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Sample records for artificial photosynthetic reaction

  1. Artificial photosynthetic reaction centers coupled to light-harvesting antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Nori, Franco

    2011-12-01

    We analyze a theoretical model for energy and electron transfer in an artificial photosynthetic system. The photosystem consists of a molecular triad (i.e., with a donor, a photosensitive unit, and an acceptor) coupled to four accessory light-harvesting-antenna pigments. The resonant energy transfer from the antennas to the artificial reaction center (the molecular triad) is described here by the Förster mechanism. We consider two different kinds of arrangements of the accessory light-harvesting pigments around the reaction center. The first arrangement allows direct excitation transfer to the reaction center from all the surrounding pigments. The second configuration transmits energy via a cascade mechanism along a chain of light-harvesting chromophores, where only one chromophore is connected to the reaction center. We show that the artificial photosynthetic system using the cascade energy transfer absorbs photons in a broader wavelength range and converts their energy into electricity with a higher efficiency than the system based on direct couplings between all the antenna chromophores and the reaction center.

  2. Modeling light-driven proton pumps in artificial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Nori, Franco

    2009-07-21

    We study a model of a light-induced proton pump in artificial reaction centers. The model contains a molecular triad with four electron states (i.e., one donor state, two photosensitive group states, and one acceptor state) as well as a molecular shuttle having one electron and one proton-binding sites. The shuttle diffuses between the sides of the membrane and translocates protons energetically uphill: from the negative side to the positive side of the membrane, harnessing for this purpose the energy of the electron-charge separation produced by light. Using the methods of quantum transport theory we calculate the range of light intensity and transmembrane potentials that maximize both the light-induced proton current and the energy transduction efficiency. We also study the effect of temperature on proton pumping. The light-induced proton pump in our model gives a quantum yield of proton translocation of about 55%. Thus, our results explain previous experiments on these artificial photosynthetic reaction centers.

  3. Light induced transmembrane proton gradient in artificial lipid vesicles reconstituted with photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Francesco; Trotta, Massimo; Dorogi, Márta; Fischer, Béla; Giotta, Livia; Agostiano, Angela; Maróti, Péter; Kálmán, László; Nagy, László

    2012-06-01

    Photosynthetic reaction center (RC) is the minimal nanoscopic photoconverter in the photosynthetic membrane that catalyzes the conversion of solar light to energy readily usable for the metabolism of the living organisms. After electronic excitation the energy of light is converted into chemical potential by the generation of a charge separated state accompanied by intraprotein and ultimately transmembrane proton movements. We designed a system which fulfills the minimum structural and functional requirements to investigate the physico/chemical conditions of the processes: RCs were reconstituted in closed lipid vesicles made of selected lipids entrapping a pH sensitive indicator, and electron donors (cytochrome c₂ and K₄[Fe(CN)₆]) and acceptors (decylubiquinone) were added to sustain the photocycle. Thanks to the low proton permeability of our preparations, we could show the formation of a transmembrane proton gradient under illumination and low buffering conditions directly by measuring proton-related signals simultaneously inside and outside the vesicles. The effect of selected ionophores such as gramicidin, nigericin and valinomycin was used to gain more information on the transmembrane proton gradient driven by the RC photochemistry.

  4. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterization of an Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Exhibiting Acid-Responsive Regulation of Charge Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahk, Ian

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a photoprotective regulatory mechanism essential to the robustness of the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants. Energy flow within the low-light adapted reaction centers is dynamically optimized to match the continuously fluctuating light conditions found in nature. Activated by compartmentalized decreases in pH resulting from photosynthetic activity during periods of elevated photon flux, NPQ induces rapid thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy that would otherwise overwhelm the apparatus's ability to consume it. Consequently, the frequency of charge separation decreases and the formation of potentially deleterious, high-energy intermediates slows, thereby reducing the threat of photodamage by disallowing their accumulation. Herein is described the synthesis and photophysical analysis of a molecular triad that mimics the effects of NPQ on charge separation within the photosynthetic reaction centers. Steady-state absorption and emission, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies were used to demonstrate reversible quenching of the first singlet excited state affecting the quantum yield of charge separation by approximately one order of magnitude. As in the natural system, the populations of unquenched and quenched states and, therefore, the overall yields of charge separation were found to be dependent upon acid concentration.

  5. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-07-11

    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis.

  6. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

    2013-11-19

    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the

  7. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  8. Photosynthetic reaction centers/ITO hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Tibor [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Bencsik, Gabor [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Magyar, Melinda [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Visy, Csaba [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gingl, Zoltan [Department of Technical Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nagy, Krisztina; Varo, Gyoergy [Institute of Biophysics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Biological Research Center, Szeged (Hungary); Hajdu, Kata; Kozak, Gabor [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nagy, Laszlo, E-mail: lnagy@sol.cc.u-szeged.hu [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthetic reaction center proteins purified from Rhodobacter sphaeroides purple bacterium were deposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive oxide, and the photochemical/-physical properties of the composite were investigated. The kinetics of the light induced absorption change indicated that the RC was active in the composite and there was an interaction between the protein cofactors and the ITO. The electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytine absorption at 771 nm showed an increased electric field perturbation around this chromophore on the surface of ITO compared to the one measured in solution. This absorption change is associated with the charge-compensating relaxation events inside the protein. Similar life time, but smaller magnitude of this absorption change was measured on the surface of borosilicate glass. The light induced change in the conductivity of the composite as a function of the concentration showed the typical sigmoid saturation characteristics unlike if the photochemically inactive chlorophyll was layered on the ITO. In this later case the light induced change in the conductivity was oppositely proportional to the chlorophyll concentration due to the thermal dissipation of the excitation energy. The sensitivity of the measurement is very high; few picomole RC can change the light induced resistance of the composite. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photosynthetic reaction center/ITO nanocomposite has been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite showed photochemical/-physical activity with very high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This new type of material can be a good model of optoelectronic devices.

  9. Photosynthetic light reactions at the gold interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In the project described in this thesis we studied a simple bio-electronic device for solar energy conversion by surface-assembly of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes on a bare gold-electrode. Optical excitation of the photosynthetic pigments gives rise to charge separation in the so-called r

  10. Quantum measurement corrections to CIDNP in photosynthetic reaction centers

    OpenAIRE

    Kominis, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization is a signature of spin order appearing in many photosynthetic reaction centers. Such polarization, significantly enhanced above thermal equilibrium, is known to result from the nuclear spin sorting inherent in the radical pair mechanism underlying long-lived charge-separated states in photosynthetic reaction centers. We will here show that the recently understood fundamental quantum dynamics of radical-ion-pair reactions open up a new and comple...

  11. Self-Assembly Strategies for Integrating Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

    2017-02-15

    In natural photosynthesis, organisms optimize solar energy conversion through organized assemblies of photofunctional chromophores and catalysts within proteins that provide specifically tailored environments for chemical reactions. As with their natural counterparts, artificial photosynthetic systems for practical solar fuels production must collect light energy, separate charge, and transport charge to catalytic sites where multielectron redox processes will occur. While encouraging progress has been made on each aspect of this complex problem, researchers have not yet developed self-ordering and self-assembling components and the tailored environments necessary to realize a fully-functional artificial system. Previously researchers have used complex, covalent molecular systems comprised of chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors to mimic both the light-harvesting and the charge separation functions of photosynthetic proteins. These systems allow for study of the dependencies of electron transfer rate constants on donor?acceptor distance and orientation, electronic interaction, and the free energy of the reaction. The most useful and informative systems are those in which structural constraints control both the distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors. Self-assembly provides a facile means for organizing large numbers of molecules into supramolecular structures that can bridge length scales from nanometers to macroscopic dimensions. The resulting structures must provide pathways for migration of light excitation energy among antenna chromophores, and from antennas to reaction centers. They also must incorporate charge conduits, that is, molecular 'wires' that can efficiently move electrons and holes between reaction centers and catalytic sites. The central scientific challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with a minimum number of covalent linkages, which also have the appropriate molecular

  12. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions.

  13. Magnetic field effects on photosynthetic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Although the influence of magnetic fields on the rates and product yields of a host of chemical reactions are well documented and can be understood in the framework of the Radical Pair Mechanism (RPM), it has so far proved impossible to demonstrate convincingly a biological RPM effect. In this work

  14. Electron transfer pathway analysis in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center

    CERN Document Server

    Kitoh-Nishioka, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    A new computational scheme to analyze electron transfer (ET) pathways in large biomolecules is presented with applications to ETs in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. It consists of a linear combination of fragment molecular orbitals and an electron tunneling current analysis, which enables an efficient first-principles analysis of ET pathways in large biomolecules. The scheme has been applied to the ET from menaquinone to ubiquinone via nonheme iron complex in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. It has revealed that not only the central Fe$^{2+}$ ion but also particular histidine ligands are involved in the ET pathways in such a way to mitigate perturbations that can be caused by metal ion substitution and depletion, which elucidates the experimentally observed insensitivity of the ET rate to these perturbations.

  15. Quantum oscillatory exciton migration in photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2010-08-14

    The harvesting of solar energy and its conversion to chemical energy is essential for all forms of life. The primary photon absorption, transport, and charge separation events, which trigger a chain of chemical reactions, take place in membrane-bound photosynthetic complexes. Whether quantum effects, stemming from entanglement of chromophores, persist in the energy transport at room temperature, despite the rapid decoherence effects caused by environment fluctuations, is under current active debate. If confirmed, these may explain the high efficiency of light harvesting and open up numerous applications to quantum computing and information processing. We present simulations of the photosynthetic reaction center of photosystem II that clearly establish oscillatory energy transport at room temperature originating from interference of quantum pathways. These signatures of quantum transport may be observed by two dimensional coherent optical spectroscopy.

  16. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  17. Photosynthetic Reaction Centres-from Basic Research to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László NAGY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that studying the photosynthetic conversion of light into chemical energy is extremely important in many points of view; e.g., 1 technical-in order to improve the utilization of the solar energy; 2 food production-to improve the photosynthetic production of plants in agriculture; 3 ecology-keeping the primer production in ecosystems in the biosphere balanced, etc. In the photosynthetic reaction centre protein, RC, light energy is converted by a quantum yield of almost unity. There is no such a system designed by human which is able to do that. The RC purified from purple bacteria provides an extremely unique system for studying the requirements for high efficiency conversion of light into electrochemical energy. Thanks to the recent structural (e.g. crystallography (Nobel prize to Michel, Deisenhofer, Huber and functional (Nobel prize to Marcus results together with the works of molecular biology, computer- and electro-techniques, a wealth of information made a relatively clear picture about the kinetics, energetics and stabilization of electron transport within this protein that opens possibilities for new generation practical applications. In this paper we provide a short summary of fields in which the reaction centre protein can be important from practical points of view.

  18. Protein structure, electron transfer and evolution of prokaryotic photosynthetic reaction centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers from a variety of organisms have been isolated and characterized. The groups of prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms include the purple bacteria, the filamentous green bacteria, the green sulfur bacteria and the heliobacteria as anoxygenic representatives as well as the cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes as oxygenic representatives. This review focuses on structural and functional comparisons of the various groups of photosynthetic reaction centers and considers possible evolutionary scenarios to explain the diversity of existing photosynthetic organisms.

  19. Ultrafast Energy Transfer in an Artificial Photosynthetic Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Grondelle R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We temporally resolved energy transfer kinetics in an artificial light-harvesting dyad composed of a phthalocyanine covalently linked to a carotenoid. Upon carotenoid photo-excitation, energy transfers within ≈100fs (≈52% efficiency to the phthalocyanine.

  20. Conformational regulation of charge recombination reactions in a photosynthetic bacterial reaction center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katona, Gergely; Snijder, Arjan; Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel;

    2005-01-01

    In bright light the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides stabilizes the P(+)(870).Q(-)(A) charge-separated state and thereby minimizes the potentially harmful effects of light saturation. Using X-ray diffraction we report a conformational change that occurs within the cy...

  1. Quantum delocalization directs antenna absorption to photosynthetic reaction centers

    CERN Document Server

    Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Autenrieth, Caroline; Ghosh, Robin; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis -- the conversion of sunlight to chemical energy -- is fundamental for supporting life on our planet. Despite its importance, the physical principles that underpin the primary steps of photosynthesis, from photon absorption to electronic charge separation, remain to be understood in full. Previously, electronic coherence within tightly-packed light-harvesting (LH) units or within individual reaction centers (RCs) has been recognized as an important ingredient for a complete understanding of the excitation energy transfer dynamics. However, the electronic coherence across RC and LH units has been consistently neglected as it does not play a significant role during these relatively slow transfer processes. Here, we turn our attention to the absorption process, which occurs on much shorter timescales. We demonstrate that the - often overlooked - spatially extended but short-lived excitonic delocalization across RC and LH units plays a relevant role in general photosynthetic systems, as it causes a...

  2. Excitonic and vibrational coherence in artificial photosynthetic systems studied by negative-time ultrafast laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongjia; Xue, Bing; Du, Juan; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Miyatake, Tomohiro; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Xing, Xin; Yuan, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Leng, Yuxin

    2016-09-21

    Quantum coherences between excitonic states are believed to have a substantial impact on excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems. Here, the excitonic and vibrational coherence relaxation dynamics of artificially synthetic chlorosomes are studied by a sub 7 fs negative-time-delay laser spectroscopy at room temperature. The results provide direct evidence for the quantum coherence of the excitonic dephasing time of 23 ± 1 fs at physiologically relevant temperatures, which is significant in the initial step of energy transfer in chlorosome or chlorosome-like photosynthetic systems. Meanwhile, coherent molecular vibrations in the excited state are also detected without the effect of wave-packet motion in the ground state, which shows that the excited state wave-packet motion contributes greatly to the vibrational modes of ∼150 and ∼1340 cm(-1) in artificial chlorosome systems.

  3. Structure-function investigations of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, M M; Fufina, T Yu; Vasilieva, L G; Shuvalov, V A

    2011-12-01

    During photosynthesis light energy is converted into energy of chemical bonds through a series of electron and proton transfer reactions. Over the first ultrafast steps of photosynthesis that take place in the reaction center (RC) the quantum efficiency of the light energy transduction is nearly 100%. Compared to the plant and cyanobacterial photosystems, bacterial RCs are well studied and have relatively simple structure. Therefore they represent a useful model system both for manipulating of the electron transfer parameters to study detailed mechanisms of its separate steps as well as to investigate the common principles of the photosynthetic RC structure, function, and evolution. This review is focused on the research papers devoted to chemical and genetic modifications of the RCs of purple bacteria in order to study principles and mechanisms of their functioning. Investigations of the last two decades show that the maximal rates of the electron transfer reactions in the RC depend on a number of parameters. Chemical structure of the cofactors, distances between them, their relative orientation, and interactions to each other are of great importance for this process. By means of genetic and spectral methods, it was demonstrated that RC protein is also an essential factor affecting the efficiency of the photochemical charge separation. Finally, some of conservative water molecules found in RC not only contribute to stability of the protein structure, but are directly involved in the functioning of the complex.

  4. A multi-pathway model for Photosynthetic reaction center

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, M; Yi, X X

    2015-01-01

    Charge separation in light-harvesting complexes occurs in a pair of tightly coupled chlorophylls at the heart of photosynthetic reaction centers of both plants and bacteria. Recently it has been shown that quantum coherence can, in principle, enhance the efficiency of a solar cell, working like a quantum heat engine (QHE). Here, we propose a biological quantum heat engine (BQHE) motivated by Photosystem {\\rm II} reaction center (PS{\\rm II} RC) to describe the charge separation. Our model mainly considers two charge-separation pathways more than that in the published literature. The two pathways can interfere via cross-couplings and work together to enhance the charge-separation yields. We explore how these cross-couplings increase the current and voltage of the charge separation and discuss the advantages of multiple pathways in terms of current and power. The robustness of the BQHE against the charge recombination in natural PS{\\rm II} RC and dephasing induced by environments is also explored, and extension ...

  5. Theoretical study on primary reaction of photosynthetic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯喜; 樊红军; 李良璧; 匡廷云

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical calculation was carried out on the primary electron donor P870 of photosynthetic bacteria. The results show that: (ⅰ) the bimolecular structure of the primary electron donor is more advantageous in energy than monomolecular structure; (ⅱ) the initial configuration of primary electron donor is no longer stable and changes to the configuration with lower energy and chemical reactivity after the charge separation. In the P870, such structural change is completed through the rotation of C3 acetyl, so the oxygen atom of acetyl interacts with the magnesium atom of another bacterio-chlorophyll molecule, and the total energy and chemical reactivity are reduced evidently. It is suggested that the structural change of the primary electron donor is important in preventing the occurrence of charge recombination during the primary reaction and maintaining the high efficiency of the conversion of sun-light to chemical energy. A new mechanism of primary reaction has been proposed, which can give r

  6. Thermite Reaction to Produce Artificial Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Alexandro; Martirosyan, Karen; Kline, Richard

    The degradation of coral reefs is an ecological issue that has prompted new collaboration by different scientific communities that would assist in the regeneration of the reefs. Unfortunately, these processes can be inefficient and extremely expensive prompting a new scientific approach by using solid-state combustion synthesis to regenerate the reefs. In this report we aimed to consolidate a multi-composite material to produce artificial reefs by initiating thermite reaction based on aluminum and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with natural reefs. By Thermodynamic analysis and experimentation it was established that a range between .03-.07 number of moles of PTFE was sufficient to reach an adiabatic temperature of over 1900 K, a sustained reaction and a physically stable product was achieved. Reefs are primarily composed of carbonates but their exact chemical composition can vary. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the reef and revealed presence of oxides, carbonates, silicates. The dominant chemical compounds that were identified are, SiO2 -17%, MgSiO3-14.5%, CaCO3- 11.4%, Ca(Si3O4). Using our thermite reaction we aimed to achieve optimal physical, chemical, and biological properties and maintain cost efficiency of the multi-composite material.

  7. Synthetic Antenna Functioning As Light Harvester in the Whole Visible Region for Enhanced Hybrid Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Omar, Omar; la Gatta, Simona; Tangorra, Rocco Roberto; Milano, Francesco; Ragni, Roberta; Operamolla, Alessandra; Argazzi, Roberto; Chiorboli, Claudio; Agostiano, Angela; Trotta, Massimo; Farinola, Gianluca M

    2016-07-20

    The photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from the Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacterium has been covalently bioconjugated with a NIR-emitting fluorophore (AE800) whose synthesis was specifically tailored to act as artificial antenna harvesting light in the entire visible region. AE800 has a broad absorption spectrum with peaks centered in the absorption gaps of the RC and its emission overlaps the most intense RC absorption bands, ensuring a consistent increase of the protein optical cross section. The covalent hybrid AE800-RC is stable and fully functional. The energy collected by the artificial antenna is transferred to the protein via FRET mechanism, and the hybrid system outperforms by a noteworthy 30% the overall photochemical activity of the native protein under the entire range of visible light. This improvement in the optical characteristic of the photoenzyme demonstrates the effectiveness of the bioconjugation approach as a suitable route to new biohybrid materials for energy conversion, photocatalysis, and biosensing.

  8. Assembly of photosynthetic reaction center with ABA tri-block polymersomes: highlights on the protein localization.

    KAUST Repository

    Tangorra, Roberto Rocco

    2015-07-07

    The reconstitution of the integral membrane protein photosynthetic reaction center (RC) in polymersomes, i. e. artificial closed vesicles, was achieved by the micelle-to-vesicle transition technique, a very mild protocol based on size exclusion chromatography often used to drive the incorporation of proteins contemporarily to liposomes formation. An optimized protocol was used to successfully reconstitute the protein in a fully active state in polymersomes formed by the tri-block copolymers PMOXA22-PDMS61-PMOXA22. The RC is very sensitive to its solubilizing environment and was used to probe the positioning of the protein in the vesicles. According to charge-recombination experiments and to the enzymatic activity assay, the RC is found to accommodate in the PMOXA22 region of the polymersome, facing the water bulk solution, rather than in the PDMS61 transmembrane-like region. Furthermore, polymersomes were found to preserve protein integrity efficiently as the biomimetic lipid bilayers but show a much longer temporal stability than lipid based vesicles.

  9. Interactive effects of cadmium and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Minmin; Wang, Lei; Liang, Chanjuan; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    Interactive effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain and the combined treatment decreased the content of chlorophyll, Hill reaction rate, the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase, maximal photochemical efficiency and maximal quantum yield, increased initial fluorescence and damaged the chloroplast structure in soybean seedlings. In the combined treatment, the change in the photosynthetic parameters and the damage of chloroplast structure were stronger than those of any single pollution. Meanwhile, Cd(2+) and acid rain had the interactive effects on the test indices in soybean seedlings. The results indicated that the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain on the photosynthetic parameters due to the serious damage to the chloroplast structure.

  10. Novel conducting polymer-heteropoly acid hybrid material for artificial photosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Artificial photosynthetic (AP) approaches to convert and store solar energy will require membranes capable of conducting both ions and electrons while remaining relatively transparent and chemically stable. A new approach is applied herein involving previously described in situ chemical polymerization of electronically conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in the presence of proton conducting heteropoly acid (HPA) phosphomolybdic acid (PMA). The electrochemical behaviour of the PEDOT/PMA hybrid material was investigated and it was found that the conducting polymer (CP) is susceptible to irreversible oxidative processes at potentials where water is oxidized. This will be problematic in AP devices should the process occur in very close proximity to a conducting polymer-based membrane. It was found that PEDOT grants the system good electrical performance in terms of conductivity and stability over a large pH window; however, the presence of PMA was not found to provide sufficient proton conductivity. This was addressed in an additional study by tuning the ionic (and in turn, electronic) conductivity in creating composites with the proton-permselective polymer Nafion. It was found that a material of this nature with near-equal conductivity for optimal chemical conversion efficiency will consist of roughly three parts Nafion and one part PEDOT/PMA.

  11. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  12. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-06

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  13. Artificial neural network model for photosynthetic pigments identification using multi wavelength chromatographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilianti, K. R.; Hariyanto, S.; Natali, F. D. D.; Indriatmoko, Adhiwibawa, M. A. S.; Limantara, L.; Brotosudarmo, T. H. P.

    2016-04-01

    The development of rapid and automatic pigment characterization method become an important issue due to the fact that there are only less than 1% of plant pigments in the earth have been explored. In this research, a mathematical model based on artificial intelligence approach was developed to simplify and accelerate pigment characterization process from HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) procedure. HPLC is a widely used technique to separate and identify pigments in a mixture. Input of the model is chromatographic data from HPLC device and output of the model is a list of pigments which is the spectrum pattern is discovered in it. This model provides two dimensional (retention time and wavelength) fingerprints for pigment characterization which is proven to be more accurate than one dimensional fingerprint (fixed wavelength). Moreover, by mimicking interconnection of the neuron in the nervous systems of the human brain, the model have learning ability that could be replacing expert judgement on evaluating spectrum pattern. In the preprocessing step, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the huge dimension of the chromatographic data. The aim of this step is to simplify the model and accelerate the identification process. Six photosynthetic pigments i.e. zeaxantin, pheophytin a, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein could be well identified by the model with accuracy up to 85.33% and processing time less than 1 second.

  14. Photosynthetic antennas and reaction centers: Current understanding and prospects for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, R.E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A brief introduction to the principles, structures and kinetic processes that take place in natural photosynthetic reaction center complexes is presented. Energy is first collected by an antenna system, and is transferred to a reaction center complex where primary electron transfer takes place. Secondary reactions lead to oxidation of water and reduction of CO{sub 2} in some classes of organisms. Antenna systems are highly regulated to maximize energy collection efficiency while avoiding photodamage. Some areas that are presently not well understood are listed.

  15. Dynamical theory of primary processes of charge separation in the photosynthetic reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Victor D

    2005-05-01

    A dynamical theory has been developed for primary separation of charges in the course of photosynthesis. The theory deals with both hopping and superexchange transfer mechanisms. Dynamics of electron transfer from dimeric bacteriochlorophyll to quinone has been calculated. The results obtained agree with experimental data and provide a unified explanation of both the hierarchy of the transfer time in the photosynthetic reaction center and the phenomenon of coherent oscillations accompanying the transfer process.

  16. Quantum nonequilibrium approach for fast electron transport in open systems: photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudlak, M; Pichugin, K N; Nazmitdinov, R G; Pincak, R

    2011-11-01

    Creation of electrons or excitons by external fields in a system with initially statistically independent unrelaxed vibrational modes leads to an initial condition term. The contribution of this term in the time convolution generalized master-equation approach is studied in the second order of the perturbation theory in path-integral formalism. The developed approach, applied for the analysis of dynamics in the photosynthetic reaction center, exhibits the key role of the initial condition terms at the primary stage of electron transfer.

  17. Deceleration of the electron transfer reaction in the photosynthetic reaction centre as a manifestation of its structure fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox P. P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To extract information on the nature of protein structural relaxation from the kinetics of electron transfer reaction in the photosynthetic reaction centre (RC. Methods. The kinetic curves obtained by absorption spectroscopy are processed by a maximum entropy method to get the spectrum of relaxation times. Results. A series of distinctive peaks of this spectrum in the interval from 0.1 s to hundreds of seconds is revealed. With the time of exposure of the sample to actinic light increasing, the positions of the peak maxima grow linearly. Conclusions. Theoretical analysis of these results reveals the formation of several structural states of the RC protein. Remarkably, in each of these states the slow reaction kinetics follow the same fractional power law that reflects the glass-like properties of the protein.

  18. A theoretical study of electronic excited states of photosynthetic reaction center in Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Yanliang; CHENG; Lin; WAN; Jian; LI; Yongjian; LIU; Junjun; YANG; Guangfu; ZHANG; Lihua; YANG; Song

    2006-01-01

    The electronic singlet vertical excited states of photosynthetic reaction center (PSRC) in Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis were investigated by ZINDO and INDO/S methods. The effects of the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein on the electronic excitations were examined. The calculation results showed that the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein play an important role in reasonably assigning the experimental absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of PSRC in Rps. virids. By comparing the theoretically computed excited states with the experimental absorption and CD spectra, satisfactory assignments of the experimental spectroscopic peaks were achieved.

  19. Quantum non-equilibrium approach for fast electron transport in open systems: photosynthetic reaction centers

    CERN Document Server

    Pudlak, M; Nazmitdinov, R G; Pincak, R

    2011-01-01

    Creation of electron or exciton by external fields in a system with initially statistically independent unrelaxed vibrational modes leads to an initial condition term. The contribution of this term in the time convolution generalized master equation approach is studied in second order of the perturbation theory for electron-phonon coupling in the parth integral formalism. The developed approach, applied for analysis of dynamics in the photosynthetic reaction center, exhibits the key role of the initial condition term at the primary stage of electron transfer.

  20. Triplet excitons in natural photosynthetic and artificial light harvesting systems: Measurement and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Daniel Allen

    Under full sunlight, unprotected (Bacterio)Chlorophyll ((B)Chl) molecules photodegrade in a matter of minutes. This is the result of the generation of highly reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) by energy transfer from the (B)Chl triplet state (3(B)Chl) to the oxygen ground state. Natural photosynthetic systems must protect themselves from 1O2, typically done by positioning carotenoids within a few angstroms of each (B)Chl molecule to quench 3(B)Chl states. Using phosphorescence spectroscopy and computational modeling, we investigated alternative, carotenoid independent, mechanisms which nature may employ to prevent 1O2 sensitization by lowering the energy of 3(B)Chl below that of 1O2. The two proposed triplet lowering mechanisms investigated were: triplet state lowering by strong pigment-pigment interactions (i.e. triplet exciton formation) and triplet state lowering by pigment-protein interactions. Possible natural examples employing these mechanisms are two structures found in green sulfur bacteria: the chlorosome (an antenna containing ~100000 coupled BChl c, d, or e molecules with unexpectedly high photostability) and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex (an auxiliary antenna containing eight seemingly unprotected BChl a molecules). Measurements performed on linear aggregates of the dye perylene diimide (PDI) show that triplet exciton formation does reduce the triplet state energy. However, direct measurement of triplet state energies for the chlorosome and FMO complex proved experimentally difficult, thus an alternative approach was used to calculate these energies using empirical and excitonic models. Since the use of excitonic modeling requires knowledge of both the pigment site energies and the pigment-pigment interactions (i.e. couplings), work was performed to catalog the monomeric singlet and triplet state energies of all known natural (B)Chl pigments by direct measurement or computational modeling and to characterize the triplet-triplet (T-T) coupling in

  1. Effect of cerium on photosynthetic pigments and photochemical reaction activity in soybean seedling under ultraviolet-B radiation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Zhang, Guangsheng; Zhou, Qing

    2011-09-01

    Effects of cerium (Ce) on photosynthetic pigments and photochemical reaction activity in soybean (Glycine max L.) under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation stress were studied under laboratory conditions. UV-B radiation caused the decrease in chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, Hill reaction activity, photophosphorylation rate and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. Ce (III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate UV-B-induced inhibition to these photosynthetic parameters because values of these photosynthetic parameters in Ce (III) + UV-B treatment were obviously higher than those with UV-B treatment alone. Dynamic changes of the above photosynthetic parameters show that Ce (III) could slow down the decrease rate of these photosynthetic parameters during a 5-day UV-B radiation and quicken the restoration during recovery period. The final restoration degree of five parameters mentioned above in leaves exposed to low level of UV-B radiation (0.15 W m(2)) was higher than that exposed to high level (0.45 W m(2)). Correlating net photosynthetic rate with other four parameters, we found that the regulating mechanisms Ce (ΠΙ) on photosynthesis under various level of UV-B radiation were not the same. The protective effects of Ce (III) on photosynthesis in plants were influenced by the intensity of UV-B radiation.

  2. Degradation of artificial sweeteners via direct and indirect photochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkola, Noora; Vaalgamaa, Sanna; Jernberg, Joonas; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2016-07-01

    We studied the direct and indirect photochemical reactivity of artificial sweeteners acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose in environm entally relevant dilute aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of sweeteners were irradiated with simulated solar radiation (>290 nm; 96 and 168 h) or ultraviolet radiation (UVR; up to 24 h) for assessing photochemical reactions in surface waters or in water treatment, respectively. The sweeteners were dissolved in deionised water for examination of direct photochemical reactions. Direct photochemical reactions degraded all sweeteners under UVR but only acesulfame under simulated solar radiation. Acesulfame was degraded over three orders of magnitude faster than the other sweeteners. For examining indirect photochemical reactions, the sweeteners were dissolved in surface waters with indigenous dissolved organic matter or irradiated with aqueous solutions of nitrate (1 mg N/L) and ferric iron (2.8 mg Fe/L) introduced as sensitizers. Iron enhanced the photodegradation rates but nitrate and dissolved organic matter did not. UVR transformed acesulfame into at least three products: iso-acesulfame, hydroxylated acesulfame and hydroxypropanyl sulfate. Photolytic half-life was one year for acesulfame and more than several years for the other sweeteners in surface waters under solar radiation. Our study shows that the photochemical reactivity of commonly used artificial sweeteners is variable: acesulfame may be sensitive to photodegradation in surface waters, while saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose degrade very slowly even under the energetic UVR commonly used in water treatment.

  3. Hourly photosynthetically active radiation estimation in Midwestern United States from artificial neural networks and conventional regressions models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolei; Guo, Xulin

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between hourly photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the global solar radiation (R s ) was analyzed from data gathered over 3 years at Bondville, IL, and Sioux Falls, SD, Midwestern USA. These data were used to determine temporal variability of the PAR fraction and its dependence on different sky conditions, which were defined by the clearness index. Meanwhile, models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) were established for predicting hourly PAR. The performance of the proposed models was compared with four existing conventional regression models in terms of the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), the coefficient of determination (r (2)), the mean percentage error (MPE), and the relative standard error (RSE). From the overall analysis, it shows that the ANN model can predict PAR accurately, especially for overcast sky and clear sky conditions. Meanwhile, the parameters related to water vapor do not improve the prediction result significantly.

  4. Hourly photosynthetically active radiation estimation in Midwestern United States from artificial neural networks and conventional regressions models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolei; Guo, Xulin

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between hourly photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the global solar radiation ( R s ) was analyzed from data gathered over 3 years at Bondville, IL, and Sioux Falls, SD, Midwestern USA. These data were used to determine temporal variability of the PAR fraction and its dependence on different sky conditions, which were defined by the clearness index. Meanwhile, models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) were established for predicting hourly PAR. The performance of the proposed models was compared with four existing conventional regression models in terms of the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), the coefficient of determination ( r 2), the mean percentage error (MPE), and the relative standard error (RSE). From the overall analysis, it shows that the ANN model can predict PAR accurately, especially for overcast sky and clear sky conditions. Meanwhile, the parameters related to water vapor do not improve the prediction result significantly.

  5. Organoapatites: materials for artificial bone. II. Hardening reactions and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, S I; Mejicano, G C; Hanson, J A

    1993-03-01

    This article reports on chemical reactions and the properties they generated in artificial bone materials termed "organoapatites." These materials are synthesized using methodology we reported in the previous article of this series. Two different processes were studied here for the transition from organoapatite particles to implants suitable for the restoration of the skeletal system. One process involved the hardening of powder compacts by beams of blue light derived from a lamp or a laser and the other involved pressure-induced interdiffusion of polymers. In both cases, the hardening reaction involved the formation of a polyion complex between two polyelectrolytes. In the photo-induced reaction an anionic electrolyte polymerizes to form the coulombic network and in the pressure-induced one, pressure forms the complex by interdiffusion of two polyions. Model reactions were studied using various polycations. Based on these results the organoapatite selected for the study was that containing dispersed poly(L-lysine) and sodium acrylate as the anionic monomer. The organomineral particles can be pressed at room temperature into objects of great physical integrity and hydrolytic stability relative to anorganic controls. The remarkable fact about these objects is that intimate molecular dispersion of only 2-3% by weight organic material provides integrity to the mineral network in an aqueous medium and also doubles its tensile strength. This integrity is essentially nonexistent in "anorganic" samples prepared by the same methodology used in organoapatite synthesis. The improvement in properties was most effectively produced by molecular bridges formed by photopolymerization. The photopolymerization leads to the "hardening" of pellets prepared by pressing of organoapatite powders. The reaction was found to be more facile in the microstructure of the organomineral, and it is potentially useful in the surgical application of organoapatites as artificial bone.

  6. Transient W-band EPR study of sequential electron transfer in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Utschig, L.M.; Poluektov, O.; Thurnauer, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1999-06-17

    The key reaction of photosynthetic solar energy conversion involves the photoexcitation of a primary donor (P) followed by rapid, sequential electron transfer to a series of acceptors resulting in charge separation. Electron-spin polarized (ESP) EPR spectra at W-band (95 GHz) were obtained for deuterated Fe-removed/Zn-substituted photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers (RCs) to investigate the influence of the rate of charge separation on the observed P{sup +}Q{sub A}{sup {minus}} charge separated state. Temperature dependent ESP EPR spectra for kinetically characterized Zn-substituted RCs from Rb. sphaeroides R-26 having different rates (k{sub Q}) of the electron transfer from the bacteriopheophytin to the quinone acceptor were obtained. The Zn-RCs exhibited either the native fast (200 ps){sup {minus}1} k{sub Q} or a slow (3--6 ns){sup {minus}1} k{sub Q} at 298 K as determined from transient optical measurements. Sequential electron-transfer polarization modeling of the polarized W-band EPR spectra obtained with these samples was used to address the reason for the differences in the electron-transfer rates. Here, the authors report the k{sub Q} rate constant, the temperature dependence of k{sub Q}, and the reorganization energy for the P{sup +}H{sup {minus}}Q{sub A} and P{sup +}HQ{sub A}{sup {minus}} electron-transfer step determined from SETP modeling of the experimental spectra. The reorganization energy for the electron-transfer process between P{sup +}H{sup {minus}}Q{sub A} and P{sup +}HQ{sub A}{sup {minus}}, and not structural changes in the donor or acceptor, was found to be the dominant factor that is altered during Fe-removal procedures.

  7. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron transport reactions of desert succulents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetti, M B; Nobel, P S

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron transport reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increases in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60 degrees C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30 degrees C/20 degrees C, treatment at 50 degrees C caused these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30 degrees C/20 degrees C to 45 degrees C/35 degrees C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3 degrees C to 8 degrees C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45 degrees C/35 degrees C plants treated at 60 degrees C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plant so far reported.

  8. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  9. Bio-Inspired Assembly of Artificial Photosynthetic Antenna Complexes for Development of Nanobiodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    complexes involved in the primary reactions of bacterial photosynthesis . The structure of the reaction center (RC, the first membrane protein to have its...role in the primary process of purple bacterial photosynthesis that is, capturing light energy, transferring it to the RC where it is used in...planar lipid bilayers, through vesicle-to-planar membrane formation, could be confirmed by absorption spectroscopy and high resolution atomic force

  10. PSI Mehler reaction is the main alternative photosynthetic electron pathway in Symbiodinium sp., symbiotic dinoflagellates of cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberty, Stéphane; Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas; Franck, Fabrice; Cardol, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have developed various photoprotective mechanisms to cope with exposure to high light intensities. In photosynthetic dinoflagellates that live in symbiosis with cnidarians, the nature and relative amplitude of these regulatory mechanisms are a matter of debate. In our study, the amplitude of photosynthetic alternative electron flows (AEF) to oxygen (chlororespiration, Mehler reaction), the mitochondrial respiration and the Photosystem I (PSI) cyclic electron flow were investigated in strains belonging to three clades (A1, B1 and F1) of Symbiodinium. Cultured Symbiodinium strains were maintained under identical environmental conditions, and measurements of oxygen evolution, fluorescence emission and absorption changes at specific wavelengths were used to evaluate PSI and PSII electron transfer rates (ETR). A light- and O2 -dependent ETR was observed in all strains. This electron transfer chain involves PSII and PSI and is insensitive to inhibitors of mitochondrial activity and carbon fixation. We demonstrate that in all strains, the Mehler reaction responsible for photoreduction of oxygen by the PSI under high light, is the main AEF at the onset and at the steady state of photosynthesis. This sustained photosynthetic AEF under high light intensities acts as a photoprotective mechanism and leads to an increase of the ATP/NADPH ratio.

  11. Structure and binding efficiency relations of QB site inhibitors of photosynthetic reaction centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husu, Ivan; Magyar, Melinda; Szabó, Tibor; Fiser, Béla; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Nagy, László

    2015-04-01

    Many herbicides employed in agriculture and also some antibiotics bind to a specific site of the reaction centre protein (RC) blocking the photosynthetic electron transport. Crystal structures showed that all these compounds bind at the secondary ubiquinone (QB) site albeit to slightly different places. Different herbicide molecules have different binding affinities (evaluated as inhibition constants, KI, and binding enthalpy values, ΔHbind). The action of inhibitors depends on the following parameters: (i) herbicide molecular structure; (ii) interactions between herbicide and quinone binding site; (iii) protein environment. In our investigations KI and ΔHbind were determined for several inhibitors. Bound herbicide structures were optimized and their intramolecular charge distributions were calculated. Experimental and calculated data were compared to those available from databank crystal structures. We can state that the herbicide inhibition efficiency depends on steric and electronic, i.e. geometry of binding with the protein and molecular charge distribution, respectively. Apolar bulky groups on N-7 atom of the inhibitor molecule (like t-buthyl in terbutryn) are preferable for establishing stronger interactions with QB site, while such substituents are not recommended on N-8. The N-4,7,8 nitrogen atoms maintain a larger electron density so that more effective H-bonds are formed between the inhibitor and the surrounding amino acids of the protein.

  12. Absence of large-scale displacement of quinone QB in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Jacques

    2004-03-30

    Photosynthesis transforms light into chemical energy by coupling electron transfer to proton uptake at the quinone Q(B). The possibility of initiating this process with a brief pulse of light and the known X-ray structure makes the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center a paradigm for studying coupled electron-proton transfer in biology. It has been established that electron transfer from the primary quinone Q(A) to Q(B) is gated by a protein conformational change. On the basis of a dramatic difference in the location of Q(B) in structures derived from crystals cooled to 90 K either under illumination or in the dark, a functional model for the gating mechanism was proposed whereby neutral Q(B) moves 4.5 A before receiving the electron from Q(A)(-) [Stowell, M. H. B., McPhillips, T. M., Rees, D. C., Soltis, S. M., Abresch, E., and Feher, G. (1997) Science 276, 812-816]. Isotope-edited FTIR difference spectroscopy of Q(B) photoreduction at 290 and 85 K is used to investigate whether Q(B) moves upon reduction. We show that the specific interactions of the carbonyl groups of Q(B) and Q(B)(-) with the protein at a single binding site remain identical at both temperatures. Therefore, the different locations of Q(B) reported in many X-ray crystal structures probably are unrelated to functional electron transfer from Q(A)(-) to Q(B).

  13. Stigmatellin probes the electrostatic potential in the QB site of the photosynthetic reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerencsér, László; Boros, Bogáta; Derrien, Valerie; Hanson, Deborah K; Wraight, Colin A; Sebban, Pierre; Maróti, Péter

    2015-01-20

    The electrostatic potential in the secondary quinone (QB) binding site of the reaction center (RC) of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides determines the rate and free energy change (driving force) of electron transfer to QB. It is controlled by the ionization states of residues in a strongly interacting cluster around the QB site. Reduction of the QB induces change of the ionization states of residues and binding of protons from the bulk. Stigmatellin, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial and photosynthetic respiratory chain, has been proven to be a unique voltage probe of the QB binding pocket. It binds to the QB site with high affinity, and the pK value of its phenolic group monitors the local electrostatic potential with high sensitivity. Investigations with different types of detergent as a model system of isolated RC revealed that the pK of stigmatellin was controlled overwhelmingly by electrostatic and slightly by hydrophobic interactions. Measurements showed a high pK value (>11) of stigmatellin in the QB pocket of the dark-state wild-type RC, indicating substantial negative potential. When the local electrostatics of the QB site was modulated by a single mutation, L213Asp → Ala, or double mutations, L213Asp-L212Glu → Ala-Ala (AA), the pK of stigmatellin dropped to 7.5 and 7.4, respectively, which corresponds to a >210 mV increase in the electrostatic potential relative to the wild-type RC. This significant pK drop (ΔpK > 3.5) decreased dramatically to (ΔpK > 0.75) in the RC of the compensatory mutant (AA+M44Asn → AA+M44Asp). Our results indicate that the L213Asp is the most important actor in the control of the electrostatic potential in the QB site of the dark-state wild-type RC, in good accordance with conclusions of former studies using theoretical calculations or light-induced charge recombination assay.

  14. The electronic behavior of a photosynthetic reaction center monitored by conductive atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikayama, Takeshi; Iida, Kouji; Suemori, Yoshiharu; Dewa, Takehisa; Miyashita, Tokuji; Nango, Mamoru; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The conductivity of a photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was measured with conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) on SAM-modified Au(111) substrates. 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), 2-mercaptoacetic acid (MAC), 2-mercaptopyridine (2MP) and 4-mercaptopyridine (4MP) were prepared as SAM materials to investigate the stability and morphology of RCs on the substrate by using near-IR absorption spectroscopy and AFM, respectively. The clear presence of the three well known RC near-IR absorption peaks indicates that the RCs were native on the SAM-modified Au(111). Dense grains with various diameters of 5-20 nm, which corresponded to mixtures of single RCs up to aggregates of 10, were observed in topographs of RCs adsorbed on all the different SAM-modified Au(111) substrates. The size of currents obtained from the RC using a bare conductive cantilever were produced in the following order for SAM molecules: 2MP > 2ME > 4MP > MAC. A clear rectification of this current was observed for the modification of the Au(111) substrate with the pi-conjugated thiol, 2MP, indicating that 2MP was effective in both promoting the specific orientation of the RCs on the electrode and electron injection into the RC. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that the 2MP is better mediator for the electron transfer between a quinone and substrate. The current with 2MP-modified cantilever was twice as high as that obtained with the Au-coated one alone, indicating that 2MP has an important role in lowering the electron injection barrier between special pair side of RC and gold electrode.

  15. Etiopathogenesis of hemolytic reactions in total artificial heart recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasků, J; Urbánek, P

    1997-12-01

    Hemolysis in total artificial heart (TAH) recipients was analyzed. From a total of 66 long-term experiments lasting from 30-314 days performed in the Brno Research Center, in 53 animals, the total red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, and free plasma hemoglobin were investigated. We could essentially divide the whole group of calves in 2 subgroups. The first subgroup was calves with hemolytic reactions, and the second subgroup was calves without any hemolytic reaction at all. In the first subgroup, hemolysis occurred in 47% of the overall number of animals during extracorporeal circulation (ECC), in 15% during ECC and later periodically during the experiment, in 8% during ECC and then continuously during the experiment, and finally in 10% not during ECC but repeatedly during the experiment. In 20% of the animals from the overall number, hemolysis did not occur at all (second subgroup). These results testify to the great individual differences within 1 breed (Bohemian with a substantial component of Holstein). These differences are further modified by exogenous and endogenous factors. First, the inborn resistance of the RBC membrane and also thrombi formation and the mineralization of the driving diaphragm are very important. The extreme situation of decreased RBC membrane resistance was proved using a calf from another breed, the slow growing Scottish Highland breed, which did not survive 22 days of pumping due to intractable lethal hemolysis. These factors are also indicated by the hemolytic action of some drugs (e.g., Dopegyt) used during the experiment for another reason. Also important are the mechanical forces of pumping, surface moieties of the biomaterial, mineralization of the driving diaphragms, thrombi formation, infection, etc. Essentially, the hemolytic reaction in the TAH recipient has a multifactorial character. Hemolysis is undoubtedly an important factor, which can have a profound impact on the length of survival. The

  16. Triplet state dynamics of chlorophylls in photosynthetic reaction centers and model systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van F.G.H.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the temperature dependence of the lineshape, and more specifically, the electron spin polarization pattern of the Δm = ±1 triplet EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectra from several photosynthetic purple bacteria has been investigated.In Chapter I a general introduction is presen

  17. Genetic probes of structure/function relationships in the Q{sub B} binding site of the photosynthetic reaction center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.K.; Tiede, D.M.; Nance, S.L.; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Schiffer, M.

    1991-06-25

    In photosynthetic reaction centers, a quinone molecule, Q{sub B}, is the terminal acceptor in light-induced electron transfer. The crystal structure of the reaction center implicates the protonatable amiho acid residues L212Glu and L213Asp in the binding of Q{sub B} to the reaction center and in proton transfer to the anionic forms of Q{sub B} generated by electron transfer from Q{sub A}. Here we report the construction of the double mutant L212Ala-L213Ala by site-specific mutagenesis, and the isolation and preliminary biophysical characterization of revertant and suppressor strains that have regained the ability to grow under photosynthetic conditions. Our results show that neither L212Glu nor L213Asp is essential for efficient light-induced electron or proton transfer in Rhodobacter capsulatus and that second-site mutations, located within the QB binding pocket or at a more distant site, can compensate for mutations at L212 and L213. Acquisition of a single negatively charged residue (at position L213, or on the other side of the binding pocket at position L225) or loss of a positively charged residue (at position M231) is sufficient to restore activity to the complex.

  18. Spin densities from subsystem density-functional theory: Assessment and application to a photosynthetic reaction center complex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyeva, Alisa [Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Technical University Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Str. 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Pavanello, Michele [Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Neugebauer, Johannes [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Str. 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-05-21

    Subsystem density-functional theory (DFT) is a powerful and efficient alternative to Kohn-Sham DFT for large systems composed of several weakly interacting subunits. Here, we provide a systematic investigation of the spin-density distributions obtained in subsystem DFT calculations for radicals in explicit environments. This includes a small radical in a solvent shell, a {pi}-stacked guanine-thymine radical cation, and a benchmark application to a model for the special pair radical cation, which is a dimer of bacteriochlorophyll pigments, from the photosynthetic reaction center of purple bacteria. We investigate the differences in the spin densities resulting from subsystem DFT and Kohn-Sham DFT calculations. In these comparisons, we focus on the problem of overdelocalization of spin densities due to the self-interaction error in DFT. It is demonstrated that subsystem DFT can reduce this problem, while it still allows to describe spin-polarization effects crossing the boundaries of the subsystems. In practical calculations of spin densities for radicals in a given environment, it may thus be a pragmatic alternative to Kohn-Sham DFT calculations. In our calculation on the special pair radical cation, we show that the coordinating histidine residues reduce the spin-density asymmetry between the two halves of this system, while inclusion of a larger binding pocket model increases this asymmetry. The unidirectional energy transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers is related to the asymmetry introduced by the protein environment.

  19. Photocurrent Generation by Photosynthetic Purple Bacterial Reaction Centers Interfaced with a Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide (ATO) Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhang, HaoJie; Mieritz, Daniel; Volosin, Alex; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Yan, Hao; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Lin, Su; Woodbury, Neal W

    2016-09-28

    The ability to exchange energy and information between biological and electronic materials is critical in the development of hybrid electronic systems in biomedicine, environmental sensing, and energy applications. While sensor technology has been extensively developed to collect detailed molecular information, less work has been done on systems that can specifically modulate the chemistry of the environment with temporal and spatial control. The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center represents an ideal photonic component of such a system in that it is capable of modifying local chemistry via light-driven redox reactions with quantitative control over reaction rates and has inherent spectroscopic probes for monitoring function. Here a well-characterized model system is presented, consisting of a transparent, porous electrode (antimony-doped tin oxide) which is electrochemically coupled to the reaction center via a cytochrome c molecule. Upon illumination, the reaction center performs the 2-step, 2-electron reduction of a ubiquinone derivative which exchanges with oxidized quinone in solution. Electrons from the electrode then move through the cytochrome to reoxidize the reaction center electron donor. The result is a facile platform for performing redox chemistry that can be optically and electronically controlled in time and space.

  20. Equilibration kinetics in isolated and membrane-bound photosynthetic reaction centers upon illumination: a method to determine the photoexcitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony J; Goushcha, Alexander O; Barabash, Yuri M; Kharkyanen, Valery N; Scott, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    Kinetics of electron transfer, following variation of actinic light intensity, for photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of purple bacteria (isolated and membrane-bound) were analyzed by measuring absorbance changes in the primary photoelectron donor absorption band at 865 nm. The bleaching of the primary photoelectron donor absorption band in RCs, following a sudden increase of illumination from the dark to an actinic light intensity of I(exp), obeys a simple exponential law with the rate constant alphaI(exp) + k(rec), in which alpha is a parameter relating the light intensity, measured in mW/cm(2), to a corresponding theoretical rate in units of reciprocal seconds, and k(rec) is the effective rate constant of the charge recombination in the photosynthetic RCs. In this work, a method for determining the alpha parameter value is developed and experimentally verified for isolated and membrane-bound RCs, allowing for rigorous modeling of RC macromolecule dynamics under varied photoexcitation conditions. Such modeling is necessary for RCs due to alterations of the forward photoexcitation rates and relaxation rates caused by illumination history and intramolecular structural dynamics effects. It is demonstrated that the classical Bouguer-Lambert-Beer formalism can be applied for the samples with relatively low scattering, which is not necessarily the case with strongly scattering media or high light intensity excitation.

  1. Probing the Energy Transfer Dynamics of Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complexes Through Hole-Burning and Single-Complex Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Kerry Joseph [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is used to drive reactions that generate sugars to supply energy for cellular processes. It is one of the most important fundamental biological reactions and occurs in both prokaryotic (e.g. bacteria) and eukaryotic (e.g. plants and algae) organisms. Photosynthesis is also remarkably intricate, requiring the coordination of many different steps and reactions in order to successfully transform absorbed solar energy into a biochemical usable form of energy. However, the net reaction for all photosynthetic organisms can be reduced to the following, deceptively general, equation developed by Van Niel[1] H2 - D + Aimplieshv A - H2 + D where H2-D is the electron donor, e.g. H2O, H2S. A is the electron acceptor, e.g. CO2, and A-H2 is the synthesized sugar. Amazingly, this simple net equation is responsible for creating the oxidizing atmosphere of Earth and the recycling of CO2, both of which are necessary for the sustainment of the global ecosystem.

  2. The functional role of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers investigated by elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieper Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review summarizes our current knowledge about the functional relevance of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. In the case of Photosystem II membrane fragments, elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments reveal a dynamical transition at about 240 K corresponding to the activation of picosecond molecular motions. Likewise, a “freezing” of molecular dynamics is observed upon dehydration. Intriguingly, these effects correlate with the pronounced temperature- and hydration-dependence of specific electron transfer steps in Photosystem II indicating that molecular dynamics is an indispensable prerequisite for its function. Thus, electron transfer in Photosystem II appears to be a prototypical example for a dynamics-function correlation. Finally, the laser-neutron pump-probe technique is shown to permit in-situ monitoring of molecular dynamics in specific functional states of a protein in real time.

  3. Extension of Light-Harvesting Ability of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) through Ultrafast Energy Transfer from Covalently Attached Artificial Chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Yusuke; Noji, Tomoyasu; Katayama, Tetsuro; Mizutani, Naoto; Komori, Daisuke; Nango, Mamoru; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Itoh, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Yutaka; Dewa, Takehisa

    2015-10-14

    Introducing appropriate artificial components into natural biological systems could enrich the original functionality. To expand the available wavelength range of photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila 10050), artificial fluorescent dye (Alexa Fluor 647: A647) was covalently attached to N- and C-terminal Lys residues in LH2 α-polypeptides with a molar ratio of A647/LH2 ≃ 9/1. Fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopies revealed that intracomplex energy transfer from A647 to intrinsic chromophores of LH2 (B850) occurs in a multiexponential manner, with time constants varying from 440 fs to 23 ps through direct and B800-mediated indirect pathways. Kinetic analyses suggested that B800 chromophores mediate faster energy transfer, and the mechanism was interpretable in terms of Förster theory. This study demonstrates that a simple attachment of external chromophores with a flexible linkage can enhance the light harvesting activity of LH2 without affecting inherent functions of energy transfer, and can achieve energy transfer in the subpicosecond range. Addition of external chromophores, thus, represents a useful methodology for construction of advanced hybrid light-harvesting systems that afford solar energy in the broad spectrum.

  4. Two-color Three-pulse Photon Echo Studies on the Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Center

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hohjai

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis begins with absorbing the sun light by the light harvesting complexes. The solar energy is then funneled into the reaction center (RC) via the energy transfer between the light harvesting complexes at ultrafast rates (~1/100fs ) with extremely high quantum efficiency (~100 %). Most of the complexes are composed of pigments and protein matrices that tightly bind them. The pigments are responsible for absorbing and transferring the energy. The roles of the protein environment of ...

  5. Small chloroplast-targeted DnaJ proteins are involved in optimization of photosynthetic reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piippo Mirva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DnaJ proteins participate in many metabolic pathways through dynamic interactions with various components of these processes. The role of three small chloroplast-targeted DnaJ proteins, AtJ8 (At1 g80920, AtJ11 (At4 g36040 and AtJ20 (At4 g13830, was investigated here using knock-out mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Photochemical efficiency, capacity of CO2 assimilation, stabilization of Photosystem (PS II dimers and supercomplexes under high light illumination, energy distribution between PSI and PSII and phosphorylation of PSII-LHCII proteins, global gene expression profiles and oxidative stress responses of these DnaJ mutants were analyzed. Results Knockout of one of these proteins caused a series of events including a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency, destabilization of PSII complexes and loss of control for balancing the redox reactions in chloroplasts. Data obtained with DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that the lack of one of these DnaJ proteins triggers a global stress response and therefore confers the plants greater tolerance to oxidative stress induced by high light or methyl viologen treatments. Expression of a set of genes encoding enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS as well as a number of stress-related transcription factors behaved in the mutants at growth light similarly to that when wild-type (WT plants were transferred to high light. Also a set of genes related to redox regulation were upregulated in the mutants. On the other hand, although the three DnaJ proteins reside in chloroplasts, the expression of most genes encoding thylakoid membrane proteins was not changed in the mutants. Conclusion It is proposed that the tolerance of the DnaJ protein knockout plants to oxidative stress occurs at the expense of the flexibility of photosynthetic reactions. Despite the fact that the effects of the individual protein knockout on the response of plants to high light treatment are quite similar

  6. Artificial Force Induced Reaction (AFIR) Method for Exploring Quantum Chemical Potential Energy Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Harabuchi, Yu; Takagi, Makito; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Morokuma, Keiji

    2016-10-01

    In this account, a technical overview of the artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method is presented. The AFIR method is one of the automated reaction-path search methods developed by the authors, and has been applied extensively to a variety of chemical reactions, such as organocatalysis, organometallic catalysis, and photoreactions. There are two modes in the AFIR method, i.e., a multicomponent mode and a single-component mode. The former has been applied to bimolecular and multicomponent reactions and the latter to unimolecular isomerization and dissociation reactions. Five numerical examples are presented for an Aldol reaction, a Claisen rearrangement, a Co-catalyzed hydroformylation, a fullerene structure search, and a nonradiative decay path search in an electronically excited naphthalene molecule. Finally, possible applications of the AFIR method are discussed.

  7. Structural analysis of the homodimeric reaction center complex from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guannan; Zhang, Hao; King, Jeremy D; Blankenship, Robert E

    2014-08-05

    The reaction center (RC) complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is composed of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein (FMO) and the reaction center core (RCC) complex. The RCC complex has four subunits: PscA, PscB, PscC, and PscD. We studied the FMO/RCC complex by chemically cross-linking the purified sample followed by biochemical and spectroscopic analysis. Blue-native gels showed that there were two types of FMO/RCC complexes, which are consistent with complexes with one copy of FMO per RCC and two copies of FMO per RCC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the samples after cross-linking showed that all five subunits of the RC can be linked by three different cross-linkers: bissulfosuccinimidyl suberate, disuccinimidyl suberate, and 3,3-dithiobis-sulfosuccinimidyl propionate. The interaction sites of the cross-linked complex were also studied using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that FMO, PscB, PscD, and part of PscA are exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. PscD helps stabilize FMO to the reaction center and may facilitate transfer of the electron from the RC to ferredoxin. The soluble domain of the heme-containing cytochrome subunit PscC and part of the core subunit PscA are located on the periplasmic side of the membrane. There is a close relationship between the periplasmic portions of PscA and PscC, which is needed for the efficient transfer of the electron between PscC and P840.

  8. A single residue controls electron transfer gating in photosynthetic reaction centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyk, Oksana; Samish, Ilan; Matěnová, Martina; Dulebo, Alexander; Poláková, Helena; Kaftan, David; Scherz, Avigdor

    2017-01-01

    Interquinone QA− → QB electron-transfer (ET) in isolated photosystem II reaction centers (PSII-RC) is protein-gated. The temperature-dependent gating frequency “k” is described by the Eyring equation till levelling off at T ≥ 240 °K. Although central to photosynthesis, the gating mechanism has not been resolved and due to experimental limitations, could not be explored in vivo. Here we mimic the temperature dependency of “k” by enlarging VD1-208, the volume of a single residue at the crossing point of the D1 and D2 PSII-RC subunits in Synechocystis 6803 whole cells. By controlling the interactions of the D1/D2 subunits, VD1-208 (or 1/T) determines the frequency of attaining an ET-active conformation. Decelerated ET, impaired photosynthesis, D1 repair rate and overall cell physiology upon increasing VD1-208 to above 130 Å3, rationalize the >99% conservation of small residues at D1-208 and its homologous motif in non-oxygenic bacteria. The experimental means and resolved mechanism are relevant for numerous transmembrane protein-gated reactions. PMID:28300167

  9. The binding of quinone to the photosynthetic reaction centers: kinetics and thermodynamics of reactions occurring at the QB-site in zwitterionic and anionic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavelli, Fabio; Trotta, Massimo; Ciriaco, Fulvio; Agostiano, Angela; Giotta, Livia; Italiano, Francesca; Milano, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Liposomes represent a versatile biomimetic environment for studying the interaction between integral membrane proteins and hydrophobic ligands. In this paper, the quinone binding to the QB-site of the photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been investigated in liposomes prepared with either the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) or the negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to highlight the role of the different phospholipid polar heads. Quinone binding (K Q) and interquinone electron transfer (L AB) equilibrium constants in the two type of liposomes were obtained by charge recombination reaction of QB-depleted RC in the presence of increasing amounts of ubiquinone-10 over the temperature interval 6-35 °C. The kinetic of the charge recombination reactions has been fitted by numerically solving the ordinary differential equations set associated with a detailed kinetic scheme involving electron transfer reactions coupled with quinone release and uptake. The entire set of traces at each temperature was accurately fitted using the sole quinone release constants (both in a neutral and a charge separated state) as adjustable parameters. The temperature dependence of the quinone exchange rate at the QB-site was, hence, obtained. It was found that the quinone exchange regime was always fast for PC while it switched from slow to fast in PG as the temperature rose above 20 °C. A new method was introduced in this paper for the evaluation of constant K Q using the area underneath the charge recombination traces as the indicator of the amount of quinone bound to the QB-site.

  10. Detection of photosynthetic energy storage in a photosystem I reaction center preparation by photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, T G; Carpentier, R; Leblanc, R M

    1990-06-01

    Thermal emission and photochemical energy storage were examined in photosystem I reaction center/core antenna complexes (about 40 Chl a/P700) using photoacoustic spectroscopy. Satisfactory signals could only be obtained from samples bound to hydroxyapatite and all samples had a low signal-to-noise ratio compared to either PS I or PS II in thylakoid membranes. The energy storage signal was saturated at low intensity (half saturation at 1.5 W m(-2)) and predicted a photochemical quantum yield of >90%. Exogenous donors and acceptors had no effect on the signal amplitudes indicating that energy storage is the result of charge separation between endogenous components. Fe(CN)6 (-3) oxidation of P700 and dithionite-induced reduction of acceptors FA-FB inhibited energy storage. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that energy storage in PS I arises from charge separation between P700 and Fe-S centers FA-FB that is stable on the time scale of the photoacoustic modulation. High intensity background light (160 W m(-2)) caused an irreversible loss of energy storage and correlated with a decrease in oxidizable P700; both are probably the result of high light-induced photoinhibition. By analogy to the low fluorescence yield of PS I, the low signal-to-noise ratio in these preparations is attributed to the short lifetime of Chl singlet excited states in PS I-40 and its indirect effect on the yield of thermal emission.

  11. Optimizing multi-step B-side charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faries, Kaitlyn M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kressel, Lucas L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dylla, Nicholas P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wander, Marc J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanson, Deborah K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Holten, Dewey [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Laible, Philip D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kirmaier, Christine [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Using high-throughput methods for mutagenesis, protein isolation and charge-separation functionality, we have assayed 40 Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction center (RC) mutants for their P+ QB- yield (P is a dimer of bacteriochlorophylls and Q is a ubiquinone) as produced using the normally inactive B-side cofactors BB and HB (where B is a bacteriochlorophyll and H is a bacteriopheophytin). Two sets of mutants explore all possible residues at M131 (M polypeptide, native residue Val near HB) in tandem with either a fixed His or a fixed Asn at L181 (L polypeptide, native residue Phe near BB). A third set of mutants explores all possible residues at L181 with a fixed Glu at M131 that can form a hydrogen bond to HB. For each set of mutants, the results of a rapid millisecond screening assay that probes the yield of P+ QB- are compared among that set and to the other mutants reported here or previously. For a subset of eight mutants, the rate constants and yields of the individual B-side electron transfer processes are determined via transient absorption measurements spanning 100 fs to 50 μs. The resulting ranking of mutants for their yield of P+ QB- from ultrafast experiments is in good agreement with that obtained from the millisecond screening assay, further validating the efficient, high-throughput screen for B-side transmembrane charge separation. Results from mutants that individually show progress toward optimization of P+ HB- → P+ QB- electron transfer or initial P* → P+ HB- conversion highlight unmet challenges of optimizing both processes simultaneously.

  12. Cyclotriphosphazene appended porphyrins and fulleropyrrolidine complexes as supramolecular multiple photosynthetic reaction centers: steady and excited states photophysical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishnu Sukumaran; Pareek, Yogita; Karunakaran, Venugopal; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2014-06-01

    New multiple photosynthetic reaction centers were constructed from cyclophosphazene decorated multiporphyrin chromophores and a fulleropyrrolidine having a pyridine ligand (FPY). The excited state electron transfer in the self-assembled donor-acceptor assembly was investigated by using steady state absorption and emission, time-resolved emission spectroscopy and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The effect of metal (Zn(2+)) coordination to porphyrin units in the multiporphyrin arrays on cyclophosphazine scaffold (P3N3Zn) was studied by comparing with metal free porphyrin assembly on a cyclophosphazene scaffold (P3N3). In P3N3Zn, the decrease of absorption and fluorescence intensity and the lowering of the amplitude of longer fluorescence lifetime with increase of FPY concentration reflect the formation of a ground state complex with an association constant of ∼14,910 M(-1). When compared to the metal-free complex P3N3, the metal-coordinated derivative P3N3Zn exhibited shortening of the singlet and triplet state lifetimes and lowering of the singlet and triplet quantum yields. The cause of the decrease of the triplet quantum yields by insertion of zinc metal is discussed along with the possible non-planarity of the porphyrin ring. From the fluorescence lifetime measurements for the P3N3Zn-FPY mixture, it is proposed that self-assembly of the donor-acceptor complex leads to charge separated species with a rate constant of 7.1 × 10(9) s(-1). The decrease of triplet state intensity and lifetime of the P3N3Zn in the P3N3Zn-FPY complex from the nanosecond transient absorption studies support the occurrence of intermolecular electron transfer in the triplet state.

  13. Affinity and activity of non-native quinones at the QB site of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Gunner, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Purple, photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from Rb. sphaeroides bacteria use UQ10 as primary (QA) and secondary (QB) electron acceptors. Many quinones reconstitute QA function, while few will act as QB. Nine quinones were tested for their ability to bind and reconstitute QA and QB function. Only ubiquinone (UQ) reconstitutes both QA and QB function in the same protein. The affinities of the non-native quinones for the QB site were determined by a competitive inhibition assay. The affinities of benzoquinones (BQ), napthoquinone (NQ) and 2-methyl-NQ for the QB site are 7±3 times weaker than for the QA site. However, di-ortho substituted NQs and anthraquinone bind tightly to the QA site (Kd ≤200 nM) and ≥1000 times more weakly to the QB site, perhaps setting a limit on the size of the site. With a low potential electron donor (2-methyl, 3-dimethylamino-1,4-Napthoquinone (Me-diMeAm-NQ)) at QA, QB reduction is 260 meV more favorable than with UQ as QA. Electron transfer from Me-diMeAm-NQ at the QA site to NQ at the QB site can be detected. In the QB site the NQ semiquinone is estimated to be ≈ 60–100 meV higher in energy than the UQ semiquinone, while in the QA site the semiquinone energy level is similar or lower with NQ than with UQ. Thus, the NQ semiquinone is more stable in the QA than QB site. In contrast, the native UQ semiquinone is ≈ 60 meV lower in energy in the QB than the QA site, stabilizing forward electron transfer from QA to QB. PMID:23715773

  14. Photosynthetic reaction center functionalized nano-composite films: effective strategies for probing and exploiting the photo-induced electron transfer of photosensitive membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yidong; Xu, Jingjing; Liu, Baohong; Kong, Jilie

    2007-02-15

    Photosynthetic reaction center (RC), a robust transmembrane pigment-protein complex, works as the crucial component participating the primary event of the photo-electrochemical conversion in bacteria. Sparked by the high photo-induced charge separation yield (ca. 100%) of RC, great interests have been aroused to fabricate versatile RC-functionalized nano-composite films for exploring the initial photosynthetic electron transfer (ET) of RC, and thus exploiting well-designed bio-photoelectric converters. In this review, we classify and summarize the current status about the concepts and methods of constructing RC-immobilized nano-composite films or devices for probing the photo-induced ET, and applying to novel bioelectronics if it is possible.

  15. Modulation of the fluorescence yield in heliobacterial cells by induction of charge recombination in the photosynthetic reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Kevin E; Sarrou, Iosifina; Rappaport, Fabrice; Santabarbara, Stefano; Lin, Su; Reifschneider, Kiera T

    2014-05-01

    Heliobacteria contain a very simple photosynthetic apparatus, consisting of a homodimeric type I reaction center (RC) without a peripheral antenna system and using the unique pigment bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) g. They are thought to use a light-driven cyclic electron transport pathway to pump protons, and thereby phosphorylate ADP, although some of the details of this cycle are yet to be worked out. We previously reported that the fluorescence emission from the heliobacterial RC in vivo was increased by exposure to actinic light, although this variable fluorescence phenomenon exhibited very different characteristics to that in oxygenic phototrophs (Collins et al. 2010). Here, we describe the underlying mechanism behind the variable fluorescence in heliobacterial cells. We find that the ability to stably photobleach P800, the primary donor of the RC, using brief flashes is inversely correlated to the variable fluorescence. Using pump-probe spectroscopy in the nanosecond timescale, we found that illumination of cells with bright light for a few seconds put them in a state in which a significant fraction of the RCs underwent charge recombination from P800 (+)A0 (-) with a time constant of ~20 ns. The fraction of RCs in the rapidly back-reacting state correlated very well with the variable fluorescence, indicating that nearly all of the increase in fluorescence could be explained by charge recombination of P800 (+)A0 (-), some of which regenerated the singlet excited state. This hypothesis was tested directly by time-resolved fluorescence studies in the ps and ns timescales. The major decay component in whole cells had a 20-ps decay time, representing trapping by the RC. Treatment of cells with dithionite resulted in the appearance of a ~18-ns decay component, which accounted for ~0.6 % of the decay, but was almost undetectable in the untreated cells. We conclude that strong illumination of heliobacterial cells can result in saturation of the electron acceptor pool

  16. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédas, Jean-Luc; Sargent, Edward H.; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder -- structural and energetic -- and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  17. The 2-Methoxy Group Orientation Regulates the Redox Potential Difference between the Primary (QA) and Secondary (QB) Quinones of Type II Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that only quinones with a 2-methoxy group can act simultaneously as the primary (QA) and secondary (QB) electron acceptors in photosynthetic reaction centers from purple bacteria such as Rb. sphaeroides. 13C HYSCORE measurements of the 2-methoxy group in the semiquinone states, SQA and SQB, were compared with DFT calculations of the 13C hyperfine couplings as a function of the 2-methoxy dihedral angle. X-ray structure comparisons support 2-methoxy dihedral angle assignments corresponding to a redox potential gap (ΔEm) between QA and QB of 175–193 mV. A model having a methyl group substituted for the 2-methoxy group exhibits no electron affinity difference. This is consistent with the failure of a 2-methyl ubiquinone analogue to function as QB in mutant reaction centers with a ΔEm of ∼160–195 mV. The conclusion reached is that the 2-methoxy group is the principal determinant of electron transfer from QA to QB in type II photosynthetic reaction centers with ubiquinone serving as both acceptor quinones. PMID:25126386

  18. The 2-Methoxy Group Orientation Regulates the Redox Potential Difference between the Primary (QA) and Secondary (QB) Quinones of Type II Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Wagner B; Taguchi, Alexander T; Dikanov, Sergei A; Wraight, Colin A; O'Malley, Patrick J

    2014-08-07

    Recent studies have shown that only quinones with a 2-methoxy group can act simultaneously as the primary (QA) and secondary (QB) electron acceptors in photosynthetic reaction centers from purple bacteria such as Rb. sphaeroides. (13)C HYSCORE measurements of the 2-methoxy group in the semiquinone states, SQA and SQB, were compared with DFT calculations of the (13)C hyperfine couplings as a function of the 2-methoxy dihedral angle. X-ray structure comparisons support 2-methoxy dihedral angle assignments corresponding to a redox potential gap (ΔEm) between QA and QB of 175-193 mV. A model having a methyl group substituted for the 2-methoxy group exhibits no electron affinity difference. This is consistent with the failure of a 2-methyl ubiquinone analogue to function as QB in mutant reaction centers with a ΔEm of ∼160-195 mV. The conclusion reached is that the 2-methoxy group is the principal determinant of electron transfer from QA to QB in type II photosynthetic reaction centers with ubiquinone serving as both acceptor quinones.

  19. Site-specific and compensatory mutations imply unexpected pathways for proton delivery to the QB binding site of the photosynthetic reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D K; Tiede, D M; Nance, S L; Chang, C H; Schiffer, M

    1993-01-01

    In photosynthetic reaction centers, a quinone molecule, QB, is the terminal acceptor in light-induced electron transfer. The protonatable residues Glu-L212 and Asp-L213 have been implicated in the binding of QB and in proton transfer to QB anions generated by electron transfer from the primary quinone QA. Here we report the details of the construction of the Ala-L212/Ala-L213 double mutant strain by site-specific mutagenesis and show that its photosynthetic incompetence is due to an inability to deliver protons to the QB anions. We also report the isolation and biophysical characterization of a collection of revertant and suppressor strains that have regained the photosynthetic phenotype. The compensatory mutations that restore function are diverse and show that neither Glu-L212 nor Asp-L213 is essential for efficient light-induced electron or proton transfer in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Second-site mutations, located within the QB binding pocket or at more distant sites, can compensate for mutations at L212 and L213 to restore photocompetence. Acquisition of a single negatively charged residue (at position L213, across the binding pocket at position L225, or outside the pocket at M43) or loss of a positively charged residue (at position M231) is sufficient to restore proton transfer activity to the complex. The proton transport pathways in the suppressor strains cannot, in principle, be identical to that of the wild type. The apparent mutability of this pathway suggests that the reaction center can serve as a model system to study the structural basis of protein-mediated proton transport. PMID:8105468

  20. Carbon dioxide fixation by artificial photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibusuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, AIST, MITI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Green plants can absorb atmospheric CO{sub 2} and transform it to sugars, carbohydrates through their photosynthetic systems, but they become the source of CO{sub 2} when they are dead. This is the reason why artificial leaves which can be alive forever should be developed to meet with global warming due to the increase of CO{sub 2} concentration. The goal of artificial photosynthesis is not to construct the same system as the photosynthetic one, but to mimic the ability of green plants to utilize solar energy to make high energy chemicals. Needless to say, the artificial photosynthetic system is desired to be as simple as possible and to be as efficient as possible. From the knowledge on photosynthesis and the results of previous investigations, the critical components of artificial photosynthetic system are understood as follows: (1) light harvesting chromophore, (2) a center for electron transfer and charge separation, (3) catalytic sites for converting small molecules like water and CO{sub 2} (mutilelectron reactions) which are schematically described.

  1. Primary photosynthetic processes: from supercomplex to leaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on photosynthetic complexes that cover the primary photosynthetic processes, from the absorption of light by photosynthetic pigments to a charge separation (CS) in the reaction center (RC). Fluorescence spectroscopy is a useful tool in phot

  2. Implicit learning in aphasia: Evidence from serial reaction time and artificial grammar tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schuchard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Implicit learning involves extracting patterns through repeated exposure to stimuli. Little is known about this learning process in individuals with aphasia, although evidence suggests that implicit learning mechanisms remain intact in aphasia (Goschke et al., 2001; Schuchard & Thompson, 2014. The purpose of the present research was to test implicit learning in aphasia in two experiments. Method. Nine individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 21 age-matched healthy adults served as participants for both experiments. Experiment 1 examined nonverbal sequence learning, which required participants to perform a visuomotor serial reaction time task by pressing buttons corresponding to the location of an asterisk that appeared on a computer monitor. Unknown to participants, the location of the asterisk followed a repeating sequence until the final block of the experiment, in which the locations were randomized. Experiment 2 tested grammar learning. Participants were exposed to pseudowords ordered in short sentences according to the rules of an artificial phrase structure grammar (Saffran, 2002. On the first day of the study, all aphasic participants and twelve of the healthy participants received grammar training by listening to grammatical sentences in the artificial language for 30 minutes, followed by completion of a grammaticality judgment test. These participants returned the next day, during which they completed the grammaticality judgment test again, participated in a second session of training (i.e., listening to sentences, and completed a final administration of the judgment test. Untrained healthy control participants completed the three tests but did not receive the two training sessions. Results. Results from the serial reaction time task showed a significant increase in reaction time during the final randomized block compared to the preceding sequenced block, indicating implicit learning of the sequence, for both

  3. Temperature-induced dissociation reaction and dynamics of light-harvesting complex Ⅱ isolated from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rps. palustris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Juan; LI XueFeng; LIU Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectroscopy have been used to investigate the thermal stability of LH2 complex isolated from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rps. Palustris. The results show that: 1) upon increasing the temperature, a transition from B800 and B850 to free bacteriochlorophyll (B780) happens; 2) a gradual decrease and disappearance of CD signal in visible region occur; 3) a shift of the frequency, belonging to C=C and C-C stretching vibration, to higher wavenumber takes place. It is suggested that LH2 complex can be dissociated in the presence of B800, B850 and carotenoids simultaneously. Single-exponential fitting on the dynamic decay curves gives the apparent time constants of hundreds of minutes for various pigments.

  4. The feeding habit of sea turtles influences their reaction to artificial marine debris

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya Fukuoka; Misaki Yamane; Chihiro Kinoshita; Tomoko Narazaki; Marshall, Greg J.; Abernathy, Kyler J.; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Katsufumi Sato

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion of artificial debris is considered as a significant stress for wildlife including sea turtles. To investigate how turtles react to artificial debris under natural conditions, we deployed animal-borne video cameras on loggerhead and green turtles in addition to feces and gut contents analyses from 2007 to 2015. Frequency of occurrences of artificial debris in feces and gut contents collected from loggerhead turtles were 35.7% (10/28) and 84.6% (11/13), respectively. Artificial debris...

  5. Theoretical studies on the influence of molecular interactions on the mechanism of electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction center of Rps. viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红; 张汝波; 屈正旺; 张兴康; 张启元

    2002-01-01

    Based on the QM/MM optimized X-ray crystal structure of the photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) of purple bacteria Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis, quantum chemistry density functional method (DFT, B3LYP/6-31G) has been performed to study the interactions between the pigment molecules and either the surrounded amino acid residues or water molecules that are either axially coordinated or hydrogen bonded with the pigment molecules, leading to an explanation of the mechanism of the primary electron-transfer (ET) reactions in the PRC. Results show that the axial coordination of amino acid residues greatly raises the ELUMO of pigment molecules and it is important for the possibility of ET to take place. Different hydrogen bonds between amino acid residues, water molecules and pigment molecules decrease the ELUMO of the pigment molecules to different extents. It is crucial for the ET taking place from excited P along L branch and sustains that the ET is a one-step reaction without through accessory bacteriochlorophyll (ABChl b). It is insufficient to treat the whole protein surrounding as a homogeneous dielectric medium.

  6. Electrostatics of the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center. Protonation of Glu L 212 and Asp L 213 - A new method of calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptushenko, Vasily V; Cherepanov, Dmitry A; Krishtalik, Lev I

    2015-12-01

    Continuum electrostatic calculation of the transfer energies of anions from water into aprotic solvents gives the figures erroneous by order of magnitude. This is due to the hydrogen bond disruption that suggests the necessity to reconsider the traditional approach of the purely electrostatic calculation of the transfer energy from water into protein. In this paper, the method combining the experimental estimates of the transfer energies from water into aprotic solvent and the electrostatic calculation of the transfer energies from aprotic solvent into protein is proposed. Hydrogen bonds between aprotic solvent and solute are taken into account by introducing an imaginary aprotic medium incapable to form hydrogen bonds with the solute. Besides, a new treatment of the heterogeneous intraprotein dielectric permittivity based on the microscopic protein structure and electrometric measurements is elaborated. The method accounts semi-quantitatively for the electrostatic effect of diverse charged amino acid substitutions in the donor and acceptor parts of the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Analysis of the volatile secondary acceptor site QB revealed that in the conformation with a minimal distance between quinone QB and Glu L 212 the proton uptake upon the reduction of QB is prompted by Glu L 212 in alkaline and by Asp L 213 in slightly acidic regions. This agrees with the pH dependences of protonation degrees and the proton uptake. The method of pK calculation was applied successfully also for dissociation of Asp 26 in bacterial thioredoxin.

  7. Orientations of Iron-Sulfur Clusters FA and FB in the Homodimeric Type-I Photosynthetic Reaction Center of Heliobacterium modesticaldum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toru; Matsuoka, Masahiro; Azai, Chihiro; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2016-05-12

    Orientations of the FA and FB iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters in a structure-unknown type-I homodimeric heriobacterial reaction center (hRC) were studied in oriented membranes of the thermophilic anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacterium modesticaldum by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and compared with those in heterodimeric photosystem I (PS I). The Rieske-type FeS center in the cytochrome b/c complex showed a well-oriented EPR signal. Illumination at 14 K induced an FB(-) signal with g-axes of gz = 2.066, gy = 1.937, and gx = 1.890, tilted at angles of 60°, 60°, and 45°, respectively, with respect to the membrane normal. Chemical reduction with dithionite produced an additional signal of FA(-), which magnetically interacted with FB(-), with gz = 2.046, gy = 1.942, and gx = 1.911 at 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. The angles and redox properties of FA(-) and FB(-) in hRC resemble those of FB(-) and FA(-), respectively, in PS I. Therefore, FA and FB in hRC, named after their g-value similarities, seem to be located like FB and FA, not like FA and FB, respectively, in PS I. The reducing side of hRC could resemble those in PS I, if the names of FA and FB are interchanged with each other.

  8. The acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to blue and red light does not influence the photosynthetic light reaction but strongly disturbs the carbon allocation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jungandreas

    Full Text Available Diatoms are major contributors to the aquatic primary productivity and show an efficient acclimation ability to changing light intensities. Here, we investigated the acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to different light quality with respect to growth rate, photosynthesis rate, macromolecular composition and the metabolic profile by shifting the light quality from red light (RL to blue light (BL and vice versa. Our results show that cultures pre-acclimated to BL and RL exhibited similar growth performance, photosynthesis rates and metabolite profiles. However, light shift experiments revealed rapid and severe changes in the metabolite profile within 15 min as the initial reaction of light acclimation. Thus, during the shift from RL to BL, increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were observed whereas during the BL to RL shift the levels of amino acids were decreased and intermediates of glycolysis accumulated. Accordingly, on the time scale of hours the RL to BL shift led to a redirection of carbon into the synthesis of proteins, whereas during the BL to RL shift an accumulation of carbohydrates occurred. Thus, a vast metabolic reorganization of the cells was observed as the initial reaction to changes in light quality. The results are discussed with respect to a putative direct regulation of cellular enzymes by light quality and by transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, the short-term changes in the metabolome were accompanied by changes in the degree of reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Surprisingly, the RL to BL shift led to a severe inhibition of growth within the first 48 h which was not observed during the BL to RL shift. Furthermore, during the phase of growth arrest the photosynthetic performance did not change. We propose arguments that the growth arrest could have been caused by the reorganization of intracellular carbon partitioning.

  9. The feeding habit of sea turtles influences their reaction to artificial marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Yamane, Misaki; Kinoshita, Chihiro; Narazaki, Tomoko; Marshall, Greg J; Abernathy, Kyler J; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion of artificial debris is considered as a significant stress for wildlife including sea turtles. To investigate how turtles react to artificial debris under natural conditions, we deployed animal-borne video cameras on loggerhead and green turtles in addition to feces and gut contents analyses from 2007 to 2015. Frequency of occurrences of artificial debris in feces and gut contents collected from loggerhead turtles were 35.7% (10/28) and 84.6% (11/13), respectively. Artificial debris appeared in all green turtles in feces (25/25) and gut contents (10/10), and green turtles ingested more debris (feces; 15.8 ± 33.4 g, gut; 39.8 ± 51.2 g) than loggerhead turtles (feces; 1.6 ± 3.7 g, gut; 9.7 ± 15.0 g). In the video records (60 and 52.5 hours from 10 loggerhead and 6 green turtles, respectively), turtles encountered 46 artificial debris and ingested 23 of them. The encounter-ingestion ratio of artificial debris in green turtles (61.8%) was significantly higher than that in loggerhead turtles (16.7%). Loggerhead turtles frequently fed on gelatinous prey (78/84), however, green turtles mainly fed marine algae (156/210), and partly consumed gelatinous prey (10/210). Turtles seemed to confuse solo drifting debris with their diet, and omnivorous green turtles were more attracted by artificial debris.

  10. The feeding habit of sea turtles influences their reaction to artificial marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Yamane, Misaki; Kinoshita, Chihiro; Narazaki, Tomoko; Marshall, Greg J.; Abernathy, Kyler J.; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-06-01

    Ingestion of artificial debris is considered as a significant stress for wildlife including sea turtles. To investigate how turtles react to artificial debris under natural conditions, we deployed animal-borne video cameras on loggerhead and green turtles in addition to feces and gut contents analyses from 2007 to 2015. Frequency of occurrences of artificial debris in feces and gut contents collected from loggerhead turtles were 35.7% (10/28) and 84.6% (11/13), respectively. Artificial debris appeared in all green turtles in feces (25/25) and gut contents (10/10), and green turtles ingested more debris (feces; 15.8 ± 33.4 g, gut; 39.8 ± 51.2 g) than loggerhead turtles (feces; 1.6 ± 3.7 g, gut; 9.7 ± 15.0 g). In the video records (60 and 52.5 hours from 10 loggerhead and 6 green turtles, respectively), turtles encountered 46 artificial debris and ingested 23 of them. The encounter-ingestion ratio of artificial debris in green turtles (61.8%) was significantly higher than that in loggerhead turtles (16.7%). Loggerhead turtles frequently fed on gelatinous prey (78/84), however, green turtles mainly fed marine algae (156/210), and partly consumed gelatinous prey (10/210). Turtles seemed to confuse solo drifting debris with their diet, and omnivorous green turtles were more attracted by artificial debris.

  11. On the photosynthetic and devlopmental responses of leaves to the spectral composition of light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: action spectrum, artificial solar spectrum, blue light, Cucumis sativus, gas-exchange, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), light interception, light quality, non-photosynthetic pigments, photo-synthetic capacity, photomorphogenesis, photosystem excitation balance, quantum yield, red light. A

  12. Photosynthetic fuel for heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo

    2017-01-01

    , competition from native pathways and inefficient electron transfer rates present major obstacles, which limit the productivity of heterologous reactions coupled to photosynthesis. We discuss specific approaches to address these bottlenecks and ensure high productivity of such enzymes in a photosynthetic...... of reducing power. Recent work on the metabolic engineering of photosynthetic organisms has shown that the electron carriers such as ferredoxin and flavodoxin can be used to couple heterologous enzymes to photosynthetic reducing power. Because these proteins have a plethora of interaction partners and rely...... on electrostatically steered complex formation, they form productive electron transfer complexes with non-native enzymes. A handful of examples demonstrate channeling of photosynthetic electrons to drive the activity of heterologous enzymes, and these focus mainly on hydrogenases and cytochrome P450s. However...

  13. Redox control and hydrogen bonding networks: proton-coupled electron transfer reactions and tyrosine Z in the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, James M; Zuniga, Ashley N; Jenson, David L; Barry, Bridgette A

    2013-02-07

    In photosynthetic oxygen evolution, redox active tyrosine Z (YZ) plays an essential role in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions. Four sequential photooxidation reactions are necessary to produce oxygen at a Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster. The sequentially oxidized states of this oxygen-evolving cluster (OEC) are called the S(n) states, where n refers to the number of oxidizing equivalents stored. The neutral radical, YZ•, is generated and then acts as an electron transfer intermediate during each S state transition. In the X-ray structure, YZ, Tyr161 of the D1 subunit, is involved in an extensive hydrogen bonding network, which includes calcium-bound water. In electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, we measured the YZ• recombination rate, in the presence of an intact Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster. We compared the S(0) and S(2) states, which differ in Mn oxidation state, and found a significant difference in the YZ• decay rate (t(1/2) = 3.3 ± 0.3 s in S(0); t(1/2) = 2.1 ± 0.3 s in S(2)) and in the solvent isotope effect (SIE) on the reaction (1.3 ± 0.3 in S(0); 2.1 ± 0.3 in S(2)). Although the YZ site is known to be solvent accessible, the recombination rate and SIE were pH independent in both S states. To define the origin of these effects, we measured the YZ• recombination rate in the presence of ammonia, which inhibits oxygen evolution and disrupts the hydrogen bond network. We report that ammonia dramatically slowed the YZ• recombination rate in the S(2) state but had a smaller effect in the S(0) state. In contrast, ammonia had no significant effect on YD•, the stable tyrosyl radical. Therefore, the alterations in YZ• decay, observed with S state advancement, are attributed to alterations in OEC hydrogen bonding and consequent differences in the YZ midpoint potential/pK(a). These changes may be caused by activation of metal-bound water molecules, which hydrogen bond to YZ. These observations document the importance of redox control in proton

  14. Local electrostatic field induced by the carotenoid bound to the reaction center of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Madoka; Hashimoto, Hideki; Gardiner, Alastair T; Roszak, Aleksander W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2005-01-20

    Electroabsorption (EA) spectra were recorded in the region of the reaction center (RC) Qy absorption bands of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriopheophytin, to investigate the effect of carotenoid (Car) on the electrostatic environment of the RCs of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides. Two different RCs were prepared from Rb. sphaeroides strain R26.1 (R26.1-RC); R26.1 RC lacking Car and a reconstituted RC (R26.1-RC+ Car) prepared by incorporating a synthetic Car (3,4-dihydrospheroidene). Although there were no detectable differences between these two RCs in their near infrared (NIR) absorption spectra at 79 and 293 K, or in their EA spectra at 79 K, significant differences were detected in their EA spectra at 293 K. Three nonlinear optical parameters of each RC were determined in order to evaluate quantitatively these differences; transition dipole-moment polarizability and hyperpolarizability (D factor), the change in polarizability upon photoexcitation (Deltaalpha), and the change in dipole-moment upon photoexcitation (Deltamu). The value of D or Deltaalpha determined for each absorption band of the two RC samples showed similar values at 77 or 293 K. However, the Deltamu values of the special pair Bchls (P) and the monomer Bchls absorption bands showed significant differences between the two RCs at 293 K. X-ray crystallography of the two RCs has revealed that a single molecule of the solubilizing detergent LDAO occupies part of the carotenoid binding site in the absence of a carotenoid. The difference in the value of Deltamu therefore represents the differential effect of the detergent LDAO and the carotenoid on P. The change of electrostatic field around P induced by the presence of Car was determined to be 1.7 x 10(5) [V/cm], corresponding to a approximately 10% change in the electrostatic field around P.

  15. Artificial Hormone Reaction Networks: Towards Higher Evolvability in Evolutionary Multi-Modular Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Heiko; Schmickl, Thomas; Crailsheim, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The semi-automatic or automatic synthesis of robot controller software is both desirable and challenging. Synthesis of rather simple behaviors such as collision avoidance by applying artificial evolution has been shown multiple times. However, the difficulty of this synthesis increases heavily with increasing complexity of the task that should be performed by the robot. We try to tackle this problem of complexity with Artificial Homeostatic Hormone Systems (AHHS), which provide both intrinsic, homeostatic processes and (transient) intrinsic, variant behavior. By using AHHS the need for pre-defined controller topologies or information about the field of application is minimized. We investigate how the principle design of the controller and the hormone network size affects the overall performance of the artificial evolution (i.e., evolvability). This is done by comparing two variants of AHHS that show different effects when mutated. We evolve a controller for a robot built from five autonomous, cooperating modu...

  16. Thermodynamics of electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthetic reaction centers: volume change, enthalpy, and entropy of electron-transfer reactions in manganese-depleted photosystem II core complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J M; Boichenko, V A; Diner, B A; Mauzerall, D

    2001-06-19

    We have previously reported the thermodynamic data of electron transfer in photosystem I using pulsed time-resolved photoacoustics [Hou et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7109-7116]. In the present work, using preparations of purified manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) core complexes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have measured the DeltaV, DeltaH, and estimated TDeltaS of electron transfer on the time scale of 1 micros. At pH 6.0, the volume contraction of PS II was determined to be -9 +/- 1 A3. The thermal efficiency was found to be 52 +/- 5%, which corresponds to an enthalpy change of -0.9 +/- 0.1 eV for the formation of the state P680+Q(A-) from P680*. An unexpected volume expansion on pulse saturation of PS II was observed, which is reversible in the dark. At pH 9.0, the volume contraction, the thermal efficiency, and the enthalpy change were -3.4 +/- 0.5 A3, 37 +/- 7%, and -1.15 +/- 0.13 eV, respectively. The DeltaV of PS II, smaller than that of PS I and bacterial centers, is assigned to electrostriction and analyzed using the Drude-Nernst equation. To explain the small DeltaV for the formation of P680+Q(A-) or Y(Z*)Q(A-), we propose that fast proton transfer into a polar region is involved in this reaction. Taking the free energy of charge separation of PS II as the difference between the energy of the excited-state P680* and the difference in the redox potentials of the donor and acceptor, the apparent entropy change (TDeltaS) for charge separation of PS II is calculated to be negative, -0.1 +/- 0.1 eV at pH 6.0 (P680+Q(A-)) and -0.2 +/- 0.15 eV at pH 9.0 (Y(Z*)Q(A-)). The thermodynamic properties of electron transfer in PS II core reaction centers thus differ considerably from those of bacterial and PS I reaction centers, which have DeltaV of approximately -27 A3, DeltaH of approximately -0.4 eV, and TDeltaS of approximately +0.4 eV.

  17. Reaction kinetics and efficiencies for the hydroxyl and sulfate radical based oxidation of artificial sweeteners in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Janie E; Rickman, Kimberly A; Venter, Andre R; Kiddle, James J; Mezyk, Stephen P

    2012-10-11

    Over the past several decades, the increased use of artificial sweeteners as dietary supplements has resulted in rising concentrations of these contaminants being detected in influent waters entering treatment facilities. As conventional treatments may not quantitatively remove these sweeteners, radical-based advanced oxidation and reduction (AO/RP) treatments could be a viable alternative. In this study, we have established the reaction kinetics for both hydroxyl ((•)OH) and sulfate (SO(4)(•-)) radical reaction with five common artificial sweeteners, as well as their associated reaction efficiencies. Rate constants for acesulfame K, aspartame, rebaudioside A, saccharin, and sucralose were <2 × 10(7), (2.28 ± 0.02) × 10(9), (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10(8), <2 × 10(7), and (1.7 ± 0.1) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for the sulfate radical, and (3.80 ± 0.27) × 10(9), (6.06 ± 0.05) × 10(9), (9.97 ± 0.12) × 10(9), (1.85 ± 0.01) × 10(9), and (1.50 ± 0.01) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the hydroxyl radical, respectively. These latter values have to be combined with their corresponding reaction efficiencies of 67.9 ± 0.9, 52.2 ± 0.7, 43.0 ± 2.5, 52.7 ± 2.9, and 98.3 ± 3.5% to give effective rate constants for the hydroxyl radical reaction that can be used in the modeling of the AOP based removal of these contaminants.

  18. The nature of the lower excited state of the special pair of bacterial photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides and the dynamics of primary charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashin, N. V.; Shchupak, E. E.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations of the structure in the ground and lower singlet excited states and the vibrations (in the ground state) of special pair P of photosynthetic reaction center of purple bacteria (RCPb) Rhodobacter Sphaeroides, consisting of two bacteriochlorophyll molecules PA and PB, have been carried out. It is shown that excitation of the special pair is followed by fast relaxation dynamics, accompanied by the transformation of the initial P* state into the P A δ+ P B δ- state (δ ~ 0.5) with charge separation. This behavior is due to the presence of several nonplanar vibrations with participation of the acetyl group of macrocycle PB in the nuclear wave packet on the potential surface of the P* state; these vibrations facilitate destabilization of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the macrocycle PA and formation of the P A δ+ P B δ- state. The structural transformations in the P* state are due to its linking character in the contact region of the acetyl group-containing pyrrole rings of PA and PB. The transition from the P* state to specifically the P A δ+ P B δ- state is related to the fact that the acetyl group PA is involved in the intermolecular hydrogen bond with amino acid residue HisL168; for this reason, this group and the pyrrole ring linked with it can hardly participate in structural transformations. The electronic matrix element H12 of the electron transfer from the special pair in the P A δ+ P B δ- state to a molecule of accessory bacteriochlorophyll BA greatly exceeds that for the transfer to BB. This circumstance and the fact that the P A δ+ P B δ- state is energetically more favorable than the P* state facilitate the preferred directionality of the electron transfer in RCPb Rhodobacter Sphaeroides with participation of the cofactors located in its subunit L.

  19. Protein-matrix coupling/uncoupling in "dry" systems of photosynthetic reaction center embedded in trehalose/sucrose: the origin of trehalose peculiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Francesco; Dezi, Manuela; Mallardi, Antonia; Palazzo, Gerardo; Cordone, Lorenzo; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2008-08-06

    Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide of glucose found in organisms, which can survive adverse conditions such as extreme drought and high temperatures. Furthermore, isolated structures, as enzymes or liposomes, embedded in trehalose are preserved against stressing conditions [see, e.g., Crowe, L. M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 2002, 131, 505-513]. Among other hypotheses, such protective effect has been suggested to stem, in the case of proteins, from the formation of a water-mediated, hydrogen bond network, which anchors the protein surface to the water-sugar matrix, thus coupling the internal degrees of freedom of the biomolecule to those of the surroundings [Giuffrida, S.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 13211-13217]. Analogous protective effect is also accomplished by other saccharides, although with a lower efficiency. Here, we studied the recombination kinetics of the primary, light-induced charge separated state (P(+)Q(A)(-)) and the thermal stability of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in trehalose-water and in sucrose-water matrixes of decreasing water content. Our data show that, in sucrose, at variance with trehalose, the system undergoes a "nanophase separation" when the water/sugar mole fraction is lower than the threshold level approximately 0.8. We rationalize this result assuming that the hydrogen bond network, which anchors the RC surface to its surrounding, is formed in trehalose but not in sucrose. We suggest that both the couplings, in the case of trehalose, and the nanophase separation, in the case of sucrose, start at low water content when the components of the system enter in competition for the residual water.

  20. The Photosynthetic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1955-03-21

    A cyclic sequence of transformations, including the carboxylation of RuDP (ribulose diphosphate) and its re-formation, has been deduced as the route for the creation of reduced carbon compounds in photosynthetic organisms. With the demonstration of RuDP as substrate for the carboxylation in a cell-free system, each of the reactions has now been carried out independently in vitro. Further purification of this last enzyme system has confirmed the deduction that the carboxylation of RuDP leads directly to the two molecules of PGA (phosphoglyceric acid) involving an internal dismutation and suggesting the name "carboxydismutase" for the enzyme. As a consequence of this knowledge of each of the steps in the photosynthetic CO{sub 2} reduction cycle, it is possible to define the reagent requirements to maintain it. The net requirement for the reduction of one molecule of CO{sub 2} is four equivalents of [H]and three molecules of ATP (adenine triphosphate). These must ultimately be supplied by the photochemical reaction. Some possible ways in which this may be accomplished are discussed.

  1. Retardation of Protein Dynamics by Trehalose in Dehydrated Systems of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers. Insights from Electron Transfer and Thermal Denaturation Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malferrari, Marco; Francia, Francesco; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2015-10-29

    Conformational protein dynamics is known to be hampered in amorphous matrixes upon dehydration, both in the absence and in the presence of glass forming disaccharides, like trehalose, resulting in enhanced protein thermal stability. To shed light on such matrix effects, we have compared the retardation of protein dynamics in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers (RC) dehydrated at controlled relative humidity in the absence (RC films) or in the presence of trehalose (RC-trehalose glasses). Small scale RC dynamics, associated with the relaxation from the dark-adapted to the light-adapted conformation, have been probed up to the second time scale by analyzing the kinetics of electron transfer from the photoreduced quinone acceptor (QA(-)) to the photoxidized primary donor (P(+)) as a function of the duration of photoexcitation from 7 ns (laser pulse) to 20 s. A more severe inhibition of dynamics is found in RC-trehalose glasses than in RC films: only in the latter system does a complete relaxation to the light-adapted conformation occur even at extreme dehydration, although strongly retarded. To gain insight into the large scale RC dynamics up to the time scale of days, the kinetics of thermal denaturation have been studied at 44 °C by spectral analysis of the Qx and Qy bands of the RC bacteriochlorin cofactors, as a function of the sugar/protein molar ratio, m, varied between 0 and 10(4). Upon increasing m, denaturation is slowed progressively, and above m ∼ 500 the RC is stable at least for several days. The stronger retardation of RC relaxation and dynamics induced by trehalose is discussed in the light of a recent molecular dynamics simulation study performed in matrixes of the model protein lysozyme with and without trehalose. We suggest that the efficiency of trehalose in retarding RC dynamics and preventing thermal denaturation stems mainly from its propensity to form and stabilize extended networks of hydrogen bonds involving sugar, residual water, and

  2. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Brédas, Jean Luc

    2016-12-20

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder-structural and energetic-and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  3. Application of artificial neural networks and DFT-based parameters for prediction of reaction kinetics of ethylbenzene dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaleniec, Maciej; Witko, Małgorzata; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Goclon, Jakub

    2006-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used for classification and prediction of enzymatic activity of ethylbenzene dehydrogenase from EbN1 Azoarcus sp. bacterium. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EBDH) catalyzes stereo-specific oxidation of ethylbenzene and its derivates to alcohols, which find its application as building blocks in pharmaceutical industry. ANN systems are trained based on theoretical variables derived from Density Functional Theory (DFT) modeling, topological descriptors, and kinetic parameters measured with developed spectrophotometric assay. Obtained models exhibit high degree of accuracy (100% of correct classifications, correlation between predicted and experimental values of reaction rates on the 0.97 level). The applicability of ANNs is demonstrated as useful tool for the prediction of biochemical enzyme activity of new substrates basing only on quantum chemical calculations and simple structural characteristics. Multi Linear Regression and Molecular Field Analysis (MFA) are used in order to compare robustness of ANN and both classical and 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches.

  4. Thermodynamics of electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthetic reaction centers: volume change, enthalpy, and entropy of electron-transfer reactions in the intact cells of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, V A; Hou, J M; Mauzerall, D

    2001-06-19

    The volume and enthalpy changes for charge transfer in the 0.1-10 micros time window in photosynthetic reaction centers of the intact cells of Synechocystis PCC 6803 were determined using pulsed, time-resolved photoacoustics. This required invention of a method to correct for the cell artifact at the temperature of maximum density of water caused by the heterogeneous system. Cells grown under either white or red light had different PS I/PS II molar ratios, approximately 3 and approximately 1.7, respectively, but invariable action spectra and effective antenna sizes of the photosystems. In both cultures, the photoacoustic measurements revealed that their thermodynamic parameters differed strongly in the spectral regions of predominant excitation of PS I (680 nm) and PS II (625 nm). On correcting for contribution of the two photosystems at these wavelengths, the volume change was determined to be -27 +/- 3 and -2 +/- 3 A3 for PS I and PS II, respectively. The energy storage on the approximately 1 micros time scale was estimated to be 80 +/- 15% and 45 +/- 10% per trap in PS I and PS II, respectively. These correspond to enthalpies of -0.33 +/- 0.2 and -1 +/- 0.2 eV for the assumed formation of ion radical pairs P700+F(AB-) and Y(Z*)P680Q(A-), respectively. Taking the free energy of the above reactions as the differences of their redox potentials in situ, apparent entropy changes were estimated to be +0.4 +/- 0.2 and -0.2 +/- 0.2 eV for PS I and PS II, respectively. These values are similar to that obtained in vitro for the purified reaction center complexes on the microsecond time scale [Hou et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7109-7116, 7117-7125]. The constancy of these thermodynamic values over a 2-fold change of the ratio of PS I/PS II is support for this method of in vivo analysis. Our pulsed PA method can correct the "cell" or heterogeneous artifact and thus opens a new route for studying the thermodynamics of electron transfer in vivo.

  5. Mechanisms of behavioral, atopic, and other reactions to artificial food colors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura J; Kuczek, Thomas; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Arnold, L Eugene; Galland, Leo

    2013-05-01

    This review examines the research on mechanisms by which artificial food colors (AFCs) and common foods may cause behavioral changes in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD show excess inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Studies have shown that a subgroup of children (with or without ADHD) react adversely to challenges with AFCs. Many early studies found few children who reacted to challenges with 20-40 mg of AFCs. However, studies using at least 50 mg of AFCs showed a greater percentage of children who reacted to the challenge. Three types of potential mechanisms are explored: toxicological, antinutritional, and hypersensitivity. Suggestions for future studies in animals and/or children include dose studies as well as studies to determine the effects of AFCs on the immune system, the intestinal mucosa, and nutrient absorption. Given the potential negative behavioral effects of AFCs, it is important to determine why some children may be more sensitive to AFCs than others and to identify the tolerable upper limits of exposure for children in general and for children at high risk.

  6. Application of an Artificial Neural Network to the Prediction of OH Radical Reaction Rate Constants for Evaluating Global Warming Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Thomas C

    2016-03-03

    Rate constants for reactions of chemical compounds with hydroxyl radical are a key quantity used in evaluating the global warming potential of a substance. Experimental determination of these rate constants is essential, but it can also be difficult and time-consuming to produce. High-level quantum chemistry predictions of the rate constant can suffer from the same issues. Therefore, it is valuable to devise estimation schemes that can give reasonable results on a variety of chemical compounds. In this article, the construction and training of an artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction of rate constants at 298 K for reactions of hydroxyl radical with a diverse set of molecules is described. Input to the ANN consists of counts of the chemical bonds and bends present in the target molecule. The ANN is trained using 792 (•)OH reaction rate constants taken from the NIST Chemical Kinetics Database. The mean unsigned percent error (MUPE) for the training set is 12%, and the MUPE of the testing set is 51%. It is shown that the present methodology yields rate constants of reasonable accuracy for a diverse set of inputs. The results are compared to high-quality literature values and to another estimation scheme. This ANN methodology is expected to be of use in a wide range of applications for which (•)OH reaction rate constants are required. The model uses only information that can be gathered from a 2D representation of the molecule, making the present approach particularly appealing, especially for screening applications.

  7. Fusion of artificial membranes with mammalian spermatozoa. Specific involvement of the equatorial segment after acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, E G; Kuiken, J; Jager, S; Hoekstra, D

    1993-11-01

    The fusogenic properties of bovine and human spermatozoa membranes were investigated, using phospholipid bilayers (liposomes) as target membranes. Fusion was monitored by following lipid mixing, as revealed by an assay based on resonance-energy transfer. In addition, fusion was visualized by fluorescence microscopy, using fluorescent lipid vesicles. Cryopreserved bovine sperm fused with liposomes before induction of the acrosome reaction, fluorescence being located in essentially all spermatozoa membrane domains. Fresh bovine and human spermatozoa fused with liposomes only after the induction of the acrosome reaction, as triggered by calcium ionophore A23187 or zonae pellucidae (proteins), while the fluorescence distribution was mainly restricted to the equatorial segment (ES). However, with spermatozoa that had undergone a freeze/thawing cycle, domains other than ES also became labeled. Hence, the redistribution of the lipid probes over the entire membrane occurring during lipid mixing with cryopreserved bovine sperm is probably related to membrane perturbations caused by long-term cryopreservation. Fusion with liposomes was governed by spermatozoa factors and required the presence of acidic phospholipids like cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine in the liposomal bilayer. Incorporation of the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine in the vesicles inhibited the fusion reaction. Fusion was pH dependent. The results indicate that the ES is the primary domain of spermatozoa membranes that harbours the fusogenic capacity of sperm. Liposomes appear a valuable tool in further characterizing the properties of this domain, which has been claimed [Yanagimachi, R. (1988) in The physiology of reproduction (Knobil, E. & Neill, J., eds) pp. 135-185, Raven Press, New York] to represent the putative, initial fusion site for the oocyte.

  8. Mechanosensitive liposomes as artificial chaperones for shear-driven acceleration of enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Tomotaka; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-03-12

    Mechanosensitive liposomes were prepared and applied to continuously accelerate the glucose oxidase (GO) reaction in shear flow. The liposome membrane was composed of a ternary lipid mixture containing 20 mol % negatively charged lipid and 30 mol % cholesterol. The liposomes encapsulating GO and catalase were passed through microtubes with inner diameter of 190 or 380 μm at 25 °C to induce the catalytic oxidation of 10 mM glucose with simultaneous decomposition of H2O2 produced. The liposomal GO showed significantly low reactivity in the static liquid system because of the permeation resistance of lipid membranes to glucose. On the other hand, the enzyme activity of liposomal GO observed at the average shear rate of 7.8 × 10(3) s(-1) was significantly larger than its intrinsic activity free of mass transfer effect in the static liquid system. The structure of liposomes was highly shear-sensitive as elucidated on the basis of shear rate-dependent physical stability of liposomes and membrane permeability to 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein as well as to GO. Thus, the above shear-driven acceleration of GO reaction was indicated to be caused by the free GO molecules released from the structurally altered liposomes at high shear rates. Moreover, the shear-induced denaturation of free GO was completely depressed by the interaction with the sheared liposomes with the chaperone-like function. The shear-sensitive liposomal GO system can be a unique catalyst that continuously accelerates and also decelerates the oxidation reaction depending on the applied shear rate.

  9. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  10. MOVING OBJECTS TRAJECTOTY PREDICTION BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROXIMATOR BY CONSIDERING INSTANTANEOUS REACTION TIME, CASE STUDY: CAR FOLLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Poor Arab Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Car following models as well-known moving objects trajectory problems have been used for more than half a century in all traffic simulation software for describing driving behaviour in traffic flows. However, previous empirical studies and modeling about car following behavior had some important limitations. One of the main and clear defects of the introduced models was the very large number of parameters that made their calibration very time-consuming and costly. Also, any change in these parameters, even slight ones, severely disrupted the output. In this study, an artificial neural network approximator was used to introduce a trajectory model for vehicle movements. In this regard, the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation function and the hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function were employed as the training and the transfer functions, respectively. One of the important aspects in identifying driver behavior is the reaction time. This parameter shows the period between the time the driver recognizes a stimulus and the time a suitable response is shown to that stimulus. In this paper, the actual data on car following from the NGSIM project was used to determine the performance of the proposed model. This dataset was used for the purpose of expanding behavioral algorithm in micro simulation. Sixty percent of the data was entered into the designed artificial neural network approximator as the training data, twenty percent as the testing data, and twenty percent as the evaluation data. A statistical and a micro simulation method were employed to show the accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, the two popular Gipps and Helly models were implemented. Finally, it was shown that the accuracy of the proposed model was much higher - and its computational costs were lower - than those of other models when calibration operations were not performed on these models. Therefore, the proposed model can be used for displaying and predicting trajectories of moving

  11. Moving Objects Trajectoty Prediction Based on Artificial Neural Network Approximator by Considering Instantaneous Reaction Time, Case Study: CAR Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor Arab Moghadam, M.; Pahlavani, P.

    2015-12-01

    Car following models as well-known moving objects trajectory problems have been used for more than half a century in all traffic simulation software for describing driving behaviour in traffic flows. However, previous empirical studies and modeling about car following behavior had some important limitations. One of the main and clear defects of the introduced models was the very large number of parameters that made their calibration very time-consuming and costly. Also, any change in these parameters, even slight ones, severely disrupted the output. In this study, an artificial neural network approximator was used to introduce a trajectory model for vehicle movements. In this regard, the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation function and the hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function were employed as the training and the transfer functions, respectively. One of the important aspects in identifying driver behavior is the reaction time. This parameter shows the period between the time the driver recognizes a stimulus and the time a suitable response is shown to that stimulus. In this paper, the actual data on car following from the NGSIM project was used to determine the performance of the proposed model. This dataset was used for the purpose of expanding behavioral algorithm in micro simulation. Sixty percent of the data was entered into the designed artificial neural network approximator as the training data, twenty percent as the testing data, and twenty percent as the evaluation data. A statistical and a micro simulation method were employed to show the accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, the two popular Gipps and Helly models were implemented. Finally, it was shown that the accuracy of the proposed model was much higher - and its computational costs were lower - than those of other models when calibration operations were not performed on these models. Therefore, the proposed model can be used for displaying and predicting trajectories of moving objects being

  12. Tuning cofactor redox potentials: the 2-methoxy dihedral angle generates a redox potential difference greater than 160 mV between the primary (QA) and secondary (QB) quinones of the photosynthetic reaction center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Alexander T.; Mattis, Aidas J.; O'Malley, Patrick J.; Dikanov, Sergei A.; Wraight, Colin A.

    2013-01-01

    Only quinones with a 2-methoxy group can act simultaneously as the primary (QA) and secondary (QB) electron acceptors in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rb. sphaeroides. 13C HYSCORE measurements of the 2-methoxy in the semiquinone states, SQA and SQB, were compared with QM calculations of the 13C couplings as a function of dihedral angle. X-ray structures support dihedral angle assignments corresponding to a redox potential gap (ΔEm) between QA and QB of ~180 mV. This is consistent with the failure of a ubiquinone analog lacking the 2-methoxy to function as QB in mutant reaction centers with a ΔEm ≈ 160–195 mV. PMID:24079813

  13. Enthalpy/entropy driven activation of the first interquinone electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers embedded in vesicles of physiologically important phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Francesco; Dorogi, Márta; Szebényi, Kornélia; Nagy, László; Maróti, Péter; Váró, György; Giotta, Livia; Agostiano, Angela; Trotta, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of light-induced electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic RCs are sensitive to physiologically important lipids (phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol) in the environment. The analysis of the temperature-dependence of the rate of the P(+)Q(A)(-)Q(B)-->P(+)Q(A)Q(B)(-) interquinone electron transfer revealed high enthalpy change of activation in zwitterionic or neutral micelles and vesicles and low enthalpy change of activation in vesicles constituted of negatively charged phospholipids. The entropy change of activation was compensated by the changes of enthalpy, thus the free energy change of activation ( approximately 500 meV) did not show large variation in vesicles of different lipids.

  14. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  15. Influence of Cd{sup 2+} on the spin state of non-heme iron and on protein local motions in reactions centers from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirilium rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, M [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Orzechowska, A [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 4 (Poland); Fiedor, J; Slezak, T; Zajac, M; Matlak, K; Korecki, J; Halas, A; Burda, K [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 19 (Poland); Chumakov, A I [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Strzalka, K; Fiedor, L, E-mail: burda@novell.ftj.agh.edu.p [Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Gronostajowa 7 (Poland)

    2010-03-01

    Non-heme Fe is a conservative component of the Q-type photosynthetic reaction centers but its function remains unknown. Applying Moessbauer spectroscopy we show that in Rhodospirillum rubrum the non-heme Fe exists mostly in a ferrous low spin state. The binding of Cd{sup 2+} ions in the vicinity of the quinone-Fe complex changes the high spin state of the non-heme Fe into a low spin one characterized by hyperfine parameters similar to those obtained for the non-heme Fe low spin state in untreated reaction centers, as confirmed by Moessbauer measurements. The nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation experiments show that the contribution of vibrations at low energies, between 3-15 meV, activated at 240 K are damped in the bacterial reaction centers treated with CdCl{sub 2}. No influence of Cd{sup 2+} ions is observed on the soft vibrational states at 60 K. These results suggest that binding of cadmium cations within the reaction centers may enhance decoupling of the non-heme Fe from the surrounding protein matrix at temperatures higher than 200 K, what can explain the slowing down of electron transfer between the Q{sub A} and Q{sub B} quinones by Cd{sup 2+}.

  16. A time-resolved iron-specific X-ray absorption experiment yields no evidence for an Fe2+ --> Fe3+ transition during QA- --> QB electron transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Sabine; Bremm, Oliver; Garczarek, Florian; Derrien, Valerie; Liebisch, Peter; Loja, Paola; Sebban, Pierre; Gerwert, Klaus; Haumann, Michael

    2006-01-17

    Previous time-resolved FTIR measurements suggested the involvement of an intermediary component in the electron transfer step Q(A)- --> Q(B) in the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides [Remy and Gerwert (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 637]. By a kinetic X-ray absorption experiment at the Fe K-edge we investigated whether oxidation occurs at the ferric non-heme iron located between the two quinones. In isolated reaction centers with a high content of functional Q(B), at a time resolution of 30 micros and at room temperature, no evidence for transient oxidation of Fe was obtained. However, small X-ray transients occurred, in a similar micro- to millisecond time range as in the IR experiments, which may point to changes in the Fe ligand environment due to the charges on Q(A)- and Q(B)-. In addition, VIS measurements agree with the IR data and do not exclude an intermediate in the Q(A)- --> Q(B) transition.

  17. Hydrogen photoproduction by use of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Nagata, Toshi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-02-01

    Hydrogen can be important clean fuel for future. Among different technologies for hydrogen production, oxygenic natural and artificial photosyntheses using direct photochemistry in synthetic complexes have a great potential to produce hydrogen, since both use clean and cheap sources: water and solar energy. Artificial photosynthesis is one way to produce hydrogen from water using sunlight by employing biomimetic complexes. However, splitting of water into protons and oxygen is energetically demanding and chemically difficult. In oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms such as algae and cyanobacteria, water is split into electrons and protons, which during primary photosynthetic process are redirected by photosynthetic electron transport chain, and ferredoxin, to the hydrogen-producing enzymes hydrogenase or nitrogenase. By these enzymes, e- and H+ recombine and form gaseous hydrogen. Biohydrogen activity of hydrogenase can be very high but it is extremely sensitive to photosynthetic O2. In contrast, nitrogenase is insensitive to O2, but has lower activity. At the moment, the efficiency of biohydrogen production is low. However, theoretical expectations suggest that the rates of photon conversion efficiency for H2 bioproduction can be high enough (>10%). Our review examines the main pathways of H2 photoproduction by using of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic photosynthetic systems.

  18. Light-induced structural changes in photosynthetic reaction centres studied by ESEEM of spin-correlated D+QA- radical pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovykh, I V; Dzuba, S A; Proskuryakov, I I; Gast, P; Hoff, A J

    1998-03-25

    Zn-substituted Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 reaction centres (RCs) frozen in the dark and under illumination exhibit quite different recombination kinetics of the D+QA- radical pairs [Kleinfeld et al., Biochemistry, 23 (1984) 5780]. We have applied electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) of the spin-correlated D+QA- radical pairs to assess a possible light-induced change in the distance between the D and QA cofactors. The recombination kinetics and the field-swept spin-polarized EPR signal for the two preparations have been monitored by time-resolved EPR spectroscopy. For the samples frozen under illumination, a slight increase in the distance, 0.4+/-0.2 A, has been detected.

  19. Artificial ribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J R

    1994-01-01

    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  20. Kinetics of H+ ion binding by the P+QA-state of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: rate limitation within the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, P; Wraight, C A

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of flash-induced H+ ion binding by isolated reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, strain R-26, were measured, using pH indicators and conductimetry, in the presence of terbutryn to block electron transfer between the primary and secondary quinones (QA and QB), and in the absence of exogenous electron donors to the oxidized primary donor, P+, i.e., the P+QA-state. Under these conditions, proton binding by RCs is to the protein rather than to any of the cofactors. After light activation to form P+QA-, the kinetics of proton binding were monoexponential at all pH values studied. At neutral pH, the apparent bimolecular rate constant was close to the diffusional limit for proton transfer in aqueous solution (approximately 10(11) M-1 s-1), but increased significantly in the alkaline pH range (e.g., 2 x 10(13) M-1 s-1 at pH 10). The average slope of the pH dependence was -0.4 instead of -1.0, as might be expected for a H+ diffusion-controlled process. High activation energy (0.54 eV at pH 8.0) and weak viscosity dependence showed that H+ ion uptake by RCs is not limited by diffusion. The salt dependence of the H+ ion binding rate and the pK values of the protonatable amino acid residues of the reaction center implicated surface charge influences, and Gouy-Chapman theory provided a workable description of the ionic effects as arising from modulation of the pH at the surface of the RC. Incubation in D2O caused small increases in the pKs of the protonatable groups and a small, pH (pD)-dependent slowing of the binding rate. The salt, pH, temperature, viscosity, and D2O dependences of the proton uptake by RCs in the P+QA- state were accounted for by three considerations: 1) parallel pathways of H+ delivery to the RC, contributing to the observed (net) H+ disappearance; 2) rate limitation of the protonation of target groups within the protein by conformational dynamics; and 3) electrostatic influences of charged groups in the protein, via the surface p

  1. Kinetics of H+ ion binding by the P+QA-state of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: rate limitation within the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, P; Wraight, C A

    1997-07-01

    The kinetics of flash-induced H+ ion binding by isolated reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, strain R-26, were measured, using pH indicators and conductimetry, in the presence of terbutryn to block electron transfer between the primary and secondary quinones (QA and QB), and in the absence of exogenous electron donors to the oxidized primary donor, P+, i.e., the P+QA-state. Under these conditions, proton binding by RCs is to the protein rather than to any of the cofactors. After light activation to form P+QA-, the kinetics of proton binding were monoexponential at all pH values studied. At neutral pH, the apparent bimolecular rate constant was close to the diffusional limit for proton transfer in aqueous solution (approximately 10(11) M-1 s-1), but increased significantly in the alkaline pH range (e.g., 2 x 10(13) M-1 s-1 at pH 10). The average slope of the pH dependence was -0.4 instead of -1.0, as might be expected for a H+ diffusion-controlled process. High activation energy (0.54 eV at pH 8.0) and weak viscosity dependence showed that H+ ion uptake by RCs is not limited by diffusion. The salt dependence of the H+ ion binding rate and the pK values of the protonatable amino acid residues of the reaction center implicated surface charge influences, and Gouy-Chapman theory provided a workable description of the ionic effects as arising from modulation of the pH at the surface of the RC. Incubation in D2O caused small increases in the pKs of the protonatable groups and a small, pH (pD)-dependent slowing of the binding rate. The salt, pH, temperature, viscosity, and D2O dependences of the proton uptake by RCs in the P+QA- state were accounted for by three considerations: 1) parallel pathways of H+ delivery to the RC, contributing to the observed (net) H+ disappearance; 2) rate limitation of the protonation of target groups within the protein by conformational dynamics; and 3) electrostatic influences of charged groups in the protein, via the surface pH.

  2. Towards autotrophic tissue engineering: Photosynthetic gene therapy for regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Myra Noemi; Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Hopfner, Ursula; Centeno-Cerdas, Carolina; Somlai-Schweiger, Ian; Schwarz, Christian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Bono, María Rosa; Allende, Miguel L; Nickelsen, Jörg; Egaña, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    The use of artificial tissues in regenerative medicine is limited due to hypoxia. As a strategy to overcome this drawback, we have shown that photosynthetic biomaterials can produce and provide oxygen independently of blood perfusion by generating chimeric animal-plant tissues during dermal regeneration. In this work, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of photosynthetic biomaterials in vivo after engraftment in a fully immunocompetent mouse skin defect model. Further, we show that it is also possible to genetically engineer such photosynthetic scaffolds to deliver other key molecules in addition to oxygen. As a proof-of-concept, biomaterials were loaded with gene modified microalgae expressing the angiogenic recombinant protein VEGF. Survival of the algae, growth factor delivery and regenerative potential were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This work proposes the use of photosynthetic gene therapy in regenerative medicine and provides scientific evidence for the use of engineered microalgae as an alternative to deliver recombinant molecules for gene therapy.

  3. Photosynthetic system in Blastochloris viridis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorty, Marina; Brumfeld, Vlad; Vermeglio, Andre; Kahana, Nava; Medalia, Ohad; Minsky, Abraham

    2009-06-09

    The bacterium Blastochloris viridis carries one of the simplest photosynthetic systems, which includes a single light-harvesting complex that surrounds the reaction center, membrane soluble quinones, and a soluble periplasmic protein cytochrome c(2) that shuttle between the reaction center and the bc(1) complex and act as electron carriers, as well as the ATP synthase. The close arrangement of the photosynthetic membranes in Bl. viridis, along with the extremely tight arrangement of the photosystems within these membranes, raises a fundamental question about the diffusion of the electron carriers. To address this issue, we analyzed the structure and response of the Bl. viridis photosynthetic system to various light conditions, by using a combination of electron microscopy, whole-cell cryotomography, and spectroscopic methods. We demonstrate that in response to high light intensities, the ratio of both cytochrome c(2) and bc(1) complexes to the reaction centers is increased. The shorter membrane stacks, along with the notion that the bc(1) complex is located at the highly curved edges of these stacks, result in a smaller average distance between the reaction centers and the bc(1) complexes, leading to shorter pathways of cytochrome c(2) between the two complexes. Under anaerobic conditions, the slow diffusion rate is further mitigated by keeping most of the quinone pool reduced, resulting in a concentration gradient of quinols that allows for a constant supply of theses electron carriers to the bc(1) complex.

  4. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  5. Evaluation of a commercial in-clinic point-of-care polymerase chain reaction test for Ehrlichia canis DNA in artificially infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waner, Trevor; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-12-01

    A novel in-clinic point-of-care (ICPOC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was evaluated for its ability to detect Ehrlichia canis DNA in artificially infected dogs compared to a real-time PCR assay. Six Beagle dogs negative for E. canis antibodies and PCR negative were artificially infected with an Israeli E. canis strain (611). All dogs developed IgG antibodies 8 days post infection (PI), and clinical and hematological abnormalities on day 10 PI. Only the real-time PCR detected E. canis DNA in the blood of five dogs at days 3 and 5 PI. At day 12 PI during the acute phase of the disease, 1 day after the initiation of doxycycline treatment, the ICPOC PCR assay detected E. canis DNA in all infected dogs, which were also positive by the real-time PCR. Two days later the ICPOC PCR assay was able to detect only 3/6 infected dogs, which were all positive by the real-time PCR. At days 17 and 19 PI, the ICPOC PCR assay did not detect E. canis DNA in the dogs while the real-time PCR detected all dogs as positive on day 17 PI and two dogs on day 19 PI. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the ICPOC PCR assay was 75% for the acute phase of the disease and 30% for the whole study, suggesting that this ICPOC assay has a potential utility for the diagnosis of acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

  6. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  7. Photosynthetic water oxidation: insights from manganese model chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Karin J; Brennan, Bradley J; Tagore, Ranitendranath; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-03-17

    Catalysts for light-driven water oxidation are a critical component for development of solar fuels technology. The multielectron redox chemistry required for this process has been successfully deployed on a global scale in natural photosynthesis by green plants and cyanobacteria using photosystem II (PSII). PSII employs a conserved, cuboidal Mn4CaOX cluster called the O2-evolving complex (OEC) that offers inspiration for artificial O2-evolution catalysts. In this Account, we describe our work on manganese model chemistry relevant to PSII, particularly the functional model [Mn(III/IV)2(terpy)2(μ-O)2(OH2)2](NO3)3 complex (terpy = 2,2';6',2″-terpyridine), a mixed-valent di-μ-oxo Mn dimer with two terminal aqua ligands. In the presence of oxo-donor oxidants such as HSO5(-), this complex evolves O2 by two pathways, one of which incorporates solvent water in an O-O bond-forming reaction. Deactivation pathways of this catalyst include comproportionation to form an inactive Mn(IV)Mn(IV) dimer and also degradation to MnO2, a consequence of ligand loss when the oxidation state of the complex is reduced to labile Mn(II) upon release of O2. The catalyst's versatility has been shown by its continued catalytic activity after direct binding to the semiconductor titanium dioxide. In addition, after binding to the surface of TiO2 via a chromophoric linker, the catalyst can be oxidized by a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism, mimicking the natural PSII process. Model oxomanganese complexes have also aided in interpreting biophysical and computational studies on PSII. In particular, the μ-oxo exchange rates of the Mn-terpy dimer have been instrumental in establishing that the time scale for μ-oxo exchange of high-valent oxomanganese complexes with terminal water ligands is slower than O2 evolution in the natural photosynthetic system. Furthermore, computational studies on the Mn-terpy dimer and the OEC point to similar Mn(IV)-oxyl intermediates in the O-O bond

  8. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments in the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Akos T; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2003-06-01

    A pigment mutant strain of the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS was isolated by plasposon mutagenesis. Nineteen open reading frame, most of which are thought to be genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll, and the photosynthetic reaction center, were identified surrounding the plasposon in a 22-kb-long chromosomal locus. The general arrangement of the photosynthetic genes was similar to that in other purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, the locations of a few genes occurring in this region were unusual. Most of the gene products showed the highest similarity to the corresponding proteins in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The plasposon was inserted into the crtD gene, likely inactivating crtC as well, and the carotenoid composition of the mutant strain corresponded to the aborted spirilloxanthin pathway. Homologous and heterologous complementation experiments indicated a conserved function of CrtC and CrtD in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The crtDC and crtE genes were shown to be regulated by oxygen, and a role of CrtJ in aerobic repression was suggested.

  9. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Kuczynska; Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska; Kazimierz Strzalka

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  10. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  11. Estimation of MHD boundary layer slip flow over a permeable stretching cylinder in the presence of chemical reaction through numerical and artificial neural network modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Anki Reddy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prediction of the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer slip flow over a permeable stretched cylinder with chemical reaction is investigated by using some mathematical techniques, namely Runge–Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique and artificial neural network (ANN. A numerical method is implemented to approximate the flow of heat and mass transfer characteristics as a function of some input parameters, explicitly the curvature parameter, magnetic parameter, permeability parameter, velocity slip, Grashof number, solutal Grashof number, Prandtl number, temperature exponent, Schmidt number, concentration exponent and chemical reaction parameter. The non-linear partial differential equations of the governing flow are converted into a system of highly non-linear ordinary differential equations by using the suitable similarity transformations, which are then solved numerically by a Runge–Kutta fourth order along with shooting technique and then ANN is applied to them. The Back Propagation Neural Network is applied for forecasting the desired outputs. The reported numerical values and the ANN values are in good agreement than those published works on various special cases. According to the findings of this study, the ANN approach is reliable, effective and easily applicable for simulating heat and mass transfer flow over a stretched cylinder.

  12. Kinetic modeling of exciton migration in photosynthetic systems. 3. Application of genetic algorithms to simulations of excitation dynamics in three-dimensional photosystem I core antenna/reaction center complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkunas, G; Holzwarth, A R

    1996-07-01

    A procedure is described to generate and optimize the lattice models for spectrally inhomogeneous photosynthetic antenna/reaction center (RC) particles. It is based on the genetic algorithm search for the pigment spectral type distributions on the lattice by making use of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic input data. Upon a proper fitness definition, a family of excitation energy transfer models can be tested for their compatibility with the availability experimental data. For the case of the photosystem I core antenna (99 chlorophyll + primary electron donor pigment (P700)), three spectrally inhomogeneous three-dimensional lattice models, differing in their excitation transfer conditions, were tested. The relevant fit parameters were the pigment distribution on the lattice, the average lattice spacing of the main pool pigments, the distance of P700 and of long wavelength-absorbing (LWA) pigments to their nearest-neighbor main pool pigments, and the rate constant of charge separation from P700. For cyanobacterial PS I antenna/RC particles containing a substantial amount of LWA pigments, it is shown that the currently available experimental fluorescence data are consistent both with more migration-limited, and with more trap-limited excitation energy transfer models. A final decision between these different models requires more detailed experimental data. From all search runs about 30 different relative arrangements of P700 and LWA pigments were found. Several general features of all these different models can be noticed: 1) The reddest LWA pigment never appears next to P700. 2) The LWA pigments in most cases are spread on the surface of the lattice not far away from P700, with a pronounced tendency toward clustering of the LWA pigments. 3) The rate constant kP700 of charge separation is substantially higher than 1.2 ps-1, i.e., it exceeds the corresponding rate constant of purple bacterial RCs by at least a factor of four. 4) The excitation transfer

  13. Artificial light at night alters delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in response to acute stress in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Kaugars, Katherine E; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Several physiological and behavioral processes rely on precisely timed light information derived from the natural solar cycle. Using this information, traits have adapted to allow individuals within specific niches to optimize survival and reproduction, but urbanization by humans has significantly altered natural habitats. Nighttime light exposure alters immune function in several species, which could lead to decreased fitness or survival, particularly in the face of an environmental challenge. We exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to five lux of light at night for four weeks, and then administered six hours of acute restraint stress. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed immediately following stress. Acute restraint increased the DTH reaction in dark nights, but exposure to nighttime light prevented this response. Exposure to light at night prolonged the DTH response in non-stressed control hamsters. These results suggest that light pollution may significantly alter physiological responses in Siberian hamsters, particularly in response to a salient environmental challenge such as stress.

  14. Systemic regulation of photosynthetic function in field-grown sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yujun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuangdao

    2015-09-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of developing leaves of plants grown under artificial conditions are, to some extent, regulated systemically by mature leaves; however, whether systemic regulation of photosynthesis occurs in field-grown crops is unclear. To explore this question, we investigated the effects of planting density on growth characteristics, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence in field-grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Our results showed that close planting resulted in a marked decline in light intensity in lower canopy. Sorghum plants grown at a high planting density had lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) than plants grown at a low planting density. Moreover, in the absence of mineral deficiency, close planting induced a slight increase in leaf nitrogen concentration. The decreased photosynthesis in leaves of the lower canopy at high planting density was caused mainly by the low light. However, newly developed leaves exposed to high light in the upper canopy of plants grown at high planting density also exhibited a distinct decline in photosynthesis relative to plants grown at low planting density. Based on these results, the photosynthetic function of the newly developed leaves in the upper canopy was not determined fully by their own high light environment. Accordingly, we suggest that the photosynthetic function of newly developed leaves in the upper canopy of field-grown sorghum plants is regulated systemically by the lower canopy leaves. The differences in systemic regulation of photosynthesis were also discussed between field conditions and artificial conditions.

  15. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  16. Artificial photosynthesis: Light-activated calcium gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David H.

    2002-12-01

    Photosynthetic organisms use light to create chemical gradients across bilayer membranes that drive energetically unfavourable reactions. Synthetic systems that accomplish the same feat may find uses in a variety of biological and non-biological applications.

  17. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion—from Molecules to Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P+(QAQB)- charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  18. Identification of region-specific yeast artificial chromosomes using pools of Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction probes labeled via linear amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.G.; Bobrow, M.; Bentley, D.R.; Dunham, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and St. Thomas Hospitals, London Bridge, London, England (United Kingdom)); Patel, K.; Shipley, J.; Sheer, D. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    The ability to identify large numbers of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACS) specific to any given genomic region rapidly and efficiently enhances both the construction of clone maps and the isolation of region-specific landmarks (e.g., polymorphic markers). The authors describe a method of preparing region-specific single-stranded hybridization probes from Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR) products of somatic cell hybrids for YAC library screening. Pools of up to 50 cloned Alu-PCR products from an irradiation-reduced hybrid containing 22q11.2-q13.1 were labeled to high specific activity by linear amplification using a single vector primer. The resulting single-stranded probes were extensively competed to remove repetitive sequences, while retaining the full complexity of the probe. Extensive coverage of the region by YACs using multiple probe pools was demonstrated as many YACs were detected more than once. In situ analysis using chosen YACs confirmed that the clones were specific for the region. Thus, this pooled probe approach constitutes a rapid method to identify large numbers of YACs relevant to a large chromosomal region. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Identification of region-specific yeast artificial chromosomes using pools of Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction probes labeled via linear amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C G; Patel, K; Shipley, J; Sheer, D; Bobrow, M; Bentley, D R; Dunham, I

    1992-12-01

    The ability to identify large numbers of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) specific to any given genomic region rapidly and efficiently enhances both the construction of clone maps and the isolation of region-specific landmarks (e.g., polymorphic markers). We describe a method of preparing region-specific single-stranded hybridization probes from Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR) products of somatic cell hybrids for YAC library screening. Pools of up to 50 cloned Alu-PCR products from an irradiation-reduced hybrid containing 22q11.2-q13.1 were labeled to high specific activity by linear amplification using a single vector primer. The resulting single-stranded probes were extensively competed to remove repetitive sequences, while retaining the full complexity of the probe. Extensive coverage of the region by YACs using multiple probe pools was demonstrated as many YACs were detected more than once. In situ analysis using chosen YACs confirmed that the clones were specific for the region. Thus, this pooled probe approach constitutes a rapid method to identify large numbers of YACs relevant to a large chromosomal region.

  20. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  1. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lewis A.; Habershon, Scott, E-mail: S.Habershon@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Scientific Computing, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  2. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lewis A.; Habershon, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  3. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lewis A; Habershon, Scott

    2015-09-14

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  4. Photosynthetic control of electron transport and the regulation of gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyer, C.H.; Neukermans, J.; Queval, G.; Noctor, G.; Harbinson, J.

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘photosynthetic control’ describes the short- and long-term mechanisms that regulate reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) chain so that the rate of production of ATP and NADPH is coordinated with the rate of their utilization in metabolism. At low irradiances these mecha

  5. Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

    2012-09-12

    In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  7. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  8. Antenna organization in green photosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the unique antenna system found in the green photosynthetic bacteria. The antenna system in these organisms is contained within a vesicle known as a chlorosome, which is attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Additional antenna pigments and reaction centers are contained in integral membrane proteins. Energy absorbed by the bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) pigments in the chlorosome is transferred via a baseplate'' array of BChl a antenna pigments into the membrane and to the reaction center. A schematic model of chlorosome structure is shown. This project is aimed at increasing our understanding of the organization of the pigments in the chlorosome and how the antenna system functions.

  9. Photosynthetic machineries in nano-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, László; Magyar, Melinda; Szabó, Tibor; Hajdu, Kata; Giotta, Livia; Dorogi, Márta; Milano, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centres are membrane-spanning proteins, found in several classes of autotroph organisms, where a photoinduced charge separation and stabilization takes place with a quantum efficiency close to unity. The protein remains stable and fully functional also when extracted and purified in detergents thereby biotechnological applications are possible, for example, assembling it in nano-structures or in optoelectronic systems. Several types of bionanocomposite materials have been assembled by using reaction centres and different carrier matrices for different purposes in the field of light energy conversion (e.g., photovoltaics) or biosensing (e.g., for specific detection of pesticides). In this review we will summarize the current status of knowledge, the kinds of applications available and the difficulties to be overcome in the different applications. We will also show possible research directions for the close future in this specific field.

  10. Spatial coherence of thermal photons favors photosynthetic life

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Rodríguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting of sunlight underpins Life on Earth as well as driving novel energy device design. Though several experiments suggest that excitation energy transport and charge separation within a photosynthetic membrane may benefit from the quantum nature of their dynamics, the effects of spatial coherences in the incident light have been largely ignored. Here we show that spatial correlations in the incident light likely play an important role in trapping light and adding robustness, as well as providing a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. Our theory is grounded by empirical inputs, while its output is validated against testable predictions. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal correlations between photons, a fundamental property of the quantum world, should play a key role in our understanding of early Life and in improving the design of artificial photosynthetic systems.

  11. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  12. Photosynthetic Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-21

    IPCR file in Protein Data Bank). H-subunit is at the top of the image. The primary donor (P) is at the bottom. The pigments inside the protein scaffold...S.C., et al., Pigment Content and Molar Extinction Coefficients of Photochemical Reaction Centers from Rhodopseudomonas-Spheroides. Biochimica Et...Murgida, D.H. and P. Hildebrandt, Redox and redox-coupled processes of heme proteins and enzymes at electrochemical interfaces. Physical Chemistry

  13. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  14. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  15. Heterosis of maize photosynthetic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; DING Zaisong; LI Lianlu; WANG Meiyun; ZHAO Ming

    2007-01-01

    Four maize inbred lines with different photosyn-thetic rates and their two hybrids were used as test materials,and the diurnal variations of their photosynthesis parameters in the silking stage were measured to study the heterosis of photosynthetic performance.Results showed that net photo-synthetic rate (In),transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) all presented an obvious single-peaked curve in a day,with the peak values occurring at 10:00-12:00,12:00,10:00-12:00 a.m.,respectively,while water use efficiency (WUE) had a"V"type variant trend,with the lowest value appearing at 12:00.The diurnal variation of Pn and Tr was correlated markedly with Gs,suggesting that Gs played an important role in regulating the diurnal variation of Pn and Tr,and Pn,Tr and Gs had a higher heterosis in the afternoon than in the morning,while the WUE was in reverse,indicating that maize hybrid had higher resistance to the high temperature and dehydration in the afternoon,which provided a new path to select varieties with a high net photosynthetic rate.

  16. Global-scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashehad A; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Fisher, Rosie A; Wullschleger, Stan D; Reich, Peter B; Vrugt, Jasper A; Bauerle, William L; Santiago, Louis S; Wilson, Cathy J

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (V(cm)) rate scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., V(c),25; μmol CO2 x m(-2)x s(-1)) and maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., J25; μmol electron x m(-2) x s(-1)) at the global scale. Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed V(c),25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2-2.5 times and 6-9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain -56% and -66% of the variation in V(c),25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. Our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land-atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.

  17. Chlorophylls d and f and Their Role in Primary Photosynthetic Processes of Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, S I; Kreslavski, V D; Zharmukhamedov, S K; Voloshin, R A; Korol'kova, D V; Tomo, T; Shen, J-R

    2016-03-01

    The finding of unique Chl d- and Chl f-containing cyanobacteria in the last decade was a discovery in the area of biology of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Chl b, Chl c, and Chl f are considered to be accessory pigments found in antennae systems of photosynthetic organisms. They absorb energy and transfer it to the photosynthetic reaction center (RC), but do not participate in electron transport by the photosynthetic electron transport chain. However, Chl d as well as Chl a can operate not only in the light-harvesting complex, but also in the photosynthetic RC. The long-wavelength (Qy) Chl d and Chl f absorption band is shifted to longer wavelength (to 750 nm) compared to Chl a, which suggests the possibility for oxygenic photosynthesis in this spectral range. Such expansion of the photosynthetically active light range is important for the survival of cyanobacteria when the intensity of light not exceeding 700 nm is attenuated due to absorption by Chl a and other pigments. At the same time, energy storage efficiency in photosystem 2 for cyanobacteria containing Chl d and Chl f is not lower than that of cyanobacteria containing Chl a. Despite great interest in these unique chlorophylls, many questions related to functioning of such pigments in primary photosynthetic processes are still not elucidated. This review describes the latest advances in the field of Chl d and Chl f research and their role in primary photosynthetic processes of cyanobacteria.

  18. Combination of artificial neural networks with statistics for prediction of yields in organic reactions%人工神经网络与统计方法集成预测有机反应产率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱京科; 苏云

    2001-01-01

    在应用人工神经网络预测有机反应产率中,由于结合了统计方法,使人工神经网络易产生的随机性和过拟合作用造成的不利影响减小,从而提高了预测可靠性。%This work presents a backpropagation neural network trained toreproduce the reaction yield of aryl fluorides by the halex technique. The work shows that a ten-dimensional input space is able to reproduce reasonably the observed reaction yields by employing statistics in artificial neural system. By means of a number of multilayer feedforward (MLF) networks rather than one, the disadvantages caused by network randomness are limited greatly, and therefore the prediction quality is improved. The combined approach is suitable for relatively small training set, which often causes overfitting and leads to unreliable prediction results.

  19. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  20. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  1. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  2. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  3. Phytochromes in photosynthetically competent plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, L.H.

    1990-07-01

    Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.

  4. Plasmon-enhanced absorption in a metal nanoparticles and photosynthetic molecules hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Photosystem I from cyanobacteria is one of nature's most efficient light harvesting complexes, converting light energy into electronic energy with a quantum yield of 100% and an energy yield about 58%. It is very attractive to the nanotechnology community because of its nanoscale dimensions and excellent optoelectronic properties. This protein has the potential to be utilized in devices such as solar cells, electric switches, photo-detectors, etc. However, there is one limiting factor for potential applications of a single monolayer of these photosynthetic proteins. One monolayer absorbs less than 1% of sunlight's energy, despite their excellent optoelectronic properties. Recently, experiments [1] have been conducted to enhance light absorption with the assistance of metal nanoparticles as artificial antenna for the photosystem I. Here, we present a theoretical description of the strong plasmon-assisted interactions between the metal nanoparticles and the optical dipoles of the reaction centers observed in the experiments. The resonance and off-resonance plasmon effects enhance the electromagnetic fields around the photosystem-I molecules and, in this way, lead to enhanced absorption. [4pt] [1] I. Carmeli, I. Lieberman, L. Kraversky, Zhiyuan Fan, A. O. Govorov, G. Markovich, and S. Richter, submitted.

  5. Differential allocation to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic nitrogen fractions among native and invasive species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Funk

    Full Text Available Invasive species are expected to cluster on the "high-return" end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids.

  6. High-Efficiency Artificial Photosynthesis Using a Novel Alkaline Membrane Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri; Haines, Brennan; Blosiu, Julian; Marzwell, Neville

    2009-01-01

    A new cell designed to mimic the photosynthetic processes of plants to convert carbon dioxide into carbonaceous products and oxygen at high efficiency, has an improved configuration using a polymer membrane electrolyte and an alkaline medium. This increases efficiency of the artificial photosynthetic process, achieves high conversion rates, permits the use of inexpensive catalysts, and widens the range of products generated by this type of process. The alkaline membrane electrolyte allows for the continuous generation of sodium formate without the need for any additional separation system. The electrolyte type, pH, electrocatalyst type, and cell voltage were found to have a strong effect on the efficiency of conversion of carbon dioxide to formate. Indium electrodes were found to have higher conversion efficiency compared to lead. Bicarbonate electrolyte offers higher conversion efficiency and higher rates than water solutions saturated with carbon dioxide. pH values between 8 and 9 lead to the maximum values of efficiency. The operating cell voltage of 2.5 V, or higher, ensures conversion of the carbon dioxide to formate, although the hydrogen evolution reaction begins to compete strongly with the formate production reaction at higher cell voltages. Formate is produced at indium and lead electrodes at a conversion efficiency of 48 mg of CO2/kilojoule of energy input. This efficiency is about eight times that of natural photosynthesis in green plants. The electrochemical method of artificial photosynthesis is a promising approach for the conversion, separation and sequestration of carbon dioxide for confined environments as in space habitats, and also for carbon dioxide management in the terrestrial context. The heart of the reactor is a membrane cell fabricated from an alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane and catalyst- coated electrodes. This cell is assembled and held in compression in gold-plated hardware. The cathode side of the cell is supplied with carbon

  7. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  8. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie...

  9. Synergistic Two-Photon Absorption Enhancement in Photosynthetic Light Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Mei; Chen, Yu-Wei; Gao, Ting-Fong

    2012-06-01

    The grand scale fixation of solar energies into chemical substances by photosynthetic reactions of light-harvesting organisms provides Earth's other life forms a thriving environment. Scientific explorations in the past decades have unraveled the fundamental photophysical and photochemical processes in photosynthesis. Higher plants, green algae, and light-harvesting bacteria utilize organized pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar power efficiently and the resultant electronic excitations are funneled into a reaction center, where the first charge separation process takes place. Here we show experimental evidences that green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) in vivo display a synergistic two-photon absorption enhancement in their photosynthetic light harvesting. Their absorption coefficients at various wavelengths display dramatic dependence on the photon flux. This newly found phenomenon is attributed to a coherence-electronic-energy-transfer-mediated (CEETRAM) photon absorption process of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of green algae. Under the ambient light level, algae and higher plants can utilize this quantum mechanical mechanism to create two entangled electronic excitations adjacently in their light-harvesting networks. Concerted multiple electron transfer reactions in the reaction centers and oxygen evolving complexes can be implemented efficiently by the coherent motion of two entangled excitons from antennae to the charge separation reaction sites. To fabricate nanostructured, synthetic light-harvesting apparatus, the paramount role of the CEETRAM photon absorption mechanism should be seriously considered in the strategic guidelines.

  10. Effect of cerium on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean seedling exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chan-juan; HUANG Xiao-hua; ZHOU Qing

    2006-01-01

    Effects of cerium (Ce3+) on photosynthetic characteristics were investigated by hydroponics under laboratory conditions when soybean seedlings were exposed to two levels of supplementary UV-B radiation. UV-B radiation badly inhibited the photosynthesis in soybean seedling, leading to a reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Ph), Hill reaction activity, light saturated photosynthetic rate (Ps) and apparent quanta yield (AQY), as well as the CO2 and light saturated photosynthetic rate (Pm) and carboxulation efficiency (CE). On the contrary, Ce obviously promoted the photosynthesis of plants by increasing Hill reaction activity, accelerating electron transport and photophosphorylation, and enhancing carboxylation efficiency. For Ce+UV-B treatments,the values of photosynthetic parameters were still lower than those of the control, but obviously higher than those of UV-B treatment.The results indicated that Ce alleviated the inhibition of UV-B radiation on the photosynthesis in soybean seedling to a certain extent.In correlating of Pn with Hill activity, AQY and CE, we found that the changes of photosynthetic rate were mainly influenced by the regulating effect of Ce on Hill activity and AQY at low level (0.15 W/m2) of UV-B radiation, but were dominated by the regulating effect of Ce on CE at high level (0.45 W/m2). Thus, Ce could regulate many aspects in photosynthesis of soybean seedling under UV-B stress. The regulating mechanism was close related with the dosage of UV-B radiation.

  11. Photosynthetic carbon reduction by seagrasses exposed to ultraviolet A radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The seagrasses Halophila engelmannii, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme were examined for their intrinsic sensitivity to ultraviolet-A-UV-A and ultraviolet-B-UV-B radiation. The effect of UV-A on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was also determined. Ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B were studied with emphasis on the greater respective environmental consequence in terms of seagrass distribution and abundance. Results indicate that an intrinsic sensitivity to UV-A alone is apparent only in Halophila, while net photosynthesis in Halodule and Syringodium seems unaffected by the level of UV-A provided. The sensitivity of Halophila to UV-A in the absense of (PAR) indicates that the photosynthetic reaction does not need to be in operation for damage to occur. Other significant results are reported.

  12. An allosteric photoredox catalyst inspired by photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Alejo M; Young, Ryan M; Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; Stern, Charlotte L; McGuirk, C Michael; Wasielewski, Michael R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-30

    Biological photosynthetic machinery allosterically regulate light harvesting via conformational and electronic changes at the antenna protein complexes as a response to specific chemical inputs. Fundamental limitations in current approaches to regulating inorganic light-harvesting mimics prevent their use in catalysis. Here we show that a light-harvesting antenna/reaction centre mimic can be regulated by utilizing a coordination framework incorporating antenna hemilabile ligands and assembled via a high-yielding, modular approach. As in nature, allosteric regulation is afforded by coupling the conformational changes to the disruptions in the electrochemical landscape of the framework upon recognition of specific coordinating analytes. The hemilabile ligands enable switching using remarkably mild and redox-inactive inputs, allowing one to regulate the photoredox catalytic activity of the photosynthetic mimic reversibly and in situ. Thus, we demonstrate that bioinspired regulatory mechanisms can be applied to inorganic light-harvesting arrays displaying switchable catalytic properties and with potential uses in solar energy conversion and photonic devices.

  13. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  14. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value photosynthetic function. Most of the genes involved in the Calvin-Benson cycle were found, genes of the light-dependent reaction were also identified. Also genes of associated pathways including the chorismate pathway and genes involved in starch metabolism were discovered. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these plastid-associated genes originated from several different photosynthetic ancestors. The Calvin-Benson cycle genes are mostly associated with genes derived from the secondary plastids of peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses to renew photosynthetic function.

  15. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  16. Balancing photosynthetic electron flow is critical for cyanobacterial acclimation to nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Eitan; Bar-Eyal, Leeat; Sharon, Shir; Keren, Nir

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen limitation forces photosynthetic organisms to reallocate available nitrogen to essential functions. At the same time, it increases the probability of photo-damage by limiting the rate of energy-demanding metabolic processes, downstream of the photosynthetic apparatus. Non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria cope with this situation by decreasing the size of their phycobilisome antenna and by modifying their photosynthetic apparatus. These changes can serve two purposes: to provide extra amino-acids and to decrease excitation pressure. We examined the effects of nitrogen limitation on the form and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Our aim was to study which of the two demands serve as the driving force for the remodeling of the photosynthetic apparatus, under different growth conditions. We found that a drastic reduction in light intensity allowed cells to maintain a more functional photosynthetic apparatus: the phycobilisome antenna was bigger, the activity of both photosystems was higher and the levels of photosystem (PS) proteins were higher. Pre-acclimating cells to Mn limitation, under which the activity of both PSI and PSII is diminished, results in a very similar response. The rate of PSII photoinhibition, in nitrogen limited cells, was found to be directly related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. These data indicate that, under our experimental conditions, photo-damage avoidance was the more prominent determinant during the acclimation process. The combinations of limiting factors tested here is by no means artificial. Similar scenarios can take place under environmental conditions and should be taken into account when estimating nutrient limitations in nature.

  17. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  18. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  19. [Artificial crowns influence upon edge parodontium status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhulev, E N; Serov, A B

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of prosthetic treatment efficacy increase study of edge parodontium tissue reaction upon different types of artificial crowns was done and methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention were developed. Changes of the main gingival fluid characteristics (amount, acidity, interleukine-1beta concentration) and indicators of microcirculation in edge parodontium of the teeth under the artificial crowns influence were disclosed. There were developed methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention produced by artificial crowns edge.

  20. Replacement of tyrosine residues by phenylalanine in cytochrome P450cam alters the formation of Cpd II-like species in reactions with artificial oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolitak, Tatyana; Dawson, John H; Ballou, David P

    2008-05-01

    Our previous rapid-scanning stopped-flow studies of the reaction of substrate-free cytochrome P450cam with peracids [Spolitak et al. (2005) J Biol Chem 280:20300-20309; (2006) J Inorg Biochem 100:2034-2044] spectrally characterized compound I [ferryl iron plus a porphyrin pi-cation radical (Fe(IV) = O/Por(+))], as well as Cpd ES (Fe(IV) = O/Tyr.). In the present studies, we report how the substitutions in Y75F, Y96F, and Y96F/Y75F P450cam variants permit the formation of a species we attribute to Cpd II (Fe(IV) = O) in reactions with peracids and cumene hydroperoxide. These variants produce changes in hydrogen bonding patterns and increased hydrophobicity that affect the ratio of heterolytic to homolytic pathways in reactions with cumene hydroperoxide, resulting in a shift of this ratio from 84/16 for WT to 72/28 for the Y96F/Y75F double mutant. Various ways of generating the Cpd II-like species were explored, and it was possible, especially with the more hydrophobic variants, to generate large fractions of the P450cam variants as Cpd II. The Cpd II-like species is ineffective at hydroxylating camphor, but can be readily reduced by ascorbate (as well as other peroxidase substrates) to ferric P450cam, which could then bind camphor to form the high-spin heme. The difference in the spectral properties of Cpd ES and Cpd II was rationalized as possibly being due to different states of protonation.

  1. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  2. Detection and quantitative characterization of artificial extra peaks following polymerase chain reaction amplification of 14 short tandem repeat systems used in forensic investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Michael; Morling, N

    1997-01-01

    Detection on automated DNA sequencers of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of tetra- and penta-nucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) loci frequently reveals one or more extra peaks along with the true, major allele peak. The most frequent extra peak pattern is a single smaller peak which......, while Hum-TH01, HumCD4, and D12S391 were virtually unaffected by low-stringency conditions. Replacement of the Taq DNA polymerase with DNA polymerases with lower processivity resulted in higher levels of extra peaks. Our results support the hypothesis that extra peaks are produced due to slipped...

  3. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederman, Robert A. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Blankenship, Robert E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Frank, Harry A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-02-07

    These funds were used for partial support of the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, that was held on 8-11 August, 2013, at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. This conference, held in conjunction with the 16th International Congress on Photosynthesis/St. Louis, continued a long tradition of light-harvesting satellite conferences that have been held prior to the previous six international photosynthesis congresses. In this Workshop, the basis was explored for the current interest in replacing fossil fuels with energy sources derived form direct solar radiation, coupled with light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems and how they offer a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. This was accomplished through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic processes serve as a guide to the development of robust bio-hybrid and artificial systems for solar energy conversion into both electricity or chemical fuels. Organized similar to a Gordon Research Conference, a lively, informal and collegial setting was established, highlighting the exchange of exciting new data and unpublished results from ongoing studies. A significant amount of time was set aside for open discussion and interactive poster sessions, with a special session devoted to oral presentations by talented students and postdoctoral fellows judged to have the best posters. This area of research has seen exceptionally rapid progress in recent years, with the availability of a number of antenna protein structures at atomic resolution, elucidation of the molecular surface architecture of native photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy and the maturing of ultrafast spectroscopic and molecular biological techniques for the investigation and manipulation of photosynthetic systems. The conferees

  4. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

  5. Tocopherol functions in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; DellaPenna, Dean

    2007-06-01

    During the past decade, the genes required for tocopherol (vitamin E) synthesis in plants and cyanobacteria have been identified. A series of mutants in which specific pathway steps are disrupted have been generated, providing new insights into tocopherol functions in photosynthetic organisms. Tocopherols are essential for controlling non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation during seed dormancy and seedling germination. Their absence results in elevated levels of malondialdehyde and phytoprostanes, and in inappropriate activation of plant defense responses. Surprisingly, tocopherol deficiency in mature leaves has limited consequences under most abiotic stresses, including high intensity light stress. The cell wall development of phloem transfer cells under cold conditions is, however, severely impaired in mature leaves of tocopherol-deficient mutants, indicating that tocopherols are required for proper adaptation of phloem loading at low temperatures.

  6. Alternating electron and proton transfer steps in photosynthetic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauss, André; Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2012-10-02

    Water oxidation by cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is pivotal in oxygenic photosynthesis, the process that powers life on Earth, and is the paradigm for engineering solar fuel-production systems. Each complete reaction cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation requires the removal of four electrons and four protons from the catalytic site, a manganese-calcium complex and its protein environment in photosystem II. In time-resolved photothermal beam deflection experiments, we monitored apparent volume changes of the photosystem II protein associated with charge creation by light-induced electron transfer (contraction) and charge-compensating proton relocation (expansion). Two previously invisible proton removal steps were detected, thereby filling two gaps in the basic reaction-cycle model of photosynthetic water oxidation. In the S(2) → S(3) transition of the classical S-state cycle, an intermediate is formed by deprotonation clearly before electron transfer to the oxidant (Y Z OX). The rate-determining elementary step (τ, approximately 30 µs at 20 °C) in the long-distance proton relocation toward the protein-water interface is characterized by a high activation energy (E(a) = 0.46 ± 0.05 eV) and strong H/D kinetic isotope effect (approximately 6). The characteristics of a proton transfer step during the S(0) → S(1) transition are similar (τ, approximately 100 µs; E(a) = 0.34 ± 0.08 eV; kinetic isotope effect, approximately 3); however, the proton removal from the Mn complex proceeds after electron transfer to . By discovery of the transient formation of two further intermediate states in the reaction cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation, a temporal sequence of strictly alternating removal of electrons and protons from the catalytic site is established.

  7. [Effects of light quality on photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthetic characteristics of peanut seedling leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meng-Meng; Wang, Ming-Lun; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Yue-Fu; Zhao, Chang-Xing

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the effects of different light quality on photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthetic characteristics of peanut (Qinhua 6) seedling leaves. The results showed that, compared with natural light, blue light (445-470 nm) could significantly improve the specific leaf area (SLA), chlorophyll a/b value and carotenoid content of peanut seedlings. Meanwhile, the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were higher, the intercellular CO2 content was lower, and the photosynthetic efficiency was improved significantly under blue light. Red light (610-660 nm) could improve the chlorophyll content significantly, and reduce SLA, chlorophyll a/b value and carotenoid content, with a lower photosynthetic efficiency than natural light. Green light (515-520 nm) and yellow light (590-595 nm) were not conducive to photosynthetic pigment accumulation of leaves, and significantly inhibited leaf photosynthesis of peanut seedlings.

  8. Photosynthetic Reaction Centers as Active Molecular Electronic Components. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-13

    SDS bring to 1 liter with H20, pH to 8.3 10% APS = 10% (w/v) Ammonium persulfate Assemble gel plates and spacers (how depends on apparatus). Mix up...the synthesis of polypyrrole microtubules in 12 Biological Components Corporation Phase I Final Report SBIR ARMY 92-103 commercially available

  9. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  10. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  11. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-06

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m(-2) d(-1) for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum-classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics. We

  12. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: principles and application to photosynthetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berera, Rudi; van Grondelle, Rienk; Kennis, John T M

    2009-01-01

    The photophysical and photochemical reactions, after light absorption by a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex, are among the fastest events in biology, taking place on timescales ranging from tens of femtoseconds to a few nanoseconds. The advent of ultrafast laser systems that produce pulses with femtosecond duration opened up a new area of research and enabled investigation of these photophysical and photochemical reactions in real time. Here, we provide a basic description of the ultrafast transient absorption technique, the laser and wavelength-conversion equipment, the transient absorption setup, and the collection of transient absorption data. Recent applications of ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on systems with increasing degree of complexity, from biomimetic light-harvesting systems to natural light-harvesting antennas, are presented. In particular, we will discuss, in this educational review, how a molecular understanding of the light-harvesting and photoprotective functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis is accomplished through the application of ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy.

  13. A mechanistic model for the light response of photosynthetic electron transport rate based on light harvesting properties of photosynthetic pigment molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi-Piao; Robakowski, Piotr; Suggett, David J

    2013-03-01

    Models describing the light response of photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) are routinely used to determine how light absorption influences energy, reducing power and yields of primary productivity; however, no single model is currently able to provide insight into the fundamental processes that implicitly govern the variability of light absorption. Here we present development and application of a new mechanistic model of ETR for photosystem II based on the light harvesting (absorption and transfer to the core 'reaction centres') characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Within this model a series of equations are used to describe novel biophysical and biochemical characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules and in turn light harvesting; specifically, the eigen-absorption cross-section and the minimum average lifetime of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited state, which describe the ability of light absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules and retention time of excitons in the excited state but are difficult to be measured directly. We applied this model to a series of previously collected fluorescence data and demonstrated that our model described well the light response curves of ETR, regardless of whether dynamic down-regulation of PSII occurs, for a range of photosynthetic organisms (Abies alba, Picea abies, Pinus mugo and Emiliania huxleyi). Inherent estimated parameters (e.g. maximum ETR and the saturation irradiance) by our model are in very close agreement with the measured data. Overall, our mechanistic model potentially provides novel insights into the regulation of ETR by light harvesting properties as well as dynamical down-regulation of PSII.

  14. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolardi, Valentina; Cai, Giampiero; Parrotta, Luigi; Puglia, Michele; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gaggi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy.

  15. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  16. Photosynthetic response to fluctuating environments and photoprotective strategies under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru

    2016-05-01

    Plants in natural environments must cope with diverse, highly dynamic, and unpredictable conditions. They have mechanisms to enhance the capture of light energy when light intensity is low, but they can also slow down photosynthetic electron transport to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and consequent damage to the photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Plants need a highly responsive regulatory system to balance the photosynthetic light reactions with downstream metabolism. Various mechanisms of regulation of photosynthetic electron transport under stress have been proposed, however the data have been obtained mainly under environmentally stable and controlled conditions. Thus, our understanding of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis under dramatically fluctuating natural environments remains limited. In this review, first I describe the magnitude of environmental fluctuations under natural conditions. Next, I examine the effects of fluctuations in light intensity, CO2 concentration, leaf temperature, and relative humidity on dynamic photosynthesis. Finally, I summarize photoprotective strategies that allow plants to maintain the photosynthesis under stressful fluctuating environments. The present work clearly showed that fluctuation in various environmental factors resulted in reductions in photosynthetic rate in a stepwise manner at every environmental fluctuation, leading to the conclusion that fluctuating environments would have a large impact on photosynthesis.

  17. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  18. Structures of photosynthetic membrane complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semchonok, Dmitry Alexandrovich

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is essential to all life on Earth. It is the biological process that captures energy of sunlight and converts it into chemical compounds usable by any living organism. The processes occurring within photosynthesis can be divided into the light-dependent reactions and the light-indepen

  19. Developing a scalable artificial photosynthesis technology through nanomaterials by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S.

    2016-12-01

    An artificial photosynthetic system that directly produces fuels from sunlight could provide an approach to scalable energy storage and a technology for the carbon-neutral production of high-energy-density transportation fuels. A variety of designs are currently being explored to create a viable artificial photosynthetic system, and the most technologically advanced systems are based on semiconducting photoelectrodes. Here, I discuss the development of an approach that is based on an architecture, first conceived around a decade ago, that combines arrays of semiconducting microwires with flexible polymeric membranes. I highlight the key steps that have been taken towards delivering a fully functional solar fuels generator, which have exploited advances in nanotechnology at all hierarchical levels of device construction, and include the discovery of earth-abundant electrocatalysts for fuel formation and materials for the stabilization of light absorbers. Finally, I consider the remaining scientific and engineering challenges facing the fulfilment of an artificial photosynthetic system that is simultaneously safe, robust, efficient and scalable.

  20. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2017-03-14

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is a global stressor that has profound impacts on freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, an analysis of the patterns of sensitivity to UVB radiation across aquatic photosynthetic organisms has not yet been published. Here, we performed a meta-analysis on results reported in 214 studies compiled from the published literature to quantify and compare the magnitude of responses of aquatic photosynthetic organisms to changes in UVB radiation. The meta-analysis was conducted on observations of marine (n = 893) and freshwater macroalgae (n = 126) and of marine (n = 1,087) and freshwater (n = 2,889) microalgae (total n = 4,995). Most of these studies (85%) analyzed the performance of organisms exposed to natural solar radiation when UVB was partially or totally reduced compared with the organismal performance under the full solar radiation spectrum, whereas the remaining 15% of the studies examined the responses of organisms to elevated UVB radiation mostly using artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most sensitive of the trait responses to elevated UVB radiation, followed by changes in cellular and molecular traits; the sensitivity of microalgae to UVB radiation is dependent on size, with small-celled microalgae more sensitive than large-celled microalgae to UVB radiation. Thick macroalgae morphotypes were the less sensitive to UVB, but this effect could not be separated from phylogenetic differences. The high sensitivity of marine species, particularly the smallest photosynthetic organisms, to increased UVB radiation suggests that the oligotrophic ocean, a habitat comprising 70% of the world\\'s oceans with high UVB penetration and dominated by picoautotrophs, is extremely vulnerable to changes in UVB radiation.

  1. Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, David J.; Vis-Chiasson, Morgan L.; Kremer, Gregory G.

    2003-12-23

    This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO.sub.2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.

  2. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Westberg, M.; Wang, C.; Gellen, T.; Engel, G. S., E-mail: gsengel@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Dahlberg, P. D. [Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Gardiner, A. T.; Cogdell, R. J. [Department of Botany, Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-07

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency—by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime.

  3. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V. P.; Westberg, M.; Wang, C.; Dahlberg, P. D.; Gellen, T.; Gardiner, A. T.; Cogdell, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency—by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime. PMID:26049466

  4. Function and distribution of bilin biosynthesis enzymes in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Thorben; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    Bilins are open-chain tetrapyrrole molecules essential for light-harvesting and/or sensing in many photosynthetic organisms. While they serve as chromophores in phytochrome-mediated light-sensing in plants, they additionally function in light-harvesting in cyanobacteria, red algae and cryptomonads. Associated to phycobiliproteins a variety of bile pigments is responsible for the specific light-absorbance properties of the organisms enabling efficient photosynthesis under different light conditions. The initial step of bilin biosynthesis is the cleavage of heme by heme oxygenases (HO) to afford the first linear molecule biliverdin. This reaction is ubiquitously found also in non-photosynthetic organisms. Biliverdin is then further reduced by site specific reductases most of them belonging to the interesting family of ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs)-a new family of radical oxidoreductases. In recent years much progress has been made in the field of heme oxygenases but even more in the widespread family of FDBRs, revealing novel biochemical FDBR activities, new crystal structures and new ecological aspects, including the discovery of bilin biosynthesis genes in wild marine phage populations. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the recent progress in this field and to highlight the new and remaining questions.

  5. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Pang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC, decrease of active reaction centers (RCs, and the plastoquinone (PQ pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  6. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these prote

  7. Nonlinear optical absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi-Piao

    2012-04-01

    A mathematical formulation of the relationship between optical absorption coefficient of photosynthetic pigment molecules and light intensity was developed. It showed that physical parameters of photosynthetic pigment molecule (i.e., light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecule, its average lifetime in the excited state, total photosynthetic pigment molecules, the statistical weight, or degeneracy of energy level of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the ground state and in the excited state) influenced on both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Moreover, it also showed that both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules were not constant, they decreased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing. The occupation numbers of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited states increased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing.

  8. Natural strategies for photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, R.; Amerongen, van H.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms are crucial for life on Earth as they provide food and oxygen and are at the basis of most energy resources. They have a large variety of light-harvesting strategies that allow them to live nearly everywhere where sunlight can penetrate. They have adapted their pigmentation

  9. Coral bleaching independent of photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Seneca, François O; DeNofrio, Jan C; Krediet, Cory J; Palumbi, Stephen R; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R

    2013-09-23

    The global decline of reef-building corals is due in part to the loss of algal symbionts, or "bleaching," during the increasingly frequent periods of high seawater temperatures. During bleaching, endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium spp.) either are lost from the animal tissue or lose their photosynthetic pigments, resulting in host mortality if the Symbiodinium populations fail to recover. The >1,000 studies of the causes of heat-induced bleaching have focused overwhelmingly on the consequences of damage to algal photosynthetic processes, and the prevailing model for bleaching invokes a light-dependent generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by heat-damaged chloroplasts as the primary trigger. However, the precise mechanisms of bleaching remain unknown, and there is evidence for involvement of multiple cellular processes. In this study, we asked the simple question of whether bleaching can be triggered by heat in the dark, in the absence of photosynthetically derived ROS. We used both the sea anemone model system Aiptasia and several species of reef-building corals to demonstrate that symbiont loss can occur rapidly during heat stress in complete darkness. Furthermore, we observed damage to the photosynthetic apparatus under these conditions in both Aiptasia endosymbionts and cultured Symbiodinium. These results do not directly contradict the view that light-stimulated ROS production is important in bleaching, but they do show that there must be another pathway leading to bleaching. Elucidation of this pathway should help to clarify bleaching mechanisms under the more usual conditions of heat stress in the light.

  10. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens.

  11. Mechanism of photoprotection in photosynthetic proteins

    OpenAIRE

    TRSKOVÁ, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching is an important protective mechanism of photosynthetic proteins against excessive irradiation. In this work, isolation of native light harvesting antennae from alga Chromera velia was optimized using methods of sucrose density centrifugation, isoelectric focusing, ion exchange chromatography and gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the ability of light harvesting antennae to trigger nonphotochemical quenching was studied in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Limits of quantum speedup in photosynthetic light harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Stephan; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    In the initial stages of photosynthesis, energy collected from light is transferred across a network of chlorophyll molecules to a reaction center. Recent experimental evidence showing long lived quantum coherences in this energy transport in several photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes has suggested that coherence may play an important role in the function of these systems. In particular, it has been hypothesized that excitation transport in such systems may feature speedups analogous to those found in quantum algorithms. The most direct analogy to such transport is found in quantum walks, which form the basis of a powerful class of quantum algorithms including quantum search. Unlike idealized quantum walks, however, real light harvesting complexes are characterized by disorder, energy funnels and decoherence. Whether any quantum speedup can be found in this situation is unclear. Here we characterize quantum speedup for excitation energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur...

  13. Two RNAs or DNAs May Artificially Fuse Together at a Short Homologous Sequence (SHS during Reverse Transcription or Polymerase Chain Reactions, and Thus Reporting an SHS-Containing Chimeric RNA Requires Extra Caution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingkun Xie

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of chimeric RNAs have been reported. Most of them contain a short homologous sequence (SHS at the joining site of the two partner genes but are not associated with a fusion gene. We hypothesize that many of these chimeras may be technical artifacts derived from SHS-caused mis-priming in reverse transcription (RT or polymerase chain reactions (PCR. We cloned six chimeric complementary DNAs (cDNAs formed by human mitochondrial (mt 16S rRNA sequences at an SHS, which were similar to several expression sequence tags (ESTs.These chimeras, which could not be detected with cDNA protection assay, were likely formed because some regions of the 16S rRNA are reversely complementary to another region to form an SHS, which allows the downstream sequence to loop back and anneal at the SHS to prime the synthesis of its complementary strand, yielding a palindromic sequence that can form a hairpin-like structure.We identified a 16S rRNA that ended at the 4th nucleotide(nt of the mt-tRNA-leu was dominant and thus should be the wild type. We also cloned a mouse Bcl2-Nek9 chimeric cDNA that contained a 5-nt unmatchable sequence between the two partners, contained two copies of the reverse primer in the same direction but did not contain the forward primer, making it unclear how this Bcl2-Nek9 was formed and amplified. Moreover, a cDNA was amplified because one primer has 4 nts matched to the template, suggesting that there may be many more artificial cDNAs than we have realized, because the nuclear and mt genomes have many more 4-nt than 5-nt or longer homologues. Altogether, the chimeric cDNAs we cloned are good examples suggesting that many cDNAs may be artifacts due to SHS-caused mis-priming and thus greater caution should be taken when new sequence is obtained from a technique involving DNA polymerization.

  14. Artificial photosynthesis: towards the development of molecular photodiodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Since quite some time similarities have been noted between the photo-generation of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in a molecular semiconductor and the photosynthetic reaction centre of bacteria. For example, the mechanism for charge carrier generation by light in phthalocyanine films is large

  15. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  16. Artificiality in Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Rennard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  17. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  18. Phonon-assisted excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xin; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2016-09-01

    The phonon-assisted process of energy transfer aiming at exploring the newly emerging frontier between biology and physics is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of the intramolecular vibrational modes for excitation energy transfer in the photosynthetic systems. Based on a dimer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor modeled by two two-level systems, in which one of them is coupled to a high-energy vibrational mode, we derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the vibration-assisted coherent energy transfer process in the polaron frame. The effective Hamiltonian reveals in the case that the vibrational mode dynamically matches the energy detuning between the donor and the acceptor, the original detuned energy transfer becomes resonant energy transfer. In addition, the population dynamics and coherence dynamics of the dimer system with and without vibration-assistance are investigated numerically. It is found that, the energy transfer efficiency and the transfer time depend heavily on the interaction strength of the donor and the high-energy vibrational mode, as well as the vibrational frequency. The numerical results also indicate that the initial state and dissipation rate of the vibrational mode have little influence on the dynamics of the dimer system. Results obtained in this article are not only helpful to understand the natural photosynthesis, but also offer an optimal design principle for artificial photosynthesis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174233).

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of a photosynthetic microbial mat and comparison with Archean cherts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbin, M; Derenne, S; Gourier, D; Rouzaud, J-N; Gautret, P; Westall, F

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts.

  20. On the role of cytochrome c8 in photosynthetic electron transfer of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Ciurli, Stefano; Kofod, Pauli

    1997-01-01

    of +285 mV. Partial analysis of the N-terminus amino-acid sequence shows a high similarity with cytochromes of c8 type (formerly called Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 type). Time-resolved spectrophotometric studies show that this cytochrome c8 reduces the tetraheme subunit of the photosynthetic reaction...

  1. Forster Energy Transfer Theory as Reflected in the Structures of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, Melih [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Strumpfer, Johan [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hsin, Jen [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chandler, Danielle [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Scheuring, Simon [Institut National de la Sante Et Recherche Medicale, Paris (France); Hunter, C. Neil [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Schulten, Klaus [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2011-02-22

    Förster's theory of resonant energy transfer underlies a fundamental process in nature, namely the harvesting of sunlight by photosynthetic life forms. The theoretical framework developed by Förster and others describes how electronic excitation migrates in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae, and bacteria from light absorbing pigments to reaction centers where light energy is utilized for the eventual conversion into chemical energy. The demand for highest possible efficiency of light harvesting appears to have shaped the evolution of photosynthetic species from bacteria to plants which, despite a great variation in architecture, display common structural themes founded on the quantum physics of energy transfer as described first by Förster. Herein, Förster’s theory of excitation transfer is summarized, including recent extensions, and the relevance of the theory to photosynthetic systems as evolved in purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and plants is demonstrated. Förster's energy transfer formula, as used widely today in many fields of science, is also derived.

  2. Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Zaman Nouri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, according to the plant type, photosynthetic systems (C3 or C4, type of the stress, time and duration of the occurrence and several other factors. The plant responds to the stresses by a coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression. Chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, and nucleus are the main targets of regulated proteins and metabolites associated with photosynthetic pathways. Rapid responses of plant cell metabolism and adaptation to photosynthetic machinery are key factors for survival of plants in a fluctuating environment. This review gives a comprehensive view of photosynthesis-related alterations at the gene and protein levels for plant adaptation or reaction in response to abiotic stress.

  3. Correlated interaction fluctuations in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Vlaming, Sebastiaan M

    2011-01-01

    The functioning and efficiency of natural photosynthetic complexes is strongly influenced by their embedding in a noisy protein environment, which can even serve to enhance the transport efficiency. Interactions with the environment induce fluctuations of the transition energies of and interactions between the chlorophyll molecules, and due to the fact that different fluctuations will partially be caused by the same environmental factors, correlations between the various fluctuations will occur. We argue that fluctuations of the interactions should in general not be neglected, as these have a considerable impact on population transfer rates, decoherence rates and the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes. Furthermore, while correlations between transition energy fluctuations have been studied, we provide the first quantitative study of the effect of correlations between interaction fluctuations and transition energy fluctuations, and of correlations between the various interaction fluctuations. It is shown t...

  4. Photosynthetic rates of citronella and lemongrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M; Ormrod, D P

    1979-02-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter(2) per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod.

  5. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2003-04-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/2/2003 through 4/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we are progressing with long-term model scale bioreactor tests and are completing final preparations for pilot scale bioreactor testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2003 are included.

  6. Nitrogen control of photosynthetic protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Plant growth is severely affected by impaired photosynthesis resulting from nitrogen deficiency. The molecular aspects of this effect are being studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas grown in continuous culture systems. Photosynthetic membranes of nitrogen-limited cells are dramatically depleted in chlorophylls, xanthophylls and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes. In contrast, enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and electron transport chain complexes are reduced only 40 to 65% on a per cell basis comparison with nitrogen-sufficient cultures. From analyses of mRNA levels by in vitro translation and hybridization analyses with cloned DNA sequences for photosynthetic proteins, we have found there are rather minor effects of nitrogen deficiency on nuclear or chloroplast gene transcription. Maturation of a transcript of the nuclear-encoded small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is inhibited in nitrogen-deficient cells and causes accumulation of large amounts of mRNA precursors. Most of the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic proteins appear to result from posttranscriptional regulatory processes: light-harvesting protein synthesis may be sustained but their import into chloroplasts or translocation to photosynthetic membranes is impaired. Nitrogen-deficient cells lack violaxanthin, a pigment that is essential for the structure, function and biogenesis of the major antenna complexes. The absence of this pigment may be a causative factor for the deficiency of light harvesting complexes. Finally, the accumulation of massive amounts of starch and triglycerides in nitrogen-limited cells indicate there are some genes whose maximal expression is dependent upon nitrogen-limiting conditions. 10 refs.

  7. Nonclassical energy transfer in photosynthetic FMO complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramavicius Vytautas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Excitation energy transfer in a photosynthetic FMO complex has been simulated using the stochastic Schrödinger equation. Fluctuating chromophore transition energies are simulated from the quantum correlation function which allows to properly include the finite temperature. The resulting excitation dynamics shows fast thermalization of chromophore occupations into proper thermal equilibrium. The relaxation process is characterized by entropy dynamics, which shows nonclassical behavior.

  8. Studies on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Plum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Many photosynthetic characteristics of three plum varieties were studied with a infrared CO2 analyzer. Results showed that plums belong to light-loving species,having a relative high light compensation point (75~ 80μmol · m-2 · s-1 ), In natural light range from none to 1400μmol · m-2s-1PAR,the light response curve of plum as a hyperbo and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn) in leavs increased with PA elevation. Pn of plum tree was 20 to 22.50mg CO2 · dm-1 · h-1 at 1380μmol · m-2 · s-1 PAR,indicating that plum was typi cal C3-type fruit tree. Diurnal change in Pn was a bimoal curve with the highest photosynthetic rate arising at about 10:00 a. m. indicated the clear“none-rest”characteristic in plum leaves. Among three varieties. SuiLi3 had the shortest“none-rest“time followed by JiLin6 and NuXinLi. Seasonal change in Pn was a bi modal curve with the first period of high Pn in late June and the second in late August. Pn in leaves decreased visibly in period of drought in Spring and Summer.

  9. Evidence for the semireduced primary quinone electron acceptor of photosystem II being a photosensitizer for UVB damage to the photosynthetic apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, G.C.; Jansen, M.A.K.; Noort, van den M.E.; Rensen, van J.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) radiation affects plants in multiple ways, including effects on the photosynthetic apparatus. The carbon dioxide reduction reactions are affected as well as the light reactions, especially those of photosystem II. In the literature several UVB chromophores a

  10. C-type cytochromes in the photosynthetic electron transfer pathways in green sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azai, Chihiro; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-oka, Hirozo

    2010-06-01

    Green sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria are strictly anaerobic phototrophs that have homodimeric type 1 reaction center complexes. Within these complexes, highly reducing substances are produced through an initial charge separation followed by electron transfer reactions driven by light energy absorption. In order to attain efficient energy conversion, it is important for the photooxidized reaction center to be rapidly rereduced. Green sulfur bacteria utilize reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (sulfide, thiosulfate, and/or sulfur) as electron sources for their anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. Membrane-bound and soluble cytochromes c play essential roles in the supply of electrons from sulfur oxidation pathways to the P840 reaction center. In the case of gram-positive heliobacteria, the photooxidized P800 reaction center is rereduced by cytochrome c-553 (PetJ) whose N-terminal cysteine residue is modified with fatty acid chains anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane.

  11. Novel adaptive photosynthetic characteristics of mesophotic symbiotic microalgae within the reef-building coral, Stylophora pistillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Einbinder

    2016-10-01

    that is funneled to the PSI reaction center. In this study, we provide evidence that mesophotic Symbiodinium spp. have developed novel adaptive low-light characteristics consisting of a cooperative system for excitation energy transfer between photosynthetic units that maximizes light utilization.

  12. Photosynthetic fractionation of the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, R.D. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States)); Fogel, M.L.; Berry, J.A. (Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Isotope discrimination during photosynthetic exchange of O[sub 2] and CO[sub 2] was measured using enzyme, thylakoid, and whole cell preparations. Evolved oxygen from isolated spinach thylakoids was isotopically identical (within analytical error) to its source water. Similar results were obtained with Anacystis nidulans Richter and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin cultures purged with helium. For consumptive reactions, discrimination ([triangle], where 1 + [triangle]/1000 equals the isotope effect, k[sup 16]/k[sup 18] or k[sup 12]/k[sup 13]) was determined by analysis of residual substrate (O[sub 2] or CO[sub 2]). The [triangle] for the Mehler reaction, mediated by ferredoxin or methylviologen, was 15.3[per thousand]. Oxygen isotope discrimination during oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was 21.3[per thousand] and independent of enzyme source, unlike carbon isotope dicrimination: 30.3[per thousand] for spinach enzyme and 19.6 to 23[per thousand] for Rhodospirillum rubrum and A. nidulans enzymes, depending on reaction conditions. The [triangle] for O[sub 2] consumption catalyzed by glycolate oxidase was 22.7[per thousand]. Consistent with this, when Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesopyll cells approached the compensation point within a sealed vessel, the [delta][sup 18]O of dissolved O[sub 2] came to a steady-state value of about 21.5[per thousand] relative to the source water. The results provide improved estimates of discrimination factors in several reactions prominent in the global oxygen cycle and indicate that photorespiration plays a significant part in determining the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen. 47 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  14. Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

  15. A new perspective on hydrogen production by photosynthetic water-splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Greenbaum, E.

    1996-05-01

    Present energy systems are heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This will eventually lead to the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and, according to some reports, global climate changes due to the emission of carbon dioxide. In principle, hydrogen production by biophotolysis of water can be an ideal solar energy conversion system for sustainable development of human activities in harmony with the global environment. In photosynthetic hydrogen production research, there are currently two main efforts: (1) Direct photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen by photosynthetic water splitting using the ferredoxin/hydrogenase pathway; (2) Dark hydrogen production by fermentation of organic reserves such as starch that are generated by photosynthesis during the light period. In this chapter, the advantages and challenges of the two approaches for hydrogen production will be discussed, in relation to a new opportunity brought by our recent discovery of a new photosynthetic water-splitting reaction which, potentially, has twice the energy efficiency of conventional watersplitting via the two light reaction Z-scheme of photosynthesis.

  16. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  17. Long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes at physiological temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Panitchayangkoon, Gitt; Fransted, Kelly A; Caram, Justin R; Harel, Elad; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E; Engel, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes capture and concentrate solar radiation by transferring the excitation to the reaction center which stores energy from the photon in chemical bonds. This process occurs with near-perfect quantum efficiency. Recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures have revealed that coherent energy transfer - a wavelike transfer mechanism - occurs in many photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes (1-4). Using the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna complex (FMO) as a model system, theoretical studies incorporating both incoherent and coherent transfer as well as thermal dephasing predict that environmentally assisted quantum transfer efficiency peaks near physiological temperature; these studies further show that this process is equivalent to a quantum random walk algorithm (5-8). This theory requires long-lived quantum coherence at room temperature, which never has been observed in FMO. Here we present the first evidence that quantum coherence survives in FMO at physiological temperature for at l...

  18. Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy for studying the molecular mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-An eChu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The photosystem II reaction center mediates the light-induced transfer of electrons from water to plastoquinone, with concomitant production of O2. Water oxidation chemistry occurs in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC, which consists of an inorganic Mn4CaO5 cluster and its surrounding protein matrix. Light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR difference spectroscopy has been successfully used to study the molecular mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation. This powerful technique has enabled the characterization of the dynamic structural changes in active water molecules, the Mn4CaO5 cluster, and its surrounding protein matrix during the catalytic cycle. This mini-review presents an overview of recent important progress in FTIR studies of the OEC and implications for revealing the molecular mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation.

  19. Multiscale Analysis and Optimisation of Photosynthetic Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    This work asks how light harvesting in photosynthetic systems can be optimised for economically scalable, sustainable energy production. Hierarchy theory is introduced as a system-analysis and optimisation tool better able to handle multiscale, multiprocess complexities in photosynthetic energetics compared with standard linear-process analysis. Within this framework, new insights are given into relationships between composition, structure and energetics at the scale of the thylakoid membrane, and also into how components at different scales cooperate under functional objectives of the whole photosynthetic system. Combining these reductionistic and holistic analyses creates a platform for modelling multiscale-optimal, idealised photosynthetic systems in silico.

  20. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  1. Simulation of photosynthetic production using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmet, Tibor; Kmetova, Maria

    2013-10-01

    This paper deals with neural network based optimal control synthesis for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints and discrete time delay. The optimal control problem is transcribed into nonlinear programming problem which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network. This approach is applicable to a wide class of nonlinear systems. The proposed simulation methods is illustrated by the optimal control problem of photosynthetic production described by discrete time delay differential equations. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach holds promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints.

  2. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  3. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-01

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 μm thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  4. Photosynthetic characteristics of two Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains differing in their toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Orr, Philip T; Beardall, John

    2014-04-01

    We studied the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of a toxic (CS506) and a nontoxic strain (CS509) of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii grown under identical experimental conditions. When exposed to light-saturating growth conditions (100 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ), values for maximal photosynthetic capacity (Pmax ) and maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ) indicated that both strains had an equal ability to process captured photons and deliver them to PSII reaction centers. However, CS506 grew faster than CS509. This was consistent with its higher light requirement for saturation of photosynthesis (Ik ). Greater shade tolerance of CS509 was indicated by its higher ability to harvest light (α), lower photosynthetic light compensation point (Ic ), and higher chlorophyll a to biovolume ratio. Strain-specific differences were found in relation to non-photochemical quenching, effective absorption cross-sectional area of PSIIα-centers (σPSIIα), and the antenna connectivity parameter of PSIIα (Jcon PSIIα). These findings highlighted differences in the transfer of excitation from phycobilisome/PSII to PSI, on the dependence on different pigments for light harvesting and on the functioning of the PSII reaction centers between the two strains. The results of this study showed that both performance and composition of the photosynthetic apparatus are different between these strains, though with only two strains examined we cannot attribute the performance of strain 506 to its ability to produce cylindrospermopsins. The emphasis on a strain-specific light adaptation/acclimation is crucial to our understanding of how different light conditions (both quantity and quality) can trigger the occurrence of different C. raciborskii strains and control their competition and/or dominance in natural ecosystems.

  5. Exploiting Collective Effects to Direct Light Absorption in Natural and Artificial Light-Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Christopher

    Photosynthesis---the conversion of sunlight to chemical energy---is fundamental for supporting life on our planet. Despite its importance, the physical principles that underpin the primary steps of photosynthesis, from photon absorption to electronic charge separation, remain to be understood in full. Electronic coherence within tightly-packed light-harvesting (LH) units or within individual reaction centers (RCs) has been recognized as an important ingredient for a complete understanding of the excitation energy transfer (EET) dynamics. However, the electronic coherence across units---RC and LH or LH and LH---has been consistently neglected as it does not play a significant role during these relatively slow transfer processes. Here, we turn our attention to the absorption process, which, as we will show, has a much shorter built-in timescale. We demonstrate that the---often overlooked---spatially extended but short-lived excitonic delocalization plays a relevant role in general photosynthetic systems. Most strikingly, we find that absorption intensity is, quite generally, redistributed from LH units to the RC, increasing the number of excitations which can effect charge separation without further transfer steps. A biomemetic nano-system is proposed which is predicted to funnel excitation to the RC-analogue, and hence is the first step towards exploiting these new design principles for efficient artificial light-harvesting.

  6. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  7. 护理干预对降低无痛人工流产手术中不良反应的效果观察%The observation of the effect observation of nursing intervention to reduce adverse reaction of painless artificial abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方何英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨无痛人工流产手术中不良反应的护理干预措施及临床效果。方法将我院妇科门诊1345例自愿选择进行无痛人工流产手术患者分为观察组和对照组,其中2013年1月—6月进行无痛人工流产手术患者采取常规护理措施作为对照组,2013年6月—12月患者实施手术前护理干预、心理护理干预、手术中护理干预和手术后护理干预作为观察组,对2组患者的不良反应发生情况进行分析比较。结果观察组中不良反应发生率4.48%,对照组中不良反应发生率11.11%。结论无痛人工流产患者实施有效的护理干预,特别是手术前的常规检查,术中严密监测血压呼吸心率等体征,积极的呼吸循环管理,对降低无痛人工流产手术中不良反应发生率,及减轻相关临床症状有极其重要的作用。%Objective To investigate nursing interventions and clinical effects to adverse reaction of painless artificial abortion.Methods Out-patients with treatment of painless artificial abortion and adverse reaction from January to June in 2013 were retrospectively analyzed as control group, patients by nursing interventions before by painless artificial abortion from June to December in 2013 were analyzed as observation group and compared with control group.Results The probability that adverse reaction occurs in observation group is 11.06%, the probability that adverse reaction occurs in control group is 2.24%.Conclusion The effect of nursing intervention for patients receiving painless artificial abortion, especially normal inspection before the operation, strictly inspecting signs of blood pressure, breath, heart rate, and so on during the operation, and effective nursing to cycle respiration, has its important role to decrease the probability that adverse reaction occurs during painless artificial abortion and reduce clinical symptoms.

  8. Shade shelters increase survival and photosynthetic performance of oak transplants at abandoned fields in semi-arid climates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia González-Salvatierra; Ernesto Iván Badano; Joel Flores; Juan Pablo Rodas

    2013-01-01

    Forest restorations conducted in semiarid,seasonally dry climates must deal with the intense drought stress that affects tree seedlings during the dry season.Although this water deficit is the most commonly invoked source of mortality for seedlings,several other environmental factors may also preclude survival of transplants.For instance,it has been widely reported that excessive light reduces the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus,hence decreasing plant survival,but most seedling transplants in deforested areas are conducted under these light conditions.This study is focused in determining whether excessive light affects the photosynthetic performance and survival of Quercus coccolobifolia,a Mexican oak species,when their seedlings are transplanted in semiarid deforested areas.Further,this study tests the possibility of using artificial shade shelters to improve the ecophysiological performance and survival of seedlings.Oak seedlings were transplanted under full sunlight conditions and beneath artificial shade shelters of two different colors:white and black.To reduce water stress,and hence isolate the effects of light treatments,a drip irrigation system was implemented at each experimental plot.Seedling survival was monitored weekly for 128 days and photosynthetic performance was assessed by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence at three opportunities during the experiment.Sun-exposed seedlings showed lower photosynthetic performance and survival rates than those beneath shelters of both colors.These results suggest that sunlight damage can reduce seedling survival when they are transplanted in exposed sites,and that shade shelters can improve the success of forest restoration programs in semiarid climates.

  9. Photonic multilayer structure of Begonia chloroplasts enhances photosynthetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Matthew; Lopez-Garcia, Martin; Phrathep, O-Phart; Lawson, Tracy; Oulton, Ruth; Whitney, Heather M

    2016-10-24

    Enhanced light harvesting is an area of interest for optimizing both natural photosynthesis and artificial solar energy capture(1,2). Iridescence has been shown to exist widely and in diverse forms in plants and other photosynthetic organisms and symbioses(3,4), but there has yet to be any direct link demonstrated between iridescence and photosynthesis. Here we show that epidermal chloroplasts, also known as iridoplasts, in shade-dwelling species of Begonia(5), notable for their brilliant blue iridescence, have a photonic crystal structure formed from a periodic arrangement of the light-absorbing thylakoid tissue itself. This structure enhances photosynthesis in two ways: by increasing light capture at the predominantly green wavelengths available in shade conditions, and by directly enhancing quantum yield by 5-10% under low-light conditions. These findings together imply that the iridoplast is a highly modified chloroplast structure adapted to make best use of the extremely low-light conditions in the tropical forest understorey in which it is found(5,6). A phylogenetically diverse range of shade-dwelling plant species has been found to produce similarly structured chloroplasts(7-9), suggesting that the ability to produce chloroplasts whose membranes are organized as a multilayer with photonic properties may be widespread. In fact, given the well-established diversity and plasticity of chloroplasts(10,11), our results imply that photonic effects may be important even in plants that do not show any obvious signs of iridescence to the naked eye but where a highly ordered chloroplast structure may present a clear blue reflectance at the microscale. Chloroplasts are generally thought of as purely photochemical; we suggest that one should also think of them as a photonic structure with a complex interplay between control of light propagation, light capture and photochemistry.

  10. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  11. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  12. Interaction between the spectral photon flux density distributions of light during growth and for measurements in net photosynthetic rates of cucumber leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keach; Matsuda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    The net photosynthetic rate of a leaf becomes acclimated to the plant's environment during growth. These rates are often measured, evaluated and compared among leaves of plants grown under different light conditions. In this study, we compared net photosynthetic rates of cucumber leaves grown under white light-emitting diode (LED) light without and with supplemental far-red (FR) LED light (W- and WFR-leaves, respectively) under three different measuring light (ML) conditions: their respective growth light (GL), artificial sunlight (AS) and blue and red (BR) light. The difference in the measured photosynthetic rates between W- and WFR-leaves was greater under BR than under GL and AS. In other words, an interaction between supplemental FR light during growth and the spectral photon flux density distribution (SPD) of ML affected the measured net photosynthetic rates. We showed that the comparison and evaluation of leaf photosynthetic rates and characteristics can be biased depending on the SPD of ML, especially for plants grown under different photon flux densities in the FR waveband. We also investigated the mechanism of the interaction. We confirmed that the distribution of excitation energy between the two photosystems (PSs) changed in response to the SPD of GL, and that this change resulted in the interaction, as suggested in previous reports. However, changes in PS stoichiometry could not completely explain the adjustment in excitation energy distribution observed in this study, suggesting that other mechanisms may be involved in the interaction.

  13. Engineered photosynthetic bacteria, method of manufacture of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laible, Philip D.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2016-09-13

    The invention provides for a novel type of biofuel; a method for cleaving anchors from photosynthetic organisms; and a method for producing biofuels using photosynthetic organisms, the method comprising identifying photosynthesis co-factors and their anchors in the organisms; modifying the organisms to increase production of the anchors; accumulating biomass of the organisms in growth media; and harvesting the anchors.

  14. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  15. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  16. Variability of photosynthetic parameters of Pinus sibirica Du Tour needles under changing climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    of photosystem II was lower than that in the local ecotype. Thus, the increased photosynthetic intensity under favorable conditions follows the path of formation of both a larger number of reaction centers and light-harvesting pigments.

  17. Comparative Genomic Study of the Thioredoxin Family in Photosynthetic Organisms with Emphasis on Populus trichocarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamel Chibani; Gunnar Wingsle; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Eric Gelhaye; Nicolas Rouhier

    2009-01-01

    The recent genome sequencing of Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera, two models of woody plants, of Sorghum bicolor, a model of monocot using C4 metabolism, and of the moss Physcomitrella patens, together with the availability of photosynthetic organism genomes allows performance of a comparative genomic study with organisms having different ways of life, reproduction modes, biological traits, and physiologies. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiq-uitous proteins involved in the reduction of disulfide bridges in a variety of target enzymes present in all sub-cellular compartments and involved in many biochemical reactions. The genes coding for these enzymes have been identified in these newly sequenced genomes and annotated. The gene content, organization and distribution were compared to other photosynthetic organisms, leading to a refined classification. This analysis revealed that higher plants and bryo-phytes have a more complex family compared to algae and cyanobacteria and to non-photosynthetic organisms, since poplar exhibits 49 genes coding for typical and atypical thioredoxins and thioredoxin reductases, namely one-third more than monocots such as Oryza sativa and S. bicolor. The higher number of Trxs in poplar is partially explained by gene duplication in the Trx m, h, and nucleoredoxin classes. Particular attention was paid to poplar genes with emphasis on Trx-like classes called Clot, thioredoxin-like, thioredoxins of the lilium type and nucleoredoxins, which were not described in depth in previous genomic studies.

  18. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Guillermo; Zurita, Jorge L; Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M

    2015-01-01

    Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of a chemical in photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Proteomic characterization of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 photosynthetic membrane: Identification of New Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Callister, Stephen J.; Tavano, Christine; Donohue, Timothy; Lipton, Mary S.; Kaplan, Samuel

    2007-10-01

    The intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) system develops, upon induction, as a structure dedicated to the major events of bacterial photosynthesis, including harvesting light energy, primary charge separation, and electron transport. In this study, multi-chromatographic methods coupled with fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer, combined with subcellular fractionation, was applied to an investigation of the supramolecular composition of the native photosynthetic membrane of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. A complete proteomic profile of the intracytoplasmic membranes was obtained and the results showed that the intracytoplasmic membranes are mainly composed of four photosynthetic membrane protein complexes, including light harvesting complexes I and II, the reaction center and cytochrome bc1, as well as two new membrane protein components, an unknown protein (RSP1760) and a possible alkane hydroxylase. Proteins necessary for various cellular functions, such as ATP synthesis, respiratory components, ABC transporters, protein translocation, and other proteins with unknown functions were also identified in association with the intracytoplasmic membranes. This study opens a new perspective on the characterization and understanding of the photosynthetic supramolecular complexes of R. sphaeroides, and their internal interactions as well as interactions with other proteins inside or outside the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  20. Photosynthetical electron transfer and biomass formation in selected evolutionary wheat types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.

    1980-01-01

    The primary photosynthetical reactions, which are responsible for the absorption of light energy and its fixing as chemical energy, represent the first part of a chain of metabolic processes occurring in the green plant, which ends with the production of organic material. In principle, the synthesis of reserve substances and their deposition in economically profitable storage organs also bases on the supply with energy and reduction equivalents due to the photosynthetical electron transfer, although this production is also determined and influenced by other processes, whose regulative connections are not yet completely known. The formation of biomasses (vegetative organs) however, has a close connection with the capacity of the photosynthetic electron transfer, because there are numerous possibilities of an indirect usage of ATP and NADPH/sub 2/ in the protein and lipid metabolisms besides the synthesis of carbohydrates, which is limited by the CO/sub 2/ supply at the carboxylation site. Consequently, a high degree of functional capacity should correlate with the capacity of intensive growth and result to be a selective advantage in evolution. It was the intention of this study to examine the above-mentioned suppositions on selected species of the genera triticum and aegilops, each of which represents a certain step in the evolution from wild grasses to cultured wheat.

  1. Photosynthetic transport of electrons and formation of biomass in selected evolutionary forms of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieke, B.

    1982-01-01

    The morphological parameters and the activity of photosynthetic transport of electrons in isolated chloroplasts were determined in nine species of the genera Triticum and Aegilops, each of which represents certain stages of the evolution of crop wheat. The capacity of photosynthetic transport of electrons in relation to the chlorophyll content does not allow conclusions for the potential formation of biomass by shoots and primary leaves. There was a positive correlation between rate of transport of electrons of isolated chloroplasts and the dry (fresh) matter/shoot (primary leaf) ratio, but a negative correlation between biomass and chlorophyll content/fresh matter. These correlations indicate a reduction of the light-collecting antenna complexes in the process of the evolution of crop wheat. The most intensively bred species, T. aestivum is marked by potentially lowest biomass production/primary leaf dry matter. Nevertheless relatively large shoots are produced, which means that the utilization of the photosynthetic primary products in the subsequent dark reactions must be highly efficient.

  2. A method to determine photosynthetic activity from oxygen microsensor data in biofilms subjected to evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Podola, Björn; de Beer, Dirk; Melkonian, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Phototrophic biofilms are widely distributed in nature and their ecological importance is well recognized. More recently, there has been a growing interest in using artificial phototrophic biofilms in innovative photobioreactors for production of microalgal biomass in biotechnological applications. To study physiological processes within these biofilms, microsensors have been applied in several studies. Here, the 'light-dark shift method' relies on measurement of photosynthetic activity in terms of light-induced oxygen production. However, when applied to non-submerged biofilms that can be found in numerous locations in nature, as well as in some types of photobioreactors, limitations of this approach are obvious due to rapid removal of gaseous species at the biofilm surface. Here, we introduce a mathematical correction to recover the distribution of the actual photosynthetic activity along the depth gradient in the biofilm, based on a numerical solution of the inversed diffusion equation of oxygen. This method considers changes in mass transport during the measurement period as can found on biofilms possessing a thin flow/mass transfer boundary layer (e. g., non-submerged biofilms). Using both simulated and real microsensor data, the proposed method was shown to be much more accurate than the classical method, which leads to underestimations of rates near the biofilm surface. All test profiles could be recovered with a high fit. According to our simulated microsensor measurements, a depth resolution of ≤20 μm is recommended near the surface. We conclude that our method strongly improves the quality of data acquired from light-dark measurements of photosynthetic activity in biofilms.

  3. Directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes for in vivo metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschek, Markus; Reuter, Raphael; Heinisch, Tillmann; Trindler, Christian; Klehr, Juliane; Panke, Sven; Ward, Thomas R.

    2016-09-01

    The field of biocatalysis has advanced from harnessing natural enzymes to using directed evolution to obtain new biocatalysts with tailor-made functions. Several tools have recently been developed to expand the natural enzymatic repertoire with abiotic reactions. For example, artificial metalloenzymes, which combine the versatile reaction scope of transition metals with the beneficial catalytic features of enzymes, offer an attractive means to engineer new reactions. Three complementary strategies exist: repurposing natural metalloenzymes for abiotic transformations; in silico metalloenzyme (re-)design; and incorporation of abiotic cofactors into proteins. The third strategy offers the opportunity to design a wide variety of artificial metalloenzymes for non-natural reactions. However, many metal cofactors are inhibited by cellular components and therefore require purification of the scaffold protein. This limits the throughput of genetic optimization schemes applied to artificial metalloenzymes and their applicability in vivo to expand natural metabolism. Here we report the compartmentalization and in vivo evolution of an artificial metalloenzyme for olefin metathesis, which represents an archetypal organometallic reaction without equivalent in nature. Building on previous work on an artificial metallohydrolase, we exploit the periplasm of Escherichia coli as a reaction compartment for the ‘metathase’ because it offers an auspicious environment for artificial metalloenzymes, mainly owing to low concentrations of inhibitors such as glutathione, which has recently been identified as a major inhibitor. This strategy facilitated the assembly of a functional metathase in vivo and its directed evolution with substantially increased throughput compared to conventional approaches that rely on purified protein variants. The evolved metathase compares favourably with commercial catalysts, shows activity for different metathesis substrates and can be further evolved in

  4. Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ming Kuan

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  5. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  6. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  7. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  8. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  9. Beneficial Roles of Melatonin on Redox Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Synthesis of D1 Protein in Tomato Seedlings under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoting; Zhao, Hailiang; Cao, Kai; Hu, Lipan; Du, Tianhao; Baluška, František; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is important in the protection of plants suffering various forms of abiotic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying the melatonin-mediated protection of their photosynthetic machinery are not completely resolved. This study investigates the effects of exogenous melatonin applications on salt-induced damage to the light reaction components of the photosynthetic machinery of tomato seedlings. The results showed that melatonin pretreatments can help maintain growth and net photosynthetic rate (PN) under salt stress conditions. Pretreatment with melatonin increased the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and the proportion of PSII centers that are “open” (qL) under saline conditions. In this way, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PET) in photosystem II (PSII) was mitigated. In addition, melatonin pretreatment facilitated the repair of PSII by maintaining the availability of D1 protein that was otherwise reduced by salinity. The ROS levels and the gene expressions of the chloroplast TRXs and PRXs were also investigated. Salt stress resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were mitigated by melatonin. In tomato leaves under salt stress, the expressions of PRXs and TRXf declined but the expressions of TRXm1/4 and TRXm2 increased. Melatonin pretreatment promoted the expression of TRXf and the abundances of TRXf and TRXm gene products but had no effects on the expressions of PRXs. In summary, melatonin improves the photosynthetic activities of tomato seedlings under salt stress. The mechanism could be that: (1) Melatonin controls ROS levels and prevents damaging elevations of ROS caused by salt stress. (2) Melatonin facilitates the recovery of PET and D1 protein synthesis, thus enhancing the tolerance of photosynthetic activities to salinity. (3) Melatonin induces the expression of TRXf and regulates the abundance of TRXf and TRXm gene products

  10. Beneficial roles of melatonin on redox regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and synthesis of D1 protein in tomato seedlings under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is important in the protection of plants suffering various forms of abiotic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying the melatonin-mediated protection of their photosynthetic machinery are not completely resolved. This study investigates the effects of exogenous melatonin applications on salt-induced damage to the light reaction components of the photosynthetic machinery of tomato seedlings. The results show that melatonin pretreatments can help maintain growth and net photosynthetic rate (PN under salt stress conditions. Pretreatment with melatonin increased the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII, the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP and the proportion of PSII centers that are ‘open’ (qL under saline conditions. In this way, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PET in photosystem II (PSII is mitigated. In addition, melatonin pretreatment facilitated the repair of PSII by maintaining the availability of D1 protein that was otherwise reduced by salinity. The ROS levels and the gene expressions of the chloroplast TRXs and PRXs were also investigated. Salt stress resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which were mitigated by melatonin. In tomato leaves under salt stress, the expressions of PRXs and TRXf declined but the expressions of TRXm1/4 and TRXm2 increased. Melatonin pretreatment promoted the expression of TRXf and the abundances of TRXf and TRXm gene products but had no effects on the expressions of PRXs. In summary, melatonin improves the photosynthetic activities of tomato seedlings under salt stress. The mechanism could be that: (1 Melatonin controls ROS levels and prevents damaging elevations of ROS caused by salt stress. (2 Melatonin facilitates the recovery of PET and D1 protein synthesis, thus enhancing the tolerance of photosynthetic activities to salinity. (3 Melatonin induces the expression of TRXf and regulates the abundance of TRXf and TRXm gene

  11. [Species-dependence of the pattern of plant photosynthetic rate response to light intensity transition from saturating to limiting one].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Xu, Da-Quan

    2007-12-01

    By observing the photosynthetic responses of leaves to changes in light intensity and CO(2) concentration it was found that among the more than 50 plant species examined 32 species and 25 species showed respectively the V pattern and L pattern of the photosynthetic response to light intensity transition from saturating to limiting one (Figs.1 and 2 and Table 1). The pattern of photosynthetic response to light intensity transition is species-dependent but not leaf developmental stage-dependent (Fig.3). The species-dependence was not related to classification in taxonomy because the photosynthetic response might display the two different patterns (V and L) in plants of the same family, for example, rice and wheat (Gramineae), soybean and peanut (Leguminosae). It seemed to be related to the pathway of photosynthetic carbon assimilation because all of the C(4) plants examined (maize, green bristlegrass and thorny amaranth) displayed the L pattern. It might be related to light environment where the plants originated. The V pattern of photosynthetic response to light intensity transition was often observed in some plants grown in shade habitats, for example, sweet viburnum and Japan fatsia, while the L pattern was frequently observed in those plants grown in sunny habitats, for example, ginkgo and cotton. Furthermore, the ratio of electron transport rate to carboxylation rate in vivo measured at limiting light was far higher in the V pattern plants (mostly higher than 10) than in the L pattern plants (mostly lower than 5), but the ratio measured at saturating light had no significant difference between the two kinds of plants (Table 2). These results can be explained in part by that the V pattern plant species have larger light-harvesting complex (LHCII) and at saturating light the reversible dissociation of some LHCIIs from PSII reaction center complex occurs. The pattern of photosynthetic response to light intensity transition and the ratio of electron transport rate

  12. Isolation of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria from black smoker plume waters of the juan de fuca ridge in the pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, V; Beatty, J T

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described.

  13. Förster energy transfer theory as reflected in the structures of photosynthetic light-harvesting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Melih; Strümpfer, Johan; Hsin, Jen; Chandler, Danielle; Scheuring, Simon; Hunter, C Neil; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-02-25

    Förster’s theory of resonant energy transfer underlies a fundamental process in nature, namely the harvesting of sunlight by photosynthetic life forms. The theoretical framework developed by Förster and others describes how electronic excitation migrates in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae, and bacteria from light absorbing pigments to reaction centers where light energy is utilized for the eventual conversion into chemical energy. The demand for highest possible efficiency of light harvesting appears to have shaped the evolution of photosynthetic species from bacteria to plants which, despite a great variation in architecture, display common structural themes founded on the quantum physics of energy transfer as described first by Förster. Herein, Förster’s theory of excitation transfer is summarized, including recent extensions, and the relevance of the theory to photosynthetic systems as evolved in purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and plants is demonstrated. Förster’s energy transfer formula, as used widely today in many fields of science, is also derived.

  14. Artificial concurrent catalytic processes involving enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Valentin; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-11

    The concurrent operation of multiple catalysts can lead to enhanced reaction features including (i) simultaneous linear multi-step transformations in a single reaction flask (ii) the control of intermediate equilibria (iii) stereoconvergent transformations (iv) rapid processing of labile reaction products. Enzymes occupy a prominent position for the development of such processes, due to their high potential compatibility with other biocatalysts. Genes for different enzymes can be co-expressed to reconstruct natural or construct artificial pathways and applied in the form of engineered whole cell biocatalysts to carry out complex transformations or, alternatively, the enzymes can be combined in vitro after isolation. Moreover, enzyme variants provide a wider substrate scope for a given reaction and often display altered selectivities and specificities. Man-made transition metal catalysts and engineered or artificial metalloenzymes also widen the range of reactivities and catalysed reactions that are potentially employable. Cascades for simultaneous cofactor or co-substrate regeneration or co-product removal are now firmly established. Many applications of more ambitious concurrent cascade catalysis are only just beginning to appear in the literature. The current review presents some of the most recent examples, with an emphasis on the combination of transition metal with enzymatic catalysis and aims to encourage researchers to contribute to this emerging field.

  15. Counting viruses and bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira, C; Staal, M.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures

  16. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystall

  17. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic efficienc

  18. Increased grain yield with improved photosynthetic characters in modern maize parental lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cong-feng; TAO Zhi-qiang; LIU Peng; ZHANG Ji-wang; ZHUANG Ke-zhang; DONG Shu-ting; ZHAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    The grain yield of maize has increased continuously in past decades, largely through hybrid innovation, cultivation tech-nology, and in particular, recent genetic improvements in photosynthesis. Elite inbred lines are crucial for innovating new germplasm. Here, we analyzed variations in grain yield and a series of eco-physiological photosynthetic traits after anthesis in sixteen parental lines of maize (Zea mays L.) released during three different eras (1960s, 1980s, 2000s). We found that grain yield and biomass signiifcantly increased in the 2000s than those in the 1980s and 1960s. Leaf area, chlorophyl , and soluble protein content slowly decreased, and maintained a higher net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and improved stomatal conductance (Gs) after anthesis in the 2000s. In addition, the parental lines in the 2000s obtained higher actual photo-chemistry efifciency (ФPSI ) and the maximum PSII photochemistry efifciency (Fv/Fm), which largely improved light partition-ing and chlorophyl lfuorescence characteristic, including higher photochemical and photosystem II (PSII) reaction center activity, lower thermal energy dissipation in antenna proteins. Meanwhile, more lamel ae per granum within chloroplasts were observed in the parental lines of the 2000s, with a clear and complete chloroplast membrane, which wil greatly help to improve photosynthetic capacity and energy efifciency of ear leaf in maize parental lines. It is concluded that grain yield increase in modern maize parental lines is mainly attributed to the improved chloroplast structure and more light energy catched for the photochemical reaction, thus having a better stay-green characteristic and stronger photosynthetic capac-ity after anthesis. Our direct physiological evaluation of these inbred lines provides important information for the further development of promising maize cultivars.

  19. Increased grain yield with improved photosynthetic characters in modern maize parental lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cong-feng[1; TAO Zhi-qiang[1; LIU Peng[2; ZHANG Ji-wang[2; ZHUANG Ke-zhang[3; DONG Shu-ting[2; ZHAO Ming[1

    2015-01-01

    The grain yield of maize has increased continuously in past decades, largely through hybrid innovation, cultivation tech- nology, and in particular, recent genetic improvements in photosynthesis. Elite inbred lines are crucial for innovating new germplasm. Here, we analyzed variations in grain yield and a series of eco-physiological photosynthetic traits after anthesis in sixteen parental lines of maize (Zea mays L.) released during three different eras (1960s, 1980s, 2000s). We found that grain yield and biomass significantly increased in the 2000s than those in the 1980s and 1960s. Leaf area, chlorophyll, and soluble protein content slowly decreased, and maintained a higher net photosynthesis rate (Po) and improved stomatal conductance (Gs) after anthesis in the 2000s. In addition, the parental lines in the 2000s obtained higher actual photo- chemistry efficiency (Ps,) and the maximum PSII photochemistry efficiency (FJFm), which largely improved light partition- ing and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristic, including higher photochemical and photosystem II (PSII) reaction center activity, lower thermal energy dissipation in antenna proteins. Meanwhile, more lamellae per granum within chloroplasts were observed in the parental lines of the 2000s, with a clear and complete chloroplast membrane, which will greatly help to improve photosynthetic capacity and energy efficiency of ear leaf in maize parental lines. It is concluded that grain yield increase in modern maize parental lines is mainly attributed to the improved chloroplast structure and more light energy catched for the photochemical reaction, thus having a better stay-green characteristic and stronger photosynthetic capac- ity after anthesis. Our direct physiological evaluation of these inbred lines provides important information for the further development of promising maize cultivars.

  20. Exploring photosynthesis evolution by comparative analysis of metabolic networks between chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jing

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts descended from cyanobacteria and have a drastically reduced genome following an endosymbiotic event. Many genes of the ancestral cyanobacterial genome have been transferred to the plant nuclear genome by horizontal gene transfer. However, a selective set of metabolism pathways is maintained in chloroplasts using both chloroplast genome encoded and nuclear genome encoded enzymes. As an organelle specialized for carrying out photosynthesis, does the chloroplast metabolic network have properties adapted for higher efficiency of photosynthesis? We compared metabolic network properties of chloroplasts and prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, mostly cyanobacteria, based on metabolic maps derived from genome data to identify features of chloroplast network properties that are different from cyanobacteria and to analyze possible functional significance of those features. Results The properties of the entire metabolic network and the sub-network that consists of reactions directly connected to the Calvin Cycle have been analyzed using hypergraph representation. Results showed that the whole metabolic networks in chloroplast and cyanobacteria both possess small-world network properties. Although the number of compounds and reactions in chloroplasts is less than that in cyanobacteria, the chloroplast's metabolic network has longer average path length, a larger diameter, and is Calvin Cycle -centered, indicating an overall less-dense network structure with specific and local high density areas in chloroplasts. Moreover, chloroplast metabolic network exhibits a better modular organization than cyanobacterial ones. Enzymes involved in the same metabolic processes tend to cluster into the same module in chloroplasts. Conclusion In summary, the differences in metabolic network properties may reflect the evolutionary changes during endosymbiosis that led to the improvement of the photosynthesis efficiency in higher plants. Our

  1. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  2. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-01-16

    This is the first quarterly report of the project Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation. The official project start date, 10/02/2000, was delayed until 10/31/2000 due to an intellectual property dispute that was resolved. However, the delay forced a subsequent delay in subcontracting with Montana State University, which then delayed obtaining a sampling permit from Yellowstone National Park. However, even with these delays, the project moved forward with some success. Accomplishments for this quarter include: Culturing of thermophilic organisms from Yellowstone; Testing of mesophilic organisms in extreme CO{sub 2} conditions; Construction of a second test bed for additional testing; Purchase of a total carbon analyzer dedicated to the project; Construction of a lighting container for Oak Ridge National Laboratory optical fiber testing; Modified lighting of existing test box to provide more uniform distribution; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties; Experimentation on water-jet harvesting techniques; and Literature review underway regarding uses of biomass after harvesting. Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  3. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  4. Artificial vision workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  5. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  6. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  7. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  8. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  9. Hydraulic basis for the evolution of photosynthetic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffoni, Christine; Chatelet, David S; Pasquet-Kok, Jessica; Rawls, Michael; Donoghue, Michael J; Edwards, Erika J; Sack, Lawren

    2016-05-27

    Clarifying the evolution and mechanisms for photosynthetic productivity is a key to both improving crops and understanding plant evolution and habitat distributions. Current theory recognizes a role for the hydraulics of water transport as a potential determinant of photosynthetic productivity based on comparative data across disparate species. However, there has never been rigorous support for the maintenance of this relationship during an evolutionary radiation. We tested this theory for 30 species of Viburnum, diverse in leaf shape and photosynthetic anatomy, grown in a common garden. We found strong support for a fundamental requirement for leaf hydraulic capacity (Kleaf) in determining photosynthetic capacity (Amax), as these traits diversified across this lineage in tight coordination, with their proportionality modulated by the climate experienced in the species' range. Variation in Kleaf arose from differences in venation architecture that influenced xylem and especially outside-xylem flow pathways. These findings substantiate an evolutionary basis for the coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic physiology across species, and their co-dependence on climate, establishing a fundamental role for water transport in the evolution of the photosynthetic rate.

  10. Rice photosynthetic productivity and PSII photochemistry under nonflooded irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haibing; Yang, Ru; Jia, Biao; Chen, Lin; Fan, Hua; Cui, Jing; Yang, Dong; Li, Menglong; Ma, Fu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM), furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN), and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI). Compared with the conventional flooding (CF) treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN), lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC). Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA) were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  11. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  12. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  13. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  14. Artificial human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  15. General artificial neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  16. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar; Prakash D Chavan

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into orga...

  17. Three photosynthetic patterns characterized by cluster analysis of gas exchange data in two rice populations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Plant photosynthetic rate is affected by stomatal status and internal CO2 carboxylation. Understanding which process determines photosynthetic rate is essential for developing strategies for breeding crops with high photosynthetic efficiency. In this study, we identified different physiological patterns of photosynthetic rate in two different rice populations. Photosynthetic gas exchange parameters were measured during the flowering stage in two rice populations. Clustering and correlation an...

  18. Developing Research Capabilities in Energy Biosciences: Design principles of photosynthetic biofuel production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D. Brown; David Savage

    2012-06-30

    The current fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure is not sustainable. Solar radiation is a plausible alternative, but realizing it as such will require significant technological advances in the ability to harvest light energy and convert it into suitable fuels. The biological system of photosynthesis can carry out these reactions, and in principle could be engineered using the tools of synthetic biology. One desirable implementation would be to rewire the reactions of a photosynthetic bacterium to direct the energy harvested from solar radiation into the synthesis of the biofuel H2. Proposed here is a series of experiments to lay the basic science groundwork for such an attempt. The goal is to elucidate the transcriptional network of photosynthesis using a novel driver-reporter screen, evolve more robust hydrogenases for improved catalysis, and to test the ability of the photosynthetic machinery to directly produce H2 in vivo. The results of these experiments will have broad implications for the understanding of photosynthesis, enzyme function, and the engineering of biological systems for sustainable energy production. The ultimate impact could be a fundamental transformation of the world's energy economy.

  19. Elementary Energy Transfer Pathways in Allochromatium vinosum Photosynthetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Larry; Carey, Anne-Marie; Henry, Sarah; Maiuri, Margherita; Hacking, Kirsty; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Cogdell, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Allochromatium vinosum (formerly Chromatium vinosum) purple bacteria are known to adapt their light-harvesting strategy during growth according to environmental factors such as temperature and average light intensity. Under low light illumination or low ambient temperature conditions, most of the LH2 complexes in the photosynthetic membranes form a B820 exciton with reduced spectral overlap with LH1. To elucidate the reason for this light and temperature adaptation of the LH2 electronic structure, we performed broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength in A. vinosum membranes. A target analysis of the acquired data yielded individual rate constants for all relevant elementary energy transfer (ET) processes. We found that the ET dynamics in high-light-grown membranes was well described by a homogeneous model, with forward and backward rate constants independent of the pump wavelength. Thus, the overall B800→B850→B890→ Reaction Center ET cascade is well described by simple triexponential kinetics. In the low-light-grown membranes, we found that the elementary backward transfer rate constant from B890 to B820 was strongly reduced compared with the corresponding constant from B890 to B850 in high-light-grown samples. The ET dynamics of low-light-grown membranes was strongly dependent on the pump wavelength, clearly showing that the excitation memory is not lost throughout the exciton lifetime. The observed pump energy dependence of the forward and backward ET rate constants suggests exciton diffusion via B850→ B850 transfer steps, making the overall ET dynamics nonexponential. Our results show that disorder plays a crucial role in our understanding of low-light adaptation in A. vinosum.

  20. The effect and adverse reaction comparision of oxytocin and mifepristone on vaginal bleeding after artificial abortion%缩宫素与米非司酮对人工流产术后阴道出血的效果及不良反应比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖放颖; 张晓燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect and adverse reaction of oxytocin and mifepristone on vaginal bleeding after artificial abortion. Methods 200 patients given negative pressure aspiration of uterus for artificial abortion from January to December 2013 were selected as research objectives,and they were randomly divided into the oxytocin group and mifepristone group,there were 100 cases in each group.Oxytocin was taken to the oxytocin group,while mifepristone was taken to the mifepristone group.The vaginal bleeding and adverse reaction of the two groups were compared. Results The bleeding time of the oxytocin group was (5.8±1.4) d,bleeding amount was (321±38.3) ml,which was significantly lower than that of the mifepristone group respectively [(8.9±1.3) d and (437.3±49.2) ml] (P<0.05).The total incidence rate of adverse reaction in mifepristone group (64.00%) was higher than that of the oxytocin group (33.00%) (P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with mifepristone,oxytocin can better prevent vaginal bleeding and adverse reaction after artifi-cial abortion surgery.%目的:比较缩宫素与米非司酮对人工流产术后阴道出血的效果及不良反应。方法随机抽取自2013年1~12月在本科室行负压吸宫术进行人工流产的200例患者作为研究对象,随机分为缩宫素组和米非司酮组。缩宫素组患者使用缩宫素,米非司酮组使用米非司酮。比较两组患者人工流产术后阴道出血及不良反应发生情况。结果缩宫素组的出血时间为(5.8±1.4)d,出血量为(321±38.3)ml,缩宫素组的出血时间显著短于米非司酮组的(8.9±1.3)d,出血量显著少于米非司酮组的(437.3±49.2)ml(P<0.05);米非司酮组患者的不良反应总发生率为64.00%,显著高于缩宫素组的33.00%(P<0.05)。结论缩宫素比米非司酮更能显著预防人工流产术后阴道出血及不良反应的发生。

  1. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativa L.cv.Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  2. Antenna organization in green photosynthetic bacteria. Progress report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1987-12-31

    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the unique antenna system found in the green photosynthetic bacteria. The antenna system in these organisms is contained within a vesicle known as a chlorosome, which is attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Additional antenna pigments and reaction centers are contained in integral membrane proteins. Energy absorbed by the bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) pigments in the chlorosome is transferred via a ``baseplate`` array of BChl a antenna pigments into the membrane and to the reaction center. A schematic model of chlorosome structure is shown. This project is aimed at increasing our understanding of the organization of the pigments in the chlorosome and how the antenna system functions.

  3. Distinguishing the roles of energy funnelling and delocalization in photosynthetic light harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbanzadeh, Sima; Kassal, Ivan

    2016-03-14

    Photosynthetic complexes improve the transfer of excitation energy from peripheral antennas to reaction centers in several ways. In particular, a downward energy funnel can direct excitons in the right direction, while coherent excitonic delocalization can enhance transfer rates through the cooperative phenomenon of supertransfer. However, isolating the role of purely coherent effects is difficult because any change to the delocalization also changes the energy landscape. Here, we show that the relative importance of the two processes can be determined by comparing the natural light-harvesting apparatus with counterfactual models in which the delocalization and the energy landscape are altered. Applied to the example of purple bacteria, our approach shows that although supertransfer does enhance the rates somewhat, the energetic funnelling plays the decisive role. Because delocalization has a minor role (and is sometimes detrimental), it is most likely not adaptive, being a side-effect of the dense chlorophyll packing that evolved to increase light absorption per reaction center.

  4. Overexpression of plastidial thioredoxins f and m differentially alters photosynthetic activity and response to oxidative stress in tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eREY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs, reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In both transplastomic lines, activities of two enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase are markedly and similarly altered. In contrast, plants overexpressing Trx m specifically display increased capacity for methionine sulfoxide reductases, enzymes repairing damaged proteins by regenerating methionine from oxidized methionine. Finally, we also observed that transplastomic plants exhibit distinct responses when exposed to oxidative stress conditions generated by methyl viologen or exposure to high light combined with low temperature, the plants overexpressing Trx m being notably more tolerant than Wt and those overexpressing Trx f. Altogether, these data indicate that Trxs f and m fulfill distinct physiological functions. They prompt us to propose that the m type is involved in key processes linking photosynthetic activity, redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast.

  5. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  6. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  7. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  8. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  9. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  10. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  11. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-01-30

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/2/2003 through 1/1/2004. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we have seen very encouraging results from the model scale tests in terms of organism growth rates and we have begun the final tests necessary to meet our project goals. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2003 include: (1) Bioreactor support systems and test facilities--(A) The solar collector is working well and has survived the winter weather. (B) The improved high-flow CRF-2 test system has been used successfully to run several long-term growth tests with periodic harvesting events. The high flow harvesting system performed well. The mass measurement results after a 4-week test show 275% growth over the initial mass loading. This figure would have been higher had there been no leakage and handling losses. Carbon dating of biomass from this test is planned for carbon uptake estimation. The next test will include direct measurement of carbon uptake in addition to organism mass measurements. (C) Qualitative organism growth testing has begun in the pilot scale bioreactor. Some issues with uniformity of organism loading, fluid leakage and evaporation have surfaced and are currently being addressed, and quantitative testing will begin as soon as these problems are resolved. (2) Organisms and Growth Surfaces--(A) Montana State University (Subcontracted to do organism studies) submitted their final (3-year) project report. An abstract of the report in included in this quarterly report.

  12. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  13. Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Herman

    2002-02-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short- or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge requires permeable surface soils. Where these are not available, trenches or shafts in the unsaturated zone can be used, or water can be directly injected into aquifers through wells. To design a system for artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration rates of the soil must be determined and the unsaturated zone between land surface and the aquifer must be checked for adequate permeability and absence of polluted areas. The aquifer should be sufficiently transmissive to avoid excessive buildup of groundwater mounds. Knowledge of these conditions requires field investigations and, if no fatal flaws are detected, test basins to predict system performance. Water-quality issues must be evaluated, especially with respect to formation of clogging layers on basin bottoms or other infiltration surfaces, and to geochemical reactions in the aquifer. Clogging layers are managed by desilting or other pretreatment of the water, and by remedial techniques in the infiltration system, such as drying, scraping, disking, ripping, or other tillage. Recharge wells should be pumped periodically to backwash clogging layers. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4.

  14. Finding Reaction Pathways of Type A + B → X: Toward Systematic Prediction of Reaction Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-08-09

    In these five decades, many useful tools have been developed for exploring quantum chemical potential energy surfaces. The success in theoretical studies of chemical reaction mechanisms has been greatly supported by these tools. However, systematic prediction of reaction mechanisms starting only from given reactants and catalysts is still very difficult. Toward this goal, we describe the artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method for automatically finding reaction paths of type A + B → X (+ Y). By imposing an artificial force to given reactants and catalysts, the method can find the reactive sites very efficiently. Further pressing by the artificial force provides approximate transition states and product structures, which can be easily reoptimized to the corresponding true ones. This procedure can be executed very efficiently just by minimizing a single function called the AFIR function. All important reaction paths can be found by repeating this cycle starting from many initial orientations. We also discuss perspectives of automated reaction path search methods toward the above goal.

  15. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  16. Oxomanganese complexes for natural and artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalta, Ivan; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2012-04-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II (PSII) is an oxomanganese complex that catalyzes water-splitting into O2, protons and electrons. Recent breakthroughs in X-ray crystallography have resolved the cuboidal OEC structure at 1.9 Å resolution, stimulating significant interest in studies of structure/function relations. This article summarizes recent advances on studies of the OEC along with studies of synthetic oxomanganese complexes for artificial photosynthesis. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics hybrid methods have enabled modeling the S1 state of the OEC, including the ligation proposed by the most recent X-ray data where D170 is bridging Ca and the Mn center outside the CaMn3 core. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations have explored the structural/functional roles of chloride, suggesting that it regulates the electrostatic interactions between D61 and K317 that might be critical for proton abstraction. Furthermore, structural studies of synthetic oxomanganese complexes, including the [H2O(terpy)MnIII(μ-O)2MnIV(terpy)OH2]3+ (1, terpy=2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) complex, provided valuable insights on the mechanistic influence of carboxylate moieties in close contact with the Mn catalyst during oxygen evolution. Covalent attachment of 1 to TiO2 has been achieved via direct deposition and by using organic chromophoric linkers. The (III,IV) oxidation state of 1 attached to TiO2 can be advanced to (IV,IV) by visible-light photoexcitation, leading to photoinduced interfacial electron transfer. These studies are particularly relevant to the development of artificial photosynthetic devices based on inexpensive materials.

  17. Effects of Exogenous Silicon on Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Chloroplast of Cucumber Seedlings Under Excess Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-peng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Xiu-feng

    2009-01-01

    Effects of silicon on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzymes of chloroplast in cucumber seedlings under excess Mn were studied. Compared with the control, excess Mn significantly inhibited net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance, as well as the maximum yield of the photosystem Ⅱ photochemical reactions (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of photosysytem Ⅱelectron transport(φPSⅡ),application of Si reversed the negative effects of excess Mn. In the further investigation, it was obtained that application of Si significantly increased the activities of enzymes related with ascorbate-glutathione cycle including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) in cucumber chloroplast under excess Mn, this could be responsible for the lower accumulation of H2O2 and lower lipid peroxidation of chloroplast induced by Mn, and resulted in keeping higher photosynthesis.

  18. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ort, Donald R; Yuan, Joshua S

    2015-02-01

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced 'drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to 'disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  19. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  20. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Guillermo, E-mail: grepkuh@upo.es [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Zurita, Jorge L. [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M. [Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • There are very few toxicological applications of thermoluminescence. • It is a luminescence emission induced by heating the sample in the dark. • It is useful for study the photosystem II function and the level of lipid peroxidation. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of

  1. Improvement of photosynthetic CO2 fixation at high light intensity through reduction of chlorophyll antenna size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James W; Mets, Laurens; Greenbau, Elias

    2002-01-01

    At elevated light intensities (greater than approximately 200 microE/[m2 x s]), the kinetic imbalance between the rate of photon excitation and thermally activated electron transport results in saturation of the rate of photosynthesis. Since maximum terrestrial solar radiation can reach 200 microE/(m2 x s), a significant opportunity exists to improve photosynthetic efficiency at elevated light intensities by achieving a kinetic balance between photon excitation and electron transport, especially in designed large-scale photosynthetic reactors in which a low-cost and efficient biomass production system is desired. One such strategy is a reduction in chlorophyll (chl) antenna size in relation to the reaction center that it serves. In this article, we report recent progress in this area of research. Light-saturation studies for CO2 fixation were performed on an antenna-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas (DS521) and the wild type (DES15) with 700 ppm of CO2 in air. The light-saturated rate for CO2 assimilation in the mutant DS521 was about two times higher (187 micromol/[h x mg of chl]) than that of the wild type, DES15 (95 micromol/[h x mg of chl]). Significantly, a partial linearization of the light-saturation curve was also observed. These results confirmed that DS521 has a smaller relative chl antenna size and demonstrated that reduction of relative antenna size can improve the overall efficiency of photon utilization at higher light intensities. The antenna-deficient mutant DS521 can provide significant resistance to photoinhibition, in addition to improvement in the overall efficiency of CO2 fixation at high light. The experimental data reported herein support the idea that reduction in chl antenna size could have significant implications for both fundamental understanding of photosynthesis and potential application to improve photosynthetic CO2 fixation efficiency.

  2. Photosynthetic Characterization of the Plant Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh. in a Rare Earth Elements Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Feng WANG; Hong-Bing JI; Ke-Zhi BAI; Liang-Bi LI; Ting-Yun KUANG

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in the natural hyperaccumulator fern Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh. and to characterize this plant photosynthetically,concentrations of REEs in D. dichotoma from mines mining heavy and light REEs (HREEs and LREEs,respectively), as well as in D. dichotoma from an area in which no mining occurred, in southern Jiangxi Province were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The REE concentrations in the lamina of D. dichotoma were in the order LREEs mine > HREEs mine > non-mining area. The maximum REE content in the lamina of D. dichotoma from the LREE mine was approximately 2 648 mg/kg dry weight.The photosynthetic activity of D. dichotoma from areas of HREE and LREE mines was improved by the presence of high concentrations of REEs in the lamina compared with D. dichotoma from the non-mining area. However, this enhancement varied according to the concentrations of the REEs, as well as their type.In addition, 77K fluorescence, electron transport rate, and chlorophyll-protein complex studies showed that the enhancement of the photosynthetic activity of D. dichotoma from HREE mines was mainly due to an increase in the chlorophyll-protein complex of the reaction center of photosystem (PS) I, whereas the enhancement observed in D. dichotoma from LREE mines was due to an increase in the internal antennae chlorophyll-protein complex of PS Ⅱ and greater light energy distribution to the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of PS Ⅱ.

  3. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  4. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  5. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  6. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  7. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  8. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  9. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BOVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  10. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nesterov, Alexander [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Lopez, Gustavo [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Sayre, Richard Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  11. Cyanobacteria as photosynthetic biocatalysts: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Steinn; Nogales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing need to replace oil-based products and to address global climate change concerns has triggered considerable interest in photosynthetic microorganisms. Cyanobacteria, in particular, have great potential as biocatalysts for fuels and fine-chemicals. During the last few years the biotechnological applications of cyanobacteria have experienced an unprecedented increase and the use of these photosynthetic organisms for chemical production is becoming a tangible reality. However, the field is still immature and many concerns about the economic feasibility of the biotechnological potential of cyanobacteria remain. In this review we describe recent successes in biofuel and fine-chemical production using cyanobacteria. We discuss the role of the photosynthetic metabolism and highlight the need for systems-level metabolic optimization in order to achieve the true potential of cyanobacterial biocatalysts.

  12. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I

    1998-07-01

    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  13. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  14. Experimental climate warming decreases photosynthetic efficiency of lichens in an arid South African ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphangwa, Khumbudzo Walter; Musil, Charles F; Raitt, Lincoln; Zedda, Luciana

    2012-05-01

    Elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts accompanying climate warming in arid ecosystems are expected to have adverse effects on the photosynthesis of lichen species sensitive to elevated temperature and/or water limitation. This premise was tested by artificially elevating temperatures (increase 2.1-3.8°C) and reducing the amounts of fog and dew precipitation (decrease 30.1-31.9%), in an approximation of future climate warming scenarios, using transparent hexagonal open-top warming chambers placed around natural populations of four lichen species (Xanthoparmelia austroafricana, X. hyporhytida , Xanthoparmelia. sp., Xanthomaculina hottentotta) at a dry inland site and two lichen species (Teloschistes capensis and Ramalina sp.) at a humid coastal site in the arid South African Succulent Karoo Biome. Effective photosynthetic quantum yields ([Formula: see text]) were measured hourly throughout the day at monthly intervals in pre-hydrated lichens present in the open-top warming chambers and in controls which comprised demarcated plots of equivalent open-top warming chamber dimensions constructed from 5-cm-diameter mesh steel fencing. The cumulative effects of the elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts in the open-top warming chambers resulted in significant decreases in lichen [Formula: see text]. The decreases were more pronounced in lichens from the dry inland site (decline 34.1-46.1%) than in those from the humid coastal site (decline 11.3-13.7%), most frequent and prominent in lichens at both sites during the dry summer season, and generally of greatest magnitude at or after the solar noon in all seasons. Based on these results, we conclude that climate warming interacting with reduced precipitation will negatively affect carbon balances in endemic lichens by increasing desiccation damage and reducing photosynthetic activity time, leading to increased incidences of mortality.

  15. Structural Changes in the Mn4Ca Cluster and the Mechanism of Photosynthetic Water Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushkar, Y.; Yano, J.; Sauer, K.; Boussac, A.; Yachandra, V.K.

    2007-10-25

    Photosynthetic water oxidation, where water is oxidized to dioxygen, is a fundamental chemical reaction that sustains the biosphere. This reaction is catalyzed by a Mn4Ca complex in the photosystem II (PS II) oxygen-evolving complex (OEC): a multiproteinassembly embedded in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, cyanobacteria, and algae. The mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation by the Mn4Ca cluster in photosystem II is the subject of much debate, although lacking structural characterization of the catalytic intermediates. Biosynthetically exchanged Ca/Sr-PS II preparations and x-ray spectroscopy, including extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), allowed us to monitor Mn-Mn and Ca(Sr)-Mn distances in the four intermediate S states, S0 through S3, of the catalytic cycle that couples the one-electron photochemistry occurring at the PS II reaction center with the four-electron water-oxidation chemistry taking place at the Mn4Ca(Sr) cluster. We have detected significant changes in the structure of the complex, especially in the Mn-Mn and Ca(Sr)-Mn distances, on the S2-to-S3 and S3-to-S0 transitions. These results implicate the involvement of at least one common bridging oxygen atom between the Mn-Mn and Mn-Ca(Sr) atoms in the O-O bond formation. Because PS II cannot advance beyond the S2 state in preparations that lack Ca(Sr), these results show that Ca(Sr) is one of the critical components in the mechanism of the enzyme. The results also show that Ca is not just a spectator atom involved in providing a structural framework, but is actively involved in the mechanism of water oxidation and represents a rare example of a catalytically active Ca cofactor.

  16. Direct evidence of quantum transport in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitchayangkoon, Gitt; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Abramavicius, Darius; Caram, Justin R.; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Mukamel, Shaul; Engel, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    The photosynthetic light-harvesting apparatus moves energy from absorbed photons to the reaction center with remarkable quantum efficiency. Recently, long-lived quantum coherence has been proposed to influence efficiency and robustness of photosynthetic energy transfer in light-harvesting antennae. The quantum aspect of these dynamics has generated great interest both because of the possibility for efficient long-range energy transfer and because biology is typically considered to operate entirely in the classical regime. Yet, experiments to date show only that coherence persists long enough that it can influence dynamics, but they have not directly shown that coherence does influence energy transfer. Here, we provide experimental evidence that interaction between the bacteriochlorophyll chromophores and the protein environment surrounding them not only prolongs quantum coherence, but also spawns reversible, oscillatory energy transfer among excited states. Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, we observe oscillatory excited-state populations demonstrating that quantum transport of energy occurs in biological systems. The observed population oscillation suggests that these light-harvesting antennae trade energy reversibly between the protein and the chromophores. Resolving design principles evident in this biological antenna could provide inspiration for new solar energy applications. PMID:22167798

  17. Atomic-level structural and functional model of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Melih K; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil; Schulten, Klaus

    2007-10-02

    The photosynthetic unit (PSU) of purple photosynthetic bacteria consists of a network of bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes that absorb solar energy for eventual conversion to ATP. Because of its remarkable simplicity, the PSU can serve as a prototype for studies of cellular organelles. In the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides the PSU forms spherical invaginations of the inner membrane, approximately 70 nm in diameter, composed mostly of light-harvesting complexes, LH1 and LH2, and reaction centers (RCs). Atomic force microscopy studies of the intracytoplasmic membrane have revealed the overall spatial organization of the PSU. In the present study these atomic force microscopy data were used to construct three-dimensional models of an entire membrane vesicle at the atomic level by using the known structure of the LH2 complex and a structural model of the dimeric RC-LH1 complex. Two models depict vesicles consisting of 9 or 18 dimeric RC-LH1 complexes and 144 or 101 LH2 complexes, representing a total of 3,879 or 4,464 bacteriochlorophylls, respectively. The in silico reconstructions permit a detailed description of light absorption and electronic excitation migration, including computation of a 50-ps excitation lifetime and a 95% quantum efficiency for one of the model membranes, and demonstration of excitation sharing within the closely packed RC-LH1 dimer arrays.

  18. Direct evidence of quantum transport in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitchayangkoon, Gitt; Voronine, Dmitri V; Abramavicius, Darius; Caram, Justin R; Lewis, Nicholas H C; Mukamel, Shaul; Engel, Gregory S

    2011-12-27

    The photosynthetic light-harvesting apparatus moves energy from absorbed photons to the reaction center with remarkable quantum efficiency. Recently, long-lived quantum coherence has been proposed to influence efficiency and robustness of photosynthetic energy transfer in light-harvesting antennae. The quantum aspect of these dynamics has generated great interest both because of the possibility for efficient long-range energy transfer and because biology is typically considered to operate entirely in the classical regime. Yet, experiments to date show only that coherence persists long enough that it can influence dynamics, but they have not directly shown that coherence does influence energy transfer. Here, we provide experimental evidence that interaction between the bacteriochlorophyll chromophores and the protein environment surrounding them not only prolongs quantum coherence, but also spawns reversible, oscillatory energy transfer among excited states. Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, we observe oscillatory excited-state populations demonstrating that quantum transport of energy occurs in biological systems. The observed population oscillation suggests that these light-harvesting antennae trade energy reversibly between the protein and the chromophores. Resolving design principles evident in this biological antenna could provide inspiration for new solar energy applications.

  19. Excess iron-induced changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Janete M; Peters, José A; Danieloski, Rodrigo; Bacarin, Marcos A

    2011-11-15

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. In plant tissues, approximately 80% of Fe is found in photosynthetic cells. This study was carried out to determine the effect of different iron concentrations on the photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato plants. The fluorescence transient of chlorophyll a (OJIP), chlorophyll index and gas exchange were measured in plants grown for seven days in Hoagland solution containing an iron concentration of 0.45, 0.90, 4.50 or 9.00 mM Fe (as Fe-EDTA). The initial and maximum fluorescence increased in the plants receiving 9.00 mM Fe. In the analysis of the fluorescence kinetic difference, L- and K-bands appeared in all of the treatments, but the amplitude was higher in plants receiving 4.50 or 9.00 mM Fe. In plants grown in 9.00 mM Fe, the parameters of the JIP-Test indicated a better efficiency in the capture, absorption and use of light energy, and although the chlorophyll index was higher, the net photosynthesis was lower. The overall data showed that sweet potato plants subjected to high iron concentrations may not exhibit the toxicity symptoms, but the light reactions of photosynthesis can be affect, which may result in a declining net assimilation rate.

  20. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Djediat, Chakib; Yepremian, Claude; Coute, Alain [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement RDDM, FRE 3206, USM 505 (France); Fievet, Fernand [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Coradin, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.coradin@upmc.fr [UPMC Universites Paris 06, CNRS, Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris (LCMCP), College de France (France); Brayner, Roberta, E-mail: roberta.brayner@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France)

    2012-06-15

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au{sup 3+} incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au{sup 0} nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos-aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  1. Comparison of the Photosynthetic Yield of Cyanobacteria and Green Algae: Different Methods Give Different Answers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Milou Schuurmans

    Full Text Available The societal importance of renewable carbon-based commodities and energy carriers has elicited a particular interest for high performance phototrophic microorganisms. Selection of optimal strains is often based on direct comparison under laboratory conditions of maximal growth rate or additional valued features such as lipid content. Instead of reporting growth rate in culture, estimation of photosynthetic efficiency (quantum yield of PSII by pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM fluorimetry is an often applied alternative method. Here we compared the quantum yield of PSII and the photonic yield on biomass for the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana 211-8K and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our data demonstrate that the PAM technique inherently underestimates the photosynthetic efficiency of cyanobacteria by rendering a high F0 and a low FM, specifically after the commonly practiced dark pre-incubation before a yield measurement. Yet when comparing the calculated biomass yield on light in continuous culture experiments, we obtained nearly equal values for both species. Using mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we analyzed the factors that compromise its PAM-based quantum yield measurements. We will discuss the role of dark respiratory activity, fluorescence emission from the phycobilisomes, and the Mehler-like reaction. Based on the above observations we recommend that PAM measurements in cyanobacteria are interpreted only qualitatively.

  2. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application.

  3. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-10-15

    This report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/03/2000 through 10/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. This is the fourth quarterly report for this project, so it also serves as a year-1 project review. We have made significant progress on our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts are focused on fulfilling these research objectives ''on time'' relative to the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Our results to date concerning the individual factors which have the most significant effect on CO{sub 2} uptake are inconclusive, but we have gathered useful information about the effects of lighting, temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration on one particular organism (Nostoc) and significant progress has been made in identifying other organisms that are more suitable for use in the bioreactor due to their better tolerance for the high temperatures likely to be encountered in the flue gas stream. Our current tests are focused on one such thermophilic organism (Cyanidium), and an enlarged bioreactor system (CRF-2) has been prepared for testing this organism. Tests on the enhanced mass transfer CO{sub 2} absorption technique are underway and useful information is currently being collected concerning pressure drop. The solar collectors for the deep-penetration hybrid solar lighting system have been designed and a single solar collector tracking unit is being prepared for installation in the pilot scale bioreactor system currently under construction. Much progress has been made in designing the fiber optic light delivery system, but final selection of the ''optimum'' delivery system design depends on many

  4. Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation.Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties

  5. Photosynthetic bacteria as alternative energy sources: overview on hydrogen production research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, A.; Ohta, Y.; Frank, J.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production research towards the application of marine and non-marine species of photosynthetic bacteria is reviewed. Potential use of photosynthetic bacteria as renewable energy resources is discussed.

  6. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system.

  7. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  8. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  9. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  10. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  11. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  12. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Photoprotection during Cell Transformation and Astaxanthin Accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis Grown Outdoors in Tubular Photobioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litao; Su, Fang; Zhang, Chunhui; Gong, Fengying; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The cell transformation from green motile cells to non-motile cells and astaxanthin accumulation can be induced in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis cultured outdoors. In the initial 3 d of incubation (cell transformation phase), light absorption and photosynthetic electron transport became more efficient. After five days of incubation (astaxanthin accumulation phase), the light absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC) increased, but the efficiency of electron transport (ψo) and the quantum yield of electron transport (φEo) decreased with increased time, indicating that the capacity of photosynthetic energy utilization decreased significantly during astaxanthin accumulation, leading to an imbalance between photosynthetic light absorption and energy utilization. It would inevitably aggravate photoinhibition under high light, e.g., at midday. However, the level of photoinhibition in H. pluvialis decreased as the incubation time increased, which is reflected by the fact that Fv/Fm determined at midday decreased significantly in the initial 3 d of incubation, but was affected very little after seven days of incubation, compared with that determined at predawn. This might be because the non-photochemical quenching, plastid terminal oxidase, photosystem I cyclic electron transport, defensive enzymes and the accumulated astaxanthin can protect cells against photoinhibition. PMID:28035956

  13. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Photoprotection during Cell Transformation and Astaxanthin Accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis Grown Outdoors in Tubular Photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litao; Su, Fang; Zhang, Chunhui; Gong, Fengying; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-12-26

    The cell transformation from green motile cells to non-motile cells and astaxanthin accumulation can be induced in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis cultured outdoors. In the initial 3 d of incubation (cell transformation phase), light absorption and photosynthetic electron transport became more efficient. After five days of incubation (astaxanthin accumulation phase), the light absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC) increased, but the efficiency of electron transport (ψo) and the quantum yield of electron transport (φEo) decreased with increased time, indicating that the capacity of photosynthetic energy utilization decreased significantly during astaxanthin accumulation, leading to an imbalance between photosynthetic light absorption and energy utilization. It would inevitably aggravate photoinhibition under high light, e.g., at midday. However, the level of photoinhibition in H. pluvialis decreased as the incubation time increased, which is reflected by the fact that Fv/Fm determined at midday decreased significantly in the initial 3 d of incubation, but was affected very little after seven days of incubation, compared with that determined at predawn. This might be because the non-photochemical quenching, plastid terminal oxidase, photosystem I cyclic electron transport, defensive enzymes and the accumulated astaxanthin can protect cells against photoinhibition.

  14. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Photoprotection during Cell Transformation and Astaxanthin Accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis Grown Outdoors in Tubular Photobioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litao Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cell transformation from green motile cells to non-motile cells and astaxanthin accumulation can be induced in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis cultured outdoors. In the initial 3 d of incubation (cell transformation phase, light absorption and photosynthetic electron transport became more efficient. After five days of incubation (astaxanthin accumulation phase, the light absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC increased, but the efficiency of electron transport (ψo and the quantum yield of electron transport (φEo decreased with increased time, indicating that the capacity of photosynthetic energy utilization decreased significantly during astaxanthin accumulation, leading to an imbalance between photosynthetic light absorption and energy utilization. It would inevitably aggravate photoinhibition under high light, e.g., at midday. However, the level of photoinhibition in H. pluvialis decreased as the incubation time increased, which is reflected by the fact that Fv/Fm determined at midday decreased significantly in the initial 3 d of incubation, but was affected very little after seven days of incubation, compared with that determined at predawn. This might be because the non-photochemical quenching, plastid terminal oxidase, photosystem I cyclic electron transport, defensive enzymes and the accumulated astaxanthin can protect cells against photoinhibition.

  15. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, David; Geoffroy, Laure; Vernet, Guy; Popovic, Radovan

    2005-08-30

    Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree). The change of those parameters were studied when alga S. obliquus have been exposed during 48 h to different concentrations of fungicides (1, 2 and 3 mgl(-1)). Under the same condition, enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were investigated to evaluate antioxidative response to fungicides effects. The change of sensitivity of those parameters was dependent to the mode of fungicide action, their concentration and time of exposure. For copper effects, the most indicative photosynthetic biomarkers were parameters Q(N) as non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, Q(Emax) as the proton induced fluorescence quenching and ABS/RC as the antenna size per photosystem II reaction center. Copper induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased activity of catalase serving as the most sensitive and valuable enzymatic biomarker. On the other hand, fludioxonil effect on photosynthetic parameters was very negligible and consequently not very useful as biomarkers. However, fludioxonil induced strong antioxidative activities associated with cytosol enzymes, as we found for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities. By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil. Determination of biomarkers sensitivity may offer advantages in providing real criteria to use them for ecotoxicological diagnostic studies.

  16. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthetic terpene production[ED1] represents an energy and carbon-efficient route for hydrocarbon fuel production. Diverse terpene structures also provide the potential to produce next-generation 'drop-in' hydrocarbon fuel molecules. However, it is highly challenging to achieve efficient redire...

  17. Modeling the dynamic modulation of light energy in photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Ioannis A; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos; Lika, Konstadia

    2012-05-01

    An integrated cell-based dynamic mathematical model that take into account the role of the photon absorbing process, the partition of excitation energy, and the photoinactivation and repair of photosynthetic units, under variable light and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability is proposed. The modeling of the photon energy absorption and the energy dissipation is based on the photoadaptive changes of the underlying mechanisms. The partition of the excitation energy is based on the relative availability of light and DIC to the cell. The modeling of the photoinactivation process is based on the common aspect that it occurs under any light intensity and the modeling of the repair process is based on the evidence that it is controlled by chloroplast and nuclear-encoded enzymes. The present model links the absorption of photons and the partitioning of excitation energy to the linear electron flow and other quenchers with chlorophyll fluorescence emission parameters, and the number of the functional photosynthetic units with the photosynthetic oxygen production rate. The energy allocation to the LEF increases as DIC availability increases and/or light intensity decreases. The rate of rejected energy increases with light intensity and with DIC availability. The resulting rate coefficient of photoinactivation increases as light intensity and/or as DIC concentration increases. We test the model against chlorophyll fluorescence induction and photosynthetic oxygen production rate measurements, obtained from cultures of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, and find a very close quantitative and qualitative correspondence between predictions and data.

  18. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4....... sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7)....

  19. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M.; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion. PMID:25897076

  20. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-05-29

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion.

  1. Hydraulic constraints modify optimal photosynthetic profiles in giant sequoia trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Anthony R; Baxter, Wendy L; Wong, Christopher S; Burgess, Stephen S O; Williams, Cameron B; Næsborg, Rikke R; Koch, George W; Dawson, Todd E

    2016-11-01

    Optimality theory states that whole-tree carbon gain is maximized when leaf N and photosynthetic capacity profiles are distributed along vertical light gradients such that the marginal gain of nitrogen investment is identical among leaves. However, observed photosynthetic N gradients in trees do not follow this prediction, and the causes for this apparent discrepancy remain uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate how hydraulic limitations potentially modify crown-level optimization in Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia) trees up to 90 m tall. Leaf water potential (Ψ l ) and branch sap flow closely followed diurnal patterns of solar radiation throughout each tree crown. Minimum leaf water potential correlated negatively with height above ground, while leaf mass per area (LMA), shoot mass per area (SMA), leaf nitrogen content (%N), and bulk leaf stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) correlated positively with height. We found no significant vertical trends in maximum leaf photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), and intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g s), nor in branch-averaged transpiration (E L), stomatal conductance (G S), and hydraulic conductance (K L). Adjustments in hydraulic architecture appear to partially compensate for increasing hydraulic limitations with height in giant sequoia, allowing them to sustain global maximum summer water use rates exceeding 2000 kg day(-1). However, we found that leaf N and photosynthetic capacity do not follow the vertical light gradient, supporting the hypothesis that increasing limitations on water transport capacity with height modify photosynthetic optimization in tall trees.

  2. Effect of Pb2+ ions on photosynthetic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, Frantisek; Kralova, Katarina; Pesko, Matus; Cigan, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Using model lead compounds Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(CH3CHOO)2, the mechanism and the site of action of Pb2+ ions in the photosynthetic apparatus of spinach chloroplasts were studied. Both compounds inhibited photosynthetic electron transport (PET) through photosystem 1 (PS1) and photosystem 2 (PS2), while Pb(NO3)2 was found to be more effective PET inhibitor. Using EPR spectroscopy the following sites of Pb2+ action in the photosynthetic apparatus were determined: the water-splitting complex and the Z•/D• intermediates on the donor side of PS2 and probably also the ferredoxin on the acceptor side of PS1, because cyclic electron flow in chloroplasts was impaired by treatment with Pb2+ ions. Study of chlorophyll fluorescence in suspension of spinach chloroplasts in the presence of Pb2+ ions confirmed their site of action in PS2. Using fluorescence spectroscopy also formation of complexes between Pb2+ and amino acid residues in photosynthetic proteins was confirmed and constants of complex formation among Pb2+ and aromatic amino acids were calculated for both studied lead compounds.

  3. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  4. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  5. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  6. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  7. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  8. The Silent Language of an Artificial Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Maria Hrisca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some alterations of body language, due to the interventions in/on thebody. Body language has been theorized a lot in the last decades, and one of the most importantauthors we will refer to is Paul Ekman and his micro-expressions theory. Ekman tried to give auniversaldecoderof involuntary face reactions, and this is important now more than ever, becausemicro-expression are more and more diminished, due to the latest chemical and technicalinterventions in/on the body (especially the face.Using observation and some new works in thefields of both philosophy and sociology, we will analyze the effects on body-language of thesealterations ofthe body.Minimizing a lot the micro-gestures and face-expressions, as well as stressingthe functional aspect of an artificial body, body-language has a lot to suffer. It gets reduced andpeople begin toreadbodies only through their presence, not by their expressions. Standardization anda very simplified body-language and non-verbal cues are also consequences of an artificial body.Allof this makes body-language hard to express and at the same time hard todecode. This paper stressesthe effects thatan artificial body has on body-language, and also the importance of choosing a rightpath in the future interventions in/over the body.

  9. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Minobu Kasai; Keisuke Koide; Yuya Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implica...

  10. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2006-01-15

    This final report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the period from 10/1/2001 through 01/02/2006. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts during this project were focused on the selection of candidate organisms and growth surfaces and initiating long-term tests in the bench-scale and pilot-scale bioreactor test systems. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include: (1) CRF-2 test system: (a) Sampling test results have shown that the initial mass of algae loaded into the Carbon Recycling Facility Version 2 (CRF-2) system can be estimated with about 3% uncertainty using a statistical sampling procedure. (b) The pressure shim header pipe insert design was shown to have better flow for harvesting than the drilled-hole design. (c) The CRF-2 test system has undergone major improvements to produce the high flow rates needed for harvesting (as determined by previous experiments). The main changes to the system are new stainless steel header/frame units, with increased flow capacity and a modified pipe-end-sealing method to improve flow uniformity, and installation and plumbing for a new high flow harvesting pump. Qualitative system tests showed that the harvesting system performed wonderfully, cleaning the growth surfaces within a matter of seconds. (d) Qualitative tests have shown that organisms can be repopulated on a harvested section of a bioreactor screen, demonstrating that continuous bioreactor operation is feasible, with continuous cycles of harvesting and repopulating screens. (e) Final preparations are underway for quantitative, long-term tests in the CRF-2 with weekly harvesting. (2) Pilot-scale test system: (a) The construction of the pilot-scale bioreactor was completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. Over the course of the project, the solar collector used in the light delivery system showed some degradation, but

  11. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María

    2011-11-01

    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  12. Space Quantization of Light Transmission by Strong Coupling of Plasmonic Cavity Modes with Photosynthetic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Itai; Hieflero, Omri; Liliach, Igal; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mujica, Vladimiro; Richeter, Shachar

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between molecules and surface plasmons in defined geometries can lead to new light mater hybrid states where light propagation is strongly influenced by molecular photon absorption. Their application range from lasing LEDs to controlling chemical reactions and are relevant in light harvesting. The coupling between the electromagnetic field and molecular excitations may also lead to macroscopic extended coherent states characterized by an increase in temporal and spatial coherency. In this respect, it is intriguing to explore the coherency of the hybrid system for molecules that possess highly efficient exciton energy transfer. Such a molecule, is the photosynthetic light harvesting complex photosystem I which has an extended antenna system dedicated for efficient light harvesting. In this work, we demonstrate space quantization of light transmission through a single slit in free standing Au film coated with several layers of PS I. A self assembly technique for multilayer fabrication is used, e...

  13. Quantum simulator of an open quantum system using superconducting qubits: exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Mostame, Sarah; Tsomokos, Dimitris I; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-01-01

    In the initial stage of photosynthesis, light-harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center, with the vibrational environment assisting the transport mechanism. It is of great interest to mimic this process with present-day technologies. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of open system dynamics, where noise engineering of the environment has a central role. In particular, we propose the use of superconducting qubits for the simulation of exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthew-Olson protein, a prototypical photosynthetic complex. Our method allows for a single-molecule implementation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian and spatiotemporal noise-correlation effects.

  14. The effect of triazine - and urea - type herbicides on photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jerzykiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About a half of the herbicides used at present in agnculture inhibit the light reactions in photosynthesis. Triazines and phenylureas shut down the photosynthetic process in susceptible plants by binding to specific sites within the plants photosystem II (PS II complex. Both of them bind at the QB site on the Dl protein of PS II, and prevent the transport of electrons between the primary electron acceptor Q and the plastoquinone (PQ. Herbicides can be highly toxic to human and animal health (triazines are possible human carcinogens. Their indiscriminate use has serious environmental implications, for example pollution of soil and water. We compare two heibicides to investigate the one of lowest environmental toxicity but of high toxicity to weeds.

  15. Effects of system-bath coupling on Photosynthetic heat engine: A polaron master equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, M; Zhao, X L; Yi, X X

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the polaron master equation, which offers the possibilities to interpolate between weak and strong system-bath coupling, to study how system-bath couplings affect charge transfer processes in Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) inspired quantum heat engine (QHE) model in a wide parameter range. The effects of bath correlation and temperature, together with the combined effects of these factors are also discussed in details. The results show a variety of dynamical behaviours. We interpret these results in terms of noise-assisted transport effect and dynamical localization which correspond to two mechanisms underpinning the transfer process in photosynthetic complexes: One is resonance energy transfer and the other is dynamical localization effect captured by the polaron master equation. The effects of system-bath coupling and bath correlation are incorporated in the effective system-bath coupling strength determining whether noise-assisted transport effect or dynamical localization...

  16. Development of artificial empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  17. Creating an Artificial Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja

    1997-03-01

    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  18. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  19. A comparative look at the first few milliseconds of the light reactions of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard John; Gardiner, Alastair Thomas; Hashimoto, Hideki; Brotosudarmo, Tatas Hardo Panintingjati

    2008-10-01

    This mini-review describes the current state of our understanding of the structure and function of the photosynthetic light-harvesting and reaction centres. A comparative approach is used in order to highlight the underlying principles that must be satisfied for efficient energy-transfer (light-harvesting) and electron transfer (charge separation in the reaction centres).

  20. Photorespiration Is Crucial for Dynamic Response of Photosynthetic Metabolism and Stomatal Movement to Altered CO2 Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Marion; Bräutigam, Andrea; Timm, Stefan; Florian, Alexandra; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; Bauwe, Hermann; Weber, Andreas P M

    2017-01-09

    The photorespiratory pathway or photorespiration is an essential process in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, which can reduce the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon assimilation and is hence frequently considered as a wasteful process. By comparing the response of the wild-type plants and mutants impaired in photorespiration to a shift in ambient CO2 concentrations, we demonstrate that photorespiration also plays a beneficial role during short-term acclimation to reduced CO2 availability. The wild-type plants responded with few differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in drought stress, which is likely a consequence of enhanced opening of stomata and concomitant water loss upon a shift toward low CO2. In contrast, mutants with impaired activity of photorespiratory enzymes were highly stressed and not able to adjust stomatal conductance to reduced external CO2 availability. The transcriptional response of mutant plants was congruent, indicating a general reprogramming to deal with the consequences of reduced CO2 availability, signaled by enhanced oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and amplified by the artificially impaired photorespiratory metabolism. Central in this reprogramming was the pronounced reallocation of resources from growth processes to stress responses. Taken together, our results indicate that unrestricted photorespiratory metabolism is a prerequisite for rapid physiological acclimation to a reduction in CO2 availability.

  1. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  2. Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying [University of Texas at Austin; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide measurements of nearly 130 C3 species covering all major plant functional types are analyzed in conjunction with model simulations to determine the effects of mesophyll conductance (gm) on photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from A/Ci curves. We find that an assumption of infinite gm results in up to 75% underestimation for maximum carboxylation rate Vcmax, 60% for maximum electron transport rate Jmax, and 40% for triose phosphate utilization rate Tu. Vcmax is most sensitive, Jmax is less sensitive, and Tu has the least sensitivity to the variation of gm. Due to this asymmetrical effect of gm, the ratios of Jmax to Vcmax, Tu to Vcmax, and Tu to Jmax are all overestimated. An infinite gm assumption also limits the freedom of variation of estimated parameters and artificially constrains parameter relationships to stronger shapes. These findings suggest the importance of quantifying gm for understanding in-situ photosynthetic machinery functioning. We show that a nonzero resistance to CO2 movement in chloroplasts has small effects on estimated parameters. A nonlinear function with gm as input is developed to convert the parameters estimated under an assumption of infinite gm to proper values. This function will facilitate gm representation in global carbon cycle models.

  3. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  4. Exogenous quinones inhibit photosynthetic electron transfer in Chloroflexus aurantiacus by specific quenching of the excited bacteriochlorophyll c antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, N-U; Tokita, S; Matsuura, K

    1999-01-01

    In the photosynthetic green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, excitation energy is transferred from a large bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c antenna via smaller BChl a antennas to the reaction center. The effects of substituted 1,4-naphthoquinones on BChl c and BChl a fluorescence and o...... antenna. Our results provide a model system for studying the redox-dependent antenna quenching in green sulfur bacteria because the antennas in these bacteria inherently exhibit a sensitivity to O(2) similar to the quinone-supplemented cells of Cfx. aurantiacus....

  5. Photosynthetically supplemental lighting for vegetable crop production with super-bright laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Shi, Jintong

    2007-02-01

    Although many artificial light sources like high-pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, fluorescent lamp and so on are commonly used in horticulture, they are not widely applied because of the disadvantages of unreasonable spectra, high cost and complex control. Recently new light sources of light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) are becoming more and more popular in the field of display and illumination with the improvement of material and manufacturing, long life-span and increasingly low cost. A new type of super-bright red LD (BL650, central wavelength is 650 nm) was selected to make up of the supplemental lighting panel, on which LDs were distributed with regular hexagon array. Drive circuit was designed to power it and adjust light intensity. System performance including temperature rise and light intensity distribution under different vertical/horizontal distances were tested. Photosynthesis of sweet pepper and eggplant leaf under LD was measured with LI-6400 to show the supplemental lighting effects. The results show that LD system can supply the maximum light intensity of 180 μmol/m2 •s at the distance of 50 mm below the panel and the temperature rise is little within 1 °C. Net photosynthetic rate became faster when LD system increased light intensity. Compared with sunlight and LED supplemental lighting system, LD's promotion on photosynthesis is in the middle. Thus it is feasible for LD light source to supplement light for vegetable crops. Further study would focus on the integration of LD and other artificial light sources.

  6. Potential of the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides in biodegradation of an azo dye: modeling of experimental results by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, A R; Movafeghi, A; Vafaei, F; Lisar, S Y Salehi; Zarei, M

    2013-01-01

    The potential of an aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides, in phytoremediation of a mono azo dye solution, C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92), was studied. The effects of operational parameters such as reaction time, initial dye concentration, fern fresh weight, pH, temperature and reusability of the fern on biodegradation efficiency were investigated. The intermediate compounds produced by biodegradation process were analyzed using GC-MS analysis. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biodegradation efficiency. The findings indicated that ANN provides reasonable predictive performance (R2 = 0.961). The effects of AB92 solutions (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) on growth, chlorophylls and carotenoids content, activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase and formation of malondialdehyde were analyzed. AB92 generally showed inhibitory effects on the growth. Moreover, photosynthetic pigments in the fronds significantly decreased in the treatments. An increase was detected for lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity, suggesting that AB92 caused reactive oxygen species production in Azolla fronds, which were scavenged by induced activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  7. Photosynthetic Energy Storage for the Built Environment: Modeling Energy Generation and Storage for Net-Zero Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Marck, Eli Morris

    There is a growing need to address the energy demand of the building sector with non-polluting, renewable energy sources. The Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) mandate seeks to reduce the impact of building sector energy consumption by encouraging on-site energy generation as a way to offset building loads. However, current approaches to designing on-site generation fail to adequately match the fluctuating load schedules of the built environment. As a result, buildings produce highly variable and often-unpredictable energy import/export patterns that create stress on energy grids and increase building dependence on primary energy resources. This research investigates the potential of integrating emerging photo-electrochemical (PEC) technologies into on-site generation systems as a way to enable buildings to take a more active role in collecting, storing and deploying energy resources according to their own demand schedules. These artificially photosynthetic systems have the potential to significantly reduce variability in hour-to-hour and day-to-day building loads by introducing high-capacity solar-hydrogen into the built environment context. The Building Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis (BIAP) simulation framework presented here tests the impact of hydrogen based energy storage on NZEB performance metrics with the goal of developing a methodology that makes on-site energy generation more effective at alleviating excessive energy consumption in the building sector. In addition, as a design performance framework, the BIAP framework helps guide how material selection and scale up of device design might tie photo-electrochemical devices into parallel building systems to take full advantage of the potential outputs of photosynthetic building systems.

  8. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into organic acid and sugar fractions was enhanced.

  9. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  10. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  11. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  12. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  13. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  14. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  15. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  16. Roseobacter-Like Bacteria in Red and Mediterranean Sea Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Aia; Sabehi, Gazalah; Koblízek, Michal; Massana, Ramon; Béjà, Oded

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriochlorophyll a-containing aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAnP) have been proposed to account for up to 11% of the total surface water microbial community and to potentially have great ecological importance in the world's oceans. Recently, environmental and genomic data based on analysis of the pufM gene identified the existence of α-proteobacteria as well as possible γ-like proteobacteria among AAnP in the Pacific Ocean. Here we report on analyses of environmental samples from the Red and Mediterranean Seas by using pufM as well as the bchX and bchL genes as molecular markers. The majority of photosynthesis genes retrieved from these seas were related to Roseobacter-like AAnP sequences. Furthermore, the sequence of a novel photosynthetic operon organization from an uncultured Roseobacter-like bacterial artificial chromosome retrieved from the Red Sea is described. The data show the presence of Roseobacter-like bacteria in Red and Mediterranean Sea AAnP populations in the seasons analyzed. PMID:15640208

  17. Design and Mechanics Simulation of Bionic Lubrication System of Artificial Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. H. Su; Z. K. Hua; J. H. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new structure for artificial joints with a joint capsule which is designed to overcome the drawback of current prostheses that omit many functions of the lubricant and the joint capsule. The new structure is composed of three components:lubricant, artificial joint and artificial joint capsule. The lubricant sealed in the capsule can not only reduce the wear of the artificial joint but also prevents the wear particles leaking into the body. So unexpected reactions between the wear particles and body can be avoided completely. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) model was created for a bionic knee joint with capsule. The stresses and their distribution in the artificial capsule were simulated with different thickness, loadings,and flexion angles. The results show that the maximum stress occurs in the area between the artificial joint and the capsule. The effects of capsule thickness and the angles of flexion on stress are discussed in detail.

  18. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow and H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions during Resistance against Powdery Mildew in Oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Mur, Luis A J; Rubiales, Diego; Prats, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal dysfunction known as "locking" has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR) following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa) and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e., penetration resistance, early and late HR) to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga) were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga-oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defense induced photosynthetic disruption.

  19. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  20. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  1. Flow of light energy in benthic photosynthetic microbial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad Ahmad A.

    2010-12-15

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the assessment of the energy budget inside microbial mat ecosystems, and the factors affecting light utilization efficiency. It presents the first balanced light energy budget for benthic microbial mat ecosystems, and shows how the budget and the spatial distribution of the local photosynthetic efficiencies within the euphotic zone depend on the absorbed irradiance (Jabs). The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis. The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis was at light limiting conditions When comparing three different marine benthic photosynthetic ecosystems (originated from Abu-Dhabi, Arctic, and Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia), differences in the efficiencies were calculated. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency depended on mat characteristics affecting light absorption and scattering; such as, photopigments ratio and distribution, and the structural organization of the photosynthetic organisms relative to other absorbing components of the ecosystem (i.e., EPS, mineral particles, detritus, etc.). The maximum efficiency decreased with increasing light penetration depth, and increased with increasing the accessory pigments (phycocyanin and fucoxanthin)/chlorophyll ratio. Spatial heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, pigment distribution, as well as light acclimation in microbial mats originating from different geographical locations was investigated. We used a combined pigment imaging approach (variable chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging), and fingerprinting approach. For each mat, the photosynthetic activity was proportional to the local pigment concentration in the photic zone, but not for the deeper layers and between different mats. In each mat, yield of PSII and E1/2 (light acclimation) generally decreased in parallel with depth, but the gradients in both parameters varied greatly between samples. This mismatch between pigments concentration

  2. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  3. Effects of Chilling Stress on Photosynthetic Rate and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in Seedlings of Two Rice Cultivars Differing in Cold Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-li; GUO Zhen-fei

    2005-01-01

    A cold-tolerant cultivar, Xiangnuo 1, and a cold-sensitive cultivar, IR50, were used to study the influence of chilling on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in rice seedlings. The photosynthetic rates declined dramatically during chilling, and decreased by 48.7% and 67.5% in Xiangnuo 1 and IR50 seedlings, respectively, after being subjected to chilling treatment for two days. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that relatively higher qP and qNP in Xiangnuo 1 were maintained to dissipate the redundant excitation energy and protect the reaction centers from chill injury; accordingly, redundant excitation energy accumulated less in the reaction centers, and antenna systems were less injured by chilling in Xiangnuo 1. On the contrary, in IR50, qP and qNP declined rapidly while Ex increased, as the chilling persisted. This result indicated that the reaction centers and antenna systems in IR50 were damaged severely by chilling, which led to the lower photosynthetic rate.

  4. Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  5. What Is a Total Artificial Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  6. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply.

  7. Effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiqiang; HE Kangning; WANG Yunqi; WANG Baitian; DENG Juntao; ZHOU Yi; ZHONG Xijun; LI Zhaoqing

    2007-01-01

    In order to offer a scientific basis for cultivation and management of forests,effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were studied under different soil moisture contents.By adopting artificial control methods to soil moisture,and under simulated photosynthetic radiation (SPR),the net photosynthetic rate (PN),transpiration rate (Tr),water use efficiency (WUE) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci,) of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau,were studied.Results are as follows:within the photon range of 0-2,200 μmol/(m2·s),PN,Tr and WUE were enhanced with an increase in SPR in both species.PN and WUE of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis,however,declined with continued increase in SPR.PN,Tr,WUE and light saturation point (LSP) of Platycladus orientalis were higher than those of Pinus tabulaeformis,while light compensation point (LCP) of Platycladus orientalis was lower than that of Pinus tabulaeformis at the same soil moisture content.The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis;PN,Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content,whereas WUE declined.At soil moistures of 7.90%,13.00% and 19.99%,LSP of Platycladus orientalis LCP was 42,25 and 13 μmol/(m2·s) respectively,with corresponding maximal net CO2 photosynthetic rates (Pmax)of 3.04,4.06 and 5.53 μmol(m2·s).At soil moistures of 7.83%,13.04% and 20.15%, the LSP of Pinus tabulaeformis was 1,100, 1,325 and 1,500 μmol/(m2·s) respectively and LCP was 60,30 and 23μmol/(m2·s), with Pmas of 1.08, 3.35 and 4.36 μmol/(m2·s)respectively.

  8. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F Duccio; Martin, William; 10.1073/pnas.0810215106

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Due to the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches.

  9. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  10. Horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinling HUANG; Jipei YUE

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may not only create genome mosaicism,but also introduce evolutionary novelties to recipient organisms.HGT in plastid genomes,though relatively rare,still exists.HGT-derived genes are particularly common in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes and they also occur in multicellular plants.In particular,ancient HGT events occurring during the early evolution of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes were probably frequent.There is clear evidence that anciently acquired genes played an important role in the establishment of primary plastids and in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments.Although algal genes have often been used to infer historical plastids in plastid-lacking eukaryotes,reliable approaches are needed to distinguish endosymbionts-derived genes from those independently acquired from preferential feeding or other activities.

  11. Remote sensing of vegetation canopy photosynthetic and stomatal conductance efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, R. B.; Ganapol, B. D.; Asrar, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of remote sensing the canopy photosynthetic and stomatal conductance efficiencies is investigated with the aid of one- and three-dimensional radiative transfer methods coupled to a semi-empirical mechanistic model of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Desertlike vegetation is modeled as clumps of leaves randomly distributed on a bright dry soil with partial ground cover. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy photosynthetic (Ep), and stomatal efficiencies (Es) are calculated for various geometrical, optical, and illumination conditions. The contribution of various radiative fluxes to estimates of Ep is evaluated and the magnitude of errors in bulk canopy formulation of problem parameters are quantified. The nature and sensitivity of the relationship between Ep and Es to NDVI is investigated, and an algorithm is proposed for use in operational remote sensing.

  12. Detecting extraterrestrial life with the Colossus telescope using photosynthetic biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J.; Harrington, D.; Moretto, G.; Langlois, M.; Halliday, D.; Harlingten, C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose to search for life on Earth-like planets in habitable zones using photosynthesis biosignatures. Many life forms on Earth process the solar light and utilize it to support their own activity and to provide a valuable energy source for other life forms. We expect therefore that photosynthesis is very likely to arise on another planet and can produce conspicuous biosignatures. We have recently identified biological polarization effects, e.g., selective light absorption or scattering by photosynthetic molecules which can be used for remote detection of extraterrestrial life. Here we present synthetic spectra and polarization of Earth-like planets with photosynthetic life and evaluate the sensitivity of the Colossus telescope for their remote detection in the solar neighborhood.

  13. Influence of thermal light correlations on photosynthetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendoza, Adriana; Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Johnson, Neil F.; Rodríguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    The thermal light from the sun is characterized by both classical and quantum mechanical correlations. These correlations have left a fingerprint on the natural harvesting structures developed through five billion years of evolutionary pressure, specially in photosynthetic organisms. In this work, based upon previous extensive studies of spatio-temporal correlations of light fields, we hypothesize that structures involving photosensitive pigments like those present in purple bacteria vesicles emerge as an evolutionary response to the different properties of incident light. By using burstiness and memory as measures that quantify higher moments of the photon arrival statistics, we generate photon-time traces. They are used to simulate absorption on detectors spatially extended over regions comparable to these light fields coherence length. Finally, we provide some insights into the connection between these photo-statistical features with the photosynthetic membrane architecture and the lights' spatial correlation. Facultad de Ciencias Uniandes.

  14. Variations between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars revealed by simultaneous measurements of 820 nm transmission signal and chlorophyll a fluorescence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Saber; Qu, Mingnan; Xin, Chang-Peng; Li, Ming; Chu, Chengcai; Govindjee; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The difference between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars was studied, using chlorophyll a fluorescence induction (mostly a monitor of Photosystem II activity) and I820 transmission signal (mostly a monitor of Photosystem I activity) to identify potential photosynthetic features differentiating these two groups, which show different degrees of artificial selection and grain yields. A higher fluorescence (related to PSII) IP rise phase and a lower P700(+) (related to PSI) accumulation were observed in the elite cultivars as compared to the landraces. Using these data, together with simulation data from a kinetic model of fluorescence induction, we show that the high IP rise phase and the low P700(+) accumulation can be a result of transient block on electron transfer and traffic jam on the electron acceptor side of PSI under a high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio. Considering that the ferredoxin NADP(+) reductase (FNR) transcript levels of XS134 (a representative elite cultivars) remains unaffected during the first few minutes of light/dark transition compared to Q4145 (a representative landrace cultivars), which shows a strong decline during the same time range, we propose that the FNR of elite cultivars may take more time to be inactivated in darkness. During this time the FNR enzyme can continue to reduce NADP(+) molecules, leading to initially high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio during OJIP transient. These data suggested a potential artificial selection of FNR during the breeding process of these examined elite rice cultivars.

  15. Photosynthetic response to low sink demand after fruit removal in relation to photoinhibition and photoprotection in peach trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Fan, Pei G; Wang, Li J; Li, Wei D; Yan, Shu T; Li, Shao H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variations in photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, xanthophyll cycle, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant metabolism in leaves in response to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) were studied in 'Zaojiubao' peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batch) trees during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. Compared with the retained fruit treatment (+fruit), the -fruit treatment resulted in a significantly lower photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, but generally higher internal CO(2) concentration, leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference and leaf temperature. The low photosynthetic rate in the -fruit trees paralleled reductions in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and carboxylation efficiency. The midday depression in photosynthetic rate in response to low sink demand resulting from fruit removal was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation. Fruit removal resulted in lower quantum efficiency of PSII as a result of both a decrease in the efficiency of excitation capture by open PSII reaction centers and an increase in closure of PSII reaction centers. Both xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation and the antioxidant system were up-regulated providing protection from photo-oxidative damage to leaves during low sink demand. Compared with the leaves of +fruit trees, leaves of -fruit trees had a larger xanthophyll cycle pool size and a higher de-epoxidation state, as well as significantly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase and a higher reduction state of ascorbate and glutathione. However, the -fruit treatment resulted in higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentrations compared with the +fruit treatment, indicating photo-oxidative damage.

  16. Changes in Endopeptidase Activity during Photosynthetic Declination in Rice Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGZhi-rui; ZHANGRong-xian

    2004-01-01

    Two japonica rice varieties, Wuyujing 3 and 97-7, were used to study the changes in contents of soluble protein, free amino acids and endopeptidase activity, during photosynthetic declination. The content of soluble protein in flag leaf of cv.Wuyujing 3 was higher than that of cv. 97-7, but decreased rapidly in Wuyujing 3. Free amino acids in flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of Wuyujing 3 started to increase 10 days before the turning point of photosynthetic declination (TPPD), while it occurred just 1-2 days before TPPD in the flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of 97-7. During reversible phase of photosynthetic declination,endopeptidase activity remained at a low level and increased slightly only in the later part of this phase. Then it rose up rapidly at irreversible decline phase and reached a vety high level. For Wuyujing 3, the change in endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf was parallel to that in flag leaf. However, for 97-7, the rapid increase of endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf started later than that of flag leaf. The results implied that the rate of protein breakdown and conversion to transportable nitrogen in leaves of 97-7 was slower than that in leaves of Wuyujing 3 during photosynthetic declination and it led to relativeh" lower seed setting rate and fully filling grains rate in 97-7. This may be one of the important reasons why 97-7 could not bring the high yicld potentiality into play and the findings may be taken into consideration while breeding for high potential varieties in future.

  17. Changes in Endopeptidase Activity during Photosynthetic Declination in Rice Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zhi-rui; ZHANG Rong-xian

    2004-01-01

    Two japonica rice varieties, Wuyujing 3 and 97-7, were used to study the changes in contents of soluble protein, free amino acids and endopeptidase activity during photosynthetic declination. The content of soluble protein in flag leaf of cv.Wuyujing 3 was higher than that of cv. 97-7, but decreased rapidly in Wuyujing 3. Free amino acids in flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of Wuyujing 3 started to increase 10 days before the turning point of photosynthetic declination (TPPD), while it occurred just 1-2 days before TPPD in the flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of 97-7. During reversible phase of photosynthetic declination,endopeptidase activity remained at a low level and increased slightly only in the later part of this phase. Then it rose up rapidly at irreversible decline phase and reached a very high level. For Wuyujing 3, the change in endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf was parallel to that in flag leaf. However, for 97-7, the rapid increase of endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf started later than that of flag leaf. The results implied that the rate of protein breakdown and conversion to transportable nitrogen in leaves of 97-7 was slower than that in leaves of Wuyujing 3 during photosynthetic declination and it led to relatively lower seed setting rate and fully filling grains rate in 97-7. This may be one of the important reasons why 97-7 could not bring the high yield potentiality into play and the findings may be taken into consideration while breeding for high potential varieties in future.

  18. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  19. Counting Viruses and Bacteria in Photosynthetic Microbial Mats

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, C.; Staal, M.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures typically used in benthic viral ecology were applied to the complex matrix of microbial mats but were found to inefficiently extract viruses. Here, we present a method for extraction and quantifica...

  20. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  1. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  2. Photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization in Porphyra haitanensis Bangiales,Rhodophyta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and photosynthesis of Porphyra haitanensis were investigated in order to see its photosynthetic utilization of inorganic carbon source. Both intra- and extra-cellular CA activities existed in the thallus. CA inhibitors, acetazolamide (AZ) and ethoxyzolamide (EZ), remarkably depressed the photosynthetic oxygen evolution in seawater of pH 8.2 and 10.0, and EZ showed stronger inhibition than AZ. The observed net photosynthetic rate in seawater of pH 8.2 was much higher than that of CO2 supply theoretically derived from spontaneous dehydration of HCO3-. P. haitanensis also showed a rather high pH compensation point (9.9). The results demonstrated that P. haitanensis could utilize bicarbonate as the external inorganic carbon source for photosynthesis. The bicarbonate utilization was closely associated with dehydration catalyzed by extracellular CA activity. The inorganic carbon composition in seawater could well saturate the photosynthesis of P. haitanensis. The low Km value and compensation points for inorganic carbon reflected the existence of CO2- concentrating mechanism in this alga.

  3. Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics of Gazania rigens L. Under Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, T. T.; Zheng, S. W.; Zhou, X. H.; Wang, D. X.; Lu, X. P.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the responses of photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Gazania rigens L. to drought stress, the changes of three cultivars (‘Xingbai’, ‘XH’ and ‘Hongwen’) photosynthetic values under drought stress were determined via LI-6400 portable photosynthesis analyzer (LI-COR, USA), and the relationships between photosynthesis and drought resistance of each cultivar were analyzed. The results showed that, three cultivars net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), and light use efficiency (LUE) value indicated the trend of decreasing gradually and there existed significant reduction in Pn and Gs values. There were extremely negative significant correlations between drought stress treatment days and Pn, Gs, Tr, water use efficiency (WUE) and LUE values. A small amount of leaves began to turn soft and yellow after drought stress treatment for 10 days, but they could recover to grow quickly after rehydration. The Pn values of ‘Hongwen’ decreased quickly and changed in a large range, so it had a poor resistance; the Pn values of ‘Xingbai’ decreased slowly and changed in a small range, so it had a strong resistance; while the changes of their hybrids -‘XH’ were between its parents. This research would provide a theoretical basis for gazania resistance cultivar breeding and application in landscape.

  4. Photosynthetic recovery of desiccated intertidal seaweeds after rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yan; GAO Kunshan; TANAKA Jiro

    2005-01-01

    Intertidal seaweeds experience periodical desiccation and rehydration to different extents due to the tidal cycles and their vertical distributions. Their photosynthetic recovery process during the rehydration may show different patterns among the seaweeds from different zonations or depths at intertidal zone. In this study 12 species of seaweeds collected from the upper, middle, lower and sublittoral zones were examined. The relationship of the photosynthetic recovery to vertical distribution was assessed by comparing their patterns of photosynthetic and respiratory performances after rehydration following desiccation. Both the photosynthesis and dark respiration declined during emersion, showing certain degrees of recovery after re-immersion into seawater for most species, but the extents were markedly different from one species to the other. The species from upper intertidal zone after being rehydrated for 1 hour, following 2 hours of desiccation, achieved 100 % recovery of their initial physiological activity, while most of the lower or sublittoral species did not achieve full recovery. It is the ability to withstand desiccation stress (fast recovery during rehydration), but not that to avoid desiccation (water retain ing ability) that determines the distribution of intertidal seaweeds. Such physiological behavior during rehydration after desiccation reflects the adaptive strategy of intertidal seaweeds against desiccation and their capabilityof primary production in the process of rehydration.

  5. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed.

  6. Counting viruses and bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Cátia; Staal, Marc; Middelboe, Mathias; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2015-03-01

    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures typically used in benthic viral ecology were applied to the complex matrix of microbial mats but were found to inefficiently extract viruses. Here, we present a method for extraction and quantification of viruses from photosynthetic microbial mats using epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM). A combination of EDTA addition, probe sonication, and enzyme treatment applied to a glutaraldehyde-fixed sample resulted in a substantially higher viral (5- to 33-fold) extraction efficiency and reduced background noise compared to previously published methods. Using this method, it was found that in general, intertidal photosynthetic microbial mats harbor very high viral abundances (2.8 × 10(10) ± 0.3 × 10(10) g(-1)) compared with benthic habitats (10(7) to 10(9) g(-1)). This procedure also showed 4.5- and 4-fold-increased efficacies of extraction of viruses and bacteria, respectively, from intertidal sediments, allowing a single method to be used for the microbial mat and underlying sediment.

  7. Improved hydrogen photoproduction from photosynthetic bacteria and green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria evolve hydrogen at much higher rates than do other classes of photosynthetic microorganisms. In addition, they tolerate harsh environments, grow rapidly, and utilize both visible and near infrared light in photosynthesis. They do not split water, but this does not necessarily eliminate their potential use in future applied systems. They are easily manipulated genetically, and thus might be modified to metabolize common biomass waste materials in place of expensive defined organic substrates. Furthermore, the potential for increasing hydrogen photoproduction via genetic techniques is promising. Strains that partially degrade cellulose, have high photoproduction rates, or contain very large amounts of the enzymes associated with hydrogen metabolism have been isolated. Green algae also produce hydrogen but are capable of using water as a substrate. For example, C. reinhardi can evolve hydrogen and oxygen at a molar ratio approaching 2:1. Based upon effect of dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (a specific inhibitor of photosystem II, PSII) on hydrogen photoproduction in the wild type strain and upon results obtained with PSII mutants, one can demonstrate that water is the major source of electrons for hydrogen production. The potential efficiency of in vivo coupling between hydrogenase and the photosynthetic electron transport system is high. Up to 76% of the reductants generated by the electron transport system can be channeled directly to the enzyme for in vivo hydrogen production. Rates exceeding 170 ..mu..moles of H/sub 2/ mg Chl/sup -1/ hr/sup -1/ have been observed.

  8. Photosynthetic efficiency of Pedunculate oak seedlings under simulated water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic performance of seedlings of Quercus robur exposed to short-term water stress in the laboratory conditions was assessed through the method of induced fluorometry. The substrate for seedlings was clayey loam, with the dominant texture fraction made of silt, followed by clay and fine sand, with total porosity 68.2%. Seedlings were separated in two groups: control (C (soil water regime in pots was maintained at the level of field water capacity and treated (water-stressed, WS (soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point and lentocapillary capacity. The photosynthetic efficiency was 0.642±0.25 and 0.522±0.024 (WS and C, respectively, which was mostly due to transplantation disturbances and sporadic leaf chlorosis. During the experiment Fv/Fm decreased in both groups (0.551±0.0100 and 0.427±0.018 in C and WS, respectively. Our results showed significant differences between stressed and control group, in regard to both observed parameters (Fv/Fm and T½. Photosynthetic efficiency of pedunculate oak seedlings was significantly affected by short-term water stress, but to a lesser extent than by sufficient watering.

  9. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN HEVEA CLONES UNDER POWDERY MILDEW ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Cristina Gonzalez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810561The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Of Juss. Muell. Arg.] can be affected by the occurrence of the fungus Oidium heveae, which causes one of the most important diseases of rubber trees, powdery mildew. This work studied meet changes in photosynthetic pigments, an indicator of oxidative stress, in seedlings of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 600, GT1 and PR255, under infection in Oidium heveae. The experiment was conducted in an open environment under natural photoperiod conditions and at the beginning of the trial, the rubber plants would be inoculated were sprayed with an aqueous suspension containing O. heveae at a concentration of 16 x 104 conidia mL-1. On the day of inoculation and after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h leaf samples were collected for the determination of photosynthetic pigments. Degradation in photosynthetic pigments in the period of infection was observed in rubber tree clones studied; thus, there is oxidative stress in clones of rubber trees. No promising genetic material for genetic improvement work stress tolerance by Oidium heveae was identified.

  10. γ- Irradiation Effect: Variation of Photosynthetic Activity of Euglena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on carbon fixation (Specific production rate: SPR), CO2 utilization efficiency (CUE) and electron transfer rate (ETR) in the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis strain Z in a dose-response dependent manner. Methods Euglena cells were cultured in an inorganic nutrient medium containing ammonium chloride or proteose peptone. Cells were exposed to gamma-ray at 5 doses (0, 100, 250, 350, 500 Gy for water). Five days after irradiation, three photosynthetic activities were measured. SPR, which is a carbon uptake rate per unit carbon mass, was determined by 13C tracer methodology. CUE was evaluated using a relation of carbon isotope fractionation in Calvin cycle. ETR in photosystem II (PS II) was measured by a chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Results Even at a dose of 500 Gy, 80 % of ETR of the non-irradiated control (0 Gy) was sustained, while SPR and CUE were about half the level in the non-irradiated control at 500 Gy. Furthermore, the dose response of ETR was considerably different from the others. Conclusion Our findings suggest that not only PS II but also the Calvin cycle in the photosynthetic system is affected by gamma ray irradiation.

  11. Reaction Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    The paper proposes reaction graphs as graphical representations of computational objects.A reaction graph is a directed graph with all its arrows and some of its nodes labeled.Computations are modled by graph rewriting of a simple nature.The basic rewriting rules embody the essence of both the communications among processes and cut-eliminations in proofs.Calculi of graphs are ideentified to give a formal and algebraic account of reaction graphs in the spirit of process algebra.With the help of the calculi,it is demonstrated that reaction graphs capture many interesting aspects of computations.

  12. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Fischer

    Full Text Available Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks.

  13. Electron uptake and delivery sites on plastocyanin in its reactions with the photosynthetic electron transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Shahak, Y; Pecht, I

    1982-01-01

    French bean plastocyanin is stoichiometrically and specifically labeled upon reduction by Cr(II)aq ions, yielding a substitution-inert (Cr(III) adduct at the protein surface. The effect of the modification on the activity of plastocyanin in electron transfer between photosystems II and I has been...... of tyrosine-83 and the negatively charged patch proximal to it. By elimination we assume that the second site is centered at the hydrophobic region of histidine-87....

  14. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth).

  15. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  16. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  17. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles.

  18. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  19. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  20. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  1. A photocatalyst-enzyme coupled artificial photosynthesis system for solar energy in production of formic acid from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh K; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Oh, Gyu Hwan; Park, No-Joong; Kong, Ki-jeong; Kim, Jinheung; Hwang, Dong Won; Biswas, Soumya K

    2012-07-18

    The photocatalyst-enzyme coupled system for artificial photosynthesis process is one of the most promising methods of solar energy conversion for the synthesis of organic chemicals or fuel. Here we report the synthesis of a novel graphene-based visible light active photocatalyst which covalently bonded the chromophore, such as multianthraquinone substituted porphyrin with the chemically converted graphene as a photocatalyst of the artificial photosynthesis system for an efficient photosynthetic production of formic acid from CO(2). The results not only show a benchmark example of the graphene-based material used as a photocatalyst in general artificial photosynthesis but also the benchmark example of the selective production system of solar chemicals/solar fuel directly from CO(2).

  2. Manganese accumulation in rice: implications for photosynthetic functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidon, Fernando Cebola; Barreiro, Maria Graça; Ramalho, José Cochicho

    2004-11-01

    In order to gain fundamental insights into the nature of the adaptation to Mn excess, the characterisation of the photosynthetic apparatus in Mn-treated rice was carried out in 21-day-old plants. We found 17- and 11-fold increases in Mn in the leaf tissues and in thylakoid, respectively, when the plants were grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions with Mn concentrations between 0.125 and 32 mg l(-1) (2.3 and 582.5 microM). Net photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity decreased after the 0.5 and 2 mg l(-1) (9.1 and 36.4 microM) Mn treatment, respectively. The stomatal conductance displayed a similar trend to that of photosynthetic capacity. The levels of basal chlorophyll fluorescence and the ratio between variable and maximum chlorophyll fluorescence did not vary significantly among treatments, but the photochemical quenching and the quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport increased until the 2 mg l(-1) (36.4 microM) Mn treatment. The lipid matrix of thylakoids revealed a global increase in the proportions of phospholipids, relative to galactolipids. This pattern was coupled with diminishing levels of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. The relative ratio between total carotenoids and total chlorophylls decreased until the last Mn treatment, yet the levels of carotenes, zeaxanthin, and violaxanthin plus antheraxanthin displayed different patterns. It was further found that the de-epoxidation state involving the components of the xanthophylls cycle increased until the 8 mg l(-1) (145.6 microM) Mn treatment. The levels of the photosynthetic electron carriers displayed different patterns, with plastocyanin and the high and low forms of cytochrome b559 remaining steady, whereas cytochromes b563 and f increased until the 8 mg l(-1) (145.6 microM) Mn treatment and the quinone pool increased until the highest Mn treatment. It was concluded that Mn-mediated inhibition of rice photosynthesis barely implicates stomatal conductance, as well as the distribution of

  3. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  4. Appropriate initial temperature improving hydrogen production effect by using photosynthetic-bacteria with straws%适宜初始温度提高秸秆光合细菌制氢效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 周雪花; 郭婕; 荆艳艳; 张全国

    2014-01-01

    秸秆微粉的光合细菌制氢过程是放热反应,引起的热效应会直接影响产氢效果。为了实现高效低能耗产氢,该文采用秸秆微化粉碎与酶水解预处理相结合的方法,利用自制的秸秆微粉光合细菌制氢反应热测试系统,进行了不同初始温度对秸秆微粉酶解光合细菌制氢反应热的影响试验研究,结果表明:当初始温度为30℃时,最大反应热约为7.1 kJ,最大产热速率约为1.01 kJ/h,反应末期累计反应热约为32.9 kJ,累计产氢量约为745.9 mL,光合细菌制氢反应最充分,产氢效果最好;累计产氢量和底物能量转化率可用累计反应热的二次多项式来表示,光能转化率可用累计反应热的三次多项式来表示。该研究结论可为揭示秸秆微粉酶解光合细菌制氢过程的热量释放变化规律,从生物反应热角度优化工艺参数和预测光合细菌制氢效果提供参考依据。%In photosynthetic-bacteria hydrogen production with enzyme-hydrolyzed fine straws, the growth and reproduction of photosynthetic bacteria will occur in an appropriate temperature range, and the resulting heat effect will have direct influence on hydrogen production due to exothermic processes in the hydrogen production reaction of photosynthetic bacteria with organic acid. Therefore, the research on effects of initial temperature on the reaction heat in the photosynthetic-bacteria hydrogen production with enzyme-hydrolyzed fine straws, is helpful to figure out the heat release rule in such photosynthetic-bacteria hydrogen production, and thus, to provide proper control to the initial temperature to meet the purpose of efficient hydrogen production. In this paper, with the combination method of micro-grinding and enzyme hydrolysis of straws, blank control tests for reaction liquid were performed with photosynthetic hydrogen-production flora of F1, F5, F7, F11, L6, S7 and S9 screened out after flora enrichment

  5. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  6. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  7. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  8. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  9. Artificially acquired chlorophyll b is highly acceptable to the thylakoid-lacking cyanobacterium, Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mie; Akimoto, Seiji; Mimuro, Mamoru; Tsuchiya, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    Unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus is an only known oxygenic photosynthetic organism that lacks thylakoid membrane. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that G. violaceus is an early-branching cyanobacterium within cyanobacterial clade. Therefore, the photosynthetic system of G. violaceus is considered to be partly similar to that of the ancestral cyanobacteria that would lack thylakoid membrane. G. violaceus possesses chlorophyll (Chl) a as the only chlorophyll species like most cyanobacteria. It was proposed that the ancestral oxygenic photosynthetic organism had not only Chl a and phycobilins but also Chl b. However, no organism which contains both Chl a and Chl b and lacks thylakoid membrane has been found in nature. Therefore, we introduced the chlorophyllide a oxygenase gene responsible for Chl b biosynthesis into G. violaceus. In the resultant transformant, Chl b accumulated at approximately 11% of total Chl independent of growth phase. Photosystem I complexes isolated from the transformant contained Chl b at 9.9% of total Chl. The presence of Chl b in the photosystem I complexes did not inhibit trimer formation. Furthermore, time-resolved fluorescence spectrum demonstrated that Chl b transferred energy to Chl a in the photosystem I complexes and did not disturb the energy transfer among the Chl a molecules. These results show that G. violaceus is tolerant to artificially produced Chl b and suggest the flexibility of photosystem for Chl composition in the ancestral oxygenic photosynthetic organism.

  10. Mechanical properties of artificial snow

    OpenAIRE

    Lintzén, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties of snow have been a subject of research since the mid-20th century. Theresearch done is based on natural snow. During the last decades the winter business industryhas been growing and also the interest for constructing buildings and artwork of snow. Suchconstructions are generally built using artificial snow, i.e. snow produced by snow guns. Up tothe present constructions of snow are designed based on knowledge by experience. Only minorscientific studies on artificial sn...

  11. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  12. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  13. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  14. Effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cucumis sativus and its protection by exogenous putrescine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Yuan, Ling-Yun

    2012-11-01

    With the objective to clarify the physiological significance of polyamines (PAs) in the photosynthetic apparatus, the present study investigated the effects of salt stress with and without foliar application of putrescine (Put) on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber. Salt stress at 75 mM NaCl for 7 days resulted in a severe reduction of photosynthesis. The fast chlorophyll afluorescence transient analysis showed that salt stress inhibited the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)), mainly due to damage at the receptor side of PSII. In addition, salt stress decreased the density of active reaction centers and the structure performance. The microscopic analysis revealed that salt stress-induced destruction of the chloroplast envelope and increased the number of plastoglobuli along with aberrations in thylakoid membranes. Besides, salt stress caused a decrease in the content of endogenous PAs, conjugated and bound forms of spermidine and spermine in particular, in thylakoid membranes. However, applications of 8 mM Put alleviated the salt stress-mediated decrease in net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and actual efficiency of PSII(Φ(PSII)). Put increased PAs in thylakoid membranes and overcame the damaging effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in salt-stressed plant leaves. Put application to control plants neither increased PAs in thylakoid membranes nor affected photosynthesis. These results indicate that PAs in chloroplasts play crucial roles in protecting the thylakoid membranes against the deleterious influences of salt stress. In addition, the present results point to the probability that the salt-induced dysfunction of photosynthesis is largely attributable to the loss of PAs in the photosynthetic apparatus.

  15. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  16. High Photosynthetic Efficiency of Leaf Colour Mutant of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)%水稻叶色突变体的高光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧立军

    2011-01-01

    activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) were 79.50% and 69.06% higher than those of 810S. The efficiency of light utilization in Biao 810S was enhanced by reduction of thermal dissipation and increase of electron transfer rate was generate sufficient assimilation power for the dark reactions. Consequently, the increased activities of PEPCase and stomatal conductance led to more effective fixation of CO2, and the synergistic effect of light reactions and dark reactions contributed to the higher photosynthetic rate of Biao 810S.

  17. Artificial metalloenzymes constructed from hierarchically-assembled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takafumi; Tabe, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Yuya

    2013-08-01

    The design of artificial metalloenzymes has become an important topic in biological chemistry and inorganic chemistry due to the potential applications of artificial metalloenzymes in nanoscience and biotechnology. One of the general methods used to produce artificially metalloenzymes involves the encapsulation of non-natural metal cofactors within protein scaffolds. This method has been used in the construction of small artificial metalloproteins with high activity and selectivity. However, the important roles of protein assemblies have not yet been systematically investigated in this field, even though natural enzymatic systems employ protein assemblies as molecular scaffolds for elaborate enzymatic reactions. In recent years, the above-mentioned general strategy has been applied to functionalize protein assemblies such as protein cages and protein crystals. These assembled structures form confined interior environments, which can be used to accommodate metal complex catalysts and to prepare metal nanoparticles. The development of artificial metalloenzymes with hierarchically-assembled proteins would enable us to provide powerful tools for industrial and biological applications. In this Focus Review, we discuss the most significant recent research in this field as well as future directions.

  18. Biomimetic artificial sphincter muscles: status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vanessa; Fattorini, Elisa; Karapetkova, Maria; Osmani, Bekim; Töpper, Tino; Weiss, Florian; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is the involuntary loss of bowel content and affects more than 12% of the adult population, including 45% of retirement home residents. Severe fecal incontinence is often treated by implanting an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, have long-term reoperation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. These statistics show that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter and that the development of an adaptive, biologically inspired implant is required. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are being developed as artificial muscles for a biomimetic sphincter, due to their suitable response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. However, at present the operation voltage of DEAs is too high for artificial muscles implanted in the human body. To reduce the operating voltage to tens of volts, we are using microfabrication to reduce the thickness of the elastomer layer to the nanometer level. Two microfabrication methods are being investigated: molecular beam deposition and electrospray deposition. This communication covers the current status and a perspective on the way forward, including the long-term prospects of constructing a smart sphincter from low-voltage sensors and actuators based on nanometer-thin dielectric elastomer films. As DEA can also provide sensory feedback, a biomimetic sphincter can be designed in accordance with the geometrical and mechanical parameters of its natural counterpart. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence du ring daily activities.

  19. Quantum-limited biochemical magnetometers designed using the Fisher information and quantum reaction control

    OpenAIRE

    Vitalis, K. M.; Kominis, I. K.

    2016-01-01

    Radical-ion pairs and their reactions have triggered the study of quantum effects in biological systems. This is because they exhibit a number of effects best understood within quantum information science, and at the same time are central in understanding the avian magnetic compass and the spin transport dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we address radical-pair reactions from the perspective of quantum metrology. Since the coherent spin motion of radical-pairs is effected by a...

  20. Robust Fault-Tolerant Control for Satellite Attitude Stabilization Based on Active Disturbance Rejection Approach with Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Song; Shiyin Qin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a robust fault-tolerant control algorithm for satellite stabilization based on active disturbance rejection approach with artificial bee colony algorithm. The actuating mechanism of attitude control system consists of three working reaction flywheels and one spare reaction flywheel. The speed measurement of reaction flywheel is adopted for fault detection. If any reaction flywheel fault is detected, the corresponding fault flywheel is isolated and the spare reaction flywhe...

  1. Discrete redox signaling pathways regulate photosynthetic light-harvesting and chloroplast gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Allen

    Full Text Available In photosynthesis in chloroplasts, two related regulatory processes balance the actions of photosystems I and II. These processes are short-term, post-translational redistribution of light-harvesting capacity, and long-term adjustment of photosystem stoichiometry initiated by control of chloroplast DNA transcription. Both responses are initiated by changes in the redox state of the electron carrier, plastoquinone, which connects the two photosystems. Chloroplast Sensor Kinase (CSK is a regulator of transcription of chloroplast genes for reaction centres of the two photosystems, and a sensor of plastoquinone redox state. We asked whether CSK is also involved in regulation of absorbed light energy distribution by phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHC II. Chloroplast thylakoid membranes isolated from a CSK T-DNA insertion mutant and from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit similar light- and redox-induced (32P-labelling of LHC II and changes in 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra, while room-temperature chlorophyll fluorescence emission transients from Arabidopsis leaves are perturbed by inactivation of CSK. The results indicate indirect, pleiotropic effects of reaction centre gene transcription on regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting in vivo. A single, direct redox signal is transmitted separately to discrete transcriptional and post-translational branches of an integrated cytoplasmic regulatory system.

  2. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP

    1996-01-01

    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  3. Optimal approximation of linear systems by artificial immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel artificial immune response algorithm for optimal approximation of linear systems. A quaternion model of artificial immune response is proposed for engineering computing. The model abstracts four elements, namely, antigen, antibody, reaction rules among antibodies, and driving algorithm describing how the rules are applied to antibodies, to simulate the process of immune response. Some reaction rules including clonal selection rules, immunological memory rules and immune regulation rules are introduced. Using the theorem of Markov chain, it is proofed that the new model is convergent. The experimental study on the optimal approximation of a stable linear system and an unstable one show that the approximate models searched by the new model have better performance indices than those obtained by some existing algorithms including the differential evolution algorithm and the multi-agent genetic algorithm.

  4. Beyond AI: Interdisciplinary Aspects of Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Romportl, Jan; Zackova, Eva; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : Contemplations, Expectations, Applications

    2013-01-01

    Products of modern artificial intelligence (AI) have mostly been formed by the views, opinions and goals of the “insiders”, i.e. people usually with engineering background who are driven by the force that can be metaphorically described as the pursuit of the craft of Hephaestus. However, since the present-day technology allows for tighter and tighter mergence of the “natural” everyday human life with machines of immense complexity, the responsible reaction of the scientific community should be based on cautious reflection of what really lies beyond AI, i.e. on the frontiers where the tumultuous ever-growing and ever-changing cloud of AI touches the rest of the world.   The chapters of this boo are based on the selected subset of the presentations that were delivered by their respective authors at the conference “Beyond AI: Interdisciplinary Aspects of Artificial Intelligence” held in Pilsen in December 2011.   From its very definition, the reflection of the phenomena that lie beyond AI must be i...

  5. Photosynthetic response of soybean to twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychydae) injury

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney de Freitas Bueno; Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno; Paul David Nabity; Leon George Higley; Odair Aparecido Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a common pest on soybean plants. To clarify plant-arthropod interaction on mite-soybean system, leaf fluorescence, photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide levels, and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Significant photosynthetic rate reduction was observed due to stomatal limitation. Stomatal closure was the major plant physiological response. As a consequence, there was reduction in photosynthetic rates. Surprisingly, plants...

  6. Long-lived charge separation and applications in artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi

    2014-05-20

    Researchers have long been interested in replicating the reactivity that occurs in photosynthetic organisms. To mimic the long-lived charge separations characteristic of the reaction center in photosynthesis, researchers have applied the Marcus theory to design synthetic multistep electron-transfer (ET) systems. In this Account, we describe our recent research on the rational design of ET control systems, based on models of the photosynthetic reaction center that rely on the Marcus theory of ET. The key to obtaining a long-lived charge separation is the careful choice of electron donors and acceptors that have small reorganization energies of ET. In these cases, the driving force of back ET is located in the Marcus inverted region, where the lifetime of the charge-separated state lengthens as the driving force of back ET increases. We chose porphyrins as electron donors and fullerenes as electron acceptors, both of which have small ET reorganization energies. By linking electron donor porphyrins and electron acceptor fullerenes at appropriate distances, we achieved charge-separated states with long lifetimes. We could further lengthen the lifetimes of charge-separated states by mixing a variety of components, such as a terminal electron donor, an electron mediator, and an electron acceptor, mimicking both the photosynthetic reaction center and the multistep photoinduced ET that occurs there. However, each step in multistep ET loses a fraction of the initial excitation energy during the long-distance charge separation. To overcome this drawback in multistep ET systems, we used designed new systems where we could finely control the redox potentials and the geometry of simple donor-acceptor dyads. These modifications resulted in a small ET reorganization energy and a high-lying triplet excited state. Our most successful example, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion (Acr(+)-Mes), can undergo a fast photoinduced ET from the mesityl (Mes) moiety to the singlet excited state

  7. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF GRAMOXONE HERBICIDE ON THE CONTENT OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN ZEA MAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoanela Patras

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The active substance of Gramoxone herbicide is interacting with plant’s photosynthetic systems, playing the role of final acceptor of the photosynthetic electrons. Except this known mode of action, it has been also observed the inhibitory action on the protoporphyrinogen oxidase – essential enzyme for chlorophylls biosynthesis, and also the decrease of photosynthetic pigment’s concentration in some spontaneous plants. Based on these prerequisites, the present study demonstrates the decrease of the photosynthetic pigment’s content in Zea mays in the presence of Gramoxone.

  9. Enhancement of leaf photosynthetic capacity through increased stomatal density in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yu; Sugano, Shigeo S; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2013-05-01

    Photosynthetic rate is determined by CO2 fixation and CO2 entry into the plant through pores in the leaf epidermis called stomata. However, the effect of increased stomatal density on photosynthetic rate remains unclear. This work investigated the effect of alteration of stomatal density on leaf photosynthetic capacity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Stomatal density was modulated by overexpressing or silencing STOMAGEN, a positive regulator of stomatal development. Leaf photosynthetic capacity and plant growth were examined in transgenic plants. Increased stomatal density in STOMAGEN-overexpressing plants enhanced the photosynthetic rate by 30% compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants showed increased stomatal conductance under ambient CO2 conditions and did not show alterations in the maximum rate of carboxylation, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthetic rate was caused by gas diffusion changes. A leaf photosynthesis-intercellular CO2 concentration response curve showed that photosynthetic rate was increased under high CO2 conditions in association with increased stomatal density. STOMAGEN overexpression did not alter whole plant biomass, whereas its silencing caused biomass reduction. Our results indicate that increased stomatal density enhanced leaf photosynthetic capacity by modulating gas diffusion. Stomatal density may be a target trait for plant engineering to improve photosynthetic capacity.

  10. Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, T D

    1984-02-01

    High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.) and Scrophularia desertorum (Munz) Shaw. Two methods were used to distinguish between effects on stomatal conductance, which can lower assimilation by reducing CO2 availability, and effects on the photosynthetic capacity of the mesophyll. First, the response of assimilation to intercellular CO2 pressure (C i) was compared under conditions of high and low transpiration. Second, in addition to estimating C i using the usual Ohm's law analogy, C i was measured directly using the closed-loop technique of T.D. Sharkey, K. Imai, G.D. Farquhar and I.R. Cowan (1982, Plant Physiol, 60, 657-659). Transpiration stress responses of Xanthium strumarium were compared with soil drought effects. Both stresses reduced photosynthesis at high C i but not at low C i; transpiration stress increased the quantum requirement of photosynthesis. Transpiration stress could be induced in small sections of leaves. Total transpiration from the plant did not influence the photosynthetic capacity of a leaf kept under constant conditions, indicating that water deficits develop over small areas within the leaf. The effect of high transpiration on photosynthesis was reversed approximately half-way by returning the plants to low-transpiration conditions. This reversal occurred as fast as measurements could be made (5 min), but little further recovery was observed in subsequent hours.

  11. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Voloshin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy. Efficiency of energy conversion in the primary processes of photosynthesis is close to 100%. Therefore, for many years photosynthesis has attracted the attention of researchers and designers looking for alternative energy systems as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly pathways of energy conversion. The latest advances in the design of optimal solar cells include the creation of converters based on thylakoid membranes, photosystems, and whole cells of cyanobacteria immobilized on nanostructured electrode (gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2. The mode of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis has a great potential as a source of renewable energy while it is sustainable and environmentally safety as well. Application of pigments such as Chl f and Chl d (unlike Chl a and Chl b, by absorbing the far red and near infrared region of the spectrum (in the range 700-750 nm, will allow to increase the efficiency of such light transforming systems. This review article presents the last achievements in the field of energy photoconverters based on photosynthetic systems.

  12. Recent Theoretical Approaches to Minimal Artificial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mavelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Minimal artificial cells (MACs are self-assembled chemical systems able to mimic the behavior of living cells at a minimal level, i.e. to exhibit self-maintenance, self-reproduction and the capability of evolution. The bottom-up approach to the construction of MACs is mainly based on the encapsulation of chemical reacting systems inside lipid vesicles, i.e. chemical systems enclosed (compartmentalized by a double-layered lipid membrane. Several researchers are currently interested in synthesizing such simple cellular models for biotechnological purposes or for investigating origin of life scenarios. Within this context, the properties of lipid vesicles (e.g., their stability, permeability, growth dynamics, potential to host reactions or undergo division processes… play a central role, in combination with the dynamics of the encapsulated chemical or biochemical networks. Thus, from a theoretical standpoint, it is very important to develop kinetic equations in order to explore first—and specify later—the conditions that allow the robust implementation of these complex chemically reacting systems, as well as their controlled reproduction. Due to being compartmentalized in small volumes, the population of reacting molecules can be very low in terms of the number of molecules and therefore their behavior becomes highly affected by stochastic effects both in the time course of reactions and in occupancy distribution among the vesicle population. In this short review we report our mathematical approaches to model artificial cell systems in this complex scenario by giving a summary of three recent simulations studies on the topic of primitive cell (protocell systems.

  13. Comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Anireddy SN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinesins, a superfamily of molecular motors, use microtubules as tracks and transport diverse cellular cargoes. All kinesins contain a highly conserved ~350 amino acid motor domain. Previous analysis of the completed genome sequence of one flowering plant (Arabidopsis has resulted in identification of 61 kinesins. The recent completion of genome sequencing of several photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes that belong to divergent lineages offers a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in plant and non-plant systems and infer their evolutionary relationships. Results We used the kinesin motor domain to identify kinesins in the completed genome sequences of 19 species, including 13 newly sequenced genomes. Among the newly analyzed genomes, six represent photosynthetic eukaryotes. A total of 529 kinesins was used to perform comprehensive analysis of kinesins and to construct gene trees using the Bayesian and parsimony approaches. The previously recognized 14 families of kinesins are resolved as distinct lineages in our inferred gene tree. At least three of the 14 kinesin families are not represented in flowering plants. Chlamydomonas, a green alga that is part of the lineage that includes land plants, has at least nine of the 14 known kinesin families. Seven of ten families present in flowering plants are represented in Chlamydomonas, indicating that these families were retained in both the flowering-plant and green algae lineages. Conclusion The increase in the number of kinesins in flowering plants is due to vast expansion of the Kinesin-14 and Kinesin-7 families. The Kinesin-14 family, which typically contains a C-terminal motor, has many plant kinesins that have the motor domain at the N terminus, in the middle, or the C terminus. Several domains in kinesins are present exclusively either in plant or animal lineages. Addition of novel domains to kinesins in lineage

  14. Isolation and Biological Characteristics of Photosynthetic Bacterium Strain PSB-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Photosynthetic bacteria(PSB) with multiple functions of applying photo-energy and complex metabolism, are widely spread in lakes, rivers and seas. According to Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, the PSB includes at least 27 genera[1]. In recent years, some new species of PSB have been reported The study of PSB is of high value in theory and practice. Some new biochemical compounds derived from PSB are discovered with the potentiality of insecticide, fungicide, herbicide and bacteriacide[8,9].PSB can also be applied to the control of environment,and industries of energy and feed.[8,9,10

  15. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4 d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97 g dcw/L to 2.05 g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30 mM to 60 mM. At 70 mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomple...

  16. Research on Phosphorus Removal in Artificial Wetlands by Plants and Their Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Quan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urban rainfall runoff pollution has become a major reason for water eutrophication problem in the process of urbanization in China, while phosphorus is a significant restrictive factor that influences primary productivity of freshwater system. It's rather significant to conduct phosphorus control in waste water with engineering measures. This research, based on material balance research of phosphorus in artificial wetlands, HRT (hydraulic retention time and analysis of wetland plant photosynthesis and removal rate of phosphorus, simulates purification of phosphorus in urban runoff sewage by artificial wetland system. Experiment shows that removal rate of total phosphorus in urban runoff sewage by artificial wetland system reaches 42.23%-60.89%, and contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is assimilated and absorbed by plants is 14.74%; contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is accumulated and absorbed by substrates is 43.22%; contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is absorbed by means like microorganisms is 2.93%. Pollutant absorption by substrates is a process of dynamic equilibrium. With extension of HRT, phosphorus removing effect of wetlands present an increasing and then decreasing tendency; Net photosynthetic rate and TP removal rate of canna and reed have significant positive correlation, and correlation coefficients are respectively 0.941(P<0.001 and 0.915(P<0.05. Substrates and plants are main pathways for phosphorus removal of artificial wetlands, covering 95% of the total removing effect.

  17. A Survey into Taxonomic and Physiological Differences of Symbiodinium sp., the Photosynthetic Symbiont of Reef-building Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xianzhe

    2012-11-01

    The dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is a popular research topic in the coral reef molecular biology field. Primarily because these organisms serve as the coral holobiont’s primary source of energy, carrying out photosynthesis, and providing hydrocarbons to the coral host. Previous studies have shown the difficulty of isolating Symbiodinium as well as the inherent problems in trying to quantify the diversity of this genus and to qualify the distinct reactions of different Symbiodinium sp. to changing environmental conditions. The main goals of this study are: (1) to detail the relationship between the genetic classification of the organism and its physiology in regard to photosynthesis with a number of established Symbiodinium cultures; and (2) to isolate Symbiodinium from coral of the central Red Sea. To evaluate the photosynthetic physiology of Symbiodinium, a microsensor was used to measure oxygen concentrations along with a phytoplankton analyzer system that used pulse-amplitude-modulation (Phyto-PAM) to measure fluorescence. In order to identify the particular clade that the isolates belonged to, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to identify Symbiodinium based on their internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. These techniques helped us to achieve our goals in the following ways: Symbiodinium sp. from a culture collection were classified to the subclade level; species-specific and clade-specific photosynthetic profiles were generated; and a Symbiodinium sp. was isolated from the central Red Sea. This study provided preliminary correlation between the photosynthetic difference and Symbiodinium genetic classification; showed the probable existence of a self-protection system inside the Symbiodinium cells by comparing the difference between the initial oxygen production at the beginning of each light step and the oxygen production after light adaptation; and confirmed the possibility of the isolation of Symbiodinium.

  18. Regulation of leaf photosynthetic rate correlating with leaf carbohydrate status and activation state of Rubisco under a variety of photosynthetic source/sink balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Minobu

    2008-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that in plants changes in the photosynthetic source/sink balance are an important factor that regulates leaf photosynthetic rate through affects on the leaf carbohydrate status. However, to resolve the regulatory mechanism of leaf photosynthetic rate associated with photosynthetic source/sink balance, information, particularly on mutual relationships of experimental data that are linked with a variety of photosynthetic source/sink balances, seems to be still limited. Thus, a variety of manipulations altering the plant source/sink ratio were carried out with soybean plants, and the mutual relationships of various characteristics such as leaf photosynthetic rate, carbohydrate content and the source/sink ratio were analyzed in manipulated and non-manipulated control plants. The manipulations were removal of one-half or all pods, removal of one-third or two-third leaves, and shading of one-third or one-half leaves with soybean plants grown for 8 weeks under 10 h light (24 degrees C) and 14 h darkness (17 degrees C). It was shown that there were significant negative correlations between source/sink ratio (dry weight ratio of attached leaves to other all organs) and leaf photosynthetic rate; source/sink ratio and activation ratio (percentage of initial activity to total activity) of Rubisco in leaf extract; leaf carbohydrate (sucrose or starch) content and photosynthetic rate; carbohydrate (sucrose or starch) content and activation ratio of Rubisco; amount of protein-bound ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) in leaf extract and leaf photosynthetic rate; and the amount of protein-bound RuBP and activation ratio of Rubisco. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between source/sink ratio and leaf carbohydrate (sucrose or starch) content; source/sink ratio and the amount of protein-bound RuBP; carbohydrate (sucrose or starch) content and amount of protein-bound RuBP and the activation ratio of Rubisco and leaf photosynthetic rate

  19. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process.

  20. Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein Complexes from Algae for Development of Nano-biodevice and Its Fuelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Artificial Leaf 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 (Glucose) +6O2 Natural Leaf Photosynthesis and redox proteins are well-organized into thylakoid membrane in natural leaf...bacterial photosynthesis . The structure of the reaction center (RC, the first membrane protein to have its structure determined to high resolution...lipid bilayer. The second slide(Right): (top) Absorption spectra and fluorescence images of substrates A-D. (bottom) Transmissionimage (left) and

  1. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment; Dang, Q.L. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany, Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology

    2006-11-15

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO{sub 2} in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to

  2. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  3. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  4. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  5. [Implantation of the artificial retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, T; Hayashida, Y

    1999-05-01

    In some degenerative retinal diseases, e.g., retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, the photoreceptors are destroyed to cause serious visual defects. Recent studies on blind human subjects revealed that a large number of ganglion cells remains intact and is capable of transmitting signals to the brain to evoke partial visual perception. This provided hope to compensate for the visual defects with retinal prostheses. The recent progress of microfabrication technique made it possible to implement the Vary Large Scale Integrated circuit, the artificial retina, which emulates a part of retinal function. The idea of implanting the artificial retina to the patients was proposed recently and experiments using animals have been put into practice. This article surveys the front line of the artificial retina implantation.

  6. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  7. Photosynthetic diversity meets biodiversity: the C4 plant example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; Stata, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Physiological diversification reflects adaptation for specific environmental challenges. As the major physiological process that provides plants with carbon and energy, photosynthesis is under strong evolutionary selection that gives rise to variability in nearly all parts of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we discuss how plants, notably those using C4 photosynthesis, diversified in response to environmental challenges imposed by declining atmospheric CO2 content in recent geological time. This reduction in atmospheric CO2 increases the rate of photorespiration and reduces photosynthetic efficiency. While plants have evolved numerous mechanisms to compensate for low CO2, the most effective are the carbon concentration mechanisms of C4, C2, and CAM photosynthesis; and the pumping of dissolved inorganic carbon, mainly by algae. C4 photosynthesis enables plants to dominate warm, dry and often salinized habitats, and to colonize areas that are too stressful for most plant groups. Because C4 lineages generally lack arborescence, they cannot form forests. Hence, where they predominate, C4 plants create a different landscape than would occur if C3 plants were to predominate. These landscapes (mostly grasslands and savannahs) present unique selection environments that promoted the diversification of animal guilds able to graze upon the C4 vegetation. Thus, the rise of C4 photosynthesis has made a significant contribution to the origin of numerous biomes in the modern biosphere.

  8. Photosynthetic characteristics of olive tree (Olea europaea) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Manolis; Fasseas, Costas; Karabourniotis, George

    2007-07-01

    Functional and structural characteristics of corticular photosynthesis of sun-exposed bark of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) were examined. Stomata are only sporadically present during stem primary growth. Light transmission through the phellem was age dependent, decreasing rapidly in stems older than five years of age. Light transmission was also low in pubescent 1-year-old stems. Light transmission was about 50% higher in wet phellem than in dry phellem. Photosynthetic capacity on a unit area basis (measured with an oxygen disc electrode at 27 degrees C and about 5% CO(2) on chlorophyllous tissue discs isolated from the stem) was higher in 1-, 20- and 30-year-old stems compared with 2-10-year-old stems. Low chlorophyll a/b ratio and light compensation points were recorded in olive stems with low phellem light transmission, in accordance with the shade acclimation hypothesis. The intrinsic photochemical efficiency of photosystem II of all stems, especially young stems, was less than that of the leaves. Our results show that olive tree bark possesses an efficient photosynthetic mechanism that may significantly contribute not only to the reduction in concentrations of CO(2) in the inner bark, but also to whole-tree carbon balance.

  9. Photosynthetic leaf area modulates tiller bud outgrowth in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Mullet, John E

    2015-08-01

    Shoot branches or tillers develop from axillary buds. The dormancy versus outgrowth fates of buds depends on genetic, environmental and hormonal signals. Defoliation inhibits bud outgrowth indicating the role of leaf-derived metabolic factors such as sucrose in bud outgrowth. In this study, the sensitivity of bud outgrowth to selective defoliation was investigated. At 6 d after planting (6 DAP), the first two leaves of sorghum were fully expanded and the third was partially emerged. Therefore, the leaves were selectively defoliated at 6 DAP and the length of the bud in the first leaf axil was measured at 8 DAP. Bud outgrowth was inhibited by defoliation of only 2 cm from the tip of the second leaf blade. The expression of dormancy and sucrose-starvation marker genes was up-regulated and cell cycle and sucrose-inducible genes was down-regulated during the first 24 h post-defoliation of the second leaf. At 48 h, the expression of these genes was similar to controls as the defoliated plant recovers. Our results demonstrate that small changes in photosynthetic leaf area affect the propensity of tiller buds for outgrowth. Therefore, variation in leaf area and photosynthetic activity should be included when integrating sucrose into models of shoot branching.

  10. Enzymes involved in organellar DNA replication in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMoriyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plastids and mitochondria possess their own genomes. Although the replication mechanisms of these organellar genomes remain unclear in photosynthetic eukaryotes, several organelle-localized enzymes related to genome replication, including DNA polymerase, DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA topoisomerase, single-stranded DNA maintenance protein, DNA ligase, primer removal enzyme, and several DNA recombination-related enzymes, have been identified. In the reference Eudicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the replication-related enzymes of plastids and mitochondria are similar because many of them are dual targeted to both organelles, whereas in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, plastids and mitochondria contain different replication machinery components. The enzymes involved in organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae were derived from different origins, including proteobacterial, cyanobacterial, and eukaryotic lineages. In the present review, we summarize the available data for enzymes related to organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae. In addition, based on the type and distribution of replication enzymes in photosynthetic eukaryotes, we discuss the transitional history of replication enzymes in the organelles of plants.

  11. Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1999-08-22

    Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

  12. Evanescent cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria on thin waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, S. C.; Ooms, M. D.; Sinton, D.

    2014-04-01

    Waveguides with thicknesses similar to biofilms (10-100 µm) provide an opportunity to improve the bioenergy density of biofilm photobioreactors, avoiding the fundamental light- and mass-transport productivity limitations of planktonic photobioreactors. This report investigates the biofilm growth of a mutant of Synechococcus elongatus (PCC 7942) in evanescent light fields that can be scaled over large planar areas. In this study, areas of 7.2 cm2 are illuminated via frustrated total internal reflections on planar waveguides. The resulting photosynthetic biofilm growth showed resilience to surface intensities exceeding photosynthetic limits and a more uniform cell density distribution (1.0 ± 0.3 × 109 mL-1) than predicted from surface light distribution profiles. These results indicate potential for larger area biofilms using the uniform lighting conditions identified. The combination of evanescent illumination with biofilms indicates a modular reactor cell density on the order of 108 mL-1, representing a two orders of magnitude improvement over current facility architectures, with significant potential for further improvement through denser biofilms.

  13. Toward a photosynthetic microbial platform for terpenoid engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Fiona K; Jinkerson, Robert E; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-03-01

    Plant terpenoids are among the most diverse group of naturally-occurring organic compounds known, and several are used in contemporary consumer products. Terpene synthase enzymes catalyze complex rearrangements of carbon skeleton precursors to yield thousands of unique chemical structures that range in size from the simplest five carbon isoprene unit to the long polymers of rubber. Such chemical diversity has established plant terpenoids as valuable commodity chemicals with applications in the pharmaceutical, neutraceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. More recently, terpenoids have received attention as a renewable alternative to petroleum-derived fuels and as the building blocks of synthetic biopolymers. However, the current plant- and petrochemical-based supplies of commodity terpenoids have major limitations. Photosynthetic microorganisms provide an opportunity to generate terpenoids in a renewable manner, employing a single consolidated host organism that is able to use solar energy, H2O and CO2 as the primary inputs for terpenoid biosynthesis. Advances in synthetic biology have seen important breakthroughs in microbial terpenoid engineering, traditionally via fermentative pathways in yeast and Escherichia coli. This review draws on the knowledge obtained from heterotrophic microbial engineering to propose strategies for the development of microbial photosynthetic platforms for industrial terpenoid production. The importance of utilizing the wealth of genetic information provided by nature to unravel the regulatory mechanisms of terpenoid biosynthesis is highlighted.

  14. The genetic basis of anoxygenic photosynthetic arsenite oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Jamie; Sanchez-Sedillo, Benjamin; Stoneburner, Brendon; Boren, Alison; Miller, Laurence G.; McCann, Shelley; Rosen, Michael R.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2017-01-01

    “Photoarsenotrophy”, the use of arsenite as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis, is thought to be an ancient form of phototrophy along with the photosynthetic oxidation of Fe(II), H2S, H2, and NO2-. Photoarsenotrophy was recently identified from Paoha Island's (Mono Lake, CA) arsenic-rich hot springs. The genomes of several photoarsenotrophs revealed a gene cluster, arxB2AB1CD, where arxA is predicted to encode for the sole arsenite oxidase. The role of arxA in photosynthetic arsenite oxidation was confirmed by disrupting the gene in a representative photoarsenotrophic bacterium, resulting in the loss of light-dependent arsenite oxidation. In situ evidence of active photoarsenotrophic microbes was supported by arxA mRNA detection for the first time, in red-pigmented microbial mats within the hot springs of Paoha Island. This work expands on the genetics for photosynthesis coupled to new electron donors and elaborates on known mechanisms for arsenic metabolism, thereby highlighting the complexities of arsenic biogeochemical cycling.

  15. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  16. Training Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    nearifest tLer,sclvCs in ELO r operatii.L costs in the life C’VclE Of the ef’uijjteft. E F re\\ lously rcntione6 ey~ arrle of usingF the 1lirefineer...Ibid., p. 35. 4. Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum, The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 1, p. 2. 5. Wissam W. Ahmed, "Theories of Artificial...Barr, Avron and Geigenbaum, Edward A. ed. The Handbook of Arti- ficial Intelligence. Vol. 1. Stanford: heuristech Press. 1981. Gevartner, William B

  17. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  18. Fecundación artificial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculo...

  19. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  20. 光合细菌处理重金属废水的研究进展%Progress in the application of photosynthetic bacteria to the treatment of heavy metal wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾培; 邓旭

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria have been paid more and more attention to the application in wastewater treatment due to its non-toxicity ,quick breeding, easy artificial cultivation and no secondary pollution producing.The physiological and biochemical basis of bioaccumulation heavy metal with photosynthetic bacteria is introduced,and the application of photosynthetic bacteria to the treatment of heavy metal wastewater in recent years is reviewed.Furthermore,the resistance and bioaccumulation capacity of photosynthetic bacteria to different heavy metal ions,and the effects of environmental factors on bioaccumulation performance are discussed. At the end,the prospect of biotreatment of heavy metal wastewater by photosynthetic bacteria is forecast.%光合细菌以其无毒、繁殖快、易人工培养、适应能力强且对环境不产生二次污染等优点而在水污染治理中受到重视.阐明了光合细菌富集重金属的生理生化基础,综述了近年来国内外在利用光合细菌治理重金属污染方面的研究进展,包括光合细菌对重金属的抗性、光合细菌对不同重金属离子的富集性能以及多种环境因素的影响,最后对光合细菌用于重金属废水处理的前景进行了展望.