Sample records for artificial oxygen carriers

  1. From artificial red blood cells, oxygen carriers, and oxygen therapeutics to artificial cells, nanomedicine, and beyond. (United States)

    Chang, Thomas M S


    The first experimental artificial red blood cells have all three major functions of red blood cells (rbc). However, the first practical one is a simple polyhemoglobin (PolyHb) that only has an oxygen-carrying function. This is now in routine clinical use in South Africa and Russia. An oxygen carrier with antioxidant functions, PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase, can fulfill two of the three functions of rbc. Even more complete is one with all three functions of rbc in the form of PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase-carbonic anhydrase. The most advanced ones are nanodimension artificial rbc with either PEG-lipid membrane or PEG-PLA polymer membrane. Extensions into oxygen therapeutics include a PolyHb-tyrosinase that suppresses the growth of melanoma in a mice model. Another is a PolyHb-fibrinogen that is an oxygen carrier with platelet-like function. Research has now extended well beyond the original research on artificial rbc into many areas of artificial cells. These include nanoparticles, nanotubules, lipid vesicles, liposomes, polymer-tethered lipid vesicles, polymersomes, microcapsules, bioencapsulation, nanocapules, macroencapsulation, synthetic cells, and others. These are being used in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, enzyme/gene therapy, cell/stem cell therapy, biotechnology, drug delivery, hemoperfusion, nanosensers, and even by some groups in agriculture, industry, aquatic culture, nanocomputers, and nanorobotics.

  2. Artificial oxygen carriers as a possible alternative to red cells in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    Full Text Available Fluid resuscitation is intended to eliminate microcirculatory disorders and restore adequate tissue oxygenation. The safety limits for a restrictive transfusion policy are given by patients' individual tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia. Artificial oxygen carriers based on perfluorocarbon or hemoglobin are attractive alternatives to allogenic red blood cells. There are many risks involved in allogenic blood transfusions and they include transmission of infections, delayed postoperative wound healing, transfusion reactions, immunomodulation and cancer recurrence. Regardless of whether artificial oxygen carriers are available for routine clinical use, further studies are needed in order to show the safety and efficacy of these substances for clinical practice.

  3. Functionality of albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carriers in the Langendorff-heart (†). (United States)

    Wrobeln, Anna; Schlüter, Klaus D; Linders, Jürgen; Zähres, Manfred; Mayer, Christian; Kirsch, Michael; Ferenz, Katja B


    The aim of this study was to prove whether albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based nanoparticles (capsules) can operate as a novel artificial oxygen carrier in a rat Langendorff-heart perfusion model. Hearts perfused with capsules showed increased left ventricular pressure and rate pressure product compared to hearts perfused with pure Krebs-Henseleit (KH)-buffer. The capsules prevented the myocardium from functional fail when in their absence a noxious ischemia was observed. Capsules did not change rheological properties of KH-buffer and could repeatedly reload with oxygen. This albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carrier preserved the function of rat hearts due to the transport of oxygen in a satisfactory manner. Because of these positive results, the functionality of the applied capsules should be verified in living animals.

  4. Polymer/hemoglobin assemblies: biodegradable oxygen carriers for artificial red blood cells. (United States)

    Li, Taihang; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin


    In routine clinical procedures, blood transfusion is now suffering from the defects of the blood products, like cross-matching, short storage time and virus infection. Various blood substitutes have been designed by researchers through continual efforts. With recent progress in nanotechnology, new types of artificial red blood cells with cellular structure are available. This article aims to describe some artificial red blood cells which encapsulate or conjugate hemoglobin molecules through various approaches, especially the nanoscale self-assembly technique, to mitigate the adverse effects of free hemoglobin molecules. These types of artificial red blood cell systems, which make use of biodegradable polymers as matrix materials, show advantages over the traditional types.

  5. Artificial oxygen transport protein (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie


    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  6. An overview of unresolved inherent problems associated with red cell transfusion and potential use of artificial oxygen carriers and ECO-RBC: current status/future trends. (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda


    This manuscript deals with why we need alternatives to liquid stored RBC highlighting some of the unresolved inherent problems related to red cell storage lesion and their potential impacts on the clinical outcomes and transfusion complications. The promise of several potential alternatives to red cell transfusions such as: Perfluorocarbon; Modified Hb-based oxygen carriers and newer design of Hb-based oxygen carriers are reviewed. It is noteworthy to say that since the first introduction of these oxygen carriers, almost five decades ago, the only successful drive has been to prepare safer and more convenient oxygen carriers, for enhancing the quality of life of recipients and their usage, either as substitutes to red cell transfusion or even as the bridge, remains patchy. Moreover, as new products with better characteristics become available the older products from the competitors are withdrawn. Finally, the current progress on universal RBC, known as ECO-cells is highlighted and, in the future perspectives, some of the current efforts in making the red cells transfusion safer and more efficacious are briefly addressed.

  7. Improvement of oxygen supply by an artificial carrier in combination with normobaric oxygenation decreases the volume of tissue hypoxia and tissue damage from transient focal cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge, David J.; Lapina, Natalia E.; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Theisinger, Bastian; Henning, Robert H.; Schilling, Lothar


    Tissue hypoxia may play an important role in the development of ischemic brain damage. In the present study we investigated in a rat model of transient focal brain ischemia the neuroprotective effects of increasing the blood oxygen transport capacity by applying a semifluorinated alkane (SFA)-contai

  8. Synthesis gas production using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier over circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiaoping; YU Changchun; LI Ranjia; WU Qiong; HAO Zhengping


    A novel process for synthesis gas production over Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier was reported. First, oxygen in the air was chemically fixed and converted to lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over regenerator, and then methane was selectively oxidized to synthesis gas with lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over riser reactor. The results from simulation reaction of CFB by sequential redox reaction on a fixed bed reactor using lanthanum-based perovskite LaFeO3 and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Co0.1O3 oxides prepared by sol-gel, suggested that the depleted oxygen species could be regenerated, and methane could be oxidized to synthesis gas by lattice oxygen with high selectivity. The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over CFB using lattice oxygen of the oxygen storage materials instead of gaseous oxygen should be possibly applicable.

  9. Oxygen vacancy promoted methane partial oxidation over iron oxide oxygen carriers in the chemical looping process. (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Qin, Lang; Guo, Mengqing; Xu, Mingyuan; Fan, Jonathan A; Fan, Liang-Shih


    We perform ab initio DFT+U calculations and experimental studies of the partial oxidation of methane to syngas on iron oxide oxygen carriers to elucidate the role of oxygen vacancies in oxygen carrier reactivity. In particular, we explore the effect of oxygen vacancy concentration on sequential processes of methane dehydrogenation, and oxidation with lattice oxygen. We find that when CH4 adsorbs onto Fe atop sites without neighboring oxygen vacancies, it dehydrogenates with CHx radicals remaining on the same site and evolves into CO2via the complete oxidation pathway. In the presence of oxygen vacancies, on the other hand, the formed methyl (CH3) prefers to migrate onto the vacancy site while the H from CH4 dehydrogenation remains on the original Fe atop site, and evolves into CO via the partial oxidation pathway. The oxygen vacancies created in the oxidation process can be healed by lattice oxygen diffusion from the subsurface to the surface vacancy sites, and it is found that the outward diffusion of lattice oxygen atoms is more favorable than the horizontal diffusion on the same layer. Based on the proposed mechanism and energy profile, we identify the rate-limiting steps of the partial oxidation and complete oxidation pathways. Also, we find that increasing the oxygen vacancy concentration not only lowers the barriers of CH4 dehydrogenation but also the cleavage energy of Fe-C bonds. However, the barrier of the rate-limiting step cannot further decrease when the oxygen vacancy concentration reaches 2.5%. The fundamental insight into the oxygen vacancy effect on CH4 oxidation with iron oxide oxygen carriers can help guide the design and development of more efficient oxygen carriers and CLPO processes.

  10. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani


    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  12. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén


    This work is a continuation of a previous paper by the authors [1] which analyzed the suitability of the Chemical Looping technology in biomass tar reforming. Four different oxygen carriers were tested with toluene as tar model compound: 60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg......–ZrO2 (Mn40) and FeTiO3 (Fe) and their tendency to carbon deposition was analyzed in the temperature range 873–1073K. In the present paper, the reactivity of these carriers to other compounds in the gasification gas is studied, also with special emphasis on the tendency to carbon deposition. Experiments...... were carried out in a TGA apparatus and a fixed bed reactor. Ni-based carriers showed a tendency to form carbon in the reaction with CH4, especially Ni60. The addition of water in H2O/CH4 molar ratios of 0.4–2.3 could decrease the carbon deposited, but not in the case of Ni60. Mn-based sample reacted...

  13. Designed Proteins as Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood (United States)


    bind the heme cofactor alone or in combination with the mutional removal of the three buried charged residues which drive the hexa - to penta...serving as the source of potential energy for the hexa - to penta-coordinate conformational change, and one in which the b-position glutamates from

  14. Designed Proteins as Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood (United States)


    transport throughout the body. In year two, we developed a new model for oxyferrous state lifetimes, including an equation which predicts an O2...chain four helix bundle. Table 1 demonstrates that the addition of the optimized binding site to both ligating helices of the full chain more than... triples the lifetime. Table 1. Oxyferrous lifetime for single chain proteins with the optimal binding site Protein ligation Rair(s-1) Kd,O2 (mM) kox

  15. Syngas Generation from Methane Using a Chemical-Looping Concept: A Review of Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongzhai Li


    Full Text Available Conversion of methane to syngas using a chemical-looping concept is a novel method for syngas generation. This process is based on the transfer of gaseous oxygen source to fuel (e.g., methane by means of a cycling process using solid oxides as oxygen carriers to avoid direct contact between fuel and gaseous oxygen. Syngas is produced through the gas-solid reaction between methane and solid oxides (oxygen carriers, and then the reduced oxygen carriers can be regenerated by a gaseous oxidant, such as air or water. The oxygen carrier is recycled between the two steps, and the syngas with a ratio of H2/CO = 2.0 can be obtained successively. Air is used instead of pure oxygen allowing considerable cost savings, and the separation of fuel from the gaseous oxidant avoids the risk of explosion and the dilution of product gas with nitrogen. The design and elaboration of suitable oxygen carriers is a key issue to optimize this method. As one of the most interesting oxygen storage materials, ceria-based and perovskite oxides were paid much attention for this process. This paper briefly introduced the recent research progresses on the oxygen carriers used in the chemical-looping selective oxidation of methane (CLSOM to syngas.

  16. Artificial pulmonary surfactant as a carrier for intratracheally instilled insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying JI; Chen LIU; Yuan-ying PEI


    Aim: The relative bioavailabilities and effects on lung injury alleviation of 4 insu-lin-artificial pulmonary surfactant (INS-APS) preparations were studied in normal rats. The relationship between the minimal surface tension (γmin) of INS-APS and the absorption of insulin was also investigated. Methods: Four formulations of APS [1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/lecithin/palmitic acid (PA), DPPC/1-hexadecanol (Hex)/tyloxapol (Tyl), DPPC/L-α-phosphatidyl-DL-glyc-erol sodium salt (PG), DPPC/Tyl] were prepared by thin-film sonication method and direct sonication. The γmin of 4 APS dispersions was examined with and without INS by pulsating with a bubble surface tensiometer. In vivo experiments were performed in which serum glucose change and the insulin level were mea-sured by an enzymatic glucose reagent kit and a radioimmunology assay kit after IT to rats. The reduction in lung injury by INS-APS following 7 d of consecutive administration was evaluated by the pulmonary edema index (the weight ratio of wet lung to dry lung) and histopathology examination. Results: The γmin of all APS dispersions were below 10 mN/m. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the γmin of APS and the corresponding INS-APS. In vivo experi-ments showed a significant glucose level decrease and insulin absorption increase (P0.05) between INS/DPPC/Tyl, INS/DPPC/PG, and the control group. The pulmonary edema indices and histopatho-logical observation indicated that INS-APS could alleviate lung injury. Conclusion:The most potent hypoglycemic effect and insulin absorption increase in this study were obtained with INS/DPPC/Tyl. According to the results, there was a linear correlation between the γmin and relative bioavailability of INS-APS, suggesting a possible effect of the γmin of carders on the in vivo absorption of insulin. APS,DPPC/Tyl, and DPPC/PG dispersions might be the most efficient insulin pulmo-nary delivery carders in achieving a lower

  17. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing


    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  18. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan


    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  19. Manganese terpyridine artificial metalloenzymes for benzylic oxygenation and olefin epoxidation. (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Srivastava, Poonam; Ellis-Guardiola, Ken; Lewis, Jared C


    New catalysts for non-directed hydrocarbon functionalization have great potential in organic synthesis. We hypothesized that incorporating a Mn-terpyridine cofactor into a protein scaffold would lead to artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) in which the selectivity of the Mn cofactor could be controlled by the protein scaffold. We designed and synthesized a maleimide-substituted Mn-terpyridine cofactor and demonstrated that this cofactor could be incorporated into two different scaffold proteins to generate the desired ArMs. The structure and reactivity of one of these ArMs was explored, and the broad oxygenation capability of the Mn-terpyridine catalyst was maintained, providing a robust platform for optimization of ArMs for selective hydrocarbon functionalization.

  20. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang


    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  1. Metal ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying


    The disclosure provides a metal ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The metal ferrite oxygen carrier comprises MFe.sub.xO.sub.y on an inert support, where MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is a chemical composition and M is one of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Mn, and combinations thereof. For example, MFe.sub.xO.sub.y may be one of MgFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, SrFe.sub.2O.sub.4, BaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CoFe.sub.2O.sub.4, MnFeO.sub.3, and combinations thereof. The MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is supported on an inert support. The inert support disperses the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y oxides to avoid agglomeration and improve performance stability. In an embodiment, the inert support comprises from about 5 wt. % to about 60 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier and the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y comprises at least 30 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier. The metal ferrite oxygen carriers disclosed display improved reduction rates over Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and improved oxidation rates over CuO.

  2. Methodology for the assessment of oxygen as an energy carrier (United States)

    Yang, Ming Wei

    Due to the energy intensity of the oxygen generating process, the electric power grid would benefit if the oxygen generating process was consumed electric power only during low demand periods. Thus, the question to be addressed in this study is whether oxygen production and/or usage can be modified to achieve energy storage and/or transmission objectives at lower cost. The specific benefit to grid would be a leveling, over time, of the demand profile and thus would require less installation capacity. In order to track the availability of electricity, a compressed air storage unit is installed between the cryogenic distillation section and the main air compressor of air separation unit. A profit maximizing scheme for sizing storage inventory and related equipments is developed. The optimum scheme is capable of market responsiveness. Profits of steel maker, oxy-combustion, and IGCC plants with storage facilities can be higher than those plants without storage facilities, especially, at high-price market. Price tracking feature of air storage integration will certainly increase profit margins of the plants. The integration may push oxy-combustion and integrated gasification combined cycle process into economic viability. Since oxygen is used in consumer sites, it may generate at remote locations and transport to the place needed. Energy losses and costs analysis of oxygen transportation is conducted for various applications. Energy consumptions of large capacity and long distance GOX and LOX pipelines are lower than small capacity pipelines. However, transportation losses and costs of GOX and LOX pipelines are still higher than electricity transmission.

  3. Redox energetics of novel perovskite-type oxygen carriers for chemical looping reforming



    The present work focuses on the redox energetics of novel perovskite-type oxygen carriers for chemical looping reforming. The aim of this study is to increase the level of knowledge on the redox characteristics of materials for possible applications as the oxygen carriers for the chemical looping processes. Here we focus on the perovskite-type oxides (ABO3) with lanthanum on the A-site and first row transition metals on the B-site since first row transition metals normally have more than ...

  4. Hemorheological implications of perfluorocarbon based oxygen carrier interaction with colloid plasma expanders and blood. (United States)

    Vásquez, Diana M; Ortiz, Daniel; Alvarez, Oscar A; Briceño, Juan C; Cabrales, Pedro


    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions used as artificial oxygen carriers lack colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and must be administered with colloid-based plasma expanders (PEs). Although PFC emulsions have been widely studied, there is limited information about PFC emulsion interaction with PEs and blood. Their interaction forms aggregates due to electrostatic and rheological phenomena, and change blood rheology and blood flow. This study analyzes the effects of the interaction between PFC emulsions with blood in the presence of clinically-used PEs. The rheological behavior of the mixtures was analyzed in vitro in parallel with in vivo analysis of blood flow in the microcirculation using intravital microscopy, when PEs were administered in a clinically relevant scenario. The interaction between the PFC emulsion and PE with blood produced PFC droplets and red blood cell (RBCs) aggregation and increased blood viscosity in a shear dependent fashion. The PFC droplets formed aggregates when mixed with PEs containing electrolytes, and the aggregation increased with the electrolyte concentration. Mixtures of PFC with PEs that produced PFC aggregates also induced RCBs aggregation when mixed with blood, increasing blood viscosity at low shear rates. The more viscous suspension at low shear rates produced a blunted blood flow velocity profile in vivo compared to nonaggregating mixtures of PFC and PEs. For the PEs evaluated, human serum albumin produced minimal to undetectable aggregation. PFC and PEs interaction with blood can affect sections of the microcirculation with low shear rates (e.g., arterioles, venules, and pulmonary circulation) when used in a clinical setting, because persistent aggregates could cause capillary occlusion, decreased perfusion, pulmonary emboli or focal ischemia.

  5. Nanocomposite oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of sulfur-contaminated synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahul D. Solunke; Goetz Veser [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC, which combine the high reactivity of metals with the high-temperature stability of ceramics. In the present study, we investigate the effect of H{sub 2}S in a typical coal-derived syngas on the stability and redox kinetics of Ni- and Cu-based nanostructured oxygen carriers. Both carriers show excellent structural stability and only mildly changed redox kinetics upon exposure to H{sub 2}S, despite a significant degree of sulfide formation. Surprisingly, partial sulfidation of the support results in a strong increase in oxygen carrier capacity in both cases because of the addition of a sulfide-sulfate cycle. Overall, the carriers show great potential for use in CLC of high-sulfur fuels. 21 refs., 13 figs. 1 tab.

  6. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.


    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  7. Decoupling free-carriers contributions from oxygen-vacancy and cation-substitution in extrinsic conducting oxides. (United States)

    Lin, Y H; Liu, Y S; Lin, Y C; Wei, Y S; Liao, K S; Lee, K R; Lai, J Y; Chen, H M; Jean, Y C; Liu, C Y


    The intrinsic oxygen-vacancies and the extrinsic dopants are two major fundamental free-carrier sources for the extrinsic conducting oxides, such as Sn-doped In(2)O(3). Yet, the individual contributions of the above two free-carrier sources to the total carrier concentrations have never been unraveled. A carrier-concentration separation model is derived in this work, which can define the individual contributions to the total carrier concentration from the intrinsic oxygen-vacancies and the extrinsic dopants, separately. The individual contributions obtained from the present carrier-concentration separation model are verified by the two-state trapping model, photoluminescence, and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. In addition, the oxygen-vacancy formation energy of the Sn:In(2)O(3) thin film is determined to be 0.25 eV by PAL spectroscopy.

  8. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers (United States)

    Spoor, P. S.


    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  9. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul


    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  10. Numerical investigation of the role of clustering during oxygen-carrier regeneration in Chemical Looping Combustion (United States)

    Goyal, Himanshu; Pepiot, Perrine


    In the air-reactor of a dual-bed Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) system, the spent oxygen-carrier, in the form of metal or reduced metal oxide, is oxidized with air, typically in a high velocity riser reactor. Such a configuration provides challenging modeling issues, as the granular flow is characterized by a highly fluctuating solid volume fraction due to the formation of dense clusters. This may strongly affect the solid residence time in the air-reactor, and therefore, the extent of the oxygen-carrier regeneration and ultimately, the overall reactivity of the carrier in the fuel reactor. Here, we investigate how clustering impacts gas-solid chemical reactions in the reactor using a detailed Lagrange-Euler computational framework. The simulations account for both mass and heat transfer between the gas phase and the metal oxide particles, and the evolution of oxygen content of the metal oxide particles, or equivalently, their degree of oxidation. Two particle models of different complexity are considered. Results are analyzed to quantify the relative importance on the regeneration process of the reactor hydrodynamics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1638837.

  11. Validation of chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU using Cu-based oxygen carrier and comparative study of Cu, Mn and Co based oxygen carriers using ASPEN plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ramesh K. Agarwal


    Full Text Available The chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU has been demonstrated to be an effective technological pathway for high-efficiency low-cost carbon dioxide capture when particulate coal serves as the fuel. In this paper, complete process-level modeling of CLOU process conducted in ASPEN Plus is presented. The heat content of fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. It is shown that the established model provides results which are in excellent agreement with the experiments for the overall power output of the CLOU process. Finally the effect of varying the air flow rate and three different types of coal as the solid fuel on energy output is investigated, and the performance of three – Copper (Cu, Manganese (Mn and Cobalt (Co based oxygen carriers in CLOU process is compared. It is shown that there exists an optimal air flow rate to obtain the maximum power output for a given coal feeding rate and coal type. The effect of three different oxygen carriers on energy output is also investigated using the optimal air flow rate. Among the three oxygen carriers - CuO, Mn2O3, and Co3O4; Mn2O3 shows the best performance on power output. The results presented in this paper can be used to estimate the amount of various quantities such as the air flow rate and oxygen carrier (and its type required to achieve near optimal energy output from a CLOU process based power plant.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui-min; KONG Xiang; WANG Wei; ZHU De-ming; ZHANG Hai-bo


    Objective To study if using autologous lung as a substitute of oxygenator in cardiopulmonary bypass is better than the conventional cardiopulmonary bypass with artificial oxygenator in pulmonary preservation.Methods Twelve piglets were randomly divided into two groups ( n = 6). The isolated lung perfusion model was established. The experimental animals underwent continuous lung perfusion for about 120 min. While the control animals underwent 90 min lung ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Another 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups ( n =6). The experimental animals underwent bi-ventricular bypass with autologous lung perfusion.While control animals underwent conventional cardiopulmonary bypass with artificial oxygenator. The bypass time and aortic cross clamping time were 135 min and 60 min respectively for each animal. The lung static compliance ( Cstat), alveolus-artery oxygen difference ( PA-aO2 ), TNF-α, IL-6 and wet to dry lung weight ratio (W/D) were measured. Histological and ultra-structural changes of the lung were also observed after bypass. Results After either isolated lung perfusion or cardiopulmonary bypass, the Cstat decreased, the PA-aO2 increased and the content of TNF-α increased for both groups, but the changes of experimental group were much less than those of control group. The lower W/D ratio and mild pathological changes in experimental group than those in control group were also demonstrated. Conclusion Autologous lung is able to tolerate the nonpalsatile perfusion. It can be used as a substitute to artificial ogygenator in cardiopulmonary bypass to minimize the inflammatory pulmonary injury caused mainly by ischemic reperfusion and interaction of the blood to the non-physiological surface of artificial oxygenator.

  13. Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Huang, H B; Aisyah, L; Ashman, P J; Leung, Y C; Kwong, C W


    Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800°C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800°C. A reaction temperature of 950°C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis.

  14. Effect of oxygen precipitates in solar grade silicon on minority carrier lifetime and efficiency of solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Haizhi; LIU Caichi; HAO Qiuyan; WANG Lijian


    The effect of oxygen precipitates on minority carrier lifetime and performance of solar cell was studied by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), quasi-steady state photoconductance (QSSPCD), optical microscope, spectrumresponse and solar cell efficiency test. The minority carrier lifetime and performance of solar cell reduced depend on oxygen precipitates. A few of oxygen precipitates have formed after single-step annealing; and they do not impact the efficiency dramatically. Pre-annealing at 650 ℃ for 4 h enhances the oxygen precipitation when it is subjected to middle temperature annealing. The solar cells performance decayed sharply. Especially annealing at 950 ℃ for 3 h, the V os and I sc of cells decrease 12% and 25% respectively. Few oxygen precipitates have formed in silicon after high temperature annealing at about 1050 ℃ whether pre-annealing is used or not, and the performance of cells is notbe affected.

  15. A simple numerical model for membrane oxygenation of an artificial lung machine (United States)

    Subraveti, Sai Nikhil; Sai, P. S. T.; Viswanathan Pillai, Vinod Kumar; Patnaik, B. S. V.


    Optimal design of membrane oxygenators will have far reaching ramification in the development of artificial heart-lung systems. In the present CFD study, we simulate the gas exchange between the venous blood and air that passes through the hollow fiber membranes on a benchmark device. The gas exchange between the tube side fluid and the shell side venous liquid is modeled by solving mass, momentum conservation equations. The fiber bundle was modelled as a porous block with a bundle porosity of 0.6. The resistance offered by the fiber bundle was estimated by the standard Ergun correlation. The present numerical simulations are validated against available benchmark data. The effect of bundle porosity, bundle size, Reynolds number, non-Newtonian constitutive relation, upstream velocity distribution etc. on the pressure drop, oxygen saturation levels etc. are investigated. To emulate the features of gas transfer past the alveoli, the effect of pulsatility on the membrane oxygenation is also investigated.

  16. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accelerate the expression of heme carrier protein 1 and enhance photodynamic cancer therapy effect


    Ito, Hiromu; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tamura, Masato; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Indo, Hiroko P.; Hyodo, Ichinosuke


    Photodynamic therapy using hematoporphyrin and its derivatives is clinically useful for cancer treatments. It has been reported that cancer cells incorporate hematoporphyrin and its derivatives via heme carrier protein 1, which is a proton-coupled folate transporter. However, the mechanism of this protein expression has not been elucidated. In general, the concentration of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells is higher than that in normal cells. We previously reported that reactive oxygen ...

  17. Application of Fe2O3/Al2O3 Composite Particles as Oxygen Carrier of Chemical Looping Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang He; Hua Wang; Yongnian Dai


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of carbonaceous compounds has been proposed, in the past decade, as an efficient method for CO2 capture without cost of extra energy penalties. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier that transfers oxygen from combustion air to fuels.The combustion is carried out in a two-step process: in the fuel reactor, the fuel is oxidized by a metal oxide, and in the air reactor, the reduced metal is oxidized back to the original phase. The use of iron oxide as an oxygen carrier has been investigated in this article. Particles composed of 80 wt% Fe2O3,together with Al2O3 as binder, have been prepared by impregnation methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that Fe2O3 does not interact with the Al2O3 binder after multi-cycles. The reactivity of the oxygen carrier particles has been studied in twenty-cycle reduction-oxidation tests in a thermal gravimetrical analysis (TGA) reactor. The components in the outlet gas have been analyzed. It has been observed that about 85% of CH4 converted to CO2 and H2O during most of the reduction periods. The oxygen carrier has kept quite a high reactivity in the twenty-cycle reactions. In the first twenty reaction cycles, the reaction rates became slightly higher with the number of cyclic reactions increasing, which was confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test results. The SEM analysis revealed that the pore size inside the particle had been enlarged by the thermal stress during the reaction, which was favorable for diffusion of the gaseous reactants into the particles. The experimental results suggested that the Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was a promising candidate for a CLC system.

  18. Advances in neonatal extracorporeal support: the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the artificial placenta. (United States)

    Gray, Brian W; Shaffer, Andrew W; Mychaliska, George B


    This review addresses the history and evolution of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), with a discussion of the indications, contraindications, modalities, outcomes, and impact of ECMO. Controversies surrounding novel uses of ECMO in neonates, namely ECMO for premature infants and ex utero intrapartum therapy with transition to ECMO, are discussed. The development of an extracorporeal artificial placenta for support of premature infants is presented, including the rationale, research, and challenges. ECMO has had a dramatic effect on the care of critically ill neonates over the past 4 decades, and there is great potential to expand these benefits in the future.

  19. Particulate Formation from a Copper Oxide-Based Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture (United States)

    Attrition behavior and particle loss of a copper oxide-based oxygen carrier from a methane chemical looping combustion (CLC) process was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. The aerodynamic diameters of most elutriated particulates, after passing through a horizontal settling...

  20. Ex Vivo Machine Perfusion in CTA with a Novel Oxygen Carrier System to Enhance Graft Preservation and Immunologic Outcomes (United States)


    rectus abdominal muscle , autotransplantation, heterotopic, superior epigastric vein, cold ischemia time, immunomodulation, transcriptomics...composite flap ( muscle , adipose tissue and skin) from the whole rectus abdominal muscle (RAM). This model was maximized through extensive anatomical...combination with a newly developed hemoglobin based oxygen carrier (HBOC) solution under subnormothermic (21°C) conditions as a way to enhance organ

  1. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accelerate the expression of heme carrier protein 1 and enhance photodynamic cancer therapy effect. (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tamura, Masato; Majima, Hideyuki J; Indo, Hiroko P; Hyodo, Ichinosuke


    Photodynamic therapy using hematoporphyrin and its derivatives is clinically useful for cancer treatments. It has been reported that cancer cells incorporate hematoporphyrin and its derivatives via heme carrier protein 1, which is a proton-coupled folate transporter. However, the mechanism of this protein expression has not been elucidated. In general, the concentration of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells is higher than that in normal cells. We previously reported that reactive oxygen species from mitochondria involved in the expression of peptide transporter 1 and accelerate the uptake of 5-aminolevulinic acid, which is a precursor of protoporphyrin IX. We suggested mitochondrial reactive oxygen species also regulated the expression of heme carrier protein 1. In this study, we used a rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM1 and its cancer-like mutated cell line RGK1. We clarified the expression of heme carrier protein 1 increased in cancer cells and it decreased in manganese superoxide dismutase expressed cancer cells. In addition, the uptake level of hematoporphyrin and photodynamic therapeutic effect were also decreased in manganese superoxide dismutase expressed cancer cells in comparison with cancer cells. Thus, we concluded that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulated heme carrier protein 1 expression and photodynamic therapeutic effect.

  2. Evaluation of the use of different coals in chemical looping combustion using a bauxite waste as oxygen carrier


    Mendiara, Teresa; García Labiano, Francisco; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Abad Secades, Alberto; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Adánez Elorza, Juan


    The interest in the use of solid fuels such as coal in Chemical Looping Combustion is growing because of the benefits of the direct use of coal in this technology on the reduction of the costs linked to carbon dioxide capture. In CLC, the oxygen needed for the combustion is supplied by a solid oxygen carrier therefore avoiding the direct contact between fuel and air. Focusing on the use of solid fuels in the In-Situ Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion (iG-CLC), the oxygen ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Kimutai Kanda


    Full Text Available River Nzoia in Kenya, due to its role in transporting industrial and municipal wastes in addition to agricultural runoff to Lake Victoria, is vulnerable to pollution. Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important indicators of water pollution. Artificial neural network (ANN has gained popularity in water quality forecasting. This study aimed at assessing the ability of ANN to predict dissolved oxygen using four input variables of temperature, turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. Multilayer perceptron network architecture was used in this study. The data consisted of 113 monthly values for the input variables and output variable from 2009–2013 which were split into training and testing datasets. The results obtained during training and testing were satisfactory with R2 varying from 0.79 to 0.94 and RMSE values ranging from 0.34 to 0.64 mg/l which imply that ANN can be used as a monitoring tool in the prediction of dissolved oxygen for River Nzoia considering the non-correlational relationship of the input and output variables. The dissolved oxygen values follow seasonal trend with low values during dry periods.

  4. Influence of oxygen addition to the carrier gas on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on aerosols (United States)

    Palazzo, N.; Migliorini, F.; Dondè, R.; Maffi, S.; De Iuliis, S.


    In this work, laser-induced breakdown spectrosopy is implemented on aerosol particles for absolute concentration analysis. The aim of this work is the investigation of the effect of the bath gas used for nebulizing the aerosol. Nitrogen, air, and 50% O2 in N2 mixture have been chosen as carrier gasses in order to analyze the effect of oxygen addition to the gas. LIBS measurements have been carried out on aerosol particles produced from CuCl2 2H2O solutions, and the 324.7 nm Cu line is considered. As a first analysis, plasma parameters, such as temperature and electron density, have been evaluated changing the carrier gas. Measurements to derive the LIBS calibration curve of the 324.7 nm Cu line are carried out in air and in N2. The significant difference in the slope of the resulting calibration curves has to be attributed to the oxygen addition to the bath gas. To explore such behavior, time-resolved measurements of the Cu line and peak/base ratio have been performed. The presence of two competitive effects have been observed that becomes significant increasing the amount of oxygen in the carrier gas. One is the oxygen-quenching effect, already observed in the literature, and the other one is the enhancement of the Cu LIBS signal, expecially at short delay times. These effects have been observed also at other Cu lines and changing the analyte source. The results are presented and widely discussed.

  5. Examination of Perovskite Structure CaMnO3-δ with MgO Addition as Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling Using Methane and Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazheng Jing


    Full Text Available Perovskite structure oxygen carriers with the general formula CaMnxMg1-xO3-δ were spray-dried and examined in a batch fluidized bed reactor. The CLOU behavior, reactivity towards methane, and syngas were investigated at temperature 900°C to 1050°C. All particles showed CLOU behavior at these temperatures. For experiments with methane, a bed mass corresponding to 57 kg/MW was used in the reactor, and the average CH4 to CO2 conversion was above 97% for most materials. Full syngas conversion was achieved for all materials utilizing a bed mass corresponding to 178 kg/MW. SEM/EDX and XRD confirmed the presence of MgO in the fresh and used samples, indicating that the Mg cation is not incorporated into the perovskite structure and the active compound is likely pure CaMnO3-δ. The very high reactivity with fuel gases, comparable to that of baseline oxygen carriers of NiO, makes these perovskite particles highly interesting for commercial CLC application. Contrary to NiO, oxygen carriers based on CaMnO3-δ have no thermodynamic limitations for methane oxidation to CO2 and H2O, not to mention that the materials are environmentally friendly and can utilize much cheaper raw materials for production. The physical properties, crystalline phases, and morphology information were also determined in this work.

  6. Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide as oxygen carrier for the direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永刚; 王华; 李孔斋


    The Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide with a ratio of Ce/Fe=7:3, which was prepared by coprecipitation method and employed as oxygen carrier, for direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas in the absence of gaseous oxygen was explored. The mixed oxide was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the catalytic performances were studied in a fixed-bed quartz reactor and a thermogravimetric reactor, respectively. Approximately 99.4% H2 se...

  7. Ex Vivo Machine Perfusion in CTA with a Novel Oxygen Carrier System to Enhance Graft Preservation and Immunologic Outcomes (United States)


    adipose and muscular tissues. The control group showed early contraction bands within the muscular tissue within the initial period (4 hours). These...Enhance Graft Preservation and Immunologic Outcomes” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paulo Fontes, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pittsburgh...Perfusion in CTA with a Novel Oxygen Carrier System to Enhance Graft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0061 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  8. Investigation of temperature-dependent asymmetric degradation behavior induced by hot carrier effect in oxygen ambiance in In–Ga–Zn-O thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bo-Wei [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Hung, Yu-Ju [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ming-Yen [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liao, Po-Yung [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Wu-Wei; Chiang, Wen-Jen; Yan, Jing-Yi [Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Hsinchu, 31040, Taiwan (China)


    The effects of oxygen ambiance on electrical characteristic degradation phenomena in a-InGaZnO thin film transistor with different biases and temperatures are investigated. It can be found that oxygen is substantially adsorbed on the backchannel and results in device instabilities during positive gate bias stress. However, visible light irradiation is found to desorb the adsorbed oxygen ions and this verifies that oxygen dominates the degradation behavior. Moreover, comparing with that in vacuum, hot-carrier stress in oxygen ambiance leads to an extra potential barrier height near the drain side due to oxygen adsorption and causes asymmetric degradation. Furthermore, the asymmetric degradation behavior after hot-carrier stress in oxygen ambiance is suppressed at high temperature due to temperature-induced oxygen desorption or heat-induced holes injecting into the gate insulator. - Highlights: • Oxygen adsorbing will occur beneath the active layer under persistent positive gate bias. • Oxygen desorbing under illumination was verified from the recovery of transfer curves. • Additional barrier height is generated after hot-carrier stress because of oxygen adsorption. • The amount of hot-carrier degradation in oxygen ambience will decrease as temperature elevating.

  9. Performance of Ni-based, Fe-based and Co-based Oxygen Carriers in Chemical-Looping Hydrogen Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Hao; Zhang Xiwen; Fang Xiangchen; Yuan Honggang


    Ni-based, Fe-based and Co-based oxygen carriers with perovskite oxides used as the supports were prepared by citric acid complexation method. The oxygen carriers were characterized by thermal analysis, H2-temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray diffraction methods. Performance tests were evaluated through Chemical-Looping Hydrogen Genera-tion in a ifxed-bed reactor operating at atmospheric pressure. The characterization results showed that all samples were composed of metal oxides and perovskite oxides. Performance results indicated that CH4 conversion over the oxygen car-riers decreased in the following order:NiO/LaNiO3>Co2O3/LaCoO3>Fe2O3/LaFeO3. The ability of NiO/LaNiO3 and Fe2O3/LaFeO3 to decompose water was stronger than that of Co2O3/LaCoO3 as evidenced by our experiments. H2 amounting to 80 mL upon reacting on methane in every cycle could be completely oxidized by NiO/LaNiO3 at 900℃in the period from the third cycle to the eighth cycle.

  10. Use of liposome encapsulated hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier for fetal and adult rat liver cell culture. (United States)

    Montagne, Kevin; Huang, Hongyun; Ohara, Keikou; Matsumoto, Kunio; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki


    Engineering liver tissue constructs with sufficient cell mass for transplantation implies culturing large numbers of hepatocytes in a reduced volume; however, providing sufficient oxygen to dense cell cultures is still not feasible using only conventional culture medium. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH), an oxygen-carrying blood substitute originally designed for short-term perfusion, may be a good candidate as an oxygen carrier to cultured liver cells. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of maintaining long term hepatocyte cultures using LEH. Primary fetal and adult rat liver cells were directly exposed to LEH for 6 to 14 days in static culture or in a perfused flat plate bioreactor. The functions and viability of adult rat hepatocytes exposed to LEH were not adversely affected in static monolayer culture and were even improved in the bioreactor. However, some cytotoxicity of LEH was observed with fetal rat liver cells after 4 days of culture. LEH, though a suitable oxygen carrier for long-term culture of mature hepatocytes, is not suitable in its present form for perfusing fetal hepatocyte cultures in direct contact with the liposomes; either the LEH will have to be made less toxic or a more sophisticated bioreactor that prevents the direct contact between hepatocytes and perfusates will have to be designed if fetal cells are to be used for liver tissue engineering.

  11. Enhanced growth and recombinant protein production of Escherichia coli by a perfluorinated oxygen carrier in miniaturized fed-batch cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liquid perfluorochemicals (PFCs are interesting oxygen carriers in medicine and biotechnology with a high solubility for oxygen. They have been repeatedly used for improving oxygen transfer into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell cultures, however their application is still limited. Here we show the great benefit of air/oxygen saturated perfluorodecalin (PFD for high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli in microwell plates and their positive effect on the soluble production of a correctly folded heterologously expressed alcohol dehydrogenase. Results In EnBase® cultivations the best effect was seen with PFD saturated with oxygen enriched air (appr. 10 μM oxygen per ml when PFD was added at the time of induction. In contrast the effect of PFD was negligible when it was added already at the time of inoculation. Optimisation of addition time and content of loaded oxygen into the PFD resulted in an increased the cell density by 40% compared to control cultures, and correspondingly also the product yield increased, demonstrated at the example of a recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase. Conclusions PFCs are a valuable additive in miniaturized cell culture formats. For production of recombinant proteins in low cell density shaken cultures the addition of oxygen-enriched PFD makes the process more robust, i.e. a high product yield is not any more limited to a very narrow cell density window during which the induction has to be done. The positive effect of PFD was even more obvious when it was added during high cell density cultures. The effect of the PFD phase depends on the amount of oxygen which is loaded into the PFD and which thus is a matter of optimisation.

  12. The trade-offs and effect of carrier size and oxygen-loading on gaseous toluene removal performance of a three-phase circulating-bed biofilm reactor. (United States)

    Sang, B-I; Yoo, E-S; Kim, B J; Rittmann, B E


    We conducted a series of steady-state and short-term experiments on a three-phase circulating-bed biofilm reactor (CBBR) for removing toluene from gas streams. The goal was to investigate the effect of macroporous-carrier size (1-mm cubes versus 4-mm cubes) on CBBR performance over a wide range of oxygen loading. We hypothesized that the smaller biomass accumulation with 1-mm carriers would minimize dissolved-oxygen (DO) limitation and improve toluene removal, particularly when the DO loading is constrained. The CBBR with 1-mm carriers overcame the performance limitation observed with the CBBR with 4-mm carriers: i.e., oxygen depletion inside the biofilm. The 1-mm carriers consistently gave superior removal of toluene and chemical oxygen-demand, and the advantage was greatest for the lowest oxygen loading and the greatest toluene loading. The 1-mm carriers achieved superior performance because they minimized the negative effects of oxygen depletion, while continuing to provide protection from excess biomass detachment and inhibition from toluene.

  13. The calcium phosphate coating of soy lecithin nanoemulsion with performance in stability and as an oxygen carrier (United States)

    Han, Kyu B.

    This work studied the relationship between surfactant, oil, and water, by building ternary phase diagrams, the goal of which was to identify the oil-in-water phase composition. The resulting nano-sized emulsion was coated with dicalcium phosphate by utilizing the ionic affinity between calcium ions and the emulsion surface. Since the desired function of the particle is as an oxygen carrier, the particle stability, oxygen capacity, and oxygen release rate were investigated. The first step in the process was to construct ternary phase diagrams with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) and soy derived lecithin. The results showed that the lecithin surfactant formed an oil-in-water phase region that was 36 times greater than that of DOPA. With the desired phase composition set, the lecithin emulsion was extruded, resulting in a well-dispersed nanosized particle. A pH titration study of the emulsion found an optimized calcium phosphate coating condition at pH 8.8, at which, the calcium ion had a greater affinity for the emulsion surface than phosphate. A Hill plot was used to show calcium cooperativeness on the emulsion surface which suggested one calcium ion binds to one lecithin molecule. The lecithin emulsion particles were then coated with calcium phosphate using a layering technique that allowed for careful control of the coating thickness. The overall particle hydrodynamic radius was consistent with the growth of the calcium phosphate coating, from 8 nm to 28 nm. This observation was further supported with cryo-TEM measurements. The stability of the coated emulsion was tested in conditions that simulate practical thermal, physical, and time-dependent conditions. Throughout the tests, the coated emulsion exhibited a constant mono-dispersed particle size, while the uncoated emulsion size fluctuated greatly and exhibited increased polydispersion. The fast mixing method with the stopped-flow apparatus was employed to test the product as an oxygen carrier, and it

  14. Preparation, characterization and in vivo investigation of blood-compatible hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles as oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Lu, Mingzi; Zhao, Caiyan; Wang, Quan; You, Guoxing; Wang, Ying; Deng, Hongzhang; Chen, Gan; Xia, Sha; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Li, Xianlei; Shao, Leihou; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong


    Although many attempts have been made to design advanced hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), no clinically viable product has been widely approved, because they do not perform normal blood functions, such as coagulation, hematologic reactions and stability. Additionally, the in vivo oxygenation of hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles (HbPs) encapsulated with polymers has seldom been proved. Herein, HbPs of approximately 200nm with good stability were successfully fabricated and exhibited oxygen-carrying capacity. The HbPs preserve the biological and structure features of hemoglobin according to UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis. In vitro, the HbPs showed a viscosity comparable to that of blood with no obvious effects on red blood cell aggregation. At the same time, blood compatibility was characterized in terms of platelet function, clot strength, speed of clot formation, degree of fibrin cross-linking and hemolysis rate. After intravenous administration of HbPs to mice with controlled hemorrhages, blood flow recovery and maintenance of systemic oxygenation were observed.

  15. Chemical-looping gasification of biomass in a 10k Wth interconnected fluidized bed reactor using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUSEYIN Sozen; WEI Guo-qiang; LI Hai-bin; HE Fang; HUANG Zhen


    The aim of this research is to design and operate a 10 kW hot chemical-looping gasification ( CLG) unit using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 as an oxygen carrier and saw dust as a fuel. The effect of the operation temperature on gas composition in the air reactor and the fuel reactor, and the carbon conversion of biomass to CO2 and CO in the fuel reactor have been experimentally studied. A total 60 h run has been obtained with the same batch of oxygen carrier of iron oxide supported with alumina. The results show that CO and H2 concentrations are increased with increasing temperature in the fuel reactor. It is also found that with increasing fuel reactor temperature, both the amount of residual char in the fuel reactor and CO2 concentration of the exit gas from the air reactor are degreased. Carbon conversion rate and gasification efficiency are increased by increasing temperature and H2 production at 870 ℃reaches the highest rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET-surface area tests have been used to characterize fresh and reacted oxygen carrier particles. The results display that the oxygen carrier activity is not declined and the specific surface area of the oxygen carrier particles is not decreased significantly.

  16. Experimental Investigation of CaMnO3−δ Based Oxygen Carriers Used in Continuous Chemical-Looping Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallberg


    Full Text Available Three materials of perovskite structure, CaMn1−xMxO3−δ (M = Mg or Mg and Ti, have been examined as oxygen carriers in continuous operation of chemical-looping combustion (CLC in a circulating fluidized bed system with the designed fuel power 300 W. Natural gas was used as fuel. All three materials were capable of completely converting the fuel to carbon dioxide and water at 900°C. All materials also showed the ability to release gas phase oxygen when fluidized by inert gas at elevated temperature (700–950°C; that is, they were suitable for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU. Both fuel conversion and oxygen release improved with temperature. All three materials also showed good mechanical integrity, as the fraction of fines collected during experiments was small. These results indicate that the materials are promising oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion.

  17. Hydrogen and syngas production from two-step steam reforming of methane using CeO2 as oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Zhu; Hua Wang; Yonggang Wei; Kongzhai Li; Xianming Cheng


    CeO2 oxygen carrier was prepared by precipitation method and tested by two-step steam reforming of methane (SRM).Two-step SRM for hydrogen and syngas generation is investigated in a fixed-bed reactor.Methane is directly converted to syngas at a H2/CO ratio close to 2∶ 1 at a high temperature (above 750 ℃) by the lattice oxygen of CeO2; methane cracking is found when the reduction degree of CeO2 was above 5.0% at 850 ℃ in methane isothermal reaction.CeO2-δ obtained from methane isothermal reaction can split water to generate CO-free hydrogen and renew its lattice oxygen at 700 ℃; simultaneously, deposited carbon is selectively oxidized to CO2 by steam following the reaction (C+2H2O→CO2+2H2).Slight deactivation in terms of amounts of desired products (syngas and hydrogen) is observed in ten repetitive two-step SRM process due to the carbon deposition on CeO2 surface as well as sintering of CeO2.

  18. Coencapsulation of oxygen carriers and glucose oxidase in polyelectrolyte complex capsules for the enhancement of D-gluconic acid and delta-gluconolactone production. (United States)

    Bucko, Marek; Gemeiner, Peter; Vikartovská, Alica; Mislovicová, Danica; Lacík, Igor; Tkác, Ján


    A novel encapsulated oxidative biocatalyst comprising glucose oxidase (GOD) coencapsulated with oxygen carriers within polyelectrolyte complex capsules was developed for the production of D-gluconic acid and delta-gluconolactone. The capsules containing immobilized GOD were produced by polyelectrolyte complexation with sodium alginate (SA) and cellulose sulfate (CS) as polyanions, poly(methylene-co-guanidine) (PMCG) as the polycation, CaCl(2) as the gelling agent and NaCl as the antigelling agent (GOD-SA-CS/PMCG capsules). Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and an emulsion of n-dodecane (DOD) or perfluorodecaline (PFD) with PDMS were used as the oxygen carriers and MnO(2) was used as a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst. Water-soluble PDMS was found to act as both an oxygen carrier and an emulsifier of water-insoluble DOD and PFD. Stable microcapsules could be produced with concentrations of up to 4% (w/w) of PDMS, 10% (w/w) of DOD and PFD, and 25% (w/w) of MnO(2) in the polyanion solution of SA and CS. Roughly a two-fold increase in the GOD activity from 21.0+/-1.1 to 38.4+/-2.0 U*g(-1) and product space-time yields (STY) from 44.3+/-2.0 to 83.4+/-3.4 g*H*day(-1) could be achieved utilizing coencapsulated oxygen carriers compared to GOD encapsulated in the absence of oxygen carriers. This enhanced production does not significantly depend on the selected oxygen carrier under the conditions used in this study.

  19. Narrowing of band gap and effective charge carrier separation in oxygen deficient TiO2 nanotubes with improved visible light photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Choudhury, Biswajit; Bayan, Sayan; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Chakraborty, Purushottam


    Oxygen vacancies are introduced into hydrothermally processed TiO2 nanotube by vacuum calcination. Formation of oxygen vacancies modifies the local coordination in TiO2 as evident from Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) results. The surface area is increased from 172.5m(2)/g in pure to 405.1m(2)/g in defective TiO2 nanotube. The mid-band gap electronic states created by oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for the effective narrowing of band gap. Charge carrier separation is sufficiently prolonged as the charged oxygen defect states inhibit facile carrier recombination. With high surface area, narrowed band gap and separated charge carriers defective TiO2 nanotube is a suitable candidate in the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) and phenol under visible light illumination. Photosensitized electron transfer from MB to the conduction band of TiO2 and the photodegradation of MB is facilitated in presence of high density of oxygen vacancies. Unlike MB, phenol absorbs in the UV region and does not easily excited under visible light. Phenol shows activity under visible light by forming charge transfer complex with TiO2. Defect trapped carriers become available at the phenol-TiO2 interface and finally interact with phenol molecule and degrade it.

  20. Molluscan mega-hemocyanin: an ancient oxygen carrier tuned by a ~550 kDa polypeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasewych Myroslaw G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allosteric respiratory protein hemocyanin occurs in gastropods as tubular di-, tri- and multimers of a 35 × 18 nm, ring-like decamer with a collar complex at one opening. The decamer comprises five subunit dimers. The subunit, a 400 kDa polypeptide, is a concatenation of eight paralogous functional units. Their exact topology within the quaternary structure has recently been solved by 3D electron microscopy, providing a molecular model of an entire didecamer (two conjoined decamers. Here we study keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH2 tridecamers to unravel the exact association mode of the third decamer. Moreover, we introduce and describe a more complex type of hemocyanin tridecamer discovered in fresh/brackish-water cerithioid snails (Leptoxis, Melanoides, Terebralia. Results The "typical" KLH2 tridecamer is partially hollow, whereas the cerithioid tridecamer is almost completely filled with material; it was therefore termed "mega-hemocyanin". In both types, the staggering angle between adjoining decamers is 36°. The cerithioid tridecamer comprises two typical decamers based on the canonical 400 kDa subunit, flanking a central "mega-decamer" composed of ten unique ~550 kDa subunits. The additional ~150 kDa per subunit substantially enlarge the internal collar complex. Preliminary oxygen binding measurements indicate a moderate hemocyanin oxygen affinity in Leptoxis (p50 ~9 mmHg, and a very high affinity in Melanoides (~3 mmHg and Terebralia (~2 mmHg. Species-specific and individual variation in the proportions of the two subunit types was also observed, leading to differences in the oligomeric states found in the hemolymph. Conclusions In cerithioid hemocyanin tridecamers ("mega-hemocyanin" the collar complex of the central decamer is substantially enlarged and modified. The preliminary O2 binding curves indicate that there are species-specific functional differences in the cerithioid mega-hemocyanins which might reflect

  1. Screening of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuai; He, Fang; Huang, Zhen


    The objective of this paper is to systematically investigate the influences of different preparation methods on the properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxygen carrier in chemical looping hydrogen production (CLH). The solid state (SS), coprecipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT), and sol-gel (SG...

  2. Nano-structured hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: from properties, methemoglobin suppression to long circulation in blood%血红蛋白基纳米氧载体:结构特点、高铁含量控制及血循环中持久存在

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 章晓兰; 刘昌胜


    Due to the continuously insufficient supply and the disadvantages associated with the donated blood, artificial blood substitute has received extensive attentions throughout the world in recent years.Nano-structured hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (NHOCs), in particular the liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) and hemoglobin-based polymeric nanoparticles (HbPNPs), which combine the nanotechnology with the traditional cellular oxygen carriers, have shown great potential applications in blood transfusion, thrombus and cancer therapy as well.The present article firstly reports on the current status of the synthesis, properties, clinical trial and application of the LEH and HbPNPs.And then, attentions are devoted to highlight the main challenges and the proposed strategies of the NHOCs with the respect of suppression of the methemoglobin formation and prolonging the blood circulation time.These results make us confident in advancing further development of NHOCs, with the expectation of their eventual commercialization.

  3. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4.

  4. A review of blood substitutes: examining the history, clinical trial results, and ethics of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Yu Chen


    Full Text Available The complications associated with acquiring and storing whole blood for transfusions have launched substantial efforts to develop a blood substitute. The history of these efforts involves a complicated mixture of science, ethics, and business. This review focuses on clinical trials of the three hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC that have progressed to Phase II or III clinical trials: HemAssist (Baxter; Deerfield, IL, US, PolyHeme (Northfield; Evanston, IL, US, and Hemopure (Biopure; Cambridge, MA, US. Published animal studies and clinical trials carried out in a perioperative setting have demonstrated that these products successfully transport and deliver oxygen, but all may induce hypertension and lead to unexpectedly low cardiac outputs. Overall, these studies suggest that HBOCs resulted in only modest blood saving during and after surgery, no improvement in mortality and an increased incidence of adverse reactions. To date, the results from these perioperative studies have not led to regulatory approval. All three companies instead chose to focus their efforts on large trials of trauma patients in the pre-hospital setting. Baxter abandoned the development of HemAssist after a trial in the U.S. was prematurely halted when the first 100 patients showed significantly increased mortality rates as compared to patients treated with blood products. Northfield's PolyHeme trial demonstrated a non-significant trend towards increased mortality and a very modest reduction in the subsequent need for blood. The testing of Biopure's Hemopure for trauma patients has been halted for several years because of FDA concerns over trial design and study justification. Ethical concerns have also been raised regarding the design and implementation of all HBOC clinical trials. Thus, the available evidence suggests that HemAssist, Polyheme, and Hemopure are associated with a significant level of cardiovascular dysfunction. The next generation of HBOCs remains

  5. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen


    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  6. Under-ice eddy covariance flux measurements of heat, salt, momentum, and dissolved oxygen in an artificial sea ice pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Else, B. G T; Rysgaard, S.; Attard, K.


    as one possible cause of the high fluxes. Momentum fluxes showed interesting correlations with ice growth and melt but were generally higher than expected. We concluded that with the exception of the conductivity sensor, the eddy covariance system worked well, and that useful information about turbulent......Turbulent exchanges under sea ice play a controlling role in ice mass balance, ice drift, biogeochemistry, and mixed layer modification. In this study, we examined the potential to measure under-ice turbulent exchanges of heat, salt, momentum, and dissolved oxygen using eddy covariance...... in an experimental sea ice facility. Over a 15-day period in January 2013, an underwater eddy covariance system was deployed in a large (500 m3) inground concrete pool, which was filled with artificial seawater and exposed to the ambient (−5 to −30 °C) atmosphere. Turbulent exchanges were measured continuously...

  7. Artificial membrane-binding proteins stimulate oxygenation of stem cells during engineering of large cartilage tissue (United States)

    Armstrong, James P. K.; Shakur, Rameen; Horne, Joseph P.; Dickinson, Sally C.; Armstrong, Craig T.; Lau, Katherine; Kadiwala, Juned; Lowe, Robert; Seddon, Annela; Mann, Stephen; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Perriman, Adam W.; Hollander, Anthony P.


    Restricted oxygen diffusion can result in central cell necrosis in engineered tissue, a problem that is exacerbated when engineering large tissue constructs for clinical application. Here we show that pre-treating human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with synthetic membrane-active myoglobin-polymer-surfactant complexes can provide a reservoir of oxygen capable of alleviating necrosis at the centre of hyaline cartilage. This is achieved through the development of a new cell functionalization methodology based on polymer-surfactant conjugation, which allows the delivery of functional proteins to the hMSC membrane. This new approach circumvents the need for cell surface engineering using protein chimerization or genetic transfection, and we demonstrate that the surface-modified hMSCs retain their ability to proliferate and to undergo multilineage differentiation. The functionalization technology is facile, versatile and non-disruptive, and in addition to tissue oxygenation, it should have far-reaching application in a host of tissue engineering and cell-based therapies.

  8. Investigations into the effects of volatile biomass tar on the performance of Fe-based CLC oxygen carrier materials (United States)

    Boot-Handford, Matthew E.; Florin, Nick; Fennell, Paul S.


    In this study we present findings from investigations into interactions between biomass tar and two iron based oxygen carrier materials (OCMs) designed for chemical-looping applications: a 100% Fe2O3 (100Fe) OCM and a 60 wt% Fe2O3/40 wt% Al2O3 (60Fe40Al) OCM. A novel 6 kWe two-stage, fixed-bed reactor was designed and constructed to simulate a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with ex situ gasification of biomass. Beech wood was pyrolysed in the first stage of the reactor at 773 K to produce a tar-containing fuel gas that was used to reduce the OCM loaded into the 2nd stage at 973 K. The presence of either OCM was found to significantly reduce the amount of biomass tars exiting the reactor by up to 71 wt% compared with analogous experiments in which the biomass tar compounds were exposed to an inert bed of sand. The tar cracking effect of the 60Fe40Al OCM was slightly greater than the 100Fe OCM although the reduction in the tar yield was roughly equivalent to the increase in carbon deposition observed for the 60Fe40Al OCM compared with the 100Fe OCM. In both cases, the tar cracking effect of the OCMs appeared to be independent of the oxidation state in which the OCM was exposed to the volatile biomass pyrolysis products (i.e. Fe2O3 or Fe3O4). Exposing the pyrolysis vapours to the OCMs in their oxidised (Fe2O3) form favoured the production of CO2. The production of CO was favoured when the OCMs were in their reduced (Fe3O4) form. Carbon deposition was removed in the subsequent oxidation phase with no obvious deleterious effects on the reactivity in subsequent CLC cycles with reduction by 3 mol% CO.

  9. Differential Sensitivities of Pulmonary and Coronary Arteries to Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers and Nitrovasodilators: Study in a Bovine Ex Vivo Model of Vascular Strips (United States)


    lsev ier.c omflocate/ vph Differential sensitivities of pulmonary and coronary arteries to hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and nitrovasodilators...preparation has been used extensively in multiple studies that led to the discovery of NO as endothelium-derived relaxing factor (lgnarro et al., 1984...G.M .• Wood, K.S., Chaudhuri, G., 1988a. Pharmacological evidence that endothelium-derived relaxing factor is nitric oxide: use or pyrogallol and

  10. Development of a reflected optical fiber system for measuring oxygen saturation in an integrated artificial heart-lung system. (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshitaka; Saito, Tomohiko; Kihara, Tatsuya; Takatani, Setsuo; Funakubo, Akio


    The purpose of this study was to develop a blood oxygen saturation (OS) monitoring system for use with an integrated artificial heart-lung system (IAHLS). The OS monitoring system consists of two paired optical fiber probes (OFPs) and a measurement system. To investigate the effect of the OFP configuration and incident light wavelength on the relationship between OS and the reflectance ratio for wavelengths of 810 and 645 nm, we performed theoretical analyses of the relationship between OS and R810/R645 using a diffusion equation. The prototype OFP located on the blood outlet port of our IAHLS housing was evaluated using an in vitro test. An OS range of 65-100% was adjusted to supply oxygen and nitrogen gas to the IAHLS. The blood flow rate was maintained at 3 L/min by the rotational speed of an impeller in the IAHLS. The OS-corrected blood from the IAHLS was measured using a commercial gas analyzer. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between the theoretical ratio of R810/R645 and OS, and between measured OS and the reflectance ratio of R810/R645 were 0.97 and 0.78, respectively. In conclusion, we confirmed that the development of this oximetry system is applicable for IAHLS.

  11. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.


    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

  12. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, José L.; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina


    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic...

  13. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydén, Magnus


    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor system. For the oxygen uncoupling experiments, it was found that the particles released O2 in gas phase at temperatures above 720°C when the fuel reactor was fluidized with CO2. The effect increased with increased temperature, and with the O2 partial pressure in the air reactor. At 950°C, the O2 concentration in the outlet from the fuel reactor was in the order of 4.0vol%, if the particles were oxidized in air. For the chemical-looping combustion experiments the combustion efficiency with standard process parameters was in the order of 95% at 950°C, using 1000kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas, of which about 30% was located in the fuel reactor. Reducing the fuel flow so that 1900kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas was used improved the combustion efficiency to roughly 99.8%. The particles retained their physical properties, reactivity with CH4 and ability to release gas-phase O2 reasonably well throughout the testing period and there were no problems with the fluidization or formation of solid carbon in the reactor. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles underwent changes in their phase composition though. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of dissolved oxygen in water by artificial neural network and sample optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽华; 李丽


    Three important factors influencing directly the dissolved oxygen (DO) of river including the outflow, the water temperature and the pH, were used as input parameters to set up a BP neural network based on Levenberg-Marquant algorithm. The neural network model was proposed to evaluate DO in water. The model contains two parts: firstly, the learning sample is unified; secondly, the neural network is used to train the unified samples to ensure the best node number of hidden layer. The proposed model is applied to assessing the DO concentration of the Yellow River in Lanzhou city. The evaluation result is compared with that by the neural network method and the reported result in Lanzhou city. The comparison result indicates that the performance of the neural network model is practically feasible in the assessment of DO. At the same time, the linear interpolation method can add the number of network’s learning sample to improve the prediction precision of the network.

  15. Defining the critical material attributes of lactose monohydrate in carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations using artificial neural networks. (United States)

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert


    The study aimed to establish a function-based relationship between the physical and bulk properties of pre-blended mixtures of fine and coarse lactose grades with the in vitro performance of an adhesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Different grades of micronised and milled lactose (Lactohale (LH) LH300, LH230, LH210 and Sorbolac 400) were pre-blended with coarse grades of lactose (LH100, LH206 and Respitose SV010) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The bulk and rheological properties and particle size distributions were characterised. The pre-blends were formulated with micronised budesonide and in vitro performance in a Cyclohaler device tested using a next-generation impactor (NGI) at 90 l/min. Correlations between the lactose properties and in vitro performance were established using linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. The addition of milled and micronised lactose fines with the coarse lactose had a significant influence on physical and rheological properties of the bulk lactose. Formulations of the different pre-blends with budesonide directly influenced in vitro performance attributes including fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter and pre-separator deposition. While linear regression suggested a number of physical and bulk properties may influence in vitro performance, ANN analysis suggested the critical parameters in describing in vitro deposition patterns were the relative concentrations of lactose fines % < 4.5 μm and % < 15 μm. These data suggest that, for an adhesive API, the proportion of fine particles below % < 4.5 μm and % < 15 μm could be used in rational dry powder inhaler formulation design.

  16. [Artificial blood - coming soon or never reaching clinical maturity?]. (United States)

    Schöler, M; Frietsch, T; Jambor, C; Knels, R


    Formerly developed resuscitation fluids solely imitated the main function of the blood -oxygen transport. A research driven by the army requested an oxygen carrier that does not need cross typing and cooled storage. Artificial oxygen carriers (AOC) use either the molecular oxygen bondage to hemoglobin: HBOC- "hemoglobin based oxygen carriers" or the physical dissolution of oxygen in the blood plasma compartment by hyperbaric pressure in perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC). Decades of preclinical and clinical research did pass but the results were disappointing- in Russia, a not well designed PFC is available locally and the only approved HBOC in South Africa is not being used much. Other products, just prior to filing for FDA approval, did not achieve convincing study results and research and production was stopped. Some trials have been stopped by the FDA for safety reasons, half of trials with the primary endpoint reduction of allogeneic transfusion requirement were unsuccessful or offset by an increased blood requirement later. However, some ventures currently are trying to use the knowledge gained so far and are investigating third and fourth generation products of artificial blood components. These imitate the cellular structure of red cells as micells, nanocapsules, (ABC- artificial blood cells) or gas bubbles (microbubbles), admixture of volume substitutes such as starches, gelatin or albumin or use hyperbaric oxygenation [38]. Artificial platelets are in clinical phase IIa, recombinant albumin in phase III. In this article, a short overview about the current situation on artificial blood products is given. The critical point for the break through for artificial blood products did not come yet but could be ahead-

  17. Effects of heliox as carrier gas on ventilation and oxygenation in an animal model of piston-type HFOV: a crossover experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroma Takehiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Method Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50 or 50% oxygen/nitrogen (nitrogen50 gas mixture in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen50 to heliox50 and back was performed five times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Arterial blood gas, vital function and respiratory test indices were recorded. Results Compared with nitrogen50, heliox50 did not change PaCO2 when stroke volume remained constant, but significantly reduced PaCO2 after alignment of amplitude pressure. No significant changes in PaO2 were seen despite significant decreases in mean airway pressure with heliox50 compared with nitrogen50. Conclusion This study demonstrated that heliox enhances CO2 elimination and maintains oxygenation at the same amplitude but with lower airway pressure compared to air/O2 mix gas during piston-type HFOV.

  18. Effect of the hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier HBOC-201 on laboratory instrumentation: cobas integra, chiron blood gas analyzer 840, Sysmex SE-9000 and BCT. (United States)

    Wolthuis, A; Peek, D; Scholten, R; Moreira, P; Gawryl, M; Clark, T; Westerhuis, L


    As part of a clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of the hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrier (HBOC) HBOC-201 (an ultrapurified, stroma-free bovine hemoglobin product, Biopure, Cambridge, MA, USA) on our routine clinical chemistry analyzer (Cobas Integra, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland ), blood gas analyzer (Chiron 840, Chiron Diagnostics Corporation, East Walpole, MA, USA), routine hemocytometry analyzer (Sysmex SE-9000, TOA Medical Electronics Co Ltd., Kobe, Japan), hemostasis analyzer (BCT, Dade-Behring, Marburg, Germany) and bloodbanking system (Dia-Med-ID Micro Typing System, DiaMed AG, Cressier, Switzerland). The maximum tested concentration of HBOC-201 was 65 g/l. Of the 27 routine clinical chemistry tests challenged with HBOC-201, bilirubin-direct, creatine kinase MB-fraction (CK-MB), creatine kinase (CK), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), magnesium and uric acid were influenced by even low concentrations of HBOC-201. These tests were excluded from use on the plasma of patients treated with HBOC-201. Since the non-availability of the cardiac marker CK-MB may lead to problems in acute situations, we introduced the qualitative Trop T-test (Boehringer Mannheim), which was not influenced. The applicability of another nine tests was limited by the concentration of the HBOC-201 in the patients' plasma. No interference of HBOC-201 in routine hemocytometry, hemostasis-analysis and red-blood cell agglutination detection (blood-bank tests) was observed. Although immediate patient-care was not compromised, routine use of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers will have a strong impact on logistical management. The development of robust laboratory tests free from the interference of the pigmented oxygen carriers should therefore precede its introduction into routine transfusion medicine.

  19. On the 'artificial' nature of Tc and the 'carrier-free' nature of {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfassi, Zeev B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail:; Groppi, Flavia [Universita degli Studi and INFN-Milano, LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory Via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Bonardi, Mauro L. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute Delft, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Goeij, Jeroen J.M. de [Interfaculty Reactor Institute Delft, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)


    Two widespread misconceptions regarding Tc are dealt with. First, it is shown that although primordial Tc has decayed completely, Tc is still present in nature due to natural processes, in addition to substantial man-made quantities. Thus, Tc cannot be considered as a purely artificial element. Second, it is shown that {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators is certainly not carrier-free (CF) and that, 'no-carrier-added' (NCA) is a more appropriate designation. As a quantitative measure of the amount of long-lived {sup 99g}Tc carrier present in {sup 99m}Tc preparations from generators, the Isotope Dilution Factor (IDF) is used and calculated for some practical situations.

  20. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman


    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  1. Artificial blood. (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman


    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  2. Isothermal gas chromatography of short-lived Hf isotopes and element 104 in chlorinating, oxygen containing carrier gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, D.T.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, B.; Piguet, D.; Tuerler, A.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Gaertner, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Grantz, M.; Huebener, S. [FZR (Germany); Buklanov, G.; Lebedev, V.; Timkhin, S.; Vedeneev, M.V.; Yakushev, A.; Zvara, I. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)


    Based on thermodynamic state functions retention times of Hf and element 104 were calculated in the case of the simple adsorption of the tetrachlorides and the case of a complex adsorption involving a substitution process with oxygen in the chlorinating gas. Preliminary results for {sup 261}104 and Hf are shown. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  3. CeO2 as the Oxygen Carrier for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas in Molten Salts: Thermodynamic Analysis and Experimental Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new technique - the direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen in molten salts medium has been introduced. Using CeO2 as the oxygen carrier, thermodynamic data were calculated in the reaction process, and the results indicated that direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen of cerium oxide is feasible in theory. In a stainless steel reactor, the effects of temperature and varying amounts of γ-Al2O3 supported CeO2 on CH4 conversion,H2 and CO selectivity, were investigated, respectively. The results show that 10% CeO2/γ-Al2O3 has the maximal reaction activity at a temperature of 865 ℃ and above, the H2/CO ratio in the gas that has been produced reaches 2 and the CH4 conversion, H2 and CO selectivity reached the following percentages: i.e.61%, 89%, and 91% at 870 ℃, respectively. In addition, increase of reaction temperature is favorable for the partial oxidation of methane.

  4. Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC of Wood Chips in a Semi-Commercial Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Using Manganese Ore as Bed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rydén


    Full Text Available Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC is realized by using an active oxygen-carrying bed material in fluidized bed boilers. The active material is reduced in fuel rich parts of the boiler and oxidized in air rich parts. Advantages could be achieved such as new mechanisms for oxygen transport in space and time. Here calcined manganese ore has been used as active bed material in a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel was wood chips and the campaign lasted more than two weeks. From an operational point of view, manganese ore worked excellently. From the temperature profile of the boiler it can be concluded that fuel conversion was facilitated, especially in the dense bottom bed. The effect did not always translate to reduced emissions, which suggests that final combustion in the cyclone outlet was also influenced. Substituting 10% of the sand bed with manganese ore made it possible to reduce the air to fuel ratio without generating large amounts of CO. The use of 100% manganese ore resulted in higher emissions of CO than the sand reference, but, when combined sulphur feeding, dramatic reductions in CO emissions, up to 90% compared to sand reference, was achieved.

  5. Importância dos carreadores de oxigênio livre de células Oxygen carriers free of cells in transfusion medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Z. Novaretti


    Full Text Available Os procedimentos necessários para redução de efeitos adversos associados à transfusão de sangue, em especial aqueles decorrentes da transmissão de agentes infecciosos e da aloimunização leucócito-mediada têm impacto nos custos de produção de hemocomponentes. Paralelamente, as necessidades transfusionais têm aumentado globalmente, ficando evidente a necessidade de um substituto seguro e amplamente disponível para o sangue, chamado de sangue artificial ou de substituto do sangue. Visto que o seu desenvolvimento tem se concentrado na função de carrear oxigênio aos tecidos, daí utilizarmos, nesse texto, a denominação "Carreadores de oxigênio livre de células". Atualmente, dois tipos de carreadores de oxigênio livre de células têm sido testados: as soluções de hemoglobina modificadas (de origem humana ou bovina e os perfluorocarbonos (PFCs. Entretanto, esses produtos não são isentos de efeitos adversos e um grande número de pesquisas clínicas está em andamento para testar sua eficácia e segurança. O maior conhecimento desses carreadores de oxigênio livre de células e seus mecanismos de ação permitiu que aplicações outras, até mesmo não clínicas, estivessem em teste com as novas gerações desses produtos, expandindo assim as fronteiras da medicina transfusional.The procedures needed to reduce transfusion-associated adverse effects, especially those related to transfusion-transmitted diseases and leukocyte-mediated alloimmunization, have a great impact on the production cost of blood components. Additionally, blood transfusion has increased worldwide making the need for a safe substitute for blood evident. These products have been named artificial blood or blood substitutes. Based on the fact that their focus has been oxygen delivery to tissues, "free oxygen carrying cells" is more appropriate. Two major groups of free oxygen carring cells have been tested: modified hemoglobin solutions (bovine or human and

  6. Erasable photoinduced change of carrier density and coherence lengths in oxygen-deficient YBa 2Cu 3O x (United States)

    Göb, W.; Lang, W.; Markowitsch, W.; Schlosser, V.; Kula, W.; Soblewski, Roman


    We report on the persistent and erasable photoinduced change of normal-state transport and superconducting properties of oxygen-deficient YBa 2Cu 3O 6.6 thin films. After illumination with white light for several hours at 150K, a decrease of the electrical resistivity, an increase of the number of mobile holes, and a change of the magnetoresistance caused by superconducting order-parameter fluctuations, were observed. From the latter measurement, we find a photoinduced enhancement of the superconducting coherence lengths in both in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

  7. Research on the carbon deposition characteristics of the metal oxygen carrier%金属载氧体的积碳特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路遥; 金晶; 陈磊; 何丹丹; 蔡灿稳


    以CO为燃料(即还原性气氛),在热天平上分别对Ni基、Fe基、Cu基和C0基4种制备金属载氧体进行热重实验,通过分析各自的TG曲线,了解到4种载氧体均出现了不同程度的积碳现象,其中Cu基载氧体可以在一定程度上抑制积碳。为了避免因积碳而带来的栽氧体失活,在管式炉内进行CO和载氧体的燃烧反应时,向炉内通入水蒸气,发现CO还原金属载氧体时,通入水蒸气可以有效地抑制积碳。最后利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)扫描反应产物,分析结果显示,通水蒸气时C的特征峰已经消失,进一步验证了水蒸气的抑碳效果。%TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analysis) was used to research on Ni-based, Fe-based, Cu-based and Co-based prepared oxygen carriers, and the TG test curves reflect the carbon deposition characteristics of different prepared oxy- gen carriers and indicate that the Cu-based oxygen carrier can restrain carbon deposition to some extent. When com- bustion reaction of CO was conducted in the tube furnace, adopting the method of feeding water vapour into the furnace can avoid carbon deposition effectively. Finally, the XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) was used to scan the reaction product to evaluate the anti-carbon effect of the experiment. Compared with the no steam condition, it can be found that the char- acteristic peaks of carbon are disappeared on feeding steam condition, and carbon deposition controlled by the addition of steam is confirmed further.

  8. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane. (United States)

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M


    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  9. Investigation of the Performance of Low-Cost Calcium-Based Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal%廉价钙基载氧体煤化学链燃烧试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文平; 肖睿; 杨一超; 张帅


    化学链燃烧技术逐渐发展成为一项非常有前景的实现CO2高效低能耗分离捕集技术.在小型固定床上研究了廉价钙基载氧体的还原/氧化反应特性以及持续循环能力,讨论了温度、压力、煤/载氧体质量比对钙基载氧体反应特性的影响.试验结果表明,温度和压力的升高能显著增强煤气化产物与CaSO4之间的反应,导致CO2收率和碳转化率相应增加.在煤/载氧体高质量比情况下,由于实际反应过程中存在平行反应、载氧体颗粒内部传质阻力等因素,造成载氧体的失活和载氧能力下降.故为得到高的CO2收率和碳转化率,煤/载氧体质量比应控制在0.14以下.%Chemical-looping combustion(CLC) will be a very promising technology due to its high efficiency and low-cost for CO2 separation.In this paper,the reduction/oxidation characteristic as well as the cyclic performance of low-cost calcium-based oxygen carrier was investigated in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor.The effect of temperature,operating pressure and coal/oxygen carrier mass ratio on the performance of calcium-based oxygen carrier were discussed.The results showed that increasing temperature and pressure can obviously enhance the reaction of calcium-based oxygen carrier with coal gasification products,which can lead to higher CO2 yield and carbon conversion.Such factors as the parallel reactions and the resistance of internal mass transfer in the oxygen carrier particles in practical reaction lead to inactivation of the oxygen carrier and the decrease of the oxygen carring ability.The coal/oxygen carrier mass ratio should be limited to 0.14 to get higher CO2 yield and carbon conversion.

  10. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrate removal using polycaprolactone as an organic carbon source and biofilm carrier in fixed-film denitrifying reactors. (United States)

    Luo, Guozhi; Xu, Guimei; Gao, Jinfang; Tan, Hongxin


    Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) always accumulates in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) with aerobic nitrification units. The ability to reduce NO3(-)-N consistently and confidently could help RASs to become more sustainable. The rich dissolved oxygen (DO) content and sensitive organisms stocked in RASs increase the difficulty of denitrifying technology. A denitrifying process using biologically degradable polymers as an organic carbon source and biofilm carrier was proposed because of its space-efficient nature and strong ability to remove NO3(-)-N from RASs. The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on heterotrophic denitrification in fixed-film reactors filled with polycaprolactone (PCL) was explored in the current experiment. DO conditions in the influent of the denitrifying reactors were set up as follows: the anoxic treatment group (Group A, average DO concentration of 0.28±0.05mg/L), the low-oxygen treatment DO group (Group B, average DO concentration of 2.50±0.24mg/L) and the aerated treatment group (Group C, average DO concentration of 5.63±0.57mg/L). Feeding with 200mg/L of NO3(-)-N, the NO3(-)-N removal rates were 1.53, 1.60 and 1.42kg/m(3) PCL/day in Groups A, B and C, respectively. No significant difference in NO3(-)-N removal rates was observed among the three treatments. It was concluded that the inhibitory effects of DO concentrations lower than 6mg/L on heterotrophic denitrification in the fixed-film reactors filled with PCL can be mitigated.

  11. Oxygen "getter" effects on microstructure and carrier transport in low temperature combustion-processed a-InXZnO (X = Ga, Sc, Y, La) transistors. (United States)

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Smith, Jeremy; Yan, Aiming; Kim, Myung-Gil; Zhao, Wei; Dravid, Vinayak P; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J


    In oxide semiconductors, such as those based on indium zinc oxide (IXZO), a strong oxygen binding metal ion ("oxygen getter"), X, functions to control O vacancies and enhance lattice formation, hence tune carrier concentration and transport properties. Here we systematically study, in the IXZO series, the role of X = Ga(3+) versus the progression X = Sc(3+) → Y(3+) → La(3+), having similar chemical characteristics but increasing ionic radii. IXZO films are prepared from solution over broad composition ranges for the first time via low-temperature combustion synthesis. The films are characterized via thermal analysis of the precursor solutions, grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction (GIAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging. Excellent thin-film transistor (TFT) performance is achieved for all X, with optimal compositions after 300 °C processing exhibiting electron mobilities of 5.4, 2.6, 2.4, and 1.8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for Ga(3+), Sc(3+), Y(3+), and La(3+), respectively, and with I(on)/I(off) = 10(7)-10(8). Analysis of the IXZO TFT positive bias stress response shows X = Ga(3+) to be superior with mobilities (μ) retaining >95% of the prestress values and threshold voltage shifts (ΔV(T)) of lattice formation. We conclude that the metal oxide lattice formation enthalpy (ΔH(L)) and metal ionic radius are the best predictors of IXZO oxygen getter efficacy.

  12. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using an innovative dual-lumen cannula following implantation of a total artificial heart. (United States)

    Youdle, Jemma; Penn, Sarah; Maunz, Olaf; Simon, Andre


    We report our first clinical use of the new Protek Duo(TM) cannula for peripheral veno-venous extra-corporeal life support (ECLS). A 53-year-old male patient underwent implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) for biventricular failure. However, due to the development of post-operative respiratory dysfunction, the patient required ECLS for six days.

  13. Effects of Support on the Performance of NiO-Based Oxygen Carriers Effets du support sur les performances de matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek J.-I.


    Full Text Available The performance of an oxygen carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion varies with the support material used. NiO oxygen carriers were prepared using 60 or 70 wt% NiO and different raw support materials (γ-Al2O3, pseudoboehmite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4, and γ-Al2O3 with added graphite by the mechanical mixing method. Reactivity tests were conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA at 950˚C. The oxygen carriers prepared using γ-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with a small amount of MgO, hydrotalcite, and MgAl2O4 showed high oxygen transfer capacity, high oxygen utilization, and a high oxygen transfer rate. Graphite addition to γ-Al2O3 did not increase the surface area or reactivity. The use of pseudoboehmite as a support led to a significant decrease in oxygen transfer capacity and severe agglomeration of the oxygen carriers during the redox reaction. The increase in MgO content in the raw support materials decreased the reduction reactivity. The oxygen carriers prepared with α-Al2O3 showed less oxygen transfer capacity than the other oxygen carriers. The differences in the reactivity according to the support type were explained by the relative strength of NiO-support interaction obtained from the temperature-programmed reduction analysis. The reactivity test results in this work indicate that γ-Al2O3 and hydrotalcite could be desirable raw support materials to prepare highly reactive NiO oxygen carriers with high NiO content. Les performances des materiaux transporteurs d’oxygene varient en fonction du support utilise dans le procede de combustion en boucle chimique. Differents materiaux a base d’oxyde de Nickel ont ete synthetises avec des concentrations elevees en NiO, comprises entre 60 et 70 %, sur differents supports (γ-Al2O3, pseudobohemite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 melangee avec MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4 et γ-Al2O3 additivees avec du graphite par melange mecanique. Des tests de reactivite ont ete

  14. Hydrogen and syngas production from two-step steam reforming of methane over CeO2-Fe2O3 oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two-step steam reforming of methane(SRM)is a novel chemical looping process towards the production of pure hydrogen and syngas(synthesis gas),consisting ofa syngas production step and a water-splitting step.Renewable energy can be used to drive this process for hydrogen production,especially solar energy.CeO2-Fe2O3 complex oxide oxygen carrier was prepared by the impregnation method and characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer(XRD),Raman spectroscopy(Raman)and hydrogen programmed reduction(H2-TPR).CH4temperature programmed and isothermal reactions were adopted to test syngas production reactivity,and water splitting reaction was employed to investigate water-splitting activity.Moreover,two-step SRM performance was evaluated by a successive redox cycle.The results showed that CO-uncontaminated H2 and highly selective syngas(with H2/CO ratio close to 2)could be respectively obtained from two steps,and CeFeO3 formation was found in the first redox cycle and proved to be enhanced by the redox treatment.After 10 successive cycles,obvious CeFeO3 phase was detected,which may be responsible for favorable successive redox cycle performances.

  15. Binding of molecular oxygen by an artificial heme analogue: investigation on the formation of an Fe–tetracarbene superoxo complex

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.


    The dioxygen reactivity of a cyclic iron(II) tetra–NHC-complex (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbene) is investigated. Divergent oxidation behavior is observed depending on the choice of the solvent (acetonitrile or acetone). In the first case, exposure to molecular oxygen leads to an oxygen free Fe(III) whereas in the latter case an oxide bridged Fe(III) dimer is formed. In acetone, an Fe(III)-superoxide can be trapped, isolated and characterized as intermediate at low temperatures. An Fe(III)–O–Fe(III) dimer is formed from the Fe(III) superoxide in acetone upon warming and the molecular structure has been revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the oxidation of the Fe(II) complex in both solvents is a reversible process. For the regeneration of the initial Fe(II) complex both organic and inorganic reducing agents can be used.

  16. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using a double-lumen bi-caval cannula for severe respiratory failure post total artificial heart implantation. (United States)

    Miessau, J; Yang, Q; Unai, S; Entwistle, J W C; Cavarocchi, N C; Hirose, H


    We report a unique utilization of a double-lumen, bi-caval Avalon cannula for veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during placement of a total artificial heart (TAH, SynCardia, Tucson, AZ). A 22-year-old female with post-partum cardiomyopathy was rescued on veno-arterial (VA) ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The inability to wean ECMO necessitated implantation of the TAH as a bridge to transplant. In addition, the patient continued to have respiratory failure and concomitant VV ECMO was planned with the implant. During TAH implantation, the Avalon cannula was placed percutaneously from the right internal jugular vein into the inferior vena cava (IVC) under direct vision while the right atrium was open. During VV ECMO support, adequate flows on both ECMO and TAH were maintained without adverse events. VV ECMO was discontinued, without reopening the chest, once the patient's respiratory failure improved. However, the patient subsequently developed a profound respiratory acidosis and required VV ECMO for CO2 removal. The Avalon cannula was placed in the femoral vein to avoid accessing the internal jugular vein and risking damage to the TAH. The patient's oxygenation eventually improved and the cannula was removed at the bedside. The patient was supported for 22 days on VV ECMO and successfully weaned from the ventilator prior to her orthotropic heart transplantation.

  17. Simulation of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin solution, RBC suspension and hemosome by a neural network system. (United States)

    Kan, P; Chen, W K; Lee, C J


    Hemoglobin-based artificial blood substitutes as oxygen carrier is advantageous over current plasma expander. In this study, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin solution, red blood cell suspension and artificial blood substitute under various conditions were measured by yeast-consuming-oxygen experiments instead of spectrophotometer. The empirical results were assigned into training feedforward back-propagation neural network system in order to simulate the oxygen saturation model modulated by those factors such as pH, [Cl-], [2,3-DPG], pO2 and pCO2. Consequently, this neural network is able to simulate accurately the oxygen saturation of Hb solution. The prediction of hemosome is not agreed well possible because of the resistance of transport of oxygen. However, the results showed neural net can offer a simple and convenient way in comparison with the conventional methods, especially in dealing with complex and ambiguous problem.

  18. 水泥改性铁矿石载氧体的煤化学链燃烧实验研究%Experiments on Chemical-looping Combustion of Coal With Cement-Decorated Iron Ore as Oxygen Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      对天然铁矿石混合水泥进行改性,在流化床上进行了煤化学链燃烧试验研究,考察改性后载氧体的氧化−还原反应性能。结果表明,水泥能够有效地促进水气变换反应的进行,使得煤气化产物中 CO 份额减小、H2份额增大。改性后载氧体比表面积和孔容积显著增大,反应活性得到提高,燃料反应器出口气体中仅存在微量CO、H2,其浓度远低于纯铁矿石为载氧体的实验结果。在20次循环试验中,水泥改性铁矿石能大幅提高 CO2体积份额;对不同循环后载氧体的扫描电镜表征显示,水泥能够有效阻止载氧体颗粒表面的晶粒在高温下的液相接触,降低载氧体颗粒氧化再生过程中单位体积的热量释放强度,缓解烧结现象的发生,维持载氧体颗粒多孔的结构特性。%Experiments on chemical looping combustion of coal were conducted in a fluidized bed using cement-decorated iron ore as oxygen carrier. The reactivity of the oxygen carrier during redox experiments was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of cement effectively promotes the water-gas shift reaction, leading to the decrease of CO fraction and the increase of H2 fraction in coal gasification products. After decorated the oxygen carrier gets its specific surface area and pore volume increased significantly, and reactivity improved as a result. Further, the concentrations of CO and H2 in the flue gas of the fuel reactor are far lower than that of the experiments for pure iron ore. The volume fractions of CO2 for cement-decorated iron ore increase greatly during 20 cycles. Characterization of reduced oxygen carrier with scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicates that cement can prevent the surface grains of the oxygen carrier from gathering in the liquid phase under high temperature, and reduce the heat density released in a unit volume of the oxygen carrier particle in the oxidization process

  19. Modelling of dissolved oxygen in the Danube River using artificial neural networks and Monte Carlo Simulation uncertainty analysis (United States)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana


    This paper describes the training, validation, testing and uncertainty analysis of general regression neural network (GRNN) models for the forecasting of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Danube River. The main objectives of this work were to determine the optimum data normalization and input selection techniques, the determination of the relative importance of uncertainty in different input variables, as well as the uncertainty analysis of model results using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique. Min-max, median, z-score, sigmoid and tanh were validated as normalization techniques, whilst the variance inflation factor, correlation analysis and genetic algorithm were tested as input selection techniques. As inputs, the GRNN models used 19 water quality variables, measured in the river water each month at 17 different sites over a period of 9 years. The best results were obtained using min-max normalized data and the input selection based on the correlation between DO and dependent variables, which provided the most accurate GRNN model, and in combination the smallest number of inputs: Temperature, pH, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3-N, Hardness, Na, Cl-, Conductivity and Alkalinity. The results show that the correlation coefficient between measured and predicted DO values is 0.85. The inputs with the greatest effect on the GRNN model (arranged in descending order) were T, pH, HCO3-, SO42- and NO3-N. Of all inputs, variability of temperature had the greatest influence on the variability of DO content in river body, with the DO decreasing at a rate similar to the theoretical DO decreasing rate relating to temperature. The uncertainty analysis of the model results demonstrate that the GRNN can effectively forecast the DO content, since the distribution of model results are very similar to the corresponding distribution of real data.

  20. Gasification rea ctivity of biomass char with oxygen carrier CuO%生物质半焦/铜基载氧体气化反应特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉景煜; 张松; 秦昌雷; 禹建功; 付范萱; 杨琳


    Ca lculations of reactions between biomass char and oxygen carriersC uOw ere conducted via the method of Gibbs free energy minimization.The effect of temperature, mass ration of oxygen carrier/biomass char and pressure on the gasification of biomass char was examined. The reactions were experimetn ally investigated usinght ermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results show that when using CuO as oxygen carrier in chemical looping gasification ( CLG) of biomass char, the conversion rate of biomass char is improved with increasing reaction temperature.The oxygen carrier CuO starts to sinter when the raect ion temperature is above 750℃.The ad dition of ox ygen carrier has the best enhancement on the CLG of biomass char with mass ratio of biomass char/CuO being 1∶6.It is also found that the increase of rae ction pressure would inhibit the CLG fo biomass chars.%通过吉布斯自由能最小化法对生物质半焦与载氧体CuO之间的反应进行热力学计算,研究温度、载氧体量及压力对生物质半焦化学链气化的影响。同时采用热重分析及扫描电镜等技术手段对生物质半焦/载氧体CuO的反应特性进行了实验研究。结果表明,载氧体CuO能有效促进生物质半焦的气化,随着反应温度的升高,生物质半焦气化效率提高,但当温度超过750℃,CuO载氧体开始出现烧结现象;其半焦/载氧体CuO的化学链气化最佳质量比为1∶6。研究也发现,反应压力的增加对生物质半焦的化学链气化有一定的抑制作用。

  1. Development of PVP/PEG mixtures as appropriate carriers for the preparation of drug solid dispersions by melt mixing technique and optimization of dissolution using artificial neural networks. (United States)

    Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Koutsidis, Ioannis; Karavas, Evangelos; Louka, Dimitra; Papadimitriou, Sofia A; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N


    The effect of plasticizer's (PEG) molecular weight (MW) on PVP based solid dispersions (SDs), prepared by melt mixing, was evaluated in the present study using Tibolone as a poorly water soluble model drug. PEGs with MW of 400, 600, and 2000 g/mol were tested, and the effect of drug content, time and temperature of melt mixing on the physical state of Tibolone, and the dissolution characteristics from SDs was investigated. PVP blends with PEG400 and PEG600 were completely miscible, while blends were heterogeneous. Furthermore, a single Tg recorded in all samples, indicating that Tibolone was dispersed in a molecular lever (or in the form of nanodispersions), varied with varying PEG's molecular weight, melt mixing temperature, and drug content, while FTIR analysis indicated significant interactions between Tibolone and PVP/PEG matrices. All prepared solid dispersion showed long-term physical stability (18 months in room temperature). The extent of interaction between mixture components was verified using Fox and Gordon-Taylor equations. Artificial neural networks, used to correlate the studied factors with selected dissolution characteristics, showed good prediction ability.

  2. 基于水泥修饰的赤铁矿载氧体污泥化学链燃烧特性研究%Chemical looping combustion of sewage sludge with oxygen carrier of cement-modified hematite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛欣; 沈来宏; 肖军; 蒋守席; 顾海明


    采用水泥修饰赤铁矿来提高载氧体的反应活性。实验在1 kWth串行流化床上进行,研究了添加水泥对污泥化学链燃烧特性的影响,考察其长期运行的物化性能。结果表明,在实验工况下,赤铁矿添加水泥后,出口的未燃气体浓度明显下降。燃料反应器温度低于870℃时,水泥的添加使污泥的碳转化率和燃烧效率显著升高。在10 h长期运行后,一部分污泥灰沉积在载氧体表面。虽然在反应过程中部分的Fe2 O3被深度还原,但在长期运行中未出现流化问题和烧结现象。%Chemical looping combustion ( CLC) for sewage sludge has a relatively low efficiency using hematite as oxygen carrier. The experiments on improving the reactivity of hematite with cement modified for CLC of sewage sludge in a 1 kWth continuous CLC unit were carried out. Compared to hematite oxygen carrier, the concentrations of unconverted combustible gas rapidly decrease when the cement-hematite is used. Moreover, both carbon conversion and combustion efficiency increase when the cement is added. Although some ash particles deposit on the surface of oxygen carrier and a part of Fe2 O3 is reduced to FeO, there are no defluidization and sintering problems.

  3. Investigation on artificial blood or substitute blood replace the natural blood. (United States)

    Keyhanian, Sh; Ebrahimifard, M; Zandi, M


    Blood is a liquid tissue in which dissolved with abundant chemical factors and millions of different cells The reduction of unwanted side effects, especially diseases that emerge through blood such as HIV and hepatitis, has a significant role for modern medicine of transfusion and transplantation. The issues and costs of human blood collection and storage, direct this procedure towards the use of alternatives blood. Two important research fields of this area were oxygen carriers based on hemoglobin and perfluoro chemicals. While they do not have the same quality as the blood cell products, the oxygen carrier solutions have potential clinical and non-clinical applications. The result showed that these products can reach to the body tissues easier than normal red blood cells, and can control the oxygen directly. The final aim of transfusion is to establish a transfusion system with no side effects, and the fact that oxygen carrier artificial blood has this property. The article attempts to step towards solving some problems of blood transfusion through describing the properties of artificial blood alternatives.

  4. Implementing oxygen control in chip-based cell and tissue culture systems. (United States)

    Oomen, Pieter E; Skolimowski, Maciej D; Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    Oxygen is essential in the energy metabolism of cells, as well as being an important regulatory parameter influencing cell differentiation and function. Interest in precise oxygen control for in vitro cultures of tissues and cells continues to grow, especially with the emergence of the organ-on-a-chip and the desire to emulate in vivo conditions. This was recently discussed in this journal in a Critical Review by Brennan et al. (Lab Chip (2014). DOI: ). Microfluidics can be used to introduce flow to facilitate nutrient supply to and waste removal from in vitro culture systems. Well-defined oxygen gradients can also be established. However, cells can quickly alter the oxygen balance in their vicinity. In this Tutorial Review, we expand on the Brennan paper to focus on the implementation of oxygen analysis in these systems to achieve continuous monitoring. Both electrochemical and optical approaches for the integration of oxygen monitoring in microfluidic tissue and cell culture systems will be discussed. Differences in oxygen requirements from one organ to the next are a challenging problem, as oxygen delivery is limited by its uptake into medium. Hence, we discuss the factors determining oxygen concentrations in solutions and consider the possible use of artificial oxygen carriers to increase dissolved oxygen concentrations. The selection of device material for applications requiring precise oxygen control is discussed in detail, focusing on oxygen permeability. Lastly, a variety of devices is presented, showing the diversity of approaches that can be employed to control and monitor oxygen concentrations in in vitro experiments.

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B


    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  6. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  7. Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Waltz, David L.


    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  8. 化学循环重整甲烷制合成气LaB03钙钛矿型氧载体研究%LaBO3 Oxygen Carrier for Synthesis Gas Generation by Chemical-Looping Reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代小平; 余长春


    Chemical Looping Reforming(CLR) is a new technology that can be used for syngas production(CO+H2),which demands less energy than normal endothermic steam methane reforming(SMR) processes.CLR for syngas production avoids separation problems since the gasses are taken out separately from fuel reactor and air reactor.One key issue with the CLR concept that is being widely studied is the oxidation-reduction performance of potential oxygen-carrier materials.Two compound oxides(La-Cr-O and La-Ni-O) were prepared by sol-gel method,and characterized by XRD,BET,FT-IR,H2-TPR and CH4-TPSR.The catalytic performance of the prepared samples for CLR of CH4 to syngas was investigated.The results indicated that LaNiO3 should provide the oxygen species for the total oxidation and partial oxidation with CH4,whereas cracking reaction of CH4 to H2 is favourable on LaCrO3 oxide.Among them,LaNiO3 oxide has higher oxygen amount and continuous oxygen supply for CLR for CH4 to syngas with H2/CO=1.45 in continuous flow reaction.The CH4 conversion and CO selectivity are 23.4% and 86.9%.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了不同B位可变价离子的La-B-O复合氧载体(B=Cr、Ni),采用XRD、BET、FT-IR、H2-TPR及CH4-TPSR等进行了表征,并用于化学循环重整(CLR)CH4反应中.结果表明,LaNiO3氧化物更易于与CH4发生深度氧化和选择氧化,LaCrO3氧化物则利于CH4裂解,其氧物种氧化CH4的能力较弱.在连续流动CLR反应中,LaNiO3具有较高的供氧量和持续供氧能力,能将CH4选择氧化为H2/CO=1.45的合成气,其CH4转化率和CO选择性分别达到23.4%和86.9%,且其结构保持了较高的稳定性.

  9. [Noninvasive, continuous monitoring of artificial respiration in premature and newborn infants by the constant measurement of respiratory minute volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release]. (United States)

    Leidig, E; Noller, F; Mentzel, H


    A system of instrumentation for the continuous measurement of the respiratory gases during assisted ventilation of neonates and premature infants based upon "breath-by-breath-method" is described. The four respiratory parameters flow (V), ventilation pressure (p), oxygen-concentration and carbon dioxide-concentration are measured. These datas are processed by a computer to generate a continuous display of the respiratory minute volume, the tidal volume, the breath rate, the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production. All parameters are stored and can be displayed or plotted as trends. The flow-measurement is performed using hot-wire-anemometry. The very small flow sensor is adapted directly to the tube. Next to this sensor, the respiratory gas for the analysis of the O2- and CO2- concentration is suctioned off continuously. First clinical experience in mechanically ventilated newborns is characterized.

  10. Hydrogen carriers (United States)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping


    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  11. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R


    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  12. Artificial urushi. (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R


    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  13. Artificial Reefs (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  14. Artificial Limbs (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  15. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E


    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  16. Using Low-Cost Iron-Based Materials as Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion Utilisation de matériaux bon marché à base de fer comme transporteur d’oxygène dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerndal E.


    Full Text Available In chemical looping combustion with solid fuels, the oxygen-carrier lifetime is expected to be shorter than with gaseous fuels. Therefore, it is particularly important to use low-cost oxygen carriers in solid fuel applications. Apart from being cheap, these oxygen carriers should be able to convert the CO and H2 produced from the solid fuel gasification and be sufficiently hard to withstand fragmentation. Several low-cost iron-based materials displayed high conversion of syngas and high mechanical strength and can be used for further development of the technology. These materials include oxide scales from Sandvik and Scana and an iron ore from LKAB. All tested oxygen carriers showed higher gas conversion than a reference sample, the mineral ilmenite. Generally, softer oxygen carriers were more porous and appeared to have a higher reactivity towards syngas. When compared with ilmenite, the conversion of CO was higher for all oxygen carriers and the conversion of H2 was higher when tested for longer reduction times. The oxygen carrier Sandvik 2 displayed the highest conversion of syngas and was therefore selected for solid fuel experiments. The conversion rate of solid fuels was higher with Sandvik 2 than with the reference sample, ilmenite. Pour appliquer la combustion en boucle chimique à des charges solides, il est important d’utiliser des matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène bon marché. En effet, la durée de vie du transporteur d’oxygène risque d’être plus courte sur charge solide que sur charge gazeuse. Ces matériaux doivent également bien convertir le monoxyde de carbone et l’hydrogène résultant de la gasification, tout en étant suffisamment durs pour résister à la fragmentation. Plusieurs matériaux ont montré un potentiel de conversion élevé sur le gaz de synthèse ainsi qu’une résistance mécanique élevée, ce qui permet d’envisager leur utilisation lors des développements futurs de la technologie. Parmi ces

  17. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin


    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  18. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn


    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie...

  19. CaSO4氧载体煤基合成气化学链燃烧模拟研究%Simulated investigation of chemical looping combustion with coal-derived syngas and CaSO4 oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保文; 晏蓉; 郑瑛; 赵海波; 郑楚光


    Compared to metal oxides, CaSO4 adopted as oxygen carrier (OC) in chemical looping combustion (CLC) presents several advantages such as low cost, easy availability and superior oxygen transfer capacity, whilst the SO2 emission and solid sulfur deposit in the process could be a big concern. In this study, thermodynamic simulations were conducted to investigate the sulfur distribution in a CLC system with CaSO4 as OC and syngas derived from coal as the fuel. Several findings were attained: (i) On the main products and reaction pathways in the fuel reactor (FR), at the low temperature of 100 ℃ ~400 ℃, the main sulfur species and carbon deposit were H2S and CaCO3 via the methanation of CO with H2 coupled with the shift reaction of CO with H2O(g) and the ensuing thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Then at 400 ℃ ~915 ℃, CaS and CO2 were the main products through the reaction of CaSO4 with H2 or CO, and both products increased with increasing FR temperature. Furthermore, at the FR temperature higher than 915 ℃, due to the initiation of the solid side reaction between CaS and CaSO4, the percentage of CaS declined. In contrary, the percentages of CaO, H2 and CO increased possibly due to the consumption of part of CaSO4 in the side reaction and thus not enough lattice oxygen available. In the air reactor( AR), the oxidization of CaS by air into CaSO4 was always dominant. Besides at ΦAR below 0.8, both the solid side reaction of CaSO4 with CaS and the oxidization of CaS into CaO were simultaneously in effect. (ii) In the FR, the optimized condition was suggested as at around 915 ℃, atmospheric condition and carefully controlled ΦFR around unity. (iii) In the AR, sufficient supply of air was important for the oxidization of CaS, and ΦAR ≥ 1 would ensure the full oxidization of CaS into CaSO4 and prevent the emission of SO2 and formation of CaO as well. Overall, this study provided the most suitable conditions of using CaSO4 as OC in CLC of syngas with

  20. Kinetics of Chemical Looping Hydrogen Generation Using FeaO4 as Oxygen Carrier%基于Fe3O4的化学链制氢动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小燕; 向文国; 田文栋; 徐祥; 徐燕骥; 肖云汉


    针对Fe3O4化学链制氢和CO2分离过程,研究了Fe3O4在CO气氛下还原以及铁在水蒸气下氧化的动力学特性.用Coats-Redfen单升温速率积分法、Ozawa组合升温速率法和lnln恒温分析法对反应机理进行了探讨,并计算了动力学参数.热重数据计算结果表明:在CO和N2体积分数分别为5%和95%时,还原反应属于一级反应,750~900℃时反应活化能为112 kJ/mol;在CO、CO2和N2体积分数分别为42.9%、14.3%和42.8%时,还原反应可用Jander扩散模型描述,750 ~ 950℃时反应活化能为49.828 kJ/mol;经Ozawa法验证,加入CO2后的还原反应活化能明显降低.铁与水蒸气的氧化反应接近二维核生长模型,反应活化能较低,为29.633 kJ/mol,且随着温度升高,反应速率常数增大.%Kinetics of chemical looping hydrogen generation (CLHG) with inherent separation of CO2 using Fe3O4 as the oxygen carrier have been studied through reducing Fe3O4 by CO and oxidizing Fe by steam vapor. Coats-Redfen equation, Ozawa equation and InIn equation were successfully applied to describe the different processes. It was found that the reduction of Fe3O4 by volume fraction of CO and N2 is 5% and 95% (within 750-900 ℃ range) could be interpreted theoretically as the first order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 112 Kj/mol.When the reaction gas changed into volume fraction of CO, CO2 and N2 are 42.9%, 14.3% and 42.8%, the mechanism of the reduction process turned out to be diffusion controlled, which was described by Jander equation, and the activation energy remarkably dropped to 49.828 Kj/mol, which was validated by Ozawa equation. Oxidation process of Fe by steam vapor could be interpreted as the 2D crystals' nucleation. The activation energy of the oxidation process was 29.633 Kj/mol, and the frequency factor improved as the temperature increased.

  1. Artificial ribonucleases. (United States)

    Morrow, J R


    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  2. Facilitated oxygen transport in liquid membranes: review and new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figoli, A.; Sager, W.F.C.; Mulder, M.H.V.


    In this paper, an overview is given on membranes with oxygen facilitated transport properties to enrich the oxygen content in air. Special emphasis is paid to recent developments of oxygen carrier systems and carrier containing membranes. Concepts leading to a structural evolution of supported liqui

  3. Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John


    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  4. Artificial blood.



    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  5. Artificial vision. (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R


    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  6. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  7. Effects of packing rates of cubic-shaped polyurethane foam carriers on the microbial community and the removal of organics and nitrogen in moving bed biofilm reactors. (United States)

    Feng, Quan; Wang, Yuxiao; Wang, Tianmin; Zheng, Hao; Chu, Libing; Zhang, Chong; Chen, Hongzhang; Kong, Xiuqin; Xing, Xin-Hui


    The effects of packing rates (20%, 30%, and 40%) of polyurethane foam (PUF) to the removal of organics and nitrogen were investigated by continuously feeding artificial sewage in three aerobic moving bed biofilm reactors. The results indicated that the packing rate of the PUF carriers had little influence on the COD removal efficiency (81% on average). However, ammonium removal was affected by the packing rates, which was presumably due to the different relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria. A high ammonium removal efficiency of 96.3% at a hydraulic retention time of 5h was achieved in 40% packing rate reactor, compared with 37.4% in 20% packing rate. Microprofiles of dissolved oxygen and nitrate revealed that dense biofilm limits the DO transfer distance and nitrate diffusion. Pyrosequencing analysis of the biofilm showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were the three most abundant phyla, but the proportions of the microbial community varied with the packing rate of the PUF carriers.

  8. The artificial leaf. (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G


    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  9. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN


    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  10. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert


    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  11. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems (United States)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.


    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  12. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael


    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  13. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;


    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...... index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  14. Effects of Oxygen Carrier, Surfactant and H2O2 on Fermentation of L-phenylalanine%氧载体、表面活性剂及H2O2对L-phe发酵影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁雪清; 施巧琴; 吴松刚


    用添加氧载体(油酸、豆油)、表面活性剂(Triton-X100)及H2O2的方法,改善L-苯丙氨酸发酵体系中的氧传递速率,以提高苯丙氨酸的产量.实验结果表明,在发酵0h添加1%的豆油、3%的油酸均可使产酸提高,分别可以使L-phe产量提高21.1%和39.5%;发酵0h同时加入3%油酸和0.05% Triton-X100时,提高产量78.95%;发酵12h添加0.075%H2O2,可以提高产苯丙氨酸产量18.42%.%Oxygen vectors (oleic acid, soybean oil), surfactant (Triton-X100) and H2O2 can effectively improve the oxygen transfer rate in the fermentation system, and increase the yield of phenylalanine. Experimental results showed that, adding 1% soybean oil and 3% oleic acid before fermentation could make the L-phe production increased by 21. 1% and 39. 5% respectively; while adding 3% oleic acid and 0. 05% Triton-XlOO at the same time could make L-phe production increased by 78. 95% ; adding 0. 075% H2O2 at 12 h fermentation could make L-phenylalanine production increased by 18. 4%.

  15. Using oxygen at home (United States)

    Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic respiratory ...

  16. Photoinduced Transformation between Charge Carrier and Spin Carrier in Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yuan; ZHAO Chang; SUN Xin


    By dynamical simulations, we show a transforming process between neutral soliton (spin carrier) and charged soliton (charge carrier) in polymers via photo-excitation, taking a polaron as the transitional bridge. It is photoinduced transformation between spin carrier and charge carrier. In this way, we demonstrate an access for polymers to be applied to spintronics.

  17. The value of energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van


    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often r

  18. Trends in Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick


    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  19. Artificiality in Social Sciences


    Rennard, Jean-Philippe


    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  20. Artificial life and Piaget. (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.


    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  1. [Apneic oxygenation]. (United States)

    Alekseev, A V; Vyzhigina, M A; Parshin, V D; Fedorov, D S


    Recent technological advances in thoracic and tracheal surgery make the anaesthesiologist use different respiratory techniques during the operation. Apneic oxygenation is a one of alternative techniques. This method is relatively easy in use, does not require special expensive equipment and is the only possible technique in several clinical situations when other respiratory methods are undesirable or cannot be used. However there is no enough information about apneic oxygenation in Russian. This article reviews publications about apneic oxygenation. The review deals with experiments on diffusion respiration in animals, physiological changes during apneic oxygenation in man and defines clinical cases when apneic oxygenation can be used.

  2. Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion - 4 000 h of Operational Experience Transporteurs d’oxygène pour la combustion en boucle chimique : expérience accumulée pendant 4 000 h d’opération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyngfelt A.


    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. The technology involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two interconnected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO2 and H2O, and the latter is easily removed by condensation. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last years with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. Today, more than 700 materials have been tested and the technology has been successfully demonstrated in chemical looping combustors in the size range 0.3-140 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on oxides of the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. The total time of operational experience is more than 4 000 hours. From these tests, it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO2 capture is possible. Most work so far has been focused on gaseous fuels, but the direct application to solid fuels is also being studied. This paper presents an overview of operational experience with oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustors. La combustion en boucle chimique (CLC est une nouvelle technique de combustion permettant la séparation intrinsèque du CO2. Dans ce procédé, un oxyde métallique est utilisé comme transporteur d’oxygène pour véhiculer l’oxygène de l’air vers le combustible, ce qui permet d’éviter un contact direct entre le combustible et l’air. Deux lits fluidisés interconnectés sont utilisés, le réacteur air et le réacteur de combustion. Les fumées du réacteur de combustion contiennent le CO2 et la vapeur d’eau qui peut être facilement éliminée par condensation. Des recherches consid

  3. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua D.


    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vietoris


    Full Text Available Aim of the study was characterize sweet intensity profiles of natural and artificial sweeteners during time interval on taste carrier (green tea. For analysis was selected time intensity (TI methodology during 12 second time interval and assessors group was divided to male and female division. Difference between groups and sweeteners was investigated. Preference testing was done by CATA methodology and processed by correspondent analysis. During time intensity evaluation was observed similar profile shape of natural sweeteners. Different was performance of saccharin. During preference experiment was evaluated that all artificial sweeteners are associated with negative attributes of CATA questionnaire. Perception of sweeteners by male and female assessors was statistically significant.

  5. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger


    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  6. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  7. Overview of Potential Clinical Applications of Hemoglobin Vesicles (HbV as Artificial Red Cells, Evidenced by Preclinical Studies of the Academic Research Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Sakai


    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is the most abundant protein in whole blood. This fact implies that the oxygen binding and releasing function of Hb is the most vital for sustaining life. All Hb is compartmentalized in red blood cells (RBCs with corpuscular Hb concentration of about 35 g/dL, covered with a thin biomembrane. In spite of its abundance, Hb sometimes shows toxicity once it is leaked from RBCs. The shielding effect of the RBC membrane is physiologically important. Based on this structural importance, we have studied artificial red cells (Hb vesicles, HbV as artificial oxygen carriers, which encapsulate a purified and concentrated Hb solution in phospholipid vesicles, mimicking the cellular structure of RBCs. Our academic research consortium has clarified the safety and efficacy of this HbV, aiming at clinical applications. Because of some superior characteristics to those of RBCs, HbV has the potential for use not only as a transfusion alternative but also for oxygen and carbon monoxide therapeutics, perfusate for transplant organs, and photosensitizer. In this review paper, such potential applications are summarized.

  8. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens


    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein.

  9. Photobiological hydrogen production and artificial photosynthesis for clean energy: from bio to nanotechnologies. (United States)

    Nath, K; Najafpour, M M; Voloshin, R A; Balaghi, S E; Tyystjärvi, E; Timilsina, R; Eaton-Rye, J J; Tomo, T; Nam, H G; Nishihara, H; Ramakrishna, S; Shen, J-R; Allakhverdiev, S I


    Global energy demand is increasing rapidly and due to intensive consumption of different forms of fuels, there are increasing concerns over the reduction in readily available conventional energy resources. Because of the deleterious atmospheric effects of fossil fuels and the uncertainties of future energy supplies, there is a surge of interest to find environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. Hydrogen (H2) has attracted worldwide attention as a secondary energy carrier, since it is the lightest carbon-neutral fuel rich in energy per unit mass and easy to store. Several methods and technologies have been developed for H2 production, but none of them are able to replace the traditional combustion fuel used in automobiles so far. Extensively modified and renovated methods and technologies are required to introduce H2 as an alternative efficient, clean, and cost-effective future fuel. Among several emerging renewable energy technologies, photobiological H2 production by oxygenic photosynthetic microbes such as green algae and cyanobacteria or by artificial photosynthesis has attracted significant interest. In this short review, we summarize the recent progress and challenges in H2-based energy production by means of biological and artificial photosynthesis routes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁皓; 尹泽群; 张喜文; 方向晨


    A series of LaFe1-xCoxO3 oxygen carriers with different Co content were prepared by citric acid complex method,and their properties were characterized by thermal analysis,X-ray diffraction,temperature program reduction and scanning electron microscopy.The catalytic performance of the prepared samples was investigated in chemical-looping combustion of CO.XRD results showed that LaFe1-xCoxO3 oxides possessed perovskite-type structure.TPR results indicated that oxidizing ability of LaCoO3 was stronger than that of LaFeO3.Especially,the sequential redox reaction revealed that LaCoO3 oxide exhibits high oxygen delivery capacity after 10 redox cycles,in each cycle the CO conversion is 100%.Also the structure of LaCoO3 oxide didn't change much after 10 cycles besides new network structure which was formed under high temperature.All the results showed that LaCoO3 was suit to be oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion owing to its high activity and stability.%采用柠檬酸络合法制备不同Co含量的LaFe1-xCoxO3系列复合氧化物载氧体.采用热分析、X射线衍射(XRD)、程序升温还原(TPR)和扫描电镜等手段对载氧体进行表征,并在化学链燃烧反应中进行性能评价.XRD表征结果表明,不同Co含量的LaFe1xCoxO3均能形成钙钛矿结构.TPR表征结果可以说明LaCoO3中的氧物种氧化能力强于LaFeO3.在连续10次化学链燃烧反应中,燃料CO全部被氧化,这归于LaCoO3持续供氧能力强的特点.LaCoO3循环10次后仍然保持钙钛矿结构不变,而且颗粒没有长大,只是颗粒之间形成了网状结构.通过该实验发现LaCoO3具有高活性和较强的稳定性,适合作化学链燃烧技术的载氧体.

  11. Artificial Pheromone System Using RFID for Navigation of Autonomous Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herianto; Toshiki Sakakibara; Daisuke Kurabayashi


    Navigation system based on the animal behavior has received a growing attention in the past few years. The navigation systems using artificial pheromone are still few so far. For this reason, this paper presents our research that aim to implement autonomous navigation with artificial pheromone system. By introducing artificial pheromone system composed of data carriers and autonomous robots, the robotic system creates a potential field to navigate their group. We have developed a pheromone density model to realize the function of pheromones with the help of data carriers. We intend to show the effectiveness of the proposed system by performing simulations and realization using modified mobile robot. The pheromone potential field system can be used for navigation of autonomous robots.

  12. Appreciating Oxygen (United States)

    Weiss, Hilton M.


    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  13. Development of Passenger Air Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Diminik


    Full Text Available The work presents the development of carriers in passengerair traffic, and the focus is on the development and operationsof carriers in chartered passenger transport. After the SecondWorld War, there were only scheduled air carriers. The need formass transport of tourists resulted in the development of chartercarriers or usage of scheduled carriers under different commercialconditions acceptable for tourism. Eventually also low-costcarriers appeared and they realize an increasing share in thepassenger transport especially in the aviation developed countries.

  14. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A


    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  15. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA


    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  16. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing


    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  18. Synthesis of New High-Oxygen Carriers and Ditetrazinetetroxide (DTTO) (United States)


    at the ppm level, causes thyroid problems. It is therefore desirable to find a halogen-free replacement for AP. Objectives This program had two...m.p. 173°). An attempt to facilitate the cyclization reaction with ultrasound was unsuccessful as were attempts at the same 150° temperature to remove...means of effecting the cyclization reaction. In one case the addition of ultrasound energy to the above described experimental conditions was

  19. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén


    In this work, an innovative method for gas conditioning in biomass gasification is analyzed. The objective is to remove tar by selectively reforming the unwanted hydrocarbons in the product gas with a chemical looping reformer (CLR), while minimizing the carbon formation during the process. Toluene....... Several variables affecting the reducing cycle were analyzed: temperature, time for the reduction step and H2O/C7H8 molar ratio. Ni40 and Mn40 presented interesting characteristics for CLR of biomass tar. Both showed stable reactivity to C7H8 after a few cycles. Ni40 showed a high tendency to carbon...... deposition compared to Mn40, specially at high temperatures. Carbon deposition could be controlled by decreasing the temperature and the time for the reduction step. The addition of water also reduced the amount of carbon deposited, which was completely avoided working with a H2O/C7H8 molar ratio of 26.4....

  20. 化学链燃烧中LaNixFe1-xO3载氧体的性能研究%Performance of LaNixFe1-xO3 as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical-Looping Combustion Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰佳; 梁皓; 张喜文; 孙万付; 方向晨


    A series of LaNixFe1-x O3 oxygen carriers with different Ni content was prepared by citric acid complex method, and their properties were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and scanning electron microscopy. The catalytic performances of the prepared samples were investigated in chemical-looping combustion of CO. The XRD results showed that LaNixFe1-x O3 oxides possessed perovskite-type structure. TPR results indicated that the oxidation ability of LaNix Fe1-x O3(x> 0) was stronger than that of LaFeO3. Especially, the sequential redox reaction revealed that LaFe0.5 Ni0.5 O3 oxide exhibited high oxygen delivery capacity after 10 redox cycles, and CO conversion ratio was above 95% in each cycle. The structure of LaFe0.5 Ni0.5 O3 oxide did not change obviously after 10 cycles except some little particles formed on big particles due to heat release in the oxidation processes.%采用柠檬酸络合法制备了不同Ni含量的LaNixFe1-xO3系列复合氧化物载氧体.采用热分析、X射线衍射、程序升温还原和扫描电境等手段对载氧体进行了表征,并在化学链燃烧反应中进行性能评价.XRD表征结果表明不同Ni含量的LaNixFe1-xO3均能形成钙钛矿结构,TPR表征结果表明随Ni含量增加,LNixaFe1-xO3上氧数量增加,还原能力增强.在连续十次化学链燃烧反应中,95%一氧化碳在LaFe0.5Ni0.5O3上被氧化,扫描电境照片发现部分载氧体颗粒出现破碎、烧结现象.

  1. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... oxygen at very high altitudes (like in the mountains or in an airplane) even if you do ... Med Vol 171. P1-P2, 2005 ATS Patient Education Series © 2016 American Thoracic Society www. thoracic. org ...

  2. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig


    as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC......Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  3. Onion artificial muscles (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An


    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  4. Artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.


    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec


    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De


    The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

  7. Artificial Neural Networks


    Chung-Ming Kuan


    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  8. Introduction to artificial intelligence (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.


    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  9. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J


    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  10. Physics of Artificial Gravity (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles


    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  11. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.


    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  12. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele


    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  13. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier Résultats de l’expérimentation sur un pilote opérant en boucle chimique avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène à base de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pröll T.


    Full Text Available A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas. The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH4 conversion and 92% (CO2 yield. In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900°C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH4 without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO2-ready coupled production of H2 and N2 can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. Un pilote d’étude de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une puissance thermique de 120 kW a été dimensionné, construit et opéré. Il est constitué de deux lits circulants interconnectés. Les résultats d’opération qui sont présentés ont été obtenus avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène très réactif à base de nickel. L’inventaire total du matériau est de 65 kg dans le pilote. La conversion du méthane atteinte est voisine de 99,8 % et le rendement en CO2 est de 92 %. Lorsqu’on opère en mode de reformage, l’équilibre thermodynamique est atteint dans le réacteur fioul. Tout l’oxygène est capté dans le réacteur air dès que le rapport stoechiométrique entre l’air et le méthane est inférieur à 1 et que la temp

  14. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham


    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs

  15. 42 CFR 421.200 - Carrier functions. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier functions. 421.200 Section 421.200 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.200 Carrier functions. A contract between CMS and a carrier specifies the functions to be performed by the carrier. The contract may include any or all of...

  16. Artificial vision workbench. (United States)

    Frenger, P


    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  17. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology. (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P


    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  18. Artificial muscles on heat (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.


    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  19. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.


    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  20. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca


    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  1. Reversible Oxygenation of Oxygen Transport Proteins. (United States)

    Drain, C. M.; Corden, Barry B.


    Describes a lecture demonstration which illustrates changes in the visible spectra of oxygen transport proteins upon reversible oxygen binding. Provides a comparison of the physical characteristics of oxygen storage and transport proteins. Reviews essentials for preparation of the materials. (ML)

  2. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  3. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B


    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  4. Artificial human vision. (United States)

    Dowling, Jason


    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  5. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold


    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  6. General artificial neuron (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania


    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  7. Comparison of LaFeO3, La0.8Sr0.2FeO3, and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Co0.1O3 perovskite oxides as oxygen carrier for partial oxidation of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Dai; Changchun Yu; Qiong Wu


    Comparison of LaFeO3, La0.8Sr0.2FeO3, and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Co0.1O3 perovskite oxides as oxygen cartier for partial oxidation of methane in the absence of gaseous oxygen was investigated by continuous flow reaction and sequential redox reaction. Methane was oxidized to syngas with high selectivity by oxygen species of perovskite oxides in the absence of gaseous oxygen. The sequential redox reaction revealed that the structural stability and continuous oxygen supply in redox re-action decreased over La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Co0.1O3 oxide, while LaFeO3 and Lao.sSro.2FeO3 exhibited excellent structural stability and continuous oxygen supply.

  8. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk


    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  9. Catalytic Oxygen Evolution by a Bioinorganic Model of the Photosystem II Oxygen-Evolving Complex (United States)

    Howard, Derrick L.; Tinoco, Arthur D.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Vrettos, John S.; Allen, Bertha Connie


    Bioinorganic models of the manganese Mn4 cluster are important not only as aids in understanding the structure and function of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), but also in developing artificial water-oxidation catalysts. The mechanism of water oxidation by photosystem II (PSII) is thought to involve the formation of a high-valent terminal Mn-oxo…

  10. Effect of artificial hyperventilation on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism under controlled hypotention during intracranial aneurysm surgery%过度通气对控制性降压下颅内动脉瘤夹闭术中脑氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永哲; 高明龙; 潘宁玲


    Objective To investigate the effect ot various degree of artificial byperventilation on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism under controlled hypotention during intracranial aneurysm surgery. Methods thirtysix patients (ASA Ⅰ - Ⅱ ) scheduled for intracranial aneurysm surgery were divided into there groups according to PaCO2: hypotention and PaCO2 (40 ± 2) mmHg (group A), hypotention and PaCO2 (35 ± 2) mmHg (group B)and hypotention and PaCO2 (30 ± 2) mmHg (group C). Arterial and jugular venous blood samples were taken before hypotention (T0), after hypotention for 15 min (T1), artificial ventilation for 15 min (T2), and at the end of hypotention and artificail ventilation (T3). The arterial oxygen content (CaO2), jugular venous oxgen conent (CjvO2), arterial and jugular bulb venous O2 content difference (Da-jvO2) and cerebral oxygen extraction rate (CERO2) were calculated. Results Compared with T0, MAP has significantly decreased at T1 and T2 (P <0.05) and there was no difference at T3 between groups (P>0.05). Compared with T0, CaO2 bas no difference at all points in group C (P > 0.05), CjvO2 decreased significantly at T2 in group C (P < 0.05), Da-jvO2 and CERO2 have increased significantly at T2 in group C (P < 0.05). Conclusion Keeping PaCO2 (30 ± 2)mmHg leads to disorder of cerebral oxygen metabolism and it is safe to keep PaCO2 (35 ± 2) mmHg during intracranial aneurysm surgery.%目的:研究过度通气对控制性降压下颅内动脉瘤夹闭术中脑氧代谢的影响.方法:择取颅内动脉瘤患者36例,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机分为正常通气组(A组,PaCO2 35 ~ 40 mmHg)、轻度通气组(B组,PaCO2 30 ~ 35 mmHg)和中度通气组(C组,PaCO2 25 ~ 30 mmHg).各组应用硝酸甘油控制性降压,降压幅度在基础值的20% ~ 25%,在降压达到目标值15 min后进行过度通气.各组于降压前(T0)、降压达到目标血压15 min后(T1)、过度通气使PaCO2达到各组预定值15 min后(T2)、MAP恢复且PaCO2

  11. Micromachined Artificial Haircell (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)


    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  12. Artificial Gravity Research Plan (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene


    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  13. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami


    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  14. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry. (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D


    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  15. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  16. Artificial intelligence within AFSC (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.


    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... before your first hyperbaric oxygen therapy session. During hyperbaric oxygen therapy Hyperbaric oxygen therapy typically is performed ... and the therapy unit throughout your treatment. After hyperbaric oxygen therapy You may feel somewhat tired or ...

  18. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan


    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  19. Tailoring the surface properties and carrier dynamics in SnO2 nanowires. (United States)

    Kar, Ayan; Stroscio, Michael A; Meyyappan, M; Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Dutta, Mitra


    We report a study of the role of mid-gap defect levels due to surface states in SnO(2) nanowires on carrier trapping. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy provides carrier relaxation time constants that reveal the nature and positions of various defect levels due to the surface states which in turn provide details on how the carriers relax after their injection. The effect of oxygen annealing on carrier concentration is also studied through XPS valence band photoemission spectroscopy, a sensitive non-contact surface characterization technique. These measurements show that charge transfer associated with chemisorption of oxygen in different forms produces an upward band bending and leads to an increase in the depletion layer width by approximately 70 nm, thereby decreasing surface conductivity and forming the basis for the molecular sensing capability of the nanowires.

  20. Tailoring the surface properties and carrier dynamics in SnO{sub 2} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Ayan; Stroscio, Michael A; Dutta, Mitra [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Meyyappan, M [Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P, E-mail: [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    We report a study of the role of mid-gap defect levels due to surface states in SnO{sub 2} nanowires on carrier trapping. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy provides carrier relaxation time constants that reveal the nature and positions of various defect levels due to the surface states which in turn provide details on how the carriers relax after their injection. The effect of oxygen annealing on carrier concentration is also studied through XPS valence band photoemission spectroscopy, a sensitive non-contact surface characterization technique. These measurements show that charge transfer associated with chemisorption of oxygen in different forms produces an upward band bending and leads to an increase in the depletion layer width by approximately 70 nm, thereby decreasing surface conductivity and forming the basis for the molecular sensing capability of the nanowires.

  1. Nano-Perovskite-Based (LaMO3) Oxygen Carrier for Syngas Generation by Chemical-Looping Reforming of Methane%LaMO3纳米复合钙钛矿氧载体化学循环重整甲烷制合成气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代小平; 余长春


    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了不同B位可变价离子的LaMO3 (M= Cr,Mn,Fe,Co)复合氧化物氧载体,采用X射线衍射、N2吸附-脱附、扫描电镜及CH4程序升温表面反应等手段对氧载体进行了表征,并用于直接选择氧化CH4的反应中.结果表明,Cr,Mn,Fe 和Co均能形成LaMO3纳米复合钙钛矿结构,其氧物种氧化能力大小顺序为LaCoO3> LaMnO3> LaFeO3> LaCrO3.在连续流动化学循环甲烷重整反应中,LaFeO3中的氧物种具有更好的选择氧化性能(H2/CO= 2.06),其CH4转化率和CO选择性分别达到89.6%和98.9%.10个连续顺序氧化-还原化学循环重整反应中,CH4转化率约为60%~70%,CO选择性达98%以上;且其结构保持了较高的稳定性.%Catalytic reforming of natural gas is a commercial process to produce syngas, which is the main source for the production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen, and many other important products. This method produces also large amounts of CO2 as by-product. Chemical-looping reforming (CLR) is a novel technology that can be used for syngas production by partial oxidation and steam reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. One key issue with the CLR concept that is being widely studied is the oxidation and reduction behavior of potential oxygen-carrier materials. Four perovskite-based nano-composite oxides were prepared by the sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and CH4 temperature-programmed surface reaction. The catalytic performance of the prepared samples for CLR of CH4 to syngas was investigated. The results showed that the LaMO3 (B = Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) oxides possess perovskite-type nano-composite structure. The oxidizing ability of these four perovskite oxides follows the order of LaCoO3> LaMnO3 > LaFeO3 > LaCrO3 Among them, LaFeO3 oxide has higher activity for CLR of CH4 to syngas. The CH4 conversion and CO selectivity are 89.6% and 98.9%, respectively

  2. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should b

  3. Oxygen defects in Fe-substituted Tl-system superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 曹国辉; 王耘波; 马庆珠; 熊小涛; 陈宁; 马如璋; 郭应焕; 许祝安; 王劲松; 张小俊; 焦正宽; 彭获田; 周思海


    For Fe-doped T1-1223 phase,the excess oxygen defects induced by Fe dopants are studied by means of Hall coefficient,thermogravimetric measurements,Mossbauer spectroscopy,and the model calculation of the effective bond valence.The extra oxygen defects have effects on carrier density and microstructure of the superconductors.In the light doping level of Fe (x=0-0.05),the superconducting transition and carrier density have significant corresponding relation--the zero resistance temperature Tco and carrier densities decrease linearly with Fe dopants increasing.The thermogravimetric measurements show that the Fe3+ ions’ substituting for Cu2+ ions can bring the extra oxygen into the lattice to form extra oxygen defects.The calculation of the effective bond valence shows that the decrease of carrier density originates the strongly localized binding of the extra oxygen defects.The distortion of Cu-O layer induced by the extra oxygen defects decreases the superconductive transition temperature.The microstructure

  4. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;


    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  5. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya


    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  6. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  7. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt


    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  8. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  9. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S Petermann

    Full Text Available Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers, detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their

  10. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes. (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M


    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  11. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho


    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  13. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J


    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  14. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors (United States)

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.


    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  15. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  16. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  17. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  18. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  19. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  20. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.


    Full Text Available The application of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC to solid fuels is being investigated at the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER with the aim of the development of a Pressurized Chemical Looping Combustion/Gasification (PCLC/G process for the generation of electricity from coal. One important aspect of the CLC of solid fuel is the understanding of the effect of ash on the reactivity of Oxygen Carriers (OCs. The effect of ash on the redox capabilities of two different iron oxide OCs and on their ability to oxidize coal char was studied. To determine the effect of ash on the reactivity and recycle of the OCs through multiple redox cycles, fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was used. These experiments were performed in a TGMS system using 500 mg of ash/OC mixtures containing different ash concentrations up to 75%. The reducing gas was composed of 10% H2, 15% CO, 20% CO2, and a balance of Ar and the oxidizing gas was 20% O2 in Ar. Oxidation/reductions were carried to near completion. The ash was found to contain OC activity related to inherent iron present in the ash confirmed by XRD. This resulted in increased weight gain/loss on oxidation/reduction. The rate of oxidation/reduction increased with ash concentration due to increased porosity of the OC/ash mixture and better access of the reactive gases to the OC target sites. The two OCs were then used to combust a beneficiated coal char in the TGMS with the only oxygen supplied by an iron oxide OC. The starting mixture was 10% char and 90% of one of two OCs studied. The spent material containing reduced OC and ash was re-oxidized and 10% more char was added for a second reduction of the OC and oxidation of the added char. This procedure was repeated for 5 cycles increasing the ash concentrations from 5 to 25% in the char/ash/OC mixture. Carbon removal was 92 to 97.8 and 97.3 to 99.7% for the two different iron oxide OCs tested. Ash was not detrimental to the

  1. Induction of genomic instability and activation of autophagy in artificial human aneuploid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyoshi, Kentaro [Hirosaki University, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564 (Japan); Miura, Tomisato; Kasai, Kosuke; Fujishima, Yohei [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564 (Japan); Oshimura, Mitsuo [Chromosome Engineering Research Center (CERC), Tottori University, Nishicho 86, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Mitsuaki A., E-mail: [Hirosaki University, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Clones with artificial aneuploidy of chromosome 8 or chromosome 22 both show inhibited proliferation and genomic instability. • Increased autophagy was observed in the artificially aneuploid clones. • Inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased genomic instability and DNA damage. • Intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were up-regulated in the artificially aneuploid clones. - Abstract: Chromosome missegregation can lead to a change in chromosome number known as aneuploidy. Although aneuploidy is a known hallmark of cancer cells, the various mechanisms by which altered gene and/or DNA copy number facilitate tumorigenesis remain unclear. To understand the effect of aneuploidy occurring in non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells, we generated clones harboring artificial aneuploidy using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Our results demonstrate that clones with artificial aneuploidy of chromosome 8 or chromosome 22 both show inhibited proliferation and genomic instability. Also, the increased autophagy was observed in the artificially aneuploidy clones, and inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased genomic instability and DNA damage. In addition, the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were up-regulated in the artificially aneuploid clones, and inhibition of autophagy further increased the production of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results suggest that even a single extraneous chromosome can induce genomic instability, and that autophagy triggered by aneuploidy-induced stress is a mechanism to protect cells bearing abnormal chromosome number.

  2. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.


    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  3. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  4. Artificial intelligence in hematology. (United States)

    Zini, Gina


    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  5. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions. (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J


    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species.

  6. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai


    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  7. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi


    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  8. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN


    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  9. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B


    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  10. Analytical theory of oxygen transport in the human placenta. (United States)

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Filoche, M; Grebenkov, D S


    We propose an analytical approach to solving the diffusion-convection equations governing oxygen transport in the human placenta. We show that only two geometrical characteristics of a placental cross-section, villi density and the effective villi radius, are needed to predict fetal oxygen uptake. We also identify two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake in a given placenta: (i) the maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone if there were no tissue blocking the flow and (ii) the ratio of transit time of maternal blood through the intervillous space to oxygen extraction time. We derive analytical formulas for fast and simple calculation of oxygen uptake and provide two diagrams of efficiency of oxygen transport in an arbitrary placental cross-section. We finally show that artificial perfusion experiments with no-hemoglobin blood tend to give a two-orders-of-magnitude underestimation of the in vivo oxygen uptake and that the optimal geometry for such setup alters significantly. The theory allows one to adjust the results of artificial placenta perfusion experiments to account for oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation. Combined with image analysis techniques, the presented model can give an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the human placenta efficiency.

  11. Encapsulation of antioxidants in gastrointestinal-resistant nanoparticulate carriers. (United States)

    Souto, Eliana B; Severino, Patrícia; Basso, Rafael; Santana, Maria Helena A


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to cause several human pathologies. For this reason, antioxidants have gained utmost importance because of their potential as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in many diseases. Examples of their application include their use in diabetic patients, as aging drugs, in cancer diseases, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, autoimmune disorders, and also in inflammation. Antioxidants have limited absorption profiles, therefore low bioavailability and low concentrations at the target site. Efforts have been done towards loading antioxidant molecules in advanced nanoparticulate carriers, e.g., liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, self-emulsifying drug delivery system. Examples of -successful achievements include the encapsulation of drugs and other active ingredients, e.g., coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and vitamin A, resveratrol and polyphenols, curcumin, lycopene, silymarin, and superoxide dismutase. This review focuses on the comprehensive analysis of using nanoparticulate carriers for loading these molecules for oral administration.

  12. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms. (United States)


    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  13. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network (United States)


    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  14. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  15. How to teach artificial organs. (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B


    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  16. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences]. (United States)

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María


    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  17. Development of artificial empathy. (United States)

    Asada, Minoru


    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  18. Creating an Artificial Muscle (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja


    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  19. The total artificial heart. (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G


    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  20. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.


    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  1. Oxygenation-Enhanced Radiation Therapy of Breast Tumors (United States)


    To characterize the response of the PFP droplets to the change in pressure, Emulsion was injected into a 640 micrometer square microfluidic channel...carriers. In the proposed approach, an emulsion of oxygen-saturated perfluorocarbon droplets , less than 5μm in diameter and as small as 100nm, was...pressure, and radiation. Body We hypothesized that the preferential release of oxygen from PFC droplets inside or in the proximity of the tumor can

  2. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai


    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  3. The recent advances on carrier materials for microencapsulating lipophilic cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Minfeng


    Full Text Available Lipophilic ingredients,such as polyunsaturated fatty acids,play an important role in industrialized foods to fortify the nutrients.However,these materials are normally sensitive to oxygen,light or heat to be oxidized,and hard to flow and mix within the bulk food due to the hydrophobic nature.Microencapsulation of lipophilic materials could effectively extend their shelf lives,mask unsatisfied flavors,change their physicochemical properties,and enhance the mixing capacities.This work reviewed the different carrier materials applied in microencapsulating the lipophilic ingredients,and discussed their characteristics and effects on encapsulation efficiencies and release profiles of lipophilic cores.

  4. A Customized Finger Brachytherapy Carrier


    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Duggal, Nidhi


    In recent years, radiation therapy has been used with increasing frequency in the management of neoplasms of the head and neck region. Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed radioactive sources are used to deliver the dose a short distance by interstitial (direct insertion into tissue), intracavitary (placement within a cavity) or surface application (molds). Mold brachytherapy is radiation delivered via a custom-fabricated carriers, designed to provide a more consta...

  5. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li


    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  6. A novel strategy for long-term implantable artificial pancreas. (United States)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Assaf, Tareq; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo


    Technology has recently changed type 1 diabetes treatment by introducing several advancements able to improve patients' quality of life. However, despite of several decades of research efforts, the dream of a fully-automated implanted artificial pancreas is quite far from its realization. The need for periodically restoring the implanted battery charge and refilling the implanted insulin reservoir are the main issues, for which invasive surgery, transcutaneous catheters or external portable devices are presently the only solutions. In this paper we propose a novel approach to these issues, describing a totally implanted closed-loop artificial pancreas with a wireless battery charger and a non-invasive strategy for insulin refilling, based on sensorized swallowable "insulin carrier" capsules. Such system has the potential to represent a final solution for diabetes treatment, by fully restoring patients' quality of life.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of artificial antigens for astragaloside IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Yu


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce artificial antigens for astragaloside IV that could be used to prepare antibodies against astragaloside IV screened in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bunge, Fabaceae and its preparations, using an indirect ELISA. Astragaloside IV was coupled to carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin using the sodium periodate method and was then evaluated using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and animal immunizations. The coupling ratio of astragaloside IV to bovine serum albumin ratio was determined to be thirteen, and the indirect ELISA demonstrated that three groups of mice immunized with astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin produced anti-astragaloside IV- bovine serum albumin-specific antibody, with a minimum serum titer of 1:9600. A method for synthesizing highly immunogenic astragaloside IV artificial antigens was successfully developed thus indicating its feasibility in the establishment of a fast immunoassay for astragaloside IV content determination in Radix astragali and its products.

  8. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  9. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance (United States)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.


    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  10. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut


    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  11. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut


    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  12. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common...

  13. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales


    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  14. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe


    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  15. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;


    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  16. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.


    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  17. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  18. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul


    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  19. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea? (United States)

    Lubell, Adele


    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  20. Control of Interfacial Phenomena in Artificial Oxide Heterostructures (United States)


    superconductor  that likely rely on a  detailed  knowledge of the interface  structure  determined here.   Reference: K. Zou, S. Mandal, F.J. Walker...Artificial Oxide  Structures , Institute of  Physics, CAS, Beijing, China. (Invited Talk)   “Extreme carrier concentrations and  metallic  conductions in thin...heterostructures. Moreover, we have extended our research to the interfaces of complex oxides and transition metal chalcogenides with novel emergent

  1. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric


    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  2. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide


    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  3. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  4. Oxygen sensing and signaling. (United States)

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco


    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway.

  5. Investigating thermal donors in n-type Cz silicon with carrier density imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu


    Full Text Available A new method to map the thermal donor concentration in silicon wafers using carrier density imaging is presented. A map of the thermal donor concentration is extracted with high resolution from free carrier density images of a silicon wafer before and after growth of thermal donors. For comparison, free carrier density mapping is also performed using the resistivity method together with linear interpolation. Both methods reveal the same distribution of thermal donors indicating that the carrier density imaging technique can be used to map thermal donor concentration. The interstitial oxygen concentration can also be extracted using the new method in combination with Wijaranakula's model. As part of this work, the lifetime at medium injection level is correlated to the concentration of thermal donors in the as-grown silicon wafer. The recombination rate is found to depend strongly on the thermal donor concentration except in the P-band region.

  6. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  7. Oxomanganese complexes for natural and artificial photosynthesis. (United States)

    Rivalta, Ivan; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S


    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II (PSII) is an oxomanganese complex that catalyzes water-splitting into O2, protons and electrons. Recent breakthroughs in X-ray crystallography have resolved the cuboidal OEC structure at 1.9 Å resolution, stimulating significant interest in studies of structure/function relations. This article summarizes recent advances on studies of the OEC along with studies of synthetic oxomanganese complexes for artificial photosynthesis. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics hybrid methods have enabled modeling the S1 state of the OEC, including the ligation proposed by the most recent X-ray data where D170 is bridging Ca and the Mn center outside the CaMn3 core. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations have explored the structural/functional roles of chloride, suggesting that it regulates the electrostatic interactions between D61 and K317 that might be critical for proton abstraction. Furthermore, structural studies of synthetic oxomanganese complexes, including the [H2O(terpy)MnIII(μ-O)2MnIV(terpy)OH2]3+ (1, terpy=2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) complex, provided valuable insights on the mechanistic influence of carboxylate moieties in close contact with the Mn catalyst during oxygen evolution. Covalent attachment of 1 to TiO2 has been achieved via direct deposition and by using organic chromophoric linkers. The (III,IV) oxidation state of 1 attached to TiO2 can be advanced to (IV,IV) by visible-light photoexcitation, leading to photoinduced interfacial electron transfer. These studies are particularly relevant to the development of artificial photosynthetic devices based on inexpensive materials.

  8. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E


    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  9. Carrier synchronization for STBC OFDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jueping; Song Wentao; Li Zan; Ge Jianhua


    All-digital carrier synchronization strategies and algorithms for space-time block coding (STBC) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are proposed in this paper. In our scheme, the continuous pilots (CP) are saved, and the complexity of carrier synchronization is reduced significantly by dividing the process into three steps. The coarse carrier synchronization and the fine carrier synchronization algorithms are investigated and analyzed in detail. Simulations show that the carrier can be locked into tracking mode quickly, and the residual frequency error satisfies the system requirement in both stationary and mobile environments.

  10. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect


    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  11. Research on Purification of Domestic Sewage by Artificially Strengthened Ecological Filter Bed in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue; SHEN


    Artificially strengthened filter bed is an innovative wastewater treatment technology based on the coupling of eco-contact oxidation filters and artificial wetlands purification mechanism.By small scale laboratory equipment,the effects of cascade aeration,filter type,filter clogging and other ecological factors on the operation effect of artificial filter bed were studied.As indicated by the results,the pretreatment of cascade aeration had obvious effect and could satisfy the oxygen requirements of artificially strengthened ecological filter bed.Through the analysis on the purification results of volcanic and gravel filter,the effluent quality of volcanic filter was better than that of gravel filter.With the advantages of low operations costs and good effluent quality,the artificially strengthened ecological filter bed has great value to be popularized in North China.

  12. Stealth carriers for low-resolution structure determination of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma; Skar-Gislinge, Nicholas; Midtgaard, Søren;


    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial nanoscale bilayer disc carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows the handling of membrane proteins in solution. This enables the use of small-angle scattering...... techniques for fast and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly nontrivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. Here, an elegant solution to circumvent the intrinsic complexity......O at the length scales relevant to SANS. These 'stealth' carrier discs may be used as a general platform for low-resolution structural studies of membrane proteins using well established data-analysis tools originally developed for soluble proteins. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography....

  13. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava


    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  14. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor


    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  15. [Research and development of artificial retina material]. (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin


    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  16. Influence of carrier filling ratio on the performance of moving bed biofilm reactor in treating coking wastewater. (United States)

    Gu, Qiyuan; Sun, Tichang; Wu, Gen; Li, Mingyue; Qiu, Wei


    This study aims to evaluate the effect of carrier filling ratio on the performance of a moving bed biofilm reactor in degrading chemical oxygen demand, phenol, thiocyanate, and ammonia from coking wastewater at 20h of hydraulic retention time. The operational experiments under different carrier filling ratios ranging from 20% to 60% were investigated. The maximum removal efficiency of 89%, 99% and 99% for COD, phenol and thiocyanate, and minimum sensitivity to the increasing contaminants concentration in the influent were achieved at 50% carrier filling ratio. The Haldane competitive substrate inhibition kinetics model was used to describe the relationship between the oxygen uptake rate of ammonium oxidizers and the concentration of free ammonium. The highest biofilm microbial community functional diversity (Shannon's diversity index, H') and evenness (Shannon's evenness index, E') were obtained at 50% carrier filling ratio in all runs using a Biolog ECO microplate.

  17. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer


    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  18. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)


    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  19. At What Cost a Carrier? (United States)


    brushed At What Cost a Carrier?M A R C H 2 0 1 3 4 | with interest, consequently pushing to convert the coal supply ship Jupiter into an American aircra...began to pay o!. By 1999 only 4 tons of bombs were needed to accomplish the mission, regardless of the weather at the target. Couple this fact with...there, how many bombs does it drop? | 7 #e &rst fact that needs to be understood in answer- ing these questions is that piloting an aircra" onto the

  20. Hydrogen - A sustainable energy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper T. Møller


    Full Text Available Hydrogen may play a key role in a future sustainable energy system as a carrier of renewable energy to replace hydrocarbons. This review describes the fundamental physical and chemical properties of hydrogen and basic theories of hydrogen sorption reactions, followed by the emphasis on state-of-the-art of the hydrogen storage properties of selected interstitial metallic hydrides and magnesium hydride, especially for stationary energy storage related utilizations. Finally, new perspectives for utilization of metal hydrides in other applications will be reviewed.

  1. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The contact of blood with the artificial extracorporeal circuit causes a systemic inflammatory response due to blood activation. In this study, we compared two different paediatric membrane oxygenators used for extracorporeal circulation: a hollow fibre membrane oxygenator (Dideco Masterflo D-701, n

  3. Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation in newborns : implications for brain and lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, Adrianus Franciscus Jacobus van


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rescue treatment for newborns with severe respiratory insufficiency. In veno-arterial ECMO, venous blood is drained from the right atrium, oxygenated in an artificial lung and reinfused in the aorta. For vascular access the right internal jugular vein

  4. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System (United States)


    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  5. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs. (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A


    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  6. Artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne


    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  7. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe


    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  8. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe


    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  9. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer (United States)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao


    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  10. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey


    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  11. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert


    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  12. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty. (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis


    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu


    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  14. Food analysis using artificial senses. (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar


    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  15. Mechanical properties of artificial snow


    Lintzén, Nina


    Mechanical properties of snow have been a subject of research since the mid-20th century. Theresearch done is based on natural snow. During the last decades the winter business industryhas been growing and also the interest for constructing buildings and artwork of snow. Suchconstructions are generally built using artificial snow, i.e. snow produced by snow guns. Up tothe present constructions of snow are designed based on knowledge by experience. Only minorscientific studies on artificial sn...

  16. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders


    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  17. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron


    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  18. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin


    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  19. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.


    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  20. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (United States)

    ... page: // Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  2. Home Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Home Oxygen Therapy More and more people are using oxygen therapy ... April 12, 2012 Revised: © 2017 American Association for Respiratory Care

  3. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.


    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  4. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;


    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  5. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, GM Global R and D, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States)


    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  6. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans


    (APP) was not described by carrier kinetics. However, glipizide is affecting exsorption for ES, due to interactions on basolateral carrier. The study confirms that estrone-3-sulfate can be used to characterize anionic carrier kinetics. Furthermore it is suggested that estrone-3-sulfate may be used to identify compounds......Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... uptakes (P(UP)) at apical and basolateral membranes, apparent permeabilities (P(APP)) and corresponding intracellular end-point accumulations (P(EPA)) of radioactive labeled compounds were studied. Possible effects of other anionic compounds were investigated. Apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) for ES...

  7. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.


    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  8. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F


    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  9. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis (United States)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.


    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  10. Lipid formulation as a drug carrier for drug delivery. (United States)

    Tomii, Yoshifumi


    In recent years, a Drug Delivery System (DDS), a preparative approach attracts the attention in the development of new drugs. DDS focuses on the regulation of the in vivo dynamics, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination, thereby improving the effectiveness and the safety of the drugs by an applicable use of drug preparation technologies. A conventional intravenous dosage form of Amphotericin B (AmB), Fungizone, is the most effective clinically available for treating fungal infections. However, the clinical efficacy of AmB is limited by its adverse effects. Several lipid formulations, such as Liposomal AmB (L-AmB), AmB lipid complex (ABLC), and AmB colloidal dispersion (ABCD), with reduced side effects have been developed. These formulations are reported to have excellent safety and efficacy. However, comparable efficacy can be achieved only when they are administered at high doses than AmB. One of the problems of using these formulations is that they are easily taken up by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). An artificial lipoprotein-like particles, a novel drug carrier Lipid Nano-Sphere (LNS), which is 25 - 50 nm in size and is composed of phospholipids and simple lipid. LNS show a higher plasma concentration of drugs and lower uptake by RES-tissue different forms other lipid base drug carriers. In vitro and in vivo, LNS incorporating AmB, NS-718, shows reduced toxicity, while maintaining activity against fungi. LNS have a unique characteristic as an effective carrier of AmB for treatment of fungal infection.

  11. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP


    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  12. New Dimensions of Moving Bed Biofilm Carriers


    Piculell, Maria


    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological wastewater treatment process in which microorganisms grow as biofilms on suspended carriers. Conventionally, MBBRs are mainly designed and optimized based on the carrier surface area, neglecting the dynamic relationship between carrier design, reactor operation and biofilm characteristics, such as biofilm thickness and the composition of the microbial community. The purpose of this research project was to learn more about the roles of the ...

  13. Reservoir Cannulas for Pediatric Oxygen Therapy: A Proof-of-Concept Study


    Grace Wu; Alec Wollen; Robert M. DiBlasi; Stephen Himley; Eugene Saxon; Glenn Austin; Jaclyn Delarosa; Rasa Izadnegahdar; Amy Sarah Ginsburg; Darin Zehrung


    Hypoxemia is a complication of pneumonia—the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide. Treatment generally requires oxygen-enriched air, but access in low-resource settings is expensive and unreliable. We explored use of reservoir cannulas (RCs), which yield oxygen savings in adults but have not been examined in children. Toddler, small child, and adolescent breathing profiles were simulated with artificial lung and airway models. An oxygen concentrator provided flow rates of 0...

  14. Carriers by chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Mronga, Norbert; Adel, J.; Czech, Erwin


    Printed materials are affecting people's lives in a variety of ways and to a constantly increasing extent, both in the private and in the business spheres. In particular, the predicted reduction of printed materials resulting from electronic data processing - the so-called "paperless electronic office" - has not occured, indeed quite the reverse. In recent years electrophotographic reprography has established itself successfully as a competitor to conventional printing processes. In the office a photocopier is now a part of the standard equipment. Because of BASF's traditional intensive involvement with pigments and colored printing inks its interest in new technologies in these areas is especially great. BASF has therefore been engaged in research on carriers for some years now.

  15. Effect of oxygen vacancy defect on the magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Zhen-Zhen; Zhang Jian-Min; Huang Zhi-Gao; Lin Wen-Xiong


    The influence of oxygen vacancy on the magnetism of Co-doped ZnO has been investigated by the first-principles calculations. It is suggested that oxygen vacancy and its location play crucial roles on the magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO. The exchange coupling mechanism should account for the magnetism in Co-doped ZnO with oxygen vacancy and the oxygen vacancy is likely to be close to the Co atom. The oxygen vacancy (doping electrons) might be available for carrier mediation but is localized with a certain length and can strengthen the ferromagnetic exchange interaction between Co atoms.

  16. Technical Note: Artificial coral reef mesocosms for ocean acidification investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Leblud


    Full Text Available The design and evaluation of replicated artificial mesocosms are presented in the context of a thirteen month experiment on the effects of ocean acidification on tropical coral reefs. They are defined here as (semi-closed (i.e. with or without water change from the reef mesocosms in the laboratory with a more realistic physico-chemical environment than microcosms. Important physico-chemical parameters (i.e. pH, pO2, pCO2, total alkalinity, temperature, salinity, total alkaline earth metals and nutrients availability were successfully monitored and controlled. Daily variations of irradiance and pH were applied to approach field conditions. Results highlighted that it was possible to maintain realistic physico-chemical parameters, including daily changes, into artificial mesocosms. On the other hand, the two identical artificial mesocosms evolved differently in terms of global community oxygen budgets although the initial biological communities and physico-chemical parameters were comparable. Artificial reef mesocosms seem to leave enough degrees of freedom to the enclosed community of living organisms to organize and change along possibly diverging pathways.

  17. In vitro evaluation of a newly developed implantable artificial lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A prototype of an implantable artificial lung without a pump (Prototype II has been tested. A commercially available membrane oxygenator, MENOX AL6000alpha R (Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo, Japan, was used as a basic model. The packing density of the hollow fiber was decreased in order to achieve low resistance through the blood pathway. The configuration of its housing was also re-designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The first prototype, known as Prototype I, was already tested in a 15 kg pig, which showed excellent gas exchange with normal hemodynamics. A second prototype, Prototype II, has a larger membrane surface area than Prototype I. The device was evaluated for resistance through the blood path and gas transfer rate in an in vitro setting by the single pass method using fresh bovine blood. The resistance through the blood path of Prototype II was 2.7+- 0.7 mmHg/(L/min at Q = 5L/min. The oxygen (O2 transfer rate was 178 +- 5.3 ml/min at Q = 5 L/min, V/Q = 3, and the carbon dioxide (CO2 transfer rate was 149 +- 28 ml/min at Q = 5 L/min, V/Q = 2 (Q : blood flow rate, V : sweep oxygen flow rate through the artificial lung. For the purpose of implantation, this prototype showed sufficiently low resistance in the pulmonary circulation with reasonable gas exchange.

  18. Investigation on artificial blood vessels prepared from bacterial cellulose. (United States)

    Zang, Shanshan; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Hua; Lu, Yudong; Zhou, Jianhai; Chang, Xiao; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong; Yang, Guang


    BC (bacterial cellulose) exhibits quite distinctive properties than plant cellulose. The outstanding properties make BC a promising material for preparation of artificial blood vessel. By taking advantage of the high oxygen permeability of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) as a tubular template material, a series of BC tubes with a length of 100 mm, a thickness of 1mm and an outer diameter of 4 or 6mm were biosynthesized with the help of Gluconacetobacter xylinum. Through characterization by SEM (scanning electron microscope), tensile testing and thermal analysis, it is demonstrated that BC tubes are good enough for artificial blood vessel with elaborated nano-fiber architecture, qualified mechanical properties and high thermal stability. In addition, measurement of biocompatibility also shows that BC tubes are greatly adaptable to the in vivo environment. The results indicate that BC tubes have great potential for being utilized as tubular scaffold materials in the field of tissue engineering.

  19. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.


    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  20. Feasibility of electrokinetic oxygen supply for soil bioremediation purposes. (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, E; Villaseñor Camacho, J; Rodrigo Rodrigo, M A; Cañizares Cañizares, P


    This paper studies the possibility of providing oxygen to a soil by an electrokinetic technique, so that the method could be used in future aerobic polluted soil bioremediation treatments. The oxygen was generated from the anodic reaction of water electrolysis and transported to the soil in a laboratory-scale electrokinetic cell. Two variables were tested: the soil texture and the voltage gradient. The technique was tested in two artificial soils (clay and sand) and later in a real silty soil, and three voltage gradients were used: 0.0 (control), 0.5, and 1.0 V cm(-1). It was observed that these two variables strongly influenced the results. Oxygen transport into the soil was only available in the silty and sandy soils by oxygen diffusion, obtaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, between 4 and 9 mg L(-1), useful for possible aerobic biodegradation processes, while transport was not possible in fine-grained soils such as clay. Electro-osmotic flow did not contribute to the transport of oxygen, and an increase in voltage gradients produced higher oxygen transfer rates. However, only a minimum fraction of the electrolytically generated oxygen was efficiently used, and the maximum oxygen transport rate observed, approximately 1.4 mgO2 L(-1)d(-1), was rather low, so this technique could be only tested in slow in-situ biostimulation processes for organics removal from polluted soils.

  1. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee schedule...

  2. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang


    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  3. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  4. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波


    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  5. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... the first order asymmetry severalfold (“second order asymmetry”). It was shown that a substrate competitive mode of action involving competition both for the enzyme and for the enzyme-bound carrier will result in a behaviour resembling the observed “second order asymmetry”. It is felt, therefore...

  6. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune


    and a phenomenological model for the carrier sweep-out dynamics, we investigate all-optical wavelength conversion, all-optical signal regeneration, and all-optical demultiplexing. A detailed drift-diffusion type model for the sweerp-out of photo-excited carriers in electroabsorption modulators is presented. We use...... the model to calclulate absorption spectra and steady-state carrier distributions in different modulator structures. This allows us to investigate a number of important properties of electroabsorption modulators, such as the electroabsorption effect and th saturation properties. We also investigate...... the influence that carrier recapture has on the device properties, and we discuss the recapture process on a more fundamental level. The model is also used to investigate in detail the carrier sweep-out process in electroabsorption modulators. We investigate how the intrinsic-region width, the separate...

  7. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.


    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  8. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.


    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  9. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe? (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed


    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  10. [Implantation of the artificial retina]. (United States)

    Yagi, T; Hayashida, Y


    In some degenerative retinal diseases, e.g., retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, the photoreceptors are destroyed to cause serious visual defects. Recent studies on blind human subjects revealed that a large number of ganglion cells remains intact and is capable of transmitting signals to the brain to evoke partial visual perception. This provided hope to compensate for the visual defects with retinal prostheses. The recent progress of microfabrication technique made it possible to implement the Vary Large Scale Integrated circuit, the artificial retina, which emulates a part of retinal function. The idea of implanting the artificial retina to the patients was proposed recently and experiments using animals have been put into practice. This article surveys the front line of the artificial retina implantation.

  11. Artificial heart for humanoid robot (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas


    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  12. Material quality frontiers of MOVPE grown AlGaAs for minority carrier devices (United States)

    Heckelmann, S.; Lackner, D.; Dimroth, F.; Bett, A. W.


    In this study, secondary ion mass spectroscopy of oxygen, deep level transient spectroscopy and power dependent relative photoluminescence are compared regarding their ability to resolve differences in AlxGa1-xAs material quality. AlxGa1-xAs samples grown with two different trimethylaluminum sources showing low and high levels of oxygen contamination are compared. As tested in the growth of minority carrier devices, i.e. AlxGa1-xAs solar cells, the two precursors clearly lead to different device characteristics. It is shown that secondary ion mass spectroscopy could not resolve the difference in oxygen concentration, whereas deep level transient spectroscopy and photoluminescence based measurements indicate the influence of the precursor oxygen level on the material quality.

  13. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier. (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  14. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)


    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  15. Agent communication and artificial institutions


    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco


    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  16. Training Applications of Artificial Intelligence. (United States)


    nearifest tLer,sclvCs in ELO r operatii.L costs in the life C’VclE Of the ef’uijjteft. E F re\\ lously rcntione6 ey~ arrle of usingF the 1lirefineer...Ibid., p. 35. 4. Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum, The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 1, p. 2. 5. Wissam W. Ahmed, "Theories of Artificial...Barr, Avron and Geigenbaum, Edward A. ed. The Handbook of Arti- ficial Intelligence. Vol. 1. Stanford: heuristech Press. 1981. Gevartner, William B

  17. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.


    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  18. Fecundación artificial



    Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculo...

  19. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav


    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  20. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier... major motor carrier safety provisions of the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the...

  1. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  2. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan


    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  3. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;


    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic...... pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...

  4. An artificially generated atmosphere near a lunar base (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Fernini, Ilias; Sulkanen, Martin; Duric, Nebojsa; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Johnson, Stewart W.


    We discuss the formation of an artificial atmosphere generated by vigorous lunar base activity in this paper. We developed an analytical, steady-state model for a lunar atmosphere based upon previous investigations of the Moon's atmosphere from Apollo. Constant gas-injection rates, ballistic trajectories, and a Maxwellian particle distribution for an oxygen-like gas are assumed. Even for the extreme case of continuous He-3 mining of the lunar regolith, we find that the lunar atmosphere would not significantly degrade astronomical observations beyond about 10 km from the mining operation.

  5. Solid state oxygen sensor (United States)

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.


    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  6. Measuring tissue oxygenation (United States)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)


    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  7. Electric Properties of Obsidian: Evidence for Positive Hole Charge Carriers (United States)

    Nordvik, R.; Freund, F. T.


    The blackness of obsidian is due to the presence of oxygen anions in the valence state 1-, creating broad energy levels at the upper edge of the valence band, which absorb visible light over a wide spectral range. These energy states are associated with defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice, well-known from "smoky quartz", where Al substituting for Si captures a defect electron in the oxygen anion sublattice for charge compensation [1]. Such defect electrons, also known as positive holes, are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity in igneous rocks when uniaxial stresses are applied, causing the break-up of pre-existing peroxy defects, Si-OO-Si [2]. Peroxy defects in obsidian cannot be so easily activated by mechanical stress because the glassy matrix will break before sufficiently high stress levels can be reached. If peroxy defects do exist, however, they can be studied by activating them thermally [3]. We describe experiments with rectangular slabs of obsidian with Au electrodes at both ends. Upon heating one end, we observe (i) a thermopotential and (ii) a thermocurrent developing at distinct temperatures around 250°C and 450°C, marking the 2-step break-up of peroxy bonds. [1] Schnadt, R., and Schneider, J.: The electronic structure of the trapped-hole center in smoky quartz, Zeitschrift Physik B Condensed Matter 11, 19-42, 1970. [2] Freund, F. T., Takeuchi, A., and Lau, B. W.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 389-396, 2006. [3] Freund, F., and Masuda, M. M.: Highly mobile oxygen hole-type charge carriers in fused silica, Journal Material Research, 8, 1619-1622, 1991.

  8. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.


    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  9. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.


    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  10. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  11. Artificial penile nodules: case reports.


    Lim, K B; Seow, C.S.; Tulip, T; Daniel, M.; Vijayasingham, S M


    An interesting cultural practice of implanting foreign bodies under the skin of the penis for enhancing sexual excitement in the man's sexual partner is described. Recognition of this is important to venereologists because of their primary concern with the genital area. The term artificial penile nodule has been suggested for the condition resulting from this practice.

  12. Artificial Video for Video Analysis (United States)

    Gallis, Michael R.


    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  13. Making Artificial Seawater More Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Marine fish will die if placed in fresh water and they cannot live in simple salt water. Instead, they need water that contains a mixture of different ingredients, as found in natural seawater. Conventional methods of making artificial seawater have shortcomings, because the water so achieved is only composed of mineral elements and lacks organic components similar to those in natural seawater.

  14. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF


    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  15. Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162357.html Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood Synthetic product could save lives on battlefield and ... 5, 2016 SATURDAY, Dec. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Artificial blood stored as a powder could one day revolutionize ...

  16. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye. (United States)


    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a... inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for...

  17. Low-Cost and Readily Available Tissue Carriers for the Boston Keratoprosthesis: A Review of Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cruzat


    Full Text Available The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro, currently the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide, can provide rapid visual rehabilitation for eyes with severe corneal opacities not suitable for standard corneal transplantation. However, the B-KPro presently needs a corneal graft as a tissue carrier. Although corneal allograft tissue is readily available in the United States and other developed countries with established eye banks, the worldwide need vastly exceeds supply. Therefore, a simple, safe, and inexpensive alternative to corneal allografts is desirable for the developing world. We are currently exploring reasonable alternative options such as corneal autografts, xenografts, noncorneal autologous tissues, and laboratory-made tissue constructs, as well as modifications to corneal allografts, such as deep-freezing, glycerol-dehydration, gamma irradiation, and cross-linking. These alternative tissue carriers for the B-KPro are discussed with special regard to safety, practicality, and cost for the developing world.

  18. Low-cost and readily available tissue carriers for the Boston keratoprosthesis: a review of possibilities. (United States)

    Cruzat, Andrea; Tauber, Allyson; Shukla, Anita; Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Pineda, Roberto; Dohlman, Claes H


    The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), currently the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide, can provide rapid visual rehabilitation for eyes with severe corneal opacities not suitable for standard corneal transplantation. However, the B-KPro presently needs a corneal graft as a tissue carrier. Although corneal allograft tissue is readily available in the United States and other developed countries with established eye banks, the worldwide need vastly exceeds supply. Therefore, a simple, safe, and inexpensive alternative to corneal allografts is desirable for the developing world. We are currently exploring reasonable alternative options such as corneal autografts, xenografts, noncorneal autologous tissues, and laboratory-made tissue constructs, as well as modifications to corneal allografts, such as deep-freezing, glycerol-dehydration, gamma irradiation, and cross-linking. These alternative tissue carriers for the B-KPro are discussed with special regard to safety, practicality, and cost for the developing world.

  19. Oxygen therapy - infants (United States)

    ... may not work well and may die. Your baby may not grow properly. Many of the developing organs, including the brain and heart, may be injured. Too much oxygen can also cause injury. Breathing too much oxygen can damage the lung. ...

  20. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene


    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the histor...

  1. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry. (United States)

    Lequier, Laurance; Horton, Stephen B; McMullan, D Michael; Bartlett, Robert H


    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas-exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites, and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short- and long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applications. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis, and other physiologic derangements, which were so common with the early application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Modern era extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact, and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults.

  3. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Niebur, Dagmar


    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  4. SynCardia: the total artificial heart. (United States)

    Torregrossa, Gianluca; Anyanwu, Anelechi; Zucchetta, Fabio; Gerosa, Gino


    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) currently provides the most definitive option for patients with biventricular failure who are not candidates for isolated left ventricular (LV) assist device placement. The techniques for implantation are adaptable to almost all patients with advanced heart failure, including those with severe biventricular cardiomyopathy, complex congenital heart disease, failed LV assist devices, failed transplantations, and acquired structural heart defects that have failed or are not amenable to conventional surgical treatment. Over the years, the implantation technique has evolved in order to minimize the surgical invasiveness of the procedure, in anticipation of additional future surgery. Meticulous hemostasis with double layer sutures, use of Gore-Tex sheets around the TAH and the pericardial cavity, and use of tissue expanders to avoid contraction of pericardial cavity around the device are discussed in detail in the following report. Additionally, we will provide our experience with implantation of TAH in various challenging scenarios, such as patients with a small chest cavity, congenital heart defects, and simultaneous use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

  5. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  6. What It Means to be a Carrier (United States)

    ... Life Planning Daily Living Strategies Genetic Counselor Research Biomarker Research Program News, Reports and Commentaries Previously Funded ... with the premutation are at increased risk for depression. It is therefore recommended that any premutation carrier ...

  7. Simulation of dual transponder carrier ranging measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu ZHAO; Xiao-jun JIN; Zhong-he JIN


    The most dominant error source for microwave ranging is the frequency instability of the oscillator that generates the carrier phase signal. The oscillator noise is very difficult to filter due to its extremely low frequency. A dual transponder carrier ranging method can effectively minimize the oscillator noise by combing the reference phase and the to-and-fro measurement phase from the same single oscillator. This method does not require an accurate time tagging system, since it extracts phases on the same satellite. This paper analyzes the dual transponder carrier ranging system by simulation of the phase measurements with comprehensive error models. Both frequency domain and time domain noise transfer characteristics were simulated to compare them with dual one-way ranging. The simulation results in the two domains conformed to each other and demonstrated that a high level of accuracy can also be achieved by use of the dual transponder carrier ranging system, with relatively simple instruments.

  8. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;


    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  9. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;


    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  10. Topological Optimization of Artificial Microstructure Strategies (United States)


    Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate...Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies Report Title During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and...Artificial Microstructure Strategies (Yale and Johns Hopkins) During DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate a 3D microstructural

  11. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education. (United States)

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  12. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;


    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  13. Hiding secret data into a carrier image


    Ovidiu COSMA


    The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in wh...

  14. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith


    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  15. Efficiency of a Bed Biofilm Reactor Using a LECA Carrier to Treat Hospital Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shokoohi


    Full Text Available Hospital wastewater is of great environmental concern because it contains a variety of hazardous microbial and chemical substances. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR with a light expanded clay aggregate (LECA carrier for treating hospital wastewater. This pilot study used a Plexiglas reactor that had a volume of 100 L, a continuous up-flow hydraulic regime, and a LECA carrier to test removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD from wastewater in a public hospital. To assess MBBR efficiency, the study used retention times of 8, 12, and 24 hours, filling percentages of 30% and 50%, and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSSs of 1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/L. The results indicated that using a single LECA carrier in an MBBR system was not sufficient to remove organic materials from hospital wastewater, because the carrier could not be completely suspended. After some modifications, consisting mainly of returning activated sludge, the system was 83% efficient at removing COD using a LECA carrier at a retention time of 24 hours, with 50% filling, and 5000 mg/L of MLSS.

  16. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene. (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O


    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  17. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F.; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V.; Valenzuela, Sergio O.


    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage VNL across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, VNL is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and VNL, VNL ~ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying VNL as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  18. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal


    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  19. Development of an implantable oxygenator with cross-flow pump. (United States)

    Asakawa, Yuichi; Funakubo, Akio; Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Taga, Ichiro; Higami, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuhiro


    Thrombogenicity, a problem with long-term artificial lungs, is caused by blood-biomaterial interactions and is made worse by nonuniform flow, which also causes decreased gas exchange. To overcome these obstacles, we changed the inlet and added a uniform flow pump to our previous oxygenator design. Conventional membrane oxygenators have a (1/2)-inch port for the inlet of blood. These port structures make it difficult for the blood to flow uniformly in the oxygenator. In addition, the complex blood flow patterns that occur in the oxygenator, including turbulence and stagnation, lead to thrombogenicity. A cross-flow pump (CFP) can result in uniform blood flow to the inlet side of an oxygenator. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of an integrated oxygenator with a fiber bundle porosity of 0.6 and a membrane surface area of 1.3 m2. The inlet part of the oxygenator is improved and better fits the outlet of the CFP. Each of the three models of the improved oxygenator has a different inlet taper angle. The computational fluid dynamics analysis showed that, compared with the original design, uniform flow of the integrated oxygenator improved by 88.8% at the hollow fiber membrane. With the integrated oxygenator, O2 transfer increased by an average of 20.8%, and CO2 transfer increased by an average of 35.5%. The results of our experiments suggest that the CFP, which produces a wide, uniform flow to the oxygenator, is effective in attaining high gas exchange performance.

  20. Observing atomic collapse resonances in artificial nuclei on graphene. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wong, Dillon; Shytov, Andrey V; Brar, Victor W; Choi, Sangkook; Wu, Qiong; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Regan, William; Zettl, Alex; Kawakami, Roland K; Louie, Steven G; Levitov, Leonid S; Crommie, Michael F


    Relativistic quantum mechanics predicts that when the charge of a superheavy atomic nucleus surpasses a certain threshold, the resulting strong Coulomb field causes an unusual atomic collapse state; this state exhibits an electron wave function component that falls toward the nucleus, as well as a positron component that escapes to infinity. In graphene, where charge carriers behave as massless relativistic particles, it has been predicted that highly charged impurities should exhibit resonances corresponding to these atomic collapse states. We have observed the formation of such resonances around artificial nuclei (clusters of charged calcium dimers) fabricated on gated graphene devices via atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope. The energy and spatial dependence of the atomic collapse state measured with scanning tunneling microscopy revealed unexpected behavior when occupied by electrons.

  1. Carrier effects on tertiary nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor: An examination of performance, biofilm and biologically produced solids. (United States)

    Forrest, Daina; Delatolla, Robert; Kennedy, Kevin


    Increasingly stricter ammonia and nitrogen release regulations with respect to wastewater effluents are creating a need for tertiary treatment systems. The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is being considered as an upgrade option for an increasing number of wastewater treatment facilities due to its small footprint and ease of operation. Despite the MBBRs creation as a system to remove nitrogen, recent research on MBBR systems showing that the system's performance is directly related to carrier surface area and is irrespective of carrier shape and type has been performed exclusively on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal systems. Furthermore, the influence of carrier type on the solids produced by MBBR systems has also been exclusively studied for COD removal systems. This work investigates the effects of three specific carrier types on ammonia removal rates, biofilm morphology, along with solids production and settleability of tertiary nitrifying MBBR systems. The study concludes that carrier type has no significant effect on tertiary nitrifying MBBR system performance under steady, moderate loading conditions. The research does however highlight the propensity of greater surface area to volume carriers to become clogged under high loading conditions and that the high surface area carriers investigated in this study required longer adjustment periods to changes in loading after becoming clogged.

  2. Oxygen foreshock of Mars (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Frahm, R. A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Holmström, M.; Barabash, S.


    Mars Express (MEX) has operated for more than 10 years in the environment of Mars, providing solar wind ion observations from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms experiment's Ion Mass Analyser (IMA). On 21 September 2008, MEX/IMA detected foreshock-like discrete distributions of oxygen ions at around 1 keV in the solar wind attached to the bow shock and this distribution was observed continuously up to more than 2000 km from the bow shock. Foreshock-like protons are also observed but at a shifted location from the oxygen by about 1000 km, at a slightly higher energy, and flowing in a slightly different direction than the oxygen ions. Both protons and oxygen ions are flowing anti-sunward at different angles with respect to the solar wind direction. This is the first time that a substantial amount of planetary oxygen is observed upstream of the bow shock. Although rare, this is not the only IMA observation of foreshock-like oxygen: oxygen ions are sometimes observed for a short period of time (<5 min) inside the foreshock region. These observations suggest a new escape channel for planetary ions through the acceleration in the bow shock-magnetosheath region.

  3. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence. (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P


    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people.

  4. Tadpole-like artificial micromotor (United States)

    Liu, Limei; Liu, Mei; Su, Yajun; Dong, Yonggang; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Chi, Lifeng


    We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties.We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, Fig. S1-S3 and Video S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06621a

  5. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles (United States)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.


    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  6. Artificial intelligence and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yujie


    This edited book presents essential findings in the research fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision, with a primary focus on new research ideas and results for mathematical problems involved in computer vision systems. The book provides an international forum for researchers to summarize the most recent developments and ideas in the field, with a special emphasis on the technical and observational results obtained in the past few years.

  7. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh


    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  8. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.


    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  9. Artificial color perception using microwaves


    Choudhury, Debesh; Caulfield, H. John


    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving...

  10. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence



    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  11. Towards photovoltaic powered artificial retina



    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and future concepts in the field of retinal prostheses, and is focused on the power supply based on solar energy conversion; we introduce the possibility of using PV minimodules as power supply for a new concept of retinal prostheses: Photovoltaic Powered Artificial Retina (PVAR). Main characteristics of these PV modules are presented showing its potential for this application. Peer Reviewed

  12. Artificial Sweeteners versus Natural Sweeteners


    Neacsu, N.A.; Madar, A.


    Carbohydrates are an important dietary nutrient which is mostly used to supply energy to the body, as well as a carbon source for synthesis of other needed chemicals. In addition, mono- and disaccharides are craved because of their sweetness. We present different types of sweeteners, which are the basic contents of foods which we consume every day and are demonstrated the positive and negative effects of natural and artificial sweeteners.

  13. Artificial Sweeteners versus Natural Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu, N.A.


    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are an important dietary nutrient which is mostly used to supply energy to the body, as well as a carbon source for synthesis of other needed chemicals. In addition, mono- and disaccharides are craved because of their sweetness. We present different types of sweeteners, which are the basic contents of foods which we consume every day and are demonstrated the positive and negative effects of natural and artificial sweeteners.

  14. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs


    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S; M. M. Moisenovich; Nedospasov, S A


    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cy...

  15. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems (United States)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  16. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes. (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas


    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  17. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d' A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))


    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones. (United States)

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J


    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones.

  19. 惰性载体Al_2O_3对Fe_2O_3及CuO氧载体煤化学链燃烧的影响%Effect of Inert Support Al_2O_3 on the Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal With Fe_2O_3 and CuO-based Oxygen Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保文; 赵海波; 郑瑛; 柳朝晖; 郑楚光; 晏蓉


    氧载体是煤化学链燃烧技术的基础,惰性载体则是其中的必要组成部分,起着重要的作用。以Al2O3作为典型惰性载体,采用热重分析仪、红外频谱仪、场发射扫描电镜和能谱分析仪以及X衍射仪,对六盘水贫煤与Fe2O3、CuO基氧载体的反应进行了详细的研究。研究发现,Al2O3的引入,使得Fe2O3、CuO基氧载体表面积增大、孔径分布更为优化,而且对氧载体与六盘水贫煤一次热解产物的反应是有利的,能够促进氧载体中更多晶格氧的传递,Fe2O3基氧载体中有更多的Fe2O3还原为低于Fe3O4价态的氧化物,而CuO基氧载体中CuO除了还原为Cu、Cu2O外,其中的CuAl2O4也有一定的反应活性,被还原为CuAlO2。与LPS煤反应时,Fe2O3深度还原产物与部分Al2O3及煤中的SiO2反应生成Fe3Al2(SiO4)3,而CuO则与Al2O3及六盘水贫煤反应生成了(Cu0.215Mg1.785)(Al4Si5O18)复合物。%Oxygen carrier(OC) is the basis for chemical looping combustion of coal and inert support is the necessary part of OC.Al2O3 was adopted as the typical inert support and the reaction of Liupanshui(LPS) coal with Fe2O3,CuO based OC was systematically investigated by various experimental means,including thermogravimetric analysis(TGA),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),field scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry(FSEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis.It was found that,the introduction of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 and CuO made the surface areas of these two OC greatly increased and the pore distribution more optimized,which benefited the primary gaseous products of LPS coal to react with Fe2O3 and CuO.Furthermore,during the reaction of LPS with these two OC,the optimized pore size distribution promoted more sufficient reaction of LPS coal with Fe2O3,and thus more Fe2O3 was reduced into lower valence oxides than Fe3O4;but for CuO based OC,their solid reduced products with

  20. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T


    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  1. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia


    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  2. Fecundación Artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa. Fidel


    Full Text Available Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculos alegres, que un servicio de un caballo puede servir, diluido, por lo menos para cuatro yeguas, según los autores americanos, y para 10 a 15, según otros autores. El toro y el carnero pueden dar esperma suficiente en un servicio para fecundar de 10 a 12 hembras, según,los americanos, y según otros autores, hasta para 40. Los investigadores rusos han podido fecundar hasta 60 vacas con un solo servicio y han logrado con reproductores valiosos, fecundar 10.263 vacas por toro, a pesar de que éstos sólo han servido, durante un periodo de monta de sólo dos meses. Estos mismos han logrado fecundar artificialmente 2.733 ovejas con un solo carnero, y 1.403 con otro Los investigadores americanos han contado 22 servicios a un carnero vigoroso en un periodo de ocho horas, y durante este tiempo produjo esperma suficiente para haber fecundado 200 ovejas artificialmente. La fecundación artificial sirve para evitar la trasmisión de enfermedades que se contagian por el coito, tales como la durina, enfermedad ésta producida por un tripanosoma que por fortuna no existe entre nosotros. A las estaciones de monta llevan con frecuencia hembras afectadas de enfermedades como la vaginitis granulosa de la vaca, que se contagia al toro y de éste a otras hembras. Como el control sanitario de toda hembra llevada al servicio de un reproductor de estas estaciones de monta no siempre puede efectuarse por dificultades de distinta índole, mediante la fecundación artificial

  3. De-oxygenation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Kortzinger, A

    of fixed nitrogen that keeps the atmospheric nitrogen content constant over geological time scales. An important aspect of redox chemistry of nitrogen is the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas both as an intermediate during... denitrification and as a byproduct during the 30 oxidation of ammonium to nitrate (nitrification). Denitrification is confined to low-oxygen waters, but even during nitrification, the yield of N2O is greatly enhanced as the waters get depleted with oxygen...

  4. Comparison of the MBBR denitrification carriers for advanced nitrogen removal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Wang, Haiyan; Hang, Qianyu; Deng, Yangfan; Liu, Kai; Li, Chunmei; Zheng, Shengzhi


    The moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were used to remove the residual NO3(-)-N of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and the MBBR carriers for denitrification were compared. The results showed that high denitrification efficiency can be achieved with polyethylene, polypropylene, polyurethane foam, and haydite carriers under following conditions: 7.2 to 8.0 pH, 24 to 26 °C temperature, 12 h hydraulic retention time (HRT), and 25.5 mg L(-1) external methanol dosage, while the WWTP effluent total nitrogen (TN) was between 2.6 and 15.4 mg L(-1) and NO3(-)-N was between 0.2 and 12.6 mg L(-1). The MBBR filled with polyethylene carriers had higher TN and NO3(-)-N removal rate (44.9 ± 19.1 and 83.4 ± 13.0%, respectively) than those with other carriers. The minimum effluent TN and NO3(-)-N of polyethylene MBBR were 1.6 and 0.1 mg L(-1), respectively, and the maximum denitrification rate reached 23.0 g m(-2) day(-1). When chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio dropped from 6 to 4, the NO3(-)- N and TN removal efficiency decreased significantly in all reactors except for that filled with polyethylene, which indicated that the polyethylene MBBR can resist influent fluctuation much better. The three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix analysis showed that all the influent and effluent of MBBRs contain soluble microbial products (SMPs)-like organics and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which can be removed better by MBBRs filled with haydite and polyethylene carriers. The nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ)-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis suggested that the dominant bacteria in polyethylene MBBR are the key denitrificans.

  5. Glutathione in Cellular Redox Homeostasis: Association with the Excitatory Amino Acid Carrier 1 (EAAC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Aoyama


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are by-products of the cellular metabolism of oxygen consumption, produced mainly in the mitochondria. ROS are known to be highly reactive ions or free radicals containing oxygen that impair redox homeostasis and cellular functions, leading to cell death. Under physiological conditions, a variety of antioxidant systems scavenge ROS to maintain the intracellular redox homeostasis and normal cellular functions. This review focuses on the antioxidant system’s roles in maintaining redox homeostasis. Especially, glutathione (GSH is the most important thiol-containing molecule, as it functions as a redox buffer, antioxidant, and enzyme cofactor against oxidative stress. In the brain, dysfunction of GSH synthesis leading to GSH depletion exacerbates oxidative stress, which is linked to a pathogenesis of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1 plays a pivotal role in neuronal GSH synthesis. The regulatory mechanism of EAAC1 is also discussed.

  6. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus


    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  7. 47 CFR 64.1140 - Carrier liability for slamming. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier liability for slamming. 64.1140 Section 64.1140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Providers § 64.1140 Carrier liability for slamming. (a) Carrier Liability for Charges. Any...

  8. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  9. Oxygen dosing the surface of SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudy, L.; Scheiderer, P.; Schuetz, P.; Gabel, J.; Buchwald, M.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Denlinger, J.D. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94270 (United States); Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.L. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    The highly mobile two-dimensional electron system (2DES) on the surface of the insulating SrTiO{sub 3}(STO) offers exciting perspectives for advanced material design. This 2DES resides in a depletion layer caused by oxygen deficiency of the surface. With photoemission spectroscopy, we monitor the appearance of quasi-particle weight (QP) at the Fermi energy and oxygen vacancy induced states in the band gap (IG). Both, QP and IG weight, increase and decrease respectively upon exposure to extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light and in-situ oxygen dosing. By a proper adjustment of oxygen dosing, any intermediate state can be stabilized providing full control over the charge carrier density. From a comparison of the charge carrier concentrations obtained from an analysis of core-level spectra and the Fermi-surface volume, we conclude on a spatially inhomogeneous surface electronic structure with at least two different phases.

  10. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision. (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A


    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  11. Hyperbaric Oxygen Promotes Proximal Bone Regeneration and Organized Collagen Composition during Digit Regeneration. (United States)

    Sammarco, Mimi C; Simkin, Jennifer; Cammack, Alexander J; Fassler, Danielle; Gossmann, Alexej; Marrero, Luis; Lacey, Michelle; Van Meter, Keith; Muneoka, Ken


    Oxygen is critical for optimal bone regeneration. While axolotls and salamanders have retained the ability to regenerate whole limbs, mammalian regeneration is restricted to the distal tip of the digit (P3) in mice, primates, and humans. Our previous study revealed the oxygen microenvironment during regeneration is dynamic and temporally influential in building and degrading bone. Given that regeneration is dependent on a dynamic and changing oxygen environment, a better understanding of the effects of oxygen during wounding, scarring, and regeneration, and better ways to artificially generate both hypoxic and oxygen replete microenvironments are essential to promote regeneration beyond wounding or scarring. To explore the influence of increased oxygen on digit regeneration in vivo daily treatments of hyperbaric oxygen were administered to mice during all phases of the entire regenerative process. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) and histological analysis showed that the daily application of hyperbaric oxygen elicited the same enhanced bone degradation response as two individual pulses of oxygen applied during the blastema phase. We expand past these findings to show histologically that the continuous application of hyperbaric oxygen during digit regeneration results in delayed blastema formation at a much more proximal location after amputation, and the deposition of better organized collagen fibers during bone formation. The application of sustained hyperbaric oxygen also delays wound closure and enhances bone degradation after digit amputation. Thus, hyperbaric oxygen shows the potential for positive influential control on the various phases of an epimorphic regenerative response.

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Promotes Proximal Bone Regeneration and Organized Collagen Composition during Digit Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi C Sammarco

    Full Text Available Oxygen is critical for optimal bone regeneration. While axolotls and salamanders have retained the ability to regenerate whole limbs, mammalian regeneration is restricted to the distal tip of the digit (P3 in mice, primates, and humans. Our previous study revealed the oxygen microenvironment during regeneration is dynamic and temporally influential in building and degrading bone. Given that regeneration is dependent on a dynamic and changing oxygen environment, a better understanding of the effects of oxygen during wounding, scarring, and regeneration, and better ways to artificially generate both hypoxic and oxygen replete microenvironments are essential to promote regeneration beyond wounding or scarring. To explore the influence of increased oxygen on digit regeneration in vivo daily treatments of hyperbaric oxygen were administered to mice during all phases of the entire regenerative process. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT and histological analysis showed that the daily application of hyperbaric oxygen elicited the same enhanced bone degradation response as two individual pulses of oxygen applied during the blastema phase. We expand past these findings to show histologically that the continuous application of hyperbaric oxygen during digit regeneration results in delayed blastema formation at a much more proximal location after amputation, and the deposition of better organized collagen fibers during bone formation. The application of sustained hyperbaric oxygen also delays wound closure and enhances bone degradation after digit amputation. Thus, hyperbaric oxygen shows the potential for positive influential control on the various phases of an epimorphic regenerative response.

  13. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E


    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  14. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)


    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  15. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA


    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  16. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Baek, Dohyun


    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  17. [Therapy of hepatitis B virus carriers]. (United States)

    Bereza, N M; Petiĭ, S I


    Examination of 200 gastroenterological patients with a suspected chronic diffuse liver disease has demonstrated that only in 18.9% of the patients with chronic hepatitis, the disease was induced by the virus. Based on the experience gained with the treatment of 7 patients with chronic hepatitis B it is concluded that sanitation may be performed with levamisole. However, the data obtained in the course of the 5-year observation over sanitation of HBsAg carriers (25 subjects) do not provide any convincing evidence in favour of levamisole sanitation. The authors hold that at the blood transfusion stations the prophylaxis of serum hepatitis falls short of ideal. Selection of the donors according to CCIE does not give any guarantee against the viral hepatitis B carrier state. Like patients with viral hepatitis B, the HBsAg carriers badly need active prophylactic-and-treatment medical examination with the use of the antiviral agents.

  18. Artificial organic networks artificial intelligence based on carbon networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Espinosa, Hiram; Molina, Arturo


    This monograph describes the synthesis and use of biologically-inspired artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHNs) for approximation models associated with machine learning and a novel computational algorithm with which to exploit them. The reader is first introduced to various kinds of algorithms designed to deal with approximation problems and then, via some conventional ideas of organic chemistry, to the creation and characterization of artificial organic networks and AHNs in particular. The advantages of using organic networks are discussed with the rules to be followed to adapt the network to its objectives. Graph theory is used as the basis of the necessary formalism. Simulated and experimental examples of the use of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms with organic neural networks are presented and a number of modeling problems suitable for treatment by AHNs are described: ·        approximation; ·        inference; ·        clustering; ·        control; ·        class...

  19. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi


    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  20. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong


    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  1. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier


    Zara, Vincenzo; Rassow, Joachim; Wachter, Elmar; Tropschug, Maximilian; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus


    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is a member of the family of inner-membrane carrier proteins which are generally synthesized without a cleavable presequence. Surprisingly, the cDNA sequences of bovine and rat PiC suggested the existence of an amino-terminal extension sequence in the precursor of PiC. By expressing PiC in vitro, we found that PiC is indeed synthesized as a larger precursor. This precursor was imported and proteolytically processed by mitochondria, whereby the correct...

  2. Interplay between carrier and cationic defect concentration in ferromagnetism of anatase Ti1-xTaxO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roy Barman


    Full Text Available Thin films of Ta incorporated TiO2 grown by pulsed laser deposition under specific growth conditions show room temperature ferromagnetism. Ta introduces carriers and concomitantly cationic defects, the combination of which leads to ferromagnetism. In this paper, we report on the dependence of the carrier and cationic defect density (compensation on various parameters such as oxygen growth pressure, temperature and Ta concentration. Most likely, the Ti vacancies act as magnetic centers and the free electrons help with the exchange leading to ferromagnetism via Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida mechanism.

  3. Micro-fibers shape effects on gas exchange in Total Artificial Lung

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan


    Flow and oxygen transport dynamics of a pulsatile flow past an array of square and circular cross section micro-fiber is numerically investigated in the present work. The study is motivated to optimize the design of an Total Artificial Lung (TAL) under clinical trials. Effects of three non-dimensional parameters: Reynolds number, non-dimensional amplitude of free stream velocity and Keulegan Carpenter number on oxygen transport and total drag (resistance) of both the fibers are studied. Range of parameters investigated corresponds to operating range of TAL. For most of the cases investigated, results show enhanced oxygen transport for square fiber but higher resistance when compare with the circular fiber case under almost all flow conditions. For both fibers, oxygen transfer rate are enhanced at higher Reynolds number, higher velocity amplitude and lower KC values. Overall drag is found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing amplitude and is not significantly effected by Keulegan Carpenter number. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Formal Definition of Artificial Intelligence


    Dobrev, Dimiter


    * This publication is partially supported by the KT-DigiCult-Bg project. A definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI) was proposed in [1] but this definition was not absolutely formal at least because the word "Human" was used. In this paper we will formalize the definition from [1]. The biggest problem in this definition was that the level of intelligence of AI is compared to the intelligence of a human being. In order to change this we will introduce some parameters to which AI ...

  5. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.


    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  6. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence. (United States)

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P


    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data.

  7. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.


    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  8. Artificial intelligence a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whitby, Blay


    Tomorrow begins right here as we embark on an enthralling and jargon-free journey into the world of computers and the inner recesses of the human mind. Readers encounter everything from the nanotechnology used to make insect-like robots, to computers that perform surgery, in addition to discovering the biggest controversies to dog the field of AI. Blay Whitby is a Lecturer on Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex UK. He is the author of two books and numerous papers.

  9. Logical Foundations Of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido


    Full Text Available The procedures of searching solutions to problems, in Artificial Intelligence, can be brought about, in many occasions, without knowledge of the Domain, and in other situations, with knowledge of it. This last procedure is usually called Heuristic Search. In such methods the matrix techniques reveal themselves as essential. Their introduction can give us an easy and precise way in the search of solution. Our paper explains how the matrix theory appears and fruitfully participates in A I, with feasible applications to Game Theory.

  10. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne;


    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high...

  11. Engineering cofactor and ligand binding in an artificial neuroglobin (United States)

    Zhang, Lei

    HP-7 is one artificial mutated oxygen transport protein, which operates via a mechanism akin to human neuroglobin and cytoglobin. This protein destabilizes one of two heme-ligating histidine residues by coupling histidine side chain ligation with the burial of three charged glutamate residues on the same helix. Replacement of these glutamate residues with alanine, which has a neutral hydrophobicity, slows gaseous ligand binding 22-fold, increases the affinity of the distal histidine ligand by a factor of thirteen, and decreases the binding affinity of carbon monoxide, a nonreactive oxygen analogue, three-fold. Paradoxically, it also decreases heme binding affinity by a factor of three in the reduced state and six in the oxidized state. Application of a two-state binding model, in which an initial pentacoordinate binding event is followed by a protein conformational change to hexacoordinate, provides insight into the mechanism of this seemingly counterintuitive result: the initial pentacoordinate encounter complex is significantly destabilized by the loss of the glutamate side chains, and the increased affinity for the distal histidine only partially compensates. These results point to the importance of considering each oxidation and conformational state in the design of functional artificial proteins. We have also examined the effects these mutations have on function. The K d of the nonnreactive oxygen analogue carbon monoxide (CO) is only decreased three-fold, despite the large increase in distal histidine affinity engendered by the 22-fold decrease in the histidine ligand off-rate. This is a result of the four-fold increase in affinity for CO binding to the pentacoordinate state. Oxygen binds to HP7 with a Kd of 117 µM, while the mutant rapidly oxidizes when exposed to oxygen. EPR analysis of both ferric hemoproteins demonstrates that the mutation increases disorder at the heme binding site. NMR-detected deuterium exchange demonstrates that the mutation causes a


    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M


    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there.

  13. [Artificial crowns influence upon edge parodontium status]. (United States)

    Zhulev, E N; Serov, A B


    With the aim of prosthetic treatment efficacy increase study of edge parodontium tissue reaction upon different types of artificial crowns was done and methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention were developed. Changes of the main gingival fluid characteristics (amount, acidity, interleukine-1beta concentration) and indicators of microcirculation in edge parodontium of the teeth under the artificial crowns influence were disclosed. There were developed methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention produced by artificial crowns edge.

  14. Semantic Interpretation of An Artificial Neural Network (United States)


    ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK .7,’ THESIS Stanley Dale Kinderknecht Captain, USAF 770 DEAT7ET77,’H IR O C 7... ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK THESIS Stanley Dale Kinderknecht Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/95D-07 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views...Government. AFIT/GCS/ENG/95D-07 SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION OF AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongguang


    In this paper the author shows some artificial living systems, whose basic life characteristics are explored, especially the differentiation in evolution from single cellular to multi-cellular organism. In addition, the author discusses diversity and evolvability also.The author gives a modified entropy function to measure the diversity. Finally, the author drops an open problem about the structure of "gene" of artificial living systems, so that we can measure the evolutionary order between the artificial living systems.

  16. Meta-Learning Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks


    Abraham, Ajith


    In this paper, we present MLEANN (Meta-Learning Evolutionary Artificial Neural Network), an automatic computational framework for the adaptive optimization of artificial neural networks wherein the neural network architecture, activation function, connection weights; learning algorithm and its parameters are adapted according to the problem. We explored the performance of MLEANN and conventionally designed artificial neural networks for function approximation problems. To evaluate the compara...

  17. EcoBot-II: An artificial agent with a natural metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Melhuish


    Full Text Available In this paper we report the development of the robot EcoBot-II, which exhibits a primitive form of artificial symbiosis. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs were used as the onboard energy supply, which consisted of bacterial cultures from sewage sludge and employed oxygen from free air for oxidation at the cathode. EcoBot-II was able to perform sensing, information processing, communication and actuation when fed (amongst other substrates with flies. This is the first robot in the world, to utilise unrefined substrate, oxygen from free air and exhibit four different types of behaviour.

  18. Mechanical Property Prediction of Commercially Pure Titanium Welds with Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhong WEI; H.K.D.H.Bhadeshia; T. Sourmail


    Factors that affect weld mechanical properties of commercially pure titanium have been investigated using artificial neural networks. Input data were obtained from mechanical testing of single-pass, autogenous welds, and neural network models were used to predict the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, reduction of area,Vickers hardness and Rockwell B hardness. The results show that both oxygen and nitrogen have the most significant effects on the strength while hydrogen has the least effect over the range investigated. Predictions of the mechanical properties are shown and agree well with those obtained using the 'oxygen equivalent' (OE) equations.

  19. Advanced two-way satellite frequency transfer by carrier-phase and carrier-frequency measurements (United States)

    Fujieda, Miho; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun


    Carrier-phase measurement is one of the ways to improve the measurement resolution of two-way satellite frequency transfer. We introduce two possible methods for carrier-phase measurement: direct carrier-phase detection identified by Two-Way Carrier-Phase (TWCP) and the use of carrier-frequency information identified by Two-Way Carrier Frequency (TWCF). We performed the former using an arbitrary waveform generator and an analog-to-digital sampler and the latter using a conventional modem. The TWCF measurement using the modem had a resolution of 10-13 and the result agreed with that obtained by GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer in a 1500 km baseline. The measurement accuracy may have been limited by the poor frequency resolution of the modem; however, the TWCF measurement was able to improve the stability of conventional two-way satellite frequency transfer. Additionally, we show that the TWCP measurement system has the potential to achieve a frequency stability of 10-17.

  20. Molecular Evolution of the Oxygen-Binding Hemerythrin Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alvarez-Carreño

    Full Text Available The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis during Precambrian times entailed the diversification of strategies minimizing reactive oxygen species-associated damage. Four families of oxygen-carrier proteins (hemoglobin, hemerythrin and the two non-homologous families of arthropodan and molluscan hemocyanins are known to have evolved independently the capacity to bind oxygen reversibly, providing cells with strategies to cope with the evolutionary pressure of oxygen accumulation. Oxygen-binding hemerythrin was first studied in marine invertebrates but further research has made it clear that it is present in the three domains of life, strongly suggesting that its origin predated the emergence of eukaryotes.Oxygen-binding hemerythrins are a monophyletic sub-group of the hemerythrin/HHE (histidine, histidine, glutamic acid cation-binding domain. Oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologs were unambiguously identified in 367/2236 bacterial, 21/150 archaeal and 4/135 eukaryotic genomes. Overall, oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologues were found in the same proportion as single-domain and as long protein sequences. The associated functions of protein domains in long hemerythrin sequences can be classified in three major groups: signal transduction, phosphorelay response regulation, and protein binding. This suggests that in many organisms the reversible oxygen-binding capacity was incorporated in signaling pathways. A maximum-likelihood tree of oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologues revealed a complex evolutionary history in which lateral gene transfer, duplications and gene losses appear to have played an important role.Hemerythrin is an ancient protein domain with a complex evolutionary history. The distinctive iron-binding coordination site of oxygen-binding hemerythrins evolved first in prokaryotes, very likely prior to the divergence of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and spread into many bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species. The later evolution of the

  1. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J


    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  2. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng


    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  3. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey


    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  4. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin


    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms......In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro......-organisms were constructed using synthetic degenerated oligonucleotides. From this work, a promoter library was obtained for Lactococcus lactis, containing numerous individual promoters and covering a wide range of promoter activities. Importantly, the range of promoter activities was covered in small steps...... of activity change. Promoter libraries generated by this approach allow for optimization of gene expression and for experimental control analysis in a wide range of biological systems by choosing from the promoter library promoters giving, e.g., 25%, 50%, 200%, and 400% of the normal expression level...

  5. Artificial neural networks in neurosurgery. (United States)

    Azimi, Parisa; Mohammadi, Hasan Reza; Benzel, Edward C; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Montazeri, Ali


    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) effectively analyze non-linear data sets. The aimed was A review of the relevant published articles that focused on the application of ANNs as a tool for assisting clinical decision-making in neurosurgery. A literature review of all full publications in English biomedical journals (1993-2013) was undertaken. The strategy included a combination of key words 'artificial neural networks', 'prognostic', 'brain', 'tumor tracking', 'head', 'tumor', 'spine', 'classification' and 'back pain' in the title and abstract of the manuscripts using the PubMed search engine. The major findings are summarized, with a focus on the application of ANNs for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Finally, the future of ANNs in neurosurgery is explored. A total of 1093 citations were identified and screened. In all, 57 citations were found to be relevant. Of these, 50 articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. The synthesis of the data showed several applications of ANN in neurosurgery, including: (1) diagnosis and assessment of disease progression in low back pain, brain tumours and primary epilepsy; (2) enhancing clinically relevant information extraction from radiographic images, intracranial pressure processing, low back pain and real-time tumour tracking; (3) outcome prediction in epilepsy, brain metastases, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation, childhood hydrocephalus, trauma mortality, and the occurrence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage; (4) the use in the biomechanical assessments of spinal disease. ANNs can be effectively employed for diagnosis, prognosis and outcome prediction in neurosurgery.

  6. Artificial Shortages and Strategic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay


    Full Text Available Problem statement: We consider a monopolist who manipulates the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods. The approach is to develop an intertemporal model of pricing strategy for a monopolist. Approach: The postulated pricing strategy creates an incentive for producers to reduce current supply and raise current prices and sacrifice current profits in order to increase future profits. The main problem is to explain the precise mathematical conditions under which the pricing strategy will be chosen by a monopolist. Results: We derive the optimal pricing strategy to argue that the monopolist has an incentive to adopt simple market manipulation that calls forth a close examination of issues concerning deregulation. Conclusion: The paper examines two possible strategies for a typical monopolist-strategic pricing vis-a-vis a myopic pricing. The intuition is that the monopolist can manipulate the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods.

  7. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction. (United States)

    Schaub, Marcus C


    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  8. A Pathway to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Johannes


    The advancement of catalytic systems and the application thereof has proven to be the key to overcome traditional limitations of industrial-scale synthetic processes. Converging organometallic and biocatalytic principles lead to the development of Artificial Metalloenzymes (ArMs) that comprise a synthetic metal catalyst embedded in a protein scaffold, thereby combining the reactivity of the former with the versatility of the latter. This synergistic approach introduces rationally designed building blocks for the catalytic site and the host protein to assemble enzyme-like structures that follow regio-, chemo-, enantio- and substrate-selective principles. Yet, the identification of suitable protein scaffolds has thus far been challenging. Herein we report a rationally optimized fluorescent protein host, mTFP*, that was engineered to have no intrinsic metal binding capability and, owing to its robust nature, can act as scaffold for the design of novel ArMs. We demonstrate the potential of site-specific modifications within the protein host, use protein X-Ray analysis to validate the respective scaffolds and show how artificial mutant binding sites can be introduced. Transition metal Förster Resonance Energy transfer (tmFRET) methodologies help to evaluate micromolar dissociation constants and reveal structural rearrangements upon coordination of the metal centers. In conjunction with molecular insights from X-Ray crystallographic structure determination, dynamics of the binding pocket can be inferred. The versatile subset of different binding motifs paired with transition metal catalysts create artificial metalloenzymes that provide reactivities which otherwise do not exist in nature. As a proof of concept, Diels-Alder cycloadditions highlight the potential of the present mTFP* based catalysts by stereoselectively converting azachalcone and cyclopentadiene substrates. Screens indicate an enantiomeric excess of up to 60% and provide insights into the electronic and

  9. Oxygen ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Skinner


    A very interesting subgroup of this class of materials are the oxides that display oxygen ion conductivity. As well as the intrinsic interest in these materials, there has been a continued drive for their development because of the promise of important technological devices such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, oxygen separation membranes, and membranes for the conversion of methane to syngas1. All of these devices offer the potential of enormous commercial and ecological benefits provided suitable high performance materials can be developed. In this article we will review the materials currently under development for application in such devices with particular reference to some of the newly discovered oxide ion conductors.

  10. Neurological oxygen toxicity. (United States)

    Farmery, Scott; Sykes, Oliver


    SCUBA diving has several risks associated with it from breathing air under pressure--nitrogen narcosis, barotrauma and decompression sickness (the bends). Trimix SCUBA diving involves regulating mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen and helium in an attempt to overcome the risks of narcosis and decompression sickness during deep dives, but introduces other potential hazards such as hypoxia and oxygen toxicity convulsions. This study reports on a seizure during the ascent phase, its potential causes and management and discusses the hazards posed to the diver and his rescuer by an emergency ascent to the surface.

  11. Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank; Rosa, Claudio


    Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the key features for LTE-Advanced. By means of CA, users gain access to a total bandwidth of up to 100 MHz in order to meet the IMT-Advanced requirements. The system bandwidth may be contiguous, or composed of several non-contiguous bandwidth chunks, which are a...

  12. Roch Carrier, Popular Language, and Joual. (United States)

    Walkley, Max


    Discusses the language problems in Roch Carrier's French Canadian short stories, as well as his concise, nostalgic writing style. The article gives examples of vocabulary in his characters' dialogue; reviews the evolvement of French in Quebec and the question of "joual," in particular; and focuses on expressions posing difficulty for…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A new synthetic functionalized antigen carrier is described. It consists of a core of seven branched lysine residues, of which each of the four N-terminal lysine residues contains two N-(S-acetylmercaptoacetyl)-glutamyl residues. After removal of the protecting S-acetyl groups affording eight thiol

  14. Microemulsions as Potential Carriers of Nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzidaki, Maria D; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alexandraki, Voula


    Water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions based on either refined olive oil (ROO) or sunflower oil (SO), distilled monoglycerides (DMG), and ethanol were used as nisin carriers in order to ensure its effectiveness as a biopreservative. This work presents experimental evidence on the effects of ethanol...

  15. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire


    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  16. Dextran: A promising macromolecular drug carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Suneela


    Full Text Available Over the past three decades intensive efforts have been made to design novel systems able to deliver the drug more effectively to the target site. The ongoing intense search for novel and innovative drug delivery systems is predominantly a consequence of the well-established fact that the conventional dosage forms are not sufficiently effective in conveying the drug compound to its site of action and once in the target area, in releasing the active agent over a desired period of time. The potential use of macromolecular prodrugs as a means of achieving targeted drug delivery has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Macromolecules such as antibodies, lipoproteins, lectins, proteins, polypeptides, polysaccharides, natural as well as synthetic polymers offer potential applicabilities as high molecular weight carriers for various therapeutically active compounds. Dextrans serve as one of the most promising macromolecular carrier candidates for a wide variety of therapeutic agents due to their excellent physico-chemical properties and physiological acceptance. The present contribution attempts to review various features of the dextran carrier like its source, structural and physico-chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetic fate and its applications as macromolecular carrier with special emphasis on dextran prodrugs.

  17. A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, A.; Reggiani, L. [Lecce, Univ. (Italy). Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia. Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali; Kuhn, T. [Munster, Westfalische Wilhelms-Univ. (Germany). Inst. fur Theoretische Physik II; Varani, L. [Montpellier, Univ. Montpellier II (France). Centre d`Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique


    A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers K = 2{pi}{sup 2}k{sub B}{sup 2}T / (3h) is rigorously derived within a correlation-function formalism. Similar to the case of the universal electrical conductance G = 2e{sup 2} / h this result pertains to one-dimensional, ballistic, and degenerate conditions for non-interacting particles.

  18. Itaconic acid carrier ampholytes for isoelectric focusing. (United States)

    Brenna, O


    Commercial carrier ampholytes, obtained by coupling polyethylene polyamines to acrylic acid, exhibit a conductivity minimum in the pH range 5.5-6.5 owing to the lack of appropriate pK values of the polyamine in this pH region. By replacing acrylic with itaconic acid, it has been possible to effect substantial improvements in the pH range 5.5-6.5 as itaconic acid has a pK2 value of 5.45. Upon coupling, the pK of the gramma-carboxyl group remains virtually unaltered. With itoconic acid carrier ampholytes it has been possible to improve the conductivity in the pH range 5.5-6.5 by as much as 400% compared with conventional carrier ampholytes. It is suggected that the commercial products should be supplemented with itaconic acid carrier ampholytes in order to obtain a more uniform conductivity and buffering capacity in the pH range 3-10.

  19. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  20. Terahertz carrier dynamics and dielectric properties of GaN epilayers with different carrier concentrations (United States)

    Guo, H. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Liu, W.; Yong, A. M.; Tang, S. H.


    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex conductivity and dielectric function of n-type GaN with various carrier concentrations on sapphire substrate. The measured complex conductivity, which is due to the free carriers, is well fitted by simple Drude model. The contribution from the lattice vibration to the complex dielectric function increases with the decrease in free carrier concentration. A better fitting of the frequency-dependent complex dielectric response was obtained by considering both of the Drude and the classical damped oscillator model.

  1. Inspired Carbon Dioxide During Hypoxia: Effects on Task Performance and Cerebral Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, E. van; Los, M.; Dirven, P.; Sarton, E.; Valk, P.; Teppema, L.; Stienstra, R.; Dahan, A.


    Introduction: Exposure to a hypoxic environment has a deleterious effect on physiological and mental functions. We studied the effect of added inspired CO2 during artificially induced hypoxic normobaric hypoxia (oxygen saturation ∼80%) on complex task performance. Methods: In random order, 22 health

  2. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano


    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  3. Feasibility study of sulfates as oxygen carriers for chemical looping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kale


    Full Text Available The operational feasibility temperature range of chemical looping combustion (CLC and chemical looping reforming (CLR of the fuels methane, propane, iso-octane and ethanol was explored using the common sulphates

  4. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T


    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta block...

  5. Aircraft Oxygen Generation (United States)


    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  6. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  7. Hybrid Oxygen System (United States)


    otherwise in any manner construed, as licensing the holder or any other person or corporation ; or as conveying any rights or permission to manufacture, use...12 Modest Activity 2 12 24 Comnat ane G’s Average 5 32 64 Peak Activity (NATO) 10 50 Instantaneous Peak Flow N/A 150-20W_ Published oxygen flow rates

  8. Field Effect and Strongly Localized Carriers in the Metal-Insulator Transition Material VO(2). (United States)

    Martens, K; Jeong, J W; Aetukuri, N; Rettner, C; Shukla, N; Freeman, E; Esfahani, D N; Peeters, F M; Topuria, T; Rice, P M; Volodin, A; Douhard, B; Vandervorst, W; Samant, M G; Datta, S; Parkin, S S P


    The intrinsic field effect, the change in surface conductance with an applied transverse electric field, of prototypal strongly correlated VO(2) has remained elusive. Here we report its measurement enabled by epitaxial VO(2) and atomic layer deposited high-κ dielectrics. Oxygen migration, joule heating, and the linked field-induced phase transition are precluded. The field effect can be understood in terms of field-induced carriers with densities up to ∼5×10(13)  cm(-2) which are trongly localized, as shown by their low, thermally activated mobility (∼1×10(-3)  cm(2)/V s at 300 K). These carriers show behavior consistent with that of Holstein polarons and strongly impact the (opto)electronics of VO(2).

  9. Recombination of charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in silicon doped by transition metals impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, L A


    It has been studied the peculiarities of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in received according to Czochralski method p-silicon (p approx 3 - 20 Ohm centre dot cm), doped by one of the impurities of transition metals of the IV-th group of periodic table (titanium, zirconium, hafnium). Experimental results are obtained out of the analysis of temperature and injection dependence of the life time of charge carriers. The results are explained taking into consideration the influences of elastic stress fields created by the aggregates of transition metals atoms on space distribution over the crystal of oxygen and carbon background impurities as well as on the migration of movable radiation-induced defects during irradiation. (authors).

  10. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony


    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  11. PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems with Large Number of Sub-Carriers by Carrier Interferometry Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hui; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong


    High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the major drawbacks of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM) systems. This paper presents the structures of the particular bit sequences leading to the maximum PAPR (PAPRmax) in Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (CI/OFDM) and Pseudo Orthogonal Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (PO-CI/OFDM) systems for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, the simulation and analysis of PAPRmax and PAPR cumulative distribution in CI/OFDM and PO-CI/OFDM systems with 2048 sub-carriers are presented in this paper. The results show that the PAPR of OFDM system with large number of sub-carriers reduced evidently via CI approaches.

  12. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier (United States)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff


    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  13. Resistivity, carrier concentration, and carrier mobility of electrochemically deposited CdTe films


    Takahashi, Makoto; Uosaki, Kohei; Kita, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shoji


    The electrical type, resistivity, and donor or acceptor concentration of CdTe films deposited electrochemically at various potentials were measured. The carrier mobilities of the films were determined from these results. The deposition potential dependence of the mobility was small and the deposition potential dependence of the resistivity was mainly controlled by the deposition potential dependence of the donor or acceptor concentration. The carrier mobilities were very small compared with t...

  14. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang


    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  15. Text Classification using Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M


    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms for classifying text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using artificial intelligence technique that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of na\\"ive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of genetic algorithm has been added for final classification. A syste...

  16. Artificial intelligence and science education (United States)

    Good, Ron

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined and related to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Modeling the student, the teacher, and the natural environment are discussed as important parts of ICAI and the concept of microworlds as a powerful tool for science education is presented. Optimistic predictions about ICAI are tempered with the complex, persistent problems of: 1) teaching and learning as a soft or fuzzy knowledge base, 2) natural language processing, and 3) machine learning. The importance of accurate diagnosis of a student's learning state, including misconceptions and naive theories about nature, is stressed and related to the importance of accurate diagnosis by a physician. Based on the cognitive science/AI paradigm, a revised model of the well-known Karplus/Renner learning cycle is proposed.

  17. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence (United States)

    Schorr, Herbert; Rappaport, Alain

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  18. Apartes desde la inteligencia artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Torres Soler


    Full Text Available El estudio y desarrollo de la inteligencia artificial no debe centrarse sólo en la creación de software o hardware que permita realizar procesos algorítmicos o heurísticos en el computador, de tal forma que produzcan soluciones óptimas y eficientes al resolver un problema complejo, ya sea de manejo de información o de toma de decisiones, o crear máquinas que tengan buena apariencia del ser humano; se debe, sobre todo, analizar la parte neurológica y sicológica que presenta el individuo al solucionar problemas. Además, es importante conocer la capacidad intelectual de la persona, de ahí la variedad de carreras profesionales que existen; no puede quedar por fuera de los sistemas inteligentes la concepción del amor o admiración.

  19. Artificial intelligence in medical diagnosis. (United States)

    Szolovits, P; Patil, R S; Schwartz, W B


    In an attempt to overcome limitations inherent in conventional computer-aided diagnosis, investigators have created programs that simulate expert human reasoning. Hopes that such a strategy would lead to clinically useful programs have not been fulfilled, but many of the problems impeding creation of effective artificial intelligence programs have been solved. Strategies have been developed to limit the number of hypotheses that a program must consider and to incorporate pathophysiologic reasoning. The latter innovation permits a program to analyze cases in which one disorder influences the presentation of another. Prototypes embodying such reasoning can explain their conclusions in medical terms that can be reviewed by the user. Despite these advances, further major research and developmental efforts will be necessary before expert performance by the computer becomes a reality.

  20. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan


    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  1. The artificial pancreas : From logic to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, J.


    In this thesis we investigated the efficacy of real-life use of an artificial pancreas starting with use of these systems in a hotel setting and finally 24/7 long-term use at home. We investigated the accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems that act as input for the artificial pancre

  2. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  3. Creativity in design and artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neocleous, C.C.; Esat, I.I. [Brunel Univ. Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Schizas, C.N. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)


    The creativity phase is identified as an integral part of the design phase. The characteristics of creative persons which are relevant to designing artificial neural networks manifesting aspects of creativity, are identified. Based on these identifications, a general framework of artificial neural network characteristics to implement such a goal are proposed.

  4. Artificial Intelligence--Applications in Education. (United States)

    Poirot, James L.; Norris, Cathleen A.


    This first in a projected series of five articles discusses artificial intelligence and its impact on education. Highlights include the history of artificial intelligence and the impact of microcomputers; learning processes; human factors and interfaces; computer assisted instruction and intelligent tutoring systems; logic programing; and expert…

  5. Isolated Speech Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks (United States)


    In this project Artificial Neural Networks are used as research tool to accomplish Automated Speech Recognition of normal speech. A small size...the first stage of this work are satisfactory and thus the application of artificial neural networks in conjunction with cepstral analysis in isolated word recognition holds promise.

  6. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology. (United States)

    Carlson, Patricia A.


    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  7. Airway Complications of Total Artificial Heart. (United States)

    Pathak, Vikas; Donovan, Colin; Malhotra, Rajiv


    The total artificial heart is the mechanical device which is used as a bridge to the heart transplant in patients with biventricular failure. Due to the mechanical nature of the device, patients receiving total artificial heart (TAH) require to be on anticoagulation therapy. Hemorrhage and coagulopathy are few of the known complications of TAH.

  8. Dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.


    A principle for dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses is presented, where the optimization criterion is maximization of the term . To this purpose it is important to consider the break-even point for artificial lighting, which can be defined a

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Education: An Exploration. (United States)

    Cumming, Geoff


    Gives a brief outline of the development of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) which includes psychology, education, cognitive science, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Highlights include learning environments; learner modeling; a situated approach to learning; and current examples of AIED research. (LRW)

  10. Bacterial flora of semen collected from Danish warmblood stallions by artificial vagina. (United States)

    Madsen, M; Christensen, P


    Semen samples were collected from 21 Danish Warmblood stallions by the Colorado artificial vagina (Colorado AV, 14 samples) or by the Missouri artificial vagina (Missouri AV, 7 samples). The semen was examined bacteriologically by direct plating (DP) on blood agar plates, and by plating of semen swabs stored in Stuart's transport media (TM) at 4 degrees C for 1-4 days. No significant differences were observed between results obtained by DP and cultures of identical TM samples. Of the 21 samples examined, only 1 TM (4.8%) and 2 DP samples (9.5%) were sterile, while the rest yielded a predominantly mixed flora comprising 1 to 4 bacterial genera. The natural flora was dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (Staphylococcus lentus, S. capitis, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus) (16/21 = 76%), coryneforms (11/21 = 52%) and alpha-hemolytic streptococci and lactobacilli (7/21 = 33%). Potential venereal pathogens were isolated from 7 stallions (33%). Beta-hemolytic streptococci were found in 4 stallions used for natural service, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype 6 (2 samples) and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae capsule type K5 (1 sample) were isolated from 3 stallions used exclusively for artificial insemination. The role of the stallion as a carrier of potential venereal pathogens, and the artificial vagina as a source of contamination, is discussed in the context of mare endometritis.

  11. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints (United States)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  12. Presence of contagious agalactia causing mycoplasmas in Spanish goat artificial insemination centres. (United States)

    Amores, J; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; De la Fe, C


    Male goats admitted to artificial insemination centres come from herds that have shown no clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia (CA) for the last 6 mo. However, prior reports suggest that this control measure may not be completely effective. This study was designed to detect the presence of CA-causing mycoplasmas in 9 Spanish centres, comprising 159 goats (147 males and 12 teaser does) of 8 different breeds. A microbiological study was conducted during 8 mo on 448 samples (318 ear swabs, 119 semen samples and 11 milk samples). In 86 samples (84 swabs, 1 semen sample and 1 milk sample), CA-causative mycoplasmas were detected by PCR or culture, and 52 animals (49 goat males and 3 teaser does) tested positive. Most of these positive animals were auricular carriers (n = 50), mainly of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), although some M. agalactiae (Ma) and, interestingly, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) carriers were also identified. At least 1 animal infected by CA-causing mycoplasmas was detected in 8 of the 9 centres (88.8%) although in most (66.7%) no infected animals or only 1 or 2 positive animals were identified. Our results indicate the presence of CA carriers as asymptomatic animals in reproductive programmes. These findings have already prompted efficient measures to detect and avoid the entry of these carriers in Spanish centres. We recommend similar measures for all centres in areas where CA is endemic.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per


    A majority of the research performed today explore artificial intelligence in smart homes by using a centralized approach where a smart home server performs the necessary calculations. This approach has some disadvantages that can be overcome by shifting focus to a distributed approach where...... the artificial intelligence system is implemented as distributed as agents running parts of the artificial intelligence system. This paper presents a distributed smart home architecture that distributes artificial intelligence in smart homes and discusses the pros and cons of such a concept. The presented...... distributed model is a layered model. Each layer offers a different complexity level of the embedded distributed artificial intelligence. At the lowest layer smart objects exists, they are small cheap embedded microcontroller based smart devices that are powered by batteries. The next layer contains a more...

  14. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karakose


    Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  15. Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network To Detect Hyperthermic Seizures In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sinha


    Full Text Available A three-layered feed-forward back-propagation Artificial Neural Network was used to classify the seizure episodes in rats. Seizure patterns were induced by subjecting anesthetized rats to a Biological Oxygen Demand incubator at 45-47ºC for 30 to 60 minutes. Selected fast Fourier transform data of one second epochs of electroencephalogram were used to train and test the network for the classification of seizure and normal patterns. The results indicate that the present network with the architecture of 40-12-1 (input-hidden-output nodes agrees with manual scoring of seizure and normal patterns with a high recognition rate of 98.6%.

  16. Artificial photosynthesis: biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion and storage. (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, K; Graetzel, M


    Using sun as the energy source, natural photosynthesis carries out a number of useful reactions such as oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and fixation of CO(2) in the form of sugars. These are achieved through a series of light-induced multi-electron-transfer reactions involving chlorophylls in a special arrangement and several other species including specific enzymes. Artificial photosynthesis attempts to reconstruct these key processes in simpler model systems such that solar energy and abundant natural resources can be used to generate high energy fuels and restrict the amount of CO(2) in the atmosphere. Details of few model catalytic systems that lead to clean oxidation of water to H(2) and O(2), photoelectrochemical solar cells for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, solar cells for total decomposition of water and catalytic systems for fixation of CO(2) to fuels such as methanol and methane are reviewed here.

  17. Oxygen Depletion in the Interstellar Medium: Implications for Grain Models and the Distribution of Elemental Oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Whittet, D C B


    This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery (Jenkins 2009) that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen. At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice mantle growth) as much as 160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carrier...

  18. Electrical properties of oxygen ion-implanted InP (United States)

    He, L.; Anderson, W. A.


    The effect of oxygen ion implantation on defect levels and the electrical properties of undoped InP ( n-type) and Sn-doped InP have been investigated as a function of postimplant annealing at temperatures of 300 and 400° C. The surface interruption by ion bombardment was studied by a non-invasive optical technique—photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. Current-voltage (I-V) characterization and deep level transient spectros-copy (DLTS) were carried out. The free carrier compensation mechanism was studied from the microstructure behavior of defect levels associated with O+ implantation. Free carriers may be trapped in both residual and ion-bombardment-induced defect sites. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) performed at different temperatures showed that if residual traps were removed by annealing, the compensation efficiency will be enhanced. Post-implant RTA treatment showed that at the higher temperature (400°C), trapped carriers may be re-excited, resulting in a weakened compensation. Comparing the results of undoped and Sn-doped InP indicated that the carrier compensation effect is substrate doping dependent.

  19. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H


    of oxygen treatment. One study is observational and the remaining five are RCTs. Another five studies were on hyperbaric oxygen treatment hereof two case studies. CONCLUSION: Oxygen therapy can be administered at different flow rates. Three studies investigate the effect of low-flow oxygen, 6-7 l....../min, and found a positive response in 56%, 75% and 82%, respectively, of the patients. One study investigates high-flow oxygen, 12 l/min, and found efficacy in 78% of attacks. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been investigated in a few small studies and there is evidence only for an acute...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened. (United States)


    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened. “U.S. Artificially Opened” consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which...