorate.

  8. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    in a low-caries population. METHODS: Each of four examiners independently examined preselected contacting interproximal surfaces in 53 dental students aged 20-37 years using a visual-tactile examination and bitewing radiography. The visual-tactile examination distinguished between noncavitated......OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions......-specificity) were calculated for each diagnostic strategy. RESULTS: Visual-tactile examination provided a true-positive rate of 34.2% and a false-positive rate of 1.5% for the detection of a cavity. The combination of a visual-tactile and a radiographic examination using the lesion in dentin threshold...

  9. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  10. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated......-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement...

  11. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  12. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  13. Bionic restorative system: its potential value in caries therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M M Hao; Zheng, M M Ren; Lin, M D Yinghe

    2009-07-01

    Dental defect caused by dental caries is usually restored by fillings, inlays or onlays at the present day. Although the therapeutic effects of these methods have already been confirmed, complications occasionally set in, such as pulp injury, fracture and secondary caries. Bionic dental organic center possesses similar functions of the natural dental organic center. So we put forward a hypothesis that bionic organic center can be transplanted onto the conditioned pulpal walls of the prepared cavity and a specific filling material, which the cavity will be filled with, provides oxygen, nutrition and raw materials for it to regenerate the lost odontal tissue in vivo. The regenerated odontal tissue which has similar properties of the healthy odontal tissue will restore the defect and it will be combined with the residual odontal tissue tightly, not only in physical structure but also in function. Then the teeth suffering from dental caries could live and function like healthy ones.

  14. Nd:YAG Lasers Treating of Carious Lesion and Root Canal In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danqing Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible bacterial disease process, with cavities at the end, and caused by acids from bacterial metabolism. The essence of dental treatment is to clean and disinfect bacterial contamination from the tooth. In this work, we tried to demonstrate the cleaning and disinfecting effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on dental carious lesion and root canal in vitro. Acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG lasers were employed to treat caries lesion and the root canal, respectively. Results showed that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation could rapidly clean decayed material and bacterial contamination from dental carious lesion and the narrow tail end of root canal with minimally invasive in vitro, respectively. It was concluded that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous laser irradiation may be a rapid and effective alternative caries treatment, and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation may be an effective method for canal cleaning and disinfecting during root canal therapy.

  15. Can Caries-Affected Dentin be Completely Remine-ralized by Guided Tissue Remineralization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Mao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, there is no evidence that conventional remineralization techniques us-ing calcium and phosphate ion-containing media will completely remineralize carious lesions in regions where remnant apatite seed crystallites are absent. Conversely, guided tissue remineralization using biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins is successful in remineralizing thin layers of completely demineralized dentin. The hypothesis: Conventional remineralization strategy depends on epitaxial growth over existing apatite crystallites. If there are no or few crystallites, there will be no remineralization. Guided tissue remineralization uses biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins to introduce sequestered amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecur-sors into the internal water compartments of collagen fibrils. Attachment of templating analogs of matrix phosphoproteins to the colla-gen fibrils further guided the nucleation and growth of apatite crystallites within the fibril. Such a strategy is independent of apatite seed crystallites. Our hypothesis is that 250-300 microns thick artificial carious lesions can be completely remineralized in vitro by guide tissue remineralization but not by conventional remineralization techniques.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Validation of the hypothesis will address the critical barrier to progress in remineralization of caries-affected dentin and shift existing paradigms by providing a novel method of remineralization based on a nanotechnology-based bottom-up approach. This will also generate important information to support the translation of the proof-of-concept biomimetic strategy into a clinically-relevant delivery system for remineralizing caries-affected dentin created by micro-organisms in the oral cavity.

  16. Effect of Enamel Caries Lesion Baseline Severity on Fluoride Dose-Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Lippert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of enamel caries lesion baseline severity on fluoride dose-response under pH cycling conditions. Early caries lesions were created in human enamel specimens at four different severities (8, 16, 24, and 36 h. Lesions were allocated to treatment groups (0, 83, and 367 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride based on Vickers surface microhardness (VHN and pH cycled for 5 d. The cycling model comprised 3 × 1 min fluoride treatments sandwiched between 2 × 60 min demineralization challenges with specimens stored in artificial saliva in between. VHN was measured again and changes versus lesion baseline were calculated (ΔVHN. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (p<0.05. Increased demineralization times led to increased surface softening. The lesion severity×fluoride concentration interaction was significant (p<0.001. Fluoride dose-response was observed in all groups. Lesions initially demineralized for 16 and 8 h showed similar overall rehardening (ΔVHN and more than 24 and 36 h lesions, which were similar. The 8 h lesions showed the greatest fluoride response differential (367 versus 0 ppm F which diminished with increasing lesion baseline severity. The extent of rehardening as a result of the 0 ppm F treatment increased with increasing lesion baseline severity, whereas it decreased for the fluoride treatments. In conclusion, lesion baseline severity impacts the extent of the fluoride dose-response.

  17. Chemical or microbiological models of secondary caries development around different dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Maristela M; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria B; Pimenta, Luiz André F

    2005-08-01

    This study evaluated artificial secondary caries around restorative materials, induced by means of chemical or microbiological models. The following materials were used randomly to restore 130 dental blocks: (1) zinc-oxide eugenol-free temporary filling: Coltosol (Coltène/Whaledent Inc.; n = 30), (2) silver amalgam: Permite C (SDI Limited, n = 20), (3) composite resin: Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE; n = 20), (4) glass-ionomer cement: Fuji II (GC America Inc.; n = 20), (5) resin-modified glass ionomer: Vitremer (3M ESPE; n = 20), and (6) polyacid modified resin: Dyract AP (Dentsply; n = 20). Ten specimens of Group 1 were kept in humidity, and had no carious formation (NC). Ten specimens of each group were submitted to pH cycling (CG, n = 60), and the others were immersed in a medium containing Streptococcus mutans and sucrose (BG, n = 60). Mineral content was determined by microhardness assessment, and lesion depth was measured in polarized light photomicrographs. In the chemical model (CG), mineral content values in the vicinities of restoration were high for Groups 5 (75.7 +/- 11.9), 4 (70.8 +/- 14.2), and NC (95.4 +/- 3.8); intermediate for Groups 1 (55.8 +/- 18.5), 6 (45.6 +/- 11.0), and 2 (44.3 +/- 11.2); and reduced for Group 3 (34.7 +/- 9.7). In the microbiological model (BG), results were similar to CG, although there was less demineralization. The highest lesion depths were found for Groups 3 (182.3 +/- 33.2) in CG and 6 (126.5 +/- 42.8) in BG, when compared to Group 5 (114.6 +/- 26.0 and 56.2 +/- 33.2, respectively). In both models of caries induction, ionomeric materials showed a superior cariostatic effect when compared to the other restorative materials.

  18. 北京市西城区龋病的社区诊断%Community diagnosis of dental caries in an urban community of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司燕; 刘敏; 李峥; 陈宵迟; 王文辉; 张博学; 朱凌

    2009-01-01

    按多阶段分层随机抽样原则在西城区目标社区中抽取35~74岁居民1162名,由3名医生做龋齿检查.受检人群中患冠龋925人,冠龋患病率为79.6%,龋而均为24.39.受检人群根龋指数为3.5%.在牙齿水平上,接受冠龋检查的32 536颗牙齿中有7267颗患冠龋,冠龋治疗需要率为22.3%;接受根龋检查的16 604颗牙齿中有4317颗患根龋,根龋治疗需要率为26.0%.在个体水平上,龋而均与根龋指数呈显著相关性(P<0.01).男女之间龋面均和根龋指数的差异均无统计学意义.说明北京市西城区目标社区中老年人龋齿患病严重,需建立社区口腔卫生服务体系来控制龋齿的发生.%Total 1188 subjects aged 35-74 in an urban community of Beijing were recruited by a multistage stratified random sampling procedure. Dental caries were examined by three dentists independently. The prevalence of dental crown caries was 79. 6% (DF), that of DMFS was 24. 39% and the root caries index (RCI) was 3.5% in this group. 22. 3% of the examinees required treatment for the crown caries and 26. 0% for root caries. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that DMFS was significantly correlated with RCI (P <0. 01 ), and there was no significant difference of DMFS and RCI between males and females. The study indicates that dental caries is a common health problem in adults and elderly population of urban Beijing, and the development of community oral health service system is necessary.

  19. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mary A S; Guedes, Sarah F F; Xu, Hockin H K; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established.

  20. [Dietary habits and early childhood caries intensity among young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Joanna; Stokowska, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a diet and the feeding method on caries intensity among children aged 36-48 months. Dental examination was carried out in 255 children and their mothers were asked about child's dietary habits. The population checked was divided into three groups: with dmf = 0, dmf 1-3 and dmf > or = 4. Statistically significant correlation between caries intensity and bottle feeding during sleep and frequency of eating cariogenic food were shown. Parents of young children should be educated about the influence of dietary habits on dental condition.

  1. [DNA-technologies application for early detection of caries predisposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, I L

    2006-01-01

    In the paper the possible use of modern DNA-technologies for estimation of gene pool, dental hard tissue resistance to caries prognosis, hereditary predisposition to the main oral diseases diagnosis are presented. Application potentialities of DNA-markers for multiple testing in population are identified. Today very little information is available concerning Russia gene pool characteristics in genome polymorphism, DNA-markers-allelic gene variants, related to the caries predisposition. These characteristics are needed to solve the problems concerning dental diseases prophylaxis and treatment.

  2. Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, J.A.; Ramos-Gomez, F; Jue, B.; Shain, S.; Hoover, C I; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Gansky, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat®, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.8 ± 0.6 yrs). All families received counseling, and children were randomized to the following groups: no fluoride varnish, fluoride varni...

  3. Randomized trial on fluorides and sealants for fissure caries prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, HC; Liu, BY; Lo, ECM; Chu, CH

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of topical fluorides in preventing fissure caries, we conducted a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. In total, 501 children (1,539 molars, 3,078 sites), mean age 9.1 years, who had at least one sound permanent first molar with deep fissures or fissures with signs of early caries were recruited. They were randomly allocated among four groups: (1) resin sealant, single placement; (2) 5% NaF varnish, semi-annual application; (3) 38% silver diamine ...

  4. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Visual inspection for caries detection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gimenez T, Piovesan C, Braga MM, Raggio DP, Deery C, Ricketts DN, Ekstrand DR, Mendes FM. J Dent Res 2015;94(7):895-904. REVIEWER: Svante Twetman, DDS, PhD, Odont Dr PURPOSE....../QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION...

  5. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...

  6. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  7. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  8. Detecting short-term changes in the activity of caries lesions with the aid of new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van der Veen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of new technologies for the assessment of caries and more in particular changes in caries activity. Over the past decades, we have seen a shift from restorative treatment caries to a prevention-driven approach. Also there is a need for shorter and less expensive caries c

  9. Infective endocarditis associated with artificial iliofemoral vascular prosthesis infection in a patient with caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata P. Kraśnicka-Sokół

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant causes of infective endocarditis is a lack of hygiene in the oral cavity. The diversity of the possible clinical course dependent on the primary location of the disease and the extension to other organs require personalised and multidisciplinary treatment. We present 53-year-old patient admitted to the hospital with recurrent fever and left lower extremity pain. Ultrasound of the left groin showed a structure that seemed like a haematoma. Based on positive blood culture and bacterial vegetation on the tricuspid valve shown in echocardiography, infective endocarditis was diagnosed. Antibiotics by antibiogram were enabled with no clinical effect. Additionally, computed tomography of the left groin was performed, which visualised an abscess surrounding a vascular prosthesis implanted 2 years earlier. Four-week antibiotic treatment preceded by replacing the infected prosthesis with a saphenous vein graft was commissioned. Clinical improvement and lowering of C-reactive protein were observed. The presented case is to show the route of therapy for complicated infected endocarditis.

  10. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  11. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described.

  12. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  13. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  14. 根龋的根面易感性分析%ANALYSIS OF ROOT SURFACE'S RISK FACTORS OF ROOT CARIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文慧; 杨湲波; 白宇宏

    2006-01-01

    目的:分析根面龋与根面易感性的关系.方法:采用分层随机抽样方法,对唐山市600名40岁以上中老年人进行口腔健康检查,数据应用SAS8.0软件进行单因素分析.结果:根面龋易感性高的根面为前牙、下颌前磨牙、磨牙的唇(颊)面、下前牙与上颌磨牙的舌面、前磨牙的远中面、磨牙的近中面.结论:根面是根龋的易感因素.

  15. Iatrogenic mid-root perforation of fused teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is defined as a union between the dentin and/or enamel of two or more distinct dental sprouts that occurs at any stage of the dental organ. Its prevalence ranges from 0.5%-2.5% in the primary dentition alone and 0.1%-1% of the primary as well as the permanent dentition. These fused teeth can cause various problems such as caries, periodontal disease, abnormal eruption, impaction or an ectopic eruption of an adjacent tooth and reported in the literature. However this paper documented an unusual case of iatrogenic root perforation of fused permanent lower anterior teeth during inter maxillary fixation.

  16. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...

  17. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  18. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  19. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95. The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%. Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6% received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05 had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  20. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on...

  1. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  2. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  3. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Twetman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights in medical science indicate that human biofilms play an important role in health and well-being, and have put microbiota modulation through bacteriotherapy into focus. In dentistry, bacterial interference with probiotic bacteria to support the stability and diversity of oral biofilms has gained similar interest. Investigations in vitro into metabolic activity, co-aggregation, growth inhibition, bacteriocin production, and adhesion have collectively suggested a potential role for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to modulate the oral microbial ecology. Likewise, short-term clinical studies with intermediate microbial endpoints indicate that interference with caries-associated bacteria seems possible through probiotic dairy products, tablets, lozenges and chewing gum in various dose regimens. Few randomized controlled clinical trials with caries outcomes are available, but three studies with preschool children and the elderly have demonstrated preventive fractions between 21% and 75%, following regular intake of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli. However, further large-scale trials with orally derived anti-caries candidates are needed before we can say that we are ready for bacteriotherapy as an adjunct to complement the existing evidence-based methods for preventing and controlling caries in daily practice.

  4. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected cl...

  5. Methods for the evaluation of caries preventing agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herkströter, Franciscus Maria

    1990-01-01

    Dental caries, or tooth decay, is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissues by micro-organisms present in the so-called plaque. The destruction, caused by acids formed in the plague,Ieads to mineral loss (demineralization) from the hard tissues. A demineralized tooth can also

  6. [Diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions using laser fluorescence measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphausen, M T P; Riemersma, M; Verdonschot, E H

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a device for detecting occlusal caries lesions (DIAGNOdent) has been introduced. The reproducibility and validity of this laser-fluorescence device were investigated. In the in vivo part of the study, 45 sites at the occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth in 13 patients were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices, one produced in 1998 and one in 1999. The interobserver reliability between both devices and both observers was established. In the in vitro part of the study, 49 permanent molars were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices. In addition, visual inspection was performed. The teeth were sectioned to measure the histological depth and area of the caries lesions. The reproducibility of both DIAGNOdent devices was high, and so was the interobserver reliability. The correlation between DIAGNOdent measurements and the actual depth of the caries lesions was lower than that of visual inspection. The correlation with the enamel part of the lesion exceeded that of the dentine part. It was concluded that the validity of the DIAGNOdent, expressed as the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, was not statistically significantly different from that of visual inspection. Because of the high reproducibility, dental practitioners who wish to use the DIAGNOdent for monitoring caries lesions, this investigation indicates that an old device may be replaced by a new one, provided that the same tip will be used.

  7. ART: a minimal intervention approach to manage dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Holmgren, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    The number of studies investigating aspects of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach has increased in recent years. This tissue preservative treatment approach appears to be less painful and is, therefore, more patient-friendly than conventional caries treatments. The investigations so

  8. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  9. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  10. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; van Loveren, C.; Dusseldorp, E.; Verrips, G.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) sco

  11. Sealing occlusal caries lesions in adults referred for restorative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2012-01-01

    treatment by senior lecturers at School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, Denmark were included. In case the patient had more than one occlusal caries lesion, randomization between sealing and restoration was made; otherwise, the lesion was sealed. In total, 60 resin sealants and 12 composite restorations were made...

  12. Developing explanatory models of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study pro...

  13. OPTICAL QUANTITATION AND RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF INCIPIENT APPROXIMAL CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERDONSCHOT, EH; VANDERIJKE, JW; BROUWER, W; TENBOSCH, JJ; TRUIN, GJ

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the applicability of photocell measurements in approximal caries diagnosis and to evaluate the use of radiographs as validating criterion. Forty extracted premolars were selected, and the progression of the approximal lesions was graded clinically and radiog

  14. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  15. Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Pessan, J.P.; Honório, H.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride was introduced into dentistry over 70 years ago, and it is now recognized as the main factor responsible for the dramatic decline in caries prevalence that has been observed worldwide. However, excessive fluoride intake during the period of tooth development can cause dental fluorosis. In o

  16. Endodoncia preventiva: Protección pulpar mediante la técnica de eliminación de la caries en etapas (stepwise excavation Preventive endodontics: pulp protection using stepwise caries removal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castellanos-Cosano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de la caries dentinaria profunda en dientes permanentes se ha venido realizando, generalmente, mediante la remoción completa y en una sola sesión de la dentina cariada, incluyendo la dentina blanda desmineralizada, sin tener en cuenta el potencial regenerador de la pulpa dental. Una complicación frecuentemente ligada a esta actitud es la exposición pulpar intraoperatoria que, en muchos casos, termina en tratamiento de conductos. Varios estudios han demostrado que la eliminación de la caries dentinaria profunda por etapas, en dos visitas con varios meses de diferencia, protege a la pulpa, disminuyendo la frecuencia de exposiciones pulpares, a la vez que permite la formación de dentina terciaria, con la consiguiente disminución del porcentaje de casos que requieren tratamiento endodóncico. En este artículo se analiza el estado del conocimiento y la evidencia científica sobre este tema.The treatment of deep dentine carious lesions in permanent teeth has included, generally, complete removal of affected dentin in a single session, including soft demineralized dentin, regardless of the regenerative potential of dental pulp. One complication often linked to this attitude is the pulp exposure, in many cases ending in root canal treatment. Several studies have shown that the elimination of deep dentine caries in stages, in two visits to several months apart, protects the pulp, reducing the frequency of pulp exposures, while allowing the development of tertiary dentin, with the consequent decrease in the percentage of cases requiring endodontic treatment. This article discusses the state of knowledge and scientific evidence on this topic.

  17. A clinical study on relationship of dental caries and removable partial denture of the aged patients%老年患者基牙龋病与可摘局部义齿关系的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李行懿; 陈娜; 刘聪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize (patterns of caries after placing RPD. Methods A total of 95 patients were included in this study. A clinical examination of caries lesions on abutment teeth was conducted by me. Results The incidence of caries on abutment teeth and on nonabutment teeth were respectively 23. 67% and 3. 45%. ( P < 0.05). 27.49% of abutment teeth had new caries on the posterior oral cavity, onlyl3.89% of that on the anterior oral cavity. (P<0. 05). The incidence of caries on proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures was 25. 72% , under denture rests was 9. 33% , on root surfaces was 3. 02% , on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was 1. 36% . The incidence of caries on abutment teeth of three groups classified by the oral hygienic habit were respectively 8. 91% 、24. 09%、44. 29% (P<0.01). Conclusion RPD wearers had more caries incidence. Abutment teeth had a higher of incidence of caries than nonabutment teeth. On the posterior oral cavity, abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures were at highest risk of being decayed, surfaces under denture rests were next. The incidence of root caries on abutment teeth significantly increased. The incidence of caries on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was not high.%目的 观察老年患者戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年后的龋病发病情况及其临床特点.方法 对95例戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年患者的基牙和非基牙的龋齿发病情况进行检查.结果 基牙龋齿发病率23.67%高于非基牙3.45%(P<0.05).口腔后部基牙龋齿发病率27.49%高于口腔前部基牙13.89%(P<0.05).基牙邻接面龋发病率25.72%,支托窝龋发病率9.33%,根面龋发病率3.02%,卡环龋发病率1.36%.口腔卫生习惯优、良、差三级的基牙龋齿发病率分别为8.91%、24.09%、44.29%,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 患者戴用可摘局部义齿后易患龋

  18. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fausto M.; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva L. A.; Nicolau, José

    2006-03-01

    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions.

  19. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  20. Caries Diagnosis in the Mixed Dentition Using ICDAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Simone dos Santos Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental caries prevalence with ICDAS II in the mixed dentition, 40 children aged 7 to 11 years old, participating in a social program, whose parents and/or guardians signed a informed consent form. Material and Methods: Clinical examination was carried out after brushing. A single researcher performed the examination and the diagnosis consistency was obtained by Kappa coefficient in 12% of the sample. All dental surfaces were examined receiving a two-digit code. The first one refers to the presence of restoration/sealant and the second, the severity of carious lesions. The data was processed at SPSS software version 10.0 and analyzed using descriptive statistics (absolute distribution, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Results: The coefficient intra-examiner agreement was 0,83. Caries prevalence was considered high because 100% of the children had some surface with non-cavitated caries lesion. ICDAS II can be easily transformed to dmf-s or DMF-S without compromising its integrity. For dmf-s/DMF-S decayed surfaces were considered ICDAS codes 3 to 6, resulting in a dmf-s = 6,57 where 11 children (27,5% presented no decayed deciduous teeth surface. DMF-S = 2,0 showed that 15 children (37,5% had none decayed permanent surface, determining a underestimation of the caries disease when using dmf-d/dmf-s and DMF-S indexes. Conclusion: A careful viewing of initial caries lesions makes ICDAS II usefull in evaluating the health promotion actions impact, supporting the planning process, implementation and evaluation of program activities.

  1. Role of dentin MMPs in caries progression and bond stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Tjäderhane, L; Checchi, V; Di Lenarda, R; Salo, T; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2015-02-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collagen in the adhesive hybrid layer under composite restorations. MMPs and cysteine cathepsins present in saliva, mineralized dentin, and/or dentinal fluid may affect the dentin caries process at the early phases of demineralization. Changes in collagen and noncollagenous protein structure may participate in observed decreases in mechanical properties of caries-affected dentin and reduce the ability of caries-affected dentin to remineralize. These endogenous enzymes also remain entrapped within the hybrid layer during the resin infiltration process, and the acidic bonding agents themselves (irrespective of whether they are etch-and-rinse or self-etch) can activate these endogenous protease proforms. Since resin impregnation is frequently incomplete, denuded collagen matrices associated with free water (which serves as a collagen cleavage reagent for these endogenous hydrolase enzymes) can be enzymatically disrupted, finally contributing to the degradation of the hybrid layer. There are multiple in vitro and in vivo reports showing that the longevity of the adhesive interface is increased when nonspecific enzyme-inhibiting strategies are used. Different chemicals (i.e., chlorhexidine, galardin, and benzalkonium chloride) or collagen cross-linker agents have been successfully employed as therapeutic primers in the bonding procedure. In addition, the incorporation of enzyme inhibitors (i.e., quaternary ammonium methacrylates) into the resin blends has been recently promoted. This

  2. [Relation between biofilm, caries activity and gingivitis in HIV + children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Apoena de Aguiar; Portela, Maristela; Souza, Ivete Pomarico de

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of medicines to treat HIV-infected children has been promoting a decrease in the prevalence of soft-tissue oral lesions, as years pass by. In contrast, it has been observed that the experience of caries and gingivitis is constant in this population, mostly because of the chronic influence of some factors involved in the HIV-infection process, such as the chronic utilization of sweetened liquid medicines and carbohydrate-enriched diet, as well as frequent episodes of hospitalization. So, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the quality and quantity of biofilm are important factors in the activity of dental caries and gingivitis, also in this special group. After examination of the biofilm (biofilm index - Ribeiro23, 2000), the activity of caries and gingivitis was assessed in 56 children, aging from 0 to 14 years, who were patients with definitive diagnosis of HIV infection. It was observed that only 7 subjects (12.5%) did not present with clinically visible biofilm, and 33 (58.9%) presented with gingivitis, with the average of 4.44 bleeding sites. As to dental caries, 73.2% of the patients presented with active carious lesions. A strong correlation was verified between Biofilm Index, gingival status and active carious lesions (Spearman's correlation test, r s = +0.57 and r s = +0.49, respectively). It was concluded that, also in HIV-infected children, the quality and quantity of biofilm over the dental surfaces are important etiologic factors related to the activity of caries and gingivitis. Biofilm should, thus, be controlled in order to reestablish the oral health of HIV-infected children.

  3. Role of Dentin MMPs in Caries Progression and Bond Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Tjäderhane, L.; Checchi, V.; Di Lenarda, R.; Salo, T.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collagen in the adhesive hybrid layer under composite restorations. MMPs and cysteine cathepsins present in saliva, mineralized dentin, and/or dentinal fluid may affect the dentin caries process at the early phases of demineralization. Changes in collagen and noncollagenous protein structure may participate in observed decreases in mechanical properties of caries-affected dentin and reduce the ability of caries-affected dentin to remineralize. These endogenous enzymes also remain entrapped within the hybrid layer during the resin infiltration process, and the acidic bonding agents themselves (irrespective of whether they are etch-and-rinse or self-etch) can activate these endogenous protease proforms. Since resin impregnation is frequently incomplete, denuded collagen matrices associated with free water (which serves as a collagen cleavage reagent for these endogenous hydrolase enzymes) can be enzymatically disrupted, finally contributing to the degradation of the hybrid layer. There are multiple in vitro and in vivo reports showing that the longevity of the adhesive interface is increased when nonspecific enzyme-inhibiting strategies are used. Different chemicals (i.e., chlorhexidine, galardin, and benzalkonium chloride) or collagen cross-linker agents have been successfully employed as therapeutic primers in the bonding procedure. In addition, the incorporation of enzyme inhibitors (i.e., quaternary ammonium methacrylates) into the resin blends has been recently promoted. This

  4. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  5. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  6. EFECTO DE UN GEL DE THEOBROMA CACAO EN EL CONTROL DE CARIES VESTIBULAR EN PACIENTES CON TRATAMIENTO DE ORTODONCIA. CONSULTA PRIVADA. AREQUIPA. 2014

    OpenAIRE

    SALAS LINARES, MARY JULISSA

    2015-01-01

    THEOBROMA CACAO GENERALIDADES DESCRIPCIÓN ORIGEN Y EXTENSIÓN CLASIFICACIÓN CIENTÍFICA VARIEDADES DEL CACAO DISTRIBUCIÓN USOS MEDICINALES EFECTO ANTICARIOGÉNICO GEL CARIES DENTAL FACTORES DE RIESGO MICROORGANISMOS IMPLICADOS EN LA CARIES DENTAL CARIES EN EL ESMALTE CLASIFICACIÓN DE LA CARIES MÉTODOS DE DETECCIÓN DE CARIES CRITERIOS ICDAS

  7. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  8. The Effects of Ni-Ti Hand Files, Ni-Ti Engine Files, and K-Flex Files on Root Canal Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-30

    the first ni-ti root canal files that were machined from orthodontic wire. The ni-ti files were found to have two to three times more elastic... recurrent caries detection. Dentomaxillofac. Radiol.. 1992: 21:59-64. 23. Product Information and Instructions for use of Engine-Driven NT files. Dr

  9. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  10. Women Are More Susceptible to Caries but Individuals Born with Clefts Are Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at a higher risk of developing caries is of great interest. Isolated forms of cleft lip and palate are among the most common craniofacial congenital anomalies in humans. Historically, several reports suggest that individuals born with clefts have a higher risk for caries. Caries continues to be the most common infectious noncontagious disease worldwide and a great burden to any health system. The identification of individuals of higher susceptibility to caries is of great interest. In this paper, we assessed caries experience of 1,593 individuals from three distinct populations. The study included individuals born with clefts, their unaffected relatives, and unrelated unaffected controls that were recruited from areas with similar cultural pressures and limited access to dental care. DMFT/dmft scores were obtained, and caries experience rates were compared among the three groups in each geographic area. Individuals born with clefts did not present higher caries experience in comparison to their unaffected relatives or unrelated unaffected controls. Women tend to present higher caries rates in comparison to men. Our work provides strong evidence that individuals born with clefts are not at higher risk to caries; however, women tend to have more severe caries experience.

  11. Dental caries experience in 12-year-old schoolchildren in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cypriano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997 was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0, with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62. There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.

  12. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  13. Caries-inhibiting effect of professional fluoride gel application in low-caries children initially aged 4.5-6.5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkom, H.M. van; Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    It was the purpose of the study to investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annual professional fluoride gel application in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years during a 4-year follow-up period. In a double-blind randomised controlled trial (n = 773) the effect of sodium

  14. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  15. Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Education--A Personal View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Mark H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: how artificial intelligence (AI) can advance education; if the future of software lies in AI; the roots of intelligent computer-assisted instruction; protocol analysis; reactive environments; LOGO programming language; student modeling and coaching; and knowledge-based instructional programs. Numerous examples of AI programs are cited.…

  16. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  17. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  18. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  19. Explaining Gender Differences in Caries: A Multifactorial Approach to a Multifactorial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferraro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that caries rates are higher in women than in men. This review attempts to provide an explanation for this trend by examining each factor which contributes to caries and how the factor differs in men and women. Evidence has been provided to demonstrate that caries risk factors for women include a different salivary composition and flow rate, hormonal fluctuations, dietary habits, genetic variations, and particular social roles among their family. Systemic diseases that have been found to be associated with caries have also been found to have an association with the female gender. An extended exposure to the oral cavity or a more cariogenic oral microflora has not been proven to contribute to higher caries in women. Further research in these areas could be done in the future to explain their contribution, or lack thereof, to a higher caries rate in women.

  20. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  1. Clinical evaluation of demineralization and remineralization of intact root surface lesions in the clinic by a quantitative light-induced fluorescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu, Oykü; Tağtekin, Dilek Arslantunali; Yanikoğlu, Funda

    2012-03-01

    Detection of demineralization of root surface caries is an important issue since preventive approaches prolong tooth life. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) has been shown to be useful for the laboratory assessment of demineralization of root surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the demineralization and remineralization of root surface intact and cavitated caries lesions using a QLF system as a nondestructive in vivo method. Noncavitated and demineralized root surface lesions were detected and scored using the QLF system. Oral hygiene education was given and periodontal cleaning was completed before the remineralization treatment. After obtaining baseline QLF data, the patients were informed about the remineralization treatment. Fluoride varnish was applied to the carious lesions at the baseline visit, and the patients were then reviewed after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, with QLF assessment and fluoride varnish application repeated at each review. Repeated-measures ANOVA (α = 0.05) showed significant differences between ΔQ values at each visit (p Bifluoride 12 varnish improved mineral levels as shown by the QLF system. The treatment response to chemicals of intact noncavitated root surface carious lesions could be followed nondestructively in the clinic using QLF to quantify remineralization at recall visits. Teeth with root surface caries can be kept by controlling their remineralization.

  2. Dye-enhanced laser fluorescence detection of caries lesions around brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Cássio José Fornazari; Braga, Mariana Minatel; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; Nicolau, José; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of DIAGNOdent [laser fluorescence(LF) and LFpen] devices enhanced by fluorescent dye in detecting mineral loss around brackets and comparing the inhibitory effect of bonding material on artificial demineralization, and to verify whether LF methods show the same trends of mineral loss. Brackets were bonded to premolar halves with Fuji Ortho LC, Transbond XT, and Ortho Glass LC cements (n = 15). The teeth were soaked in demineralizing solution (pH = 4.8) for 16 days. Mineral loss was calculated by atomic emission spectrometry, and lesions were measured with LF devices with dye [tetrakis N-methylpyridyl porphyrin (TMPyP)]. Groups were compared with regard to LF readings and mineral loss, and performance of caries detection was calculated. Higher mineral loss and LF-TMPyP values occurred in the resin group. LFpen-TMPyP readings were significantly higher in the demineralized groups. Correlation was observed between mineral loss and LF measurements. LF methods are capable of identifying lower demineralization around brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

  3. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from

  4. A novel saliva test for caries risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Si, Yan; Navazesh, Mahvash; Galligan, Joyce M

    2006-04-01

    A new saliva test for caries risk assessment introduced in this study integrates a variety of host factors to predict for children, individual risk levels that are tooth-group specific. These various host factors correlate with caries history, DFT (decayed and filled teeth) or DFS (decayed and filled surfaces) in young adults. The test is based on the pattern of genetically determined oligosaccharides present on salivary glycoproteins. The mechanism behind the test is believed to be centered on the specific oligosaccharides that either facilitate bacterial attachment and colonization at the surface of teeth or protect against colonization by promoting agglutination and removal of free bacteria. It is the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides that is very strongly correlated with the numerical range of DFS or DFT observed in a young adult population.

  5. Role of Probiotics in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been found to be beneficial to host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. There has also been a change in understanding of the oral disease process because of better understanding of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity. Very encouraging studies exploring probiotics in the fields of caries, periodontal diseases and few other areas have come up in the recent past and the results tend to suggest beneficial effects of probiotics on oral health and on the whole body in general. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. This article reviews the role of probiotics in dental caries and periodontal disease. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 45-49

  6. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez; Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís; Juan Fernando Casanova-Rosado; Gerardo Maupomé; Alejandro José Casanova-Rosado; Mirna Minaya-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE), la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependient...

  7. Retraction statement: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  8. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  9. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cura

    2012-01-01

    The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1 the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2 the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3 an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4 the type of alimentary diet and 5 the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB® s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load.

  10. Tooth loss and caries prevalence in very old Swedish people: the relationship to cognitive function and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    (NIDCR) diagnostic criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) index and functional ability was assessed by a global measure of self-reported changes. RESULTS: Older adults with a low MMSE score (...OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether cognitive function and functional ability are related to oral health among community-dwelling older people over the age of 80 years. BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study is based on the Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Survey (KEOHS). The study included oral...... those with higher scores. Participants with mild cognitive decline (MMSE = 24-26) and with a decrease in functional ability had a significantly higher risk of root caries. These associations changed little when adjusted by the covariates. In addition, people with a low MMSE (0-23) had a four times...

  11. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications, and Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently cleared silver diamine fluoride for reducing tooth sensitivity. Clinical trials document arrest and prevention of dental caries by silver diamine fluoride; this off-label use is now permissible and appropriate under U.S. law. A CDT code was approved for caries arresting medicaments for 2016 to facilitate documentation and billing. We present a systematic review, clinical indications, clinical protocol, and consent procedure to guide application for caries arrest treatment. PMID:26897901

  12. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015 Non-invasive caries treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on systematic reviews and additional papers were assessed for methods to prevent caries initiation and caries progression both in the state of pre-cavitation and cavitation without invasive technologies. R...

  13. FDI Global Caries Initiative; implementing a paradigm shift in dental practice and the global policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Johnston, S; Hewson, N; van Dijk, W; Reich, E; Eiselé, J-L; Bourgeois, D

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of a new paradigm for caries management is necessary for the profession to respond effectively to changing population health needs. The FDI Global Caries Initiative (GCI) is a 10 year programme aimed at developing and implementing a new paradigm for caries management, one that would contribute to a common vision of health. The article reviews the global health policy landscape and examines how it might influence and shape the implementation of the GCI.

  14. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  15. Caries prevention in high-risk preschool children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Autio-Gold, J. (Jaana)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a common infectious disease affecting young children living in low-income families in the United States. Efficacious, safe, feasible and cost-effective caries prevention methods for these children are essential. Several studies have shown the efficacy of fluoride varnish and xylitol to improve the oral health of children. The efficiency of caries prevention programs including the use of fluoride varnish or xylitol chewing gum in early childhood has not been w...

  16. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentin caries in preschool children by topical fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Duangthip, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...

  17. Efficacy of Laser Fluorescence in Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    iii     EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS: A META-ANALYSIS by Derek T. Fagen LCDR...not be re-printed without the expressed written permission of the author. vi     ABSTRACT EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES ...presence or absence of dental caries is of the utmost importance since errors may lead to either performance of irreversible, but unnecessary

  18. Evaluation of total antioxidant level of saliva in modulation of caries occurrence and progression in children

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Reddy Banda; Garima Singh; Vandana Markam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have implicated a direct relation between dental caries and salivary total antioxidant level (TAL), which can be suggested as an indicator (either harmful or protective) for susceptibility of individuals for dental caries. Aim: To evaluate the total antioxidant level (TAL) in unstimulated saliva of children, and to correlate the TAL with caries experience and BMI (body mass index). Settings and Design: 60 children, aged 6-12 yrs, were randomly selected for the study. T...

  19. Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiana Piovesan; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes; Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the inequality in the distribution of dental caries and the association between indicators of socioeconomic status and caries experience in a representative sample of schoolchildren. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 792 schoolchildren aged 12 years, representative of this age group in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status and a dental examination provided information on the dental caries experience (DMF-T). Ineq...

  20. Caries prevalence of children and adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Markovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to present epidemiological parameters of caries prevalence in children and adolescents in index age groups on a national and regional level in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH. Materials and methods. The study was conducted during 2004 year for children aged 6 and 12, and during 2007 for adolescents aged 15. An oral health survey was performed on a total number of 1,240 children and adolescents in line with World Health Organization methodology and criteria. Results for caries prevalence and treatment needs were presented and discussed in this paper. Results. Mean dmft (decay, missing, filled teeth for primary dentition for children aged six was 6.7 (SD±3.9 in that the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (88.8%, followed by extracted teeth (8.9% and a small percentage of filled teeth (2.3%. In 12-year-olds DMFT (Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth for permanent dentition was 4.2 (SD±2.9, Significant Caries index (SiC was 7.7 (SD±2.9, the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (45.4%, followed by 42.1% of FT and 12.5% of extracted teeth. Among 15-year-olds the DMFT was 7.6 (SD±4.1, SiC was 9.2 (SD±1.2, and filled teeth constituted the major part of the index. Conclusion. The present study provides some evidence of relatively high caries prevalence and severity in comparison with Western European countries. It is necessary to devote more attention to the oral health of children and adolescents. Community based oral health promotion, preventive programs and preventive oriented public dental health care services should be made available and accessible to all children in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Materials and Methods Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Results Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Conclusion Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc. PMID:28209019

  2. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, JC; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, V;

    2016-01-01

    occlusal caries lesions in the permanent dentition may be treated by non-invasive fissure sealing. By extending the criteria for non-invasive treatments, traditional restoration of occlusal surfaces can be postponed or even avoided, and the dental health in children and adolescents can be improved....... Selective removal (incomplete) to soft dentin in deep carious lesions has greater success rates than stepwise excavation. Selective (complete) removal to firm dentin has a lower success rate due to increased pulp exposure....

  3. Recent and Planned Developments in the CARI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    calculation software developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The software is of benefit to the FAA and the public as a tool used...needed to keep CARI-6 up-to-date in terms of dose calculation standards. As another improvement, cutoff rigidities for geomagnetic epoch 2000 are...Gluon String Model MCNPX -- Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended MS-DOS -- Microsoft ® DOS NCRP ----- National Council on Radiation Protection and

  4. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

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    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.

  5. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    - and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same methodology provide empirical evidence of social inequality in oral health across countries...... and across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental...

  6. Role of Dentin MMPs in Caries Progression and Bond Stability

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mazzoni; Tjäderhane, L.; Checchi, V.; Di Lenarda, R.; Salo, T.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L

    2015-01-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collag...

  7. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Eckert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and “other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.

  8. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians.

  9. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

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    Blerim Kamberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12 in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42 in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12 among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81 in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41 in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old.

  10. Micro CT settings for caries detection: how to optimize.

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    Chaiben CL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some important items that can influence micro CT image were reviewed in this study. Different settings were optimized for the assessment of early caries lesions. There are several researches on bone using micro CT but not too much on dental hard tissues when assessing mineral loss. Different kinds of micro CT devices and technologies are taking place today, each requiring unique settings, and this consists one of the greatest obstacles for the use of micro CT on dental hard tissues. Achieving the settings for an ideal dental image is therefore a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different micro CT settings to optimize the assessment of early caries lesions aiming the integrity of the dental specimen thus, making possible to reuse it for further studies. Three teeth with early caries lesions were submitted to different micro CT settings and different reconstruction settings, aiming a better image. The final image was compared visually through different densities and attenuation coefficients. The best setting for teeth tissues was achieved regarding contrast, definition, noise reduction and the larger difference between sound enamel and early lesions attenuation coefficient.

  11. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  12. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age.

  13. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  14. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided.

  15. Accuracy of digital panoramic regarding interproximal caries detection

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    Goodarzi Pour D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography."nMaterials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95% was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard."nResults: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5% and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%, respectively."nConclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

  16. Imaging simulated secondary caries lesions with cross polarization OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jonathan; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The clinical diagnosis of secondary caries has been found to account for the replacement of the majority of intra-coronal restorations. Current methods to diagnose the presence of these lesions at early stages are considered insufficient due to their low sensitivity. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging studies have confirmed its effectiveness for imaging carious subsurface lesions in enamel and dentin. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively image demineralization through resin restorations on extracted teeth with both simulated and natural lesions. Simulated secondary caries lesions were created by exposing cavity preparations made in extracted human teeth to a demineralizing solution for 48 hours and subsequently restoring with resin. Negative control restorations were also prepared on each tooth. Optical changes in demineralized versus control preparations beneath restorations were measured as a function of depth using PS-OCT. PS-OCT images indicated that a significant increase in reflectivity and depth occurred in the simulated lesions compared with the control preparations. This study suggests that PS-OCT is well-suited to nondestructively detect early caries lesions in enamel beneath composite restorations.

  17. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  18. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  19. The effect of nursing or rampant caries on height, body weight and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, H; Suskan, E; Yildirim, S

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the effect of nursing bottle caries and rampant caries on height, weight and head circumference was evaluated. For this purpose, 126 children, aged 3 to 5 years old, who have nursing or rampant caries were selected. One hundred twenty-six children with no caries and similar age and sex were matched as a control group. When the children who had rampant or nursing caries were evaluated in the direction of the mean weight, it was corresponding to mean weight between 25th and 50th percentiles. The mean percentile weight for control group were corresponding to mean weight between the 50th and 75th percentiles. Of the nursing or rampant caries children, 7.1% weighed less than 80% of their ideal weight, compared with only 0.7% of the control group children. When the children, who had rampant or nursing caries, were evaluated in the direction of the mean height, it was corresponding to mean height between 10th and 25th percentiles. The mean percentile height for control group were corresponding to mean height between the 25th and 50th percentiles. When the head circumference is evaluated, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups. Since the height and weight of the control group showed a higher percentile category than the nursing or rampant caries group, (P<0.001), it can be stated that rampant or nursing caries may correlate with adversely affected growth of the body.

  20. The Epidemic Tendency of Dental Caries Prevalence of School Students from 1991 to 2005 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐杰; 余毅震; 马颖

    2010-01-01

    The epidemic tendency of dental caries of school students over the past 15 years in China was analyzed in order to provide bases for prevention of dental caries.Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7,9,12 years(deciduous caries)and 7,9,12,14,17 years(permanent caries)were collected from the series of Chinese National Surveillance on Students' Constitution and Health(CNSSCH)between 1991 to 2005,a survey that covers 30 provinces of and autonomous regions of China,with Tibet Autonomous Region and Taiwan P...

  1. Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaprasad K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75 attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group. Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.

  2. Dental caries induction in experimental animals by clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ooshima, T; Torii, M; Imanishi, H; Masuda, N; Sobue, S; Kotani, S

    1978-01-01

    Oral implantation and the cariogenic activity of clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans which had been isolated from Japanese children and labeled with streptomycin-resistance were examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. All the seven strains tested were easily implanted and persisted during the experimental period. Extensive carious lesions were produced in rats inoculated with clinical strains of S. mutans belonging to serotypes c, d, e, and f, and maintained on caries-inducing diet no. 2000. Noninfected rats did not develop dental caries when fed diet no. 2000. Type d S. mutans preferentially induced smooth surface caries in the rats. Strains of other serotypes primarily developed caries of pit and fissure origin. Caries also developed in rats inoculated with reference S. mutans strains BHTR and FAIR (type b) that had been maintained in the laboratories for many years. However, the cariogenicity of the laboratory strains was found to have decreased markedly. All three S. sanguis strains could be implanted, but only one strain induced definite fissure caries. Two S. salivarius strains could not be implanted well in the rats and therefore they were not cariogenic. Four different species of lactobacilli also failed to induce dental caries in rats subjected to similar caries test regimen on diet no. 200. S. mutans strain MT6R (type c) also induce caries in golden hamsters and ICR mice, but of variable degrees.

  3. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT

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    Amaechi Bennett T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80 to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055

  4. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Angela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is better to make a specific prevention and treatment recommendations to reduce a child risk and improve overall oral health. The goal of caries-risk assessment and preventive treatment is to eliminate caries or at least to reduce the high-caries occurrence down to the level of the remaining part of the age group. Preventive treatment is divided into three parts: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. This paper describes the primary prevention in children with high caries risk by behavior modification and tooth protection. Behavior modification is about dental health education, oral hygiene, diet and sugar consumption, sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free medicines. Tooth protection is about sealant, usage of flouride and chlorhexidine.

  5. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to dental caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice.

  6. La importancia del diagnóstico de caries: ICDAS II

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, R.; IRIQUIN, STELLA MARIS; Rimoldi, M; Mendes, C.; Rancich, L.; Oviedo, J.; Mazzeo, D.; Lancon, C.; Fingerman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Se han introducido criterios diagnósticos más sensibles para el registro de caries dental, ya que la medida tradicional de la caries dental en la fase de cavitación, excluyendo las fases de pre cavitación no resulta suficiente para reflejar los cambios lentos registrados en la incidencia de caries en las poblaciones actuales. Además, se ha demostrado que el diagnóstico de la caries registrado solo a nivel de cavitación conduce a una subvaloración importante de la prevalencia rea...

  7. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  8. Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurdilović Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high caries risk groups. Two samples of saliva - unstimulated and stimulated one were taken from each child. Salivary carboanhydrase activity, as well as pH value, bicarbonate and phosphate buffer levels were estimated in both group of saliva samples. Results. The investigation showed significantly higher carboanhydrase activity (p < 0.001 in both saliva samples in low caries risk group compared to high caries risk one. In children with low caries risk, both unstimulated and stimulated saliva show significantly higher bicarbonate and phosphate buffer concentrations (p < 0.001, as well as pH values. Conclusion. The lower caries incidence could be expected in children with high carboanhydrase activity and higher salivary buffer system parameters levels. The presented results suggest that salivary carboanhydrase activity represents the important marker of individual susceptibility for caries appearance in children.

  9. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  10. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without

  11. An in vitro comparison of the ability of fibre-optic transillumination, visual inspection and radiographs to detect occlusal caries and evaluate lesion dept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Elias-Boneta, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection......Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection...

  12. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  13. Tratamiento de lesiones de caries interproximales mediante el uso de infiltrantes Treatment of approximal caries lesions using infiltrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Marró Freitte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Basados en el respeto por la estructura dentaria junto a un adecuado tratamiento y detención de las lesiones de caries, se ha desarrollado ICON®, un sistema que penetra los tejidos afectados con una resina de baja viscosidad fotopolimerizable (infiltrante sin necesidad de la apertura mecánica de una cavidad. De este modo se introducen los “infiltrantes” como herramientas para el tratamiento de las lesiones proximales. El “infiltrante” actúa bloqueando la progresión de la lesión de caries y estabilizando la estructura dentaria. En este reporte se muestra la técnica de infiltración con el uso del kit ICON®, mediante la presentación de un caso clínico de lesión proximal extendida al tercio externo de la dentina.Based on the respect for the tooth structure with adequate treatment and arrest of carious lesions, ICON ® has been developed. This system enters the affected tissue with a low-viscosity light-curing resin (infiltrant with no need for mechanical opening of a cavity. This will introduce the infiltrants as tools for the treatment of proximal lesions. The “infiltrant” works by blocking the progression of caries lesion and stabilizing tooth structure. This report shows the technique with the use of the ICON ® kit, by presenting a case of proximal carious lesion extended to the outer third of dentin.

  14. Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ming Kuan

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  15. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  16. Enamel microhardness and fluoride uptake underneath fermenting and non-fermenting artificial plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtola, L O

    1977-09-01

    Washed cells of Streptococcus sanguis were used to form artificial plaque on the surface of bovine enamel and incubated underneath buffer solutions, initial pH 6, for 36 h at 37 degrees C. The decrease in the microhardness of the enamel surface under fermenting "plaque" could be prevented with fluoride. Enamel under a fermenting "plaque" took up significantly more (P less than 0.0u) fluoride than enamel under a non-fermenting "plaque" (initial F- in buffer: 10 parts/10(6)). The artificial plaque did not accumulate fluoride. Within fermenting "plaques/, the pH decreased significantly more without flouride (P less than 0.01) than with fluoride. Fluoride combined with sucrose more than negated the softening of the enamel caused by sucrose fermentation, i.e. it increased the hardness above the original values. The diffusion of fluoride through the fermenting artificial plaque was more rapid than through a non-fermenting plaque. These findings suggest that caries-conducive circumstances may promote fluoride uptake by enamel compared with non-caries-conducive circumstances.

  17. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers.

  18. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  19. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  20. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana