WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial lifts

  1. Analysis of multicriteria models application for selection of an optimal artificial lift method in oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Crnogorac, Miroslav P.; Danilović, Dušan Š.; Karović-Maričić, Vesna D.; Leković, Branko A.

    2016-01-01

    In the world today for the exploitation of oil reservoirs by artificial lift methods are applied different types of deep pumps (piston, centrifugal, screw, hydraulic), water jet pumps and gas lift (continuous, intermittent and plunger). Maximum values of oil production achieved by these exploitation methods are significantly different. In order to select the optimal exploitation method of oil well, the multicriteria analysis models are used. In this paper is presented an analysis of the multi...

  2. Control of a Heavy-Lift Robotic Manipulator with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Robinson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight, compliant actuators are particularly desirable in robotic systems intended for interaction with humans. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs exhibit these characteristics and are capable of higher specific work than comparably-sized hydraulic actuators and electric motors. The objective of this work is to develop a control algorithm that can smoothly and accurately track the desired motions of a manipulator actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles. The manipulator is intended for lifting humans in nursing assistance or casualty extraction scenarios; hence, the control strategy must be capable of responding to large variations in payload over a large range of motion. The present work first investigates the feasibility of two output feedback controllers (proportional-integral-derivative and fuzzy logic, but due to the limitations of pure output feedback control, a model-based feedforward controller is developed and combined with output feedback to achieve improved closed-loop performance. The model upon which the controller is based incorporates the internal airflow dynamics, the physical parameters of the pneumatic muscles and the manipulator dynamics. Simulations were performed in order to validate the control algorithms, guide controller design and predict optimal gains. Using real-time interface software and hardware, the controllers were implemented and experimentally tested on the manipulator, demonstrating the improved capability.

  3. The value of smart artificial lift technology in mature field operations demonstrated in the Zistersdorf oilfield in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, S.; Oberndorfer, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoelaufsuchungs-AG, Wien (Austria); Soliman, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Currently, approximately 40% of world oil production comes from mature fields and the tendency is that this will increase with time. A significant portion of operational expenditures in mature oil fields is related to lifting costs including the cost of maintenance of the artificial lift equipment. In many cases additional, unnecessary, costs are incurred due to inadequate control of corrosion and sand production leading to premature failures of the equipment and thus to additional workover operations. In mature fields this can result in a significant loss of reserves when the production has to be abandoned prematurely because workover operations become uneconomic. In order to combat such losses of reserves RAG and its partners have developed fit-for-purpose technologies such as: continuous control of the liquid level in the annulus (i.e. bottom hole flowing pressure), innovative advanced sand control and longer lasting artificial lift equipment. On the basis of the 75 years old Zistersdorf oilfields the value of these developments in artificial lift technology is demonstrated. The Zistersdorf oilfields produce primarily from the compacted and fairly permeable 'Sarmat' sandstone formation which has many layers whereby the higher layers are poorly consolidated. The fields are currently producing from 33 producing wells some 6 900 m{sup 3} (Vn)/d gas and 48 t/d of oil at an average water cut of 97.1%. It will be shown that the implementation of the technologies described in combination with the in-house knowledge and the dedication of the field staff has extended considerably the mean time between failures of the equipment, reduced markedly the average yearly decline rate and thus extended the economic life expectancy of the fields and increased the ultimate recovery significantly.

  4. Artificial neural networks to predict 3D spinal posture in reaching and lifting activities; Applications in biomechanical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Arjmand, N

    2016-09-06

    Spinal posture is a crucial input in biomechanical models and an essential factor in ergonomics investigations to evaluate risk of low back injury. In vivo measurement of spinal posture through the common motion capture techniques is limited to equipped laboratories and thus impractical for workplace applications. Posture prediction models are therefore considered indispensable tools. This study aims to investigate the capability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in predicting the three-dimensional posture of the spine (S1, T12 and T1 orientations) in various activities. Two ANNs were trained and tested using measurements from spinal postures of 40 male subjects by an inertial tracking device in various static reaching and lifting (of 5kg) activities. Inputs of each ANN were position of the hand load and body height, while outputs were rotations of the three foregoing segments relative to their initial orientation in the neutral upright posture. Effect of posture prediction errors on the estimated spinal loads in symmetric reaching activities was also investigated using a biomechanical model. Results indicated that both trained ANNs could generate outputs (three-dimensional orientations of the segments) from novel sets of inputs that were not included in the training processes (root-mean-squared-error (RMSE)0.95). A graphic user interface was designed and made available to facilitate use of the ANNs. The difference between the mean of each measured angle in a reaching task and the corresponding angle in a lifting task remained smaller than 8°. Spinal loads estimated by the biomechanical model based on the predicted postures were on average different by < 12% from those estimated based on the exact measured postures (RMSE=173 and 35N for the L5-S1 compression and shear loads, respectively).

  5. Two-phase flow simulation inside a tubing string with artificial lift system PCP based; Simulacao do escoamento bifasico em uma coluna de producao com sistema de elevacao artificial por BCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, F.J.T.; Salazar, A.O.; Maitelli, A.L. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: francisco@dca.ufrn.br; andres@dca.ufrn.br; maitelli@dca.ufrn.br; Assmann, B.W. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios]. E-mail: benno@petrobras.com.br; Lima, J.A. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: jalima@dem.ufrn.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the present work is the computational simulation of the vertical two-phase flow within a tubing string in the production of oil equipped with a PCP artificial lift system (Progressive Cavity Pumping). By initially adopting the homogeneous model for the two-phase mixture (oil and gas), the fields of velocity and pressure are evaluated for prediction of pressure loss along the tubing, as well as the spatial and temporal behavior of typical parameters as gas-oil ratio, bubble pressure, solubility ratio, void fraction, gas and oil formation volume factors, among others. Prediction of these properties is an integral part of pressure loss calculations, as well as they constitute essential parameters for optimization of any artificial lift system. The numerical simulation is based on the transport equations (continuity and momentum equations) for a pseudo-fluid through the finite difference method, and the mixture properties are evaluated by employing the black-oil fluid model. Behavior analyses of the main flow variables are made and results for a typical artificial lift system PCP based are discussed. (author)

  6. Hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in a heavy oil well, Pilon field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfissi, S.; Lujan, A. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Pilon Field in the Morichal District, Venezuela is producing heavy oil with numerous gas lift wells. Some of these wells are now inactive due to casing damage. The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits of using hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in such wells. A pilot test was conducted on a well presenting a low water cut and 12 degree API, an indirect fire heater was installed near the wells. Results showed that heat losses were minimized thanks to the concentric pipe completion. In addition hot gas injection resulted in an oil production increase of 57%. The hot gas injection method used with a concentric tubing completion was proved to be a good alternative to the use of diluent but an economic analysis is nevertheless recommended to determine the costs of installing heating equipment.

  7. Relative performances of artificial neural network and regression mapping tools in evaluation of spinal loads and muscle forces during static lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, N; Ekrami, O; Shirazi-Adl, A; Plamondon, A; Parnianpour, M

    2013-05-31

    Two artificial neural networks (ANNs) are constructed, trained, and tested to map inputs of a complex trunk finite element (FE) model to its outputs for spinal loads and muscle forces. Five input variables (thorax flexion angle, load magnitude, its anterior and lateral positions, load handling technique, i.e., one- or two-handed static lifting) and four model outputs (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) for spinal loads and 76 model outputs (forces in individual trunk muscles) are considered. Moreover, full quadratic regression equations mapping input-outputs of the model developed here for muscle forces and previously for spine loads are used to compare the relative accuracy of these two mapping tools (ANN and regression equations). Results indicate that the ANNs are more accurate in mapping input-output relationships of the FE model (RMSE= 20.7 N for spinal loads and RMSE= 4.7 N for muscle forces) as compared to regression equations (RMSE= 120.4 N for spinal loads and RMSE=43.2 N for muscle forces). Quadratic regression equations map up to second order variations of outputs with inputs while ANNs capture higher order variations too. Despite satisfactory achievement in estimating overall muscle forces by the ANN, some inadequacies are noted including assigning force to antagonistic muscles with no activity in the optimization algorithm of the FE model or predicting slightly different forces in bilateral pair muscles in symmetric lifting activities. Using these user-friendly tools spine loads and trunk muscle forces during symmetric and asymmetric static lifts can be easily estimated.

  8. Artificial lifting supervision: successes solutions apply for 3.000 oil wells; Supervisao na elevacao artificial: uma solucao aplicada com sucesso em 3.000 pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rutacio O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo B. [RN TECNOLOGIA, Natal, RN (Brazil); Maitelli, Andre L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The gathering of information in industrial automation is essential to maintain and control the industrial processes. In the automation of oil wells, each artificial elevation method has its own variables to be monitored. Thus, several automation companies have developed specific controllers with its own communication protocol and supervisory software. However, in an ideal case, all information about oil elevation should be available in one single application. The SISAL is a SCADA system able to collect processes data and deliver them to the users or other system, regardless of the technique used for artificial elevation, controllers and connecting devices to the wells. This paper is about the application, progress and results using this software in PETROBRAS. (author)

  9. Lifting operations and lifting equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lifting operations are inherent to many occupations in the construction industry. They can be performed manually or using lifting equipment. Both manual lifting and mechanical lifting operations can put construction workers at great risk of injury or health symptoms causing sick leave or disability.

  10. Eyelid lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids ( ptosis ). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging or drooping eyelids occur with increasing age. Some people are born with ...

  11. 基于等级加权法的海上机械采油方式优选方法%Optimizal Method of Offshore Oil Artificial Lift Modes Based on Hierarchical Grade-Weighted Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 曹砚锋; 隋先富; 于继飞; 欧阳铁兵

    2016-01-01

    目前海上油田总体开发方案中,机械采油方式优选方法单一,以定性指标为主,缺乏必要理论支撑与数据支持。为此,综合考虑技术指标、经济指标、工程指标的影响,以机械采油方式优选为目标,采用等级加权法对技术、经济和工程3个指标的影响因素进行赋值以及分配权重,建立了海上机械采油方式优选方法。利用该优选方法对海上X稠油油田的机械采油方式进行了优选,开发初期产液量为40~108 m3/d时,推荐采用螺杆泵开采;开发后期产液量达到200 m3/d时,考虑X油田为稠油油田,应采取降黏措施,推荐采用电潜泵+掺稀/化学降黏方式开采。优选结果与该油田总体开发方案中的机械采油方式一致,且该油田机械采油方式与优选结果一致的井,都正常生产。这表明基于等级加权法的机械采油方式优选方法可以指导海上油田选用合理、经济、对海洋工程影响较小的机械采油方式,从而提高海上油田的开发效益。%Currently ,the method used for optimizing mechanical artificial lift methods in offshore oil fields is developed during the overall development plan .Generally speaking ,there is insufficient theoretical support or data available in these processes .For that reason ,it is important to develop a new analytical ap-proach that incorporates all relevant technical ,economic ,and engineering factors .To improves the process , a hierarchical ,grade-weighted method can be deployed to assign these three indicators for establishing a model of optimal offshore artificial lift .The newly developed method has been deployed for identification of optimal artificial lifts in X Oilfield for heavy oil development .The result shows that in the early stages of development ,liquid production was 40 108 m3/d ,and accordingly ,a screw pump was proposed for its devel-opment .In the late stages of development ,with liquid

  12. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  13. Lifting endomorphisms to automorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Arveson, William; Courtney, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Normal endomorphisms of von Neumann algebras need not be extendable to automorphisms of a larger von Neumann algebra, but they always have asymptotic lifts. We describe the structure of endomorphisms and their asymptotic lifts in some detail, and apply those results to complete the identification of asymptotic lifts of unital completely positive linear maps on von Neumann algebras in terms of their minimal dilations to endomorphisms.

  14. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  15. Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fuller and heavier. This stretching might contribute to sagging breasts after pregnancy — whether or not you breast- ... stretch and sag. A breast lift can reduce sagging and raise the position of the nipples and ...

  16. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  17. Lifting as You Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  18. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  19. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E{sub 8} factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  20. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. On classical and quantum liftings

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, L; Kossakowski, A; Matsuoka, T; Ohya, M

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the procedure of lifting in classical stochastic and quantum systems. It enables one to `lift' a state of a system into a state of `system+reservoir'. This procedure is important both in quantum information theory and the theory of open systems. We illustrate the general theory of liftings by a particular class related to so called circulant states.

  2. Transformable Heavy Lift Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    the 500 group include climate control, freshwater/seawater systems, mechanical handling, and special purpose systems. Due to the large troop...compliment carried on the JHSS, large amounts of climate control and ventilation were required. The transformable heavy lift ship has only a single... Treeline Connector Innovation Cell Naval Research Enterprise Intern Program Final Report, NSWCCD-20-TR-2005/05 August 2005 "Saturn." Nijhuis

  3. Heterotic Weight Lifting

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E_8 factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with ...

  4. Knees Lifted High

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Knees Lifted High gives children fun ideas for active outdoor play.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  5. Lift application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Gilberto T

    2013-01-01

    Lift Application Development Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create secure web applications using this amazing framework.The book first teaches you basic topics such as starting a new application and gradually moves on to teach you advanced topics to achieve a certain task. Then, it explains every step in detail so that you can build your knowledge about how things work.This book is for developers who have at least some basic knowledge about Scala and who are looking for a functional, secure, and modern web framework. Prior experience with HTML and JavaScript

  6. CT gas lift captures last of field reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T.B.; Miller, J.; Woodell, M.E.; Johnson, H.

    1996-06-01

    Texaco Exploration and Production Inc.`s (TEPI) Brookeland Field in Newton County, Texas, produces from 30, mostly dual-horizontal, wells in the Austin Chalk reservoir. The wells are typically drilled vertically and casing is set to the top of the Austin Chalk at about 10,000 ft. Building at 15{degree}/100 ft, 4,000-ft laterals are drilled to the northwest and southeast to intersect the natural fractures of the Austin Chalk. The horizontal sections of the wellbore are openhole completions that average 700 b/d of oil and 5 MMcfd of gas. Within 1 year of initial production, the wells require compression to sustain flow and conventional gas lift is used when the wells load up with fluid. Typically, when production declines to 200 Mcfd and 100 b/d of fluid, the gas lift injection point is at 8,000 ft and average gas lift usage is 500 Mcfd. Coiled tubing-conveyed artificial lift was suggested, but first other concerns had to be addressed. The long, horizontal lateral sections functioned as a natural gas and fluid separator, resulting in a distinct slug flow pattern. During a 24-hour period, slug flow caused the wells to produce 100% gas or 100% fluid. For cost reasons TEPI chose conventional, field-installed coiled tubing (CT) gas lift equipment over spoolable equipment. Texaco then formed a team alliance with McMurry-Macco Lift Systems and Dowell to evaluate and complete trial wells with coiled tubing gas lift equipment. This paper reviews the case history of the field, the design considerations of the coiled tubing gas lift, and the surface support equipment used.

  7. What is a safe lift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp.

  8. by Lifting Line Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Dumitrescu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The vortex model of propellers is modified and applied to the high-speed horizontal axis turbines. The turbine blades are replaced by lifting lines and trailing vortices which shed along the blade span. The model is not a free wake model, but it is still a nonlinear one which should be solved iteratively. In addition to the regular case where the trailing vortices are constrained to distribute along a helical surface, another version, where each trailing vortex sheding from the blade grows as a free helical vortex line, is also included. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Predictions are, shown to compare favorably with existing numerical data from more involved free wake methods, but require less computational effort. Thereby, the present method may be a very useful tool for calculating the aerodynamic loads on horizontal-axis wind turbine blades.

  9. Wavelets and the lifting scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge of li...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection.......The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge...

  10. Wavelets and the lifting scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge of li...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection.......The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge...

  11. Wavelets and the Lifting Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge of li...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection.......The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge...

  12. High-Lift Optimization Design Using Neural Networks on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Roxana M.; Roth, Karlin R.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag, and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural networks were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 83% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  13. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  14. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  15. On the generalized lifting problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Bolondi

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available We construct curves for which the generalized lifting property does not hold, with high degree. We discuss the behaviour of the Hilbert function of the general plane section of these curves.

  16. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Burgers

    Full Text Available For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S, compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  17. Mist lift analysis summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  18. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  19. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  20. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  1. Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerodynamic Optimization Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Roxana M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. The 'pressure difference rule,' which states that the maximum lift condition corresponds to a certain pressure difference between the peak suction pressure and the pressure at the trailing edge of the element, was applied and verified with experimental observations for this configuration. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural nets were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 44% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  3. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  4. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    CERN Document Server

    Cariglia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem, that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  5. Lifting quasianalytic mappings over invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Rainer, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\rho : G \\to \\operatorname{GL}(V)$ be a rational finite dimensional complex representation of a reductive linear algebraic group $G$, and let $\\sigma_1,\\ldots,\\sigma_n$ be a system of generators of the algebra of invariant polynomials $\\mathbb{C}[V]^G$. We study the problem of lifting mappings $f : \\mathbb{R}^q \\supseteq U \\to \\sigma(V) \\subseteq \\mathbb{C}^n$ over the mapping of invariants $\\sigma=(\\sigma_1,\\ldots,\\sigma_n) : V \\to \\sigma(V)$. Note that $\\sigma(V)$ can be identified with the categorical quotient $V /\\!\\!/ G$ and its points correspond bijectively to the closed orbits in $V$. We prove that, if $f$ belongs to a quasianalytic subclass $\\mathcal{C} \\subseteq C^\\infty$ satisfying some mild closedness properties which guarantee resolution of singularities in $\\mathcal{C}$ (e.g.\\ the real analytic class), then $f$ admits a lift of the same class $\\mathcal{C}$ after desingularization by local blow-ups and local power substitutions. As a consequence we show that $f$ itself allows for a lift which...

  6. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  7. Krajewski diagrams and spin lifts

    CERN Document Server

    Schücker, T

    2005-01-01

    A classification of irreducible, dynamically non-degenerate, almost commutative spectral triples is refined. It is extended to include centrally extended spin lifts. Simultaneously it is reduced by imposing three constraints: (i) the condition of vanishing Yang-Mills and mixed gravitational anomalies, (ii) the condition that the fermion representation be complex under the little group, while (iii) massless fermions are to remain neutral under the little group. These constraints single out the standard model with one generation of leptons and quarks and with an arbitrary number of colours.

  8. Training for lifting; an unresolved ergonomic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, A W; Gormley, J T

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes a nine year project on lifting training which included nine trans-Australia consensus conferences attended by more than 900 health professionals. Major outcomes were: (1) The essence of lifting work is the need for the performer to cope with variability in task, environment, and self, and the essence of lifting skill is therefore adaptability; (2) the semi-squat approach provides the safest and most effective basis for lifting training; (3) for lifting training to be effective, the basic principles of skill learning must be systematically applied, with adaptability as a specific goal; (4) physical work capacity (aerobic power, strength, endurance, joint mobility) is a decisive ingredient of safe and effective lifting and, in addition to skill learning, should be incorporated in the training of people engaging regularly in heavy manual work; (5) if effective compliance with recommended skilled behaviour is to be achieved, then training must apply the principles and methods appropriate to adult learning and behaviour modification.

  9. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  10. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  11. Constraint Processing in Lifted Probabilistic Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Kisynski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    First-order probabilistic models combine representational power of first-order logic with graphical models. There is an ongoing effort to design lifted inference algorithms for first-order probabilistic models. We analyze lifted inference from the perspective of constraint processing and, through this viewpoint, we analyze and compare existing approaches and expose their advantages and limitations. Our theoretical results show that the wrong choice of constraint processing method can lead to exponential increase in computational complexity. Our empirical tests confirm the importance of constraint processing in lifted inference. This is the first theoretical and empirical study of constraint processing in lifted inference.

  12. Yoshida lifts and Selmer groups

    CERN Document Server

    Böcherer, Siegfried; Schulze-Pillot, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Let $f$ and $g$, of weights $k'>k\\geq 2$, be normalised newforms for $\\Gamma_0(N)$, for square-free $N>1$, such that, for each Atkin-Lehner involution, the eigenvalues of $f$ and $g$ are equal. Let $\\lambda\\mid\\ell$ be a large prime divisor of the algebraic part of the near-central critical value $L(f\\otimes g,\\frac{k+k'-2}{2})$. Under certain hypotheses, we prove that $\\lambda$ is the modulus of a congruence between the Hecke eigenvalues of a genus-two Yoshida lift of (Jacquet-Langlands correspondents of) $f$ and $g$ (vector-valued in general), and a non-endoscopic genus-two cusp form. In pursuit of this we also give a precise pullback formula for a genus-four Eisenstein series, and a general formula for the Petersson norm of a Yoshida lift. Given such a congruence, using the $4$-dimensional $\\lambda$-adic Galois representation attached to a genus-two cusp form, we produce, in an appropriate Selmer group, an element of order $\\lambda$, as required by the Bloch-Kato conjecture on values of $L$-functions. (Her...

  13. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  14. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  15. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  16. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  17. How to Lift a Heavy Object?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁凤丽

    2007-01-01

    <正>Many people hurt their backs when they try to lift heavy things from the floor. It is easy to hurt your back muscles when you pick up a heavy object. However, there is a correct way to lift things from the floor. If you pick up big or heavy objects correctly, you probably will not hurt your back.

  18. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  19. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  20. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  1. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  2. Lip Lifting: Unveiling Dental Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kyle; Caligiuri, Matthew; Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Bazos, Panaghiotis K; Magne, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The focus for the achievement of complete success in the esthetic zone has traditionally been on addressing deficiencies of intraoral hard and soft tissue. Often, these deficiencies are accompanied by esthetic concerns regarding the lips that are routinely neglected by the dental team. A predictable plastic surgery technique - the lip lift - has been used for decades to enhance lip esthetics by shortening the senile upper lip to achieve a more youthful appearance. Over the years, this technique has been refined and used in many different ways, allowing its routine incorporation into full facial esthetic planning. Through restoration of the upper lip to its optimal position, the artistry of the dentist and dental technician can truly be appreciated in the rejuvenated smile. By the introduction of this minimally invasive surgical technique to the dental community, patients stand to benefit from a comprehensive orofacial approach to anterior dental esthetic planning.

  3. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  4. Occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The aim...... of this study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy. METHODS: The study comprised 50 143 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in the period from 1996-2002. During pregnancy, the women provided information on occupational lifting...... (weight load and daily frequency), and six months post partum on pelvic pain. Adjusted odds ratios for pelvic pain during pregnancy according to occupational lifting were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Any self-reported occupational lifting (>1 time/day and loads weighing >10 kg...

  5. Lift conference | 5-7 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, Lift Events explore the business and social implications of new technologies through the organisation of international event series and open innovation programs in Europe, Asia and America. The next conference will be held on 5-7 February in Geneva.   (Image: © Lift Conference) The Lift Conference is one of the leading conferences on innovation in Europe and a key annual meeting for individuals and organizations wishing to understand and anticipate trends and innovation. Held every year in February in Geneva (5-7 February 2014), the Lift Conference is a three-day event consisting of talks, interactive workshops, exhibitions, and discussions bringing together over 1’000 participants from all society’s sectors and industries in a dynamic and informal environment with the aim to learn, connect, share and leverage innovation opportunities.   Extraordinary speakers will take to the stage at Lift14: Porter Erisman, former VP of Alibaba.com turned...

  6. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  7. Lifting index of the niosh lifting equation and low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Remor Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of the Lifting Index obtained through the application of the NIOSH Lifting Equation and the incidence of low back pain among forty-eight workers involved in manual lifting tasks. It was applied the equation in eleven tasks and the workers were interviewed. The most unfavorable conditions presented themselves in the lifting destination. The variables that most contributed to the inadequate values of the Lifting Index were: the horizontal location, the lifting frequency and the vertical distance, beyond the high weight of the load. The incidence of low back pain in the last twelve months was 19%, whereas the incidence of work-related low back pain in the same period was 10%. In 72.7% of the tasks evaluated the Composite Lifting Index was more than three, which are considered as high ergonomic risk.

  8. Development of predictive equations for lifting strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine relationship between lifting strengths of male and female subjects and body posture, type of lift (stoop or squat) and velocity of lift. Thirty normal young adults (18 males and 12 females) volunteered for the study. All subjects were required to perform a total of 56 tasks. Of these, 28 were stoop lifts and 28 were squat lifts. In each of the categories of stoop and squat lifts, the strengths were tested in standard posture, isokinetic (linear velocity of 500 mm/s), and isometric modes at half, three-quarters and full horizontal individual reach distances in sagittal, 30 degrees lateral and 60 degrees lateral planes. The strengths were measured using a static dynamic strength tester with a load cell and an IBM microcomputer with an A/D card. The peak and average strength values were extracted and statistically compared across conditions and gender (ANOVA). Finally a multiple regression analysis was carried out to predict strength as a function of reach, posture and velocity of lift. The ANOVA revealed a highly significant effect of gender, reach, plane and velocity (p capabilities for industrial application based on simple anthropometric and strength characteristics.

  9. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... was collected around gestational week 16. We established a JEM based on information from women, who were still pregnant when interviewed. The JEM provided mean total loads lifted per day within homogeneous exposure groups as informed by job and industry codes. All women were assigned an exposure estimate from...

  10. Lower complexity bounds for lifted inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established earlier in Jaeger (2000; Jaeger, M. 2000. On the complexity of inference about...... that under the assumption that NETIME≠ETIME, there is no polynomial lifted inference algorithm for knowledge bases of weighted, quantifier-, and function-free formulas. Further strengthening earlier results, this is also shown to hold for approximate inference and for knowledge bases not containing...

  11. Database queries and constraints via lifting problems

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, David I

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown a tight relationship between databases and categories. In the present paper we extend that connection to show that certain queries and constraints correspond to the algebro-topological notion of lifting problems. In our formulation, each so-called SPARQL graph pattern query corresponds to a lifting problem, and each solution to the query corresponds to a lift. We interpret constraints within the same formalism and then investigate some formal properties of queries and constraints, e.g. their behavior under data migration functors.

  12. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  13. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie...

  14. Experimental determination of baseball spin and lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaways, L W; Hubbard, M

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method for the determination of lift on spinning baseballs. Inertial trajectories of (a) ball surface markers during the first metre of flight and (b) the centre of mass trajectory near home-plate were measured in a pitch using high-speed video. A theoretical model was developed, incorporating aerodynamic Magnus-Robins lift, drag and cross forces, which predicts the centre of mass and marker trajectories. Parameters including initial conditions and aerodynamic coefficients were estimated iteratively by minimizing the error between predicted and measured trajectories. We compare the resulting lift coefficients and spin parameter values with those of previous studies. Lift on four-seam pitches can be as much as three times that of two-seam pitches, although this disparity is reduced for spin parameters greater than 0.4.

  15. Lifting scheme of symmetric tight wavelets frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG BoJin; YUAN WeiTao; PENG LiZhong

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to realize the lifting scheme of tight frame wavelet filters. As for 4-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the tight frame transforms' ma-trix is 2×4, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 4×4. And in the case of 3-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the transforms' matrix is 2×3, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 3×3. In order to solve this problem, we intro-duce two concepts: transferred polyphase matrix for 4-channel filters and trans-ferred unitary matrix for 3-channel filters. The transferred polyphase matrix is sym-metric/antisymmetric. Thus, we use this advantage to realize the lifting scheme.

  16. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  17. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  18. Plunger lift analysis, troubleshooting and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlan, O.L.; McCoy, J.N. [Echometer Co., Wichita Falls, TX (United States); Podio, A.L. [Texas Univ. at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Plunger lifting is used to lift liquids such as condensates, water and oil from liquid loaded gas wells. This paper described a portable system designed to monitor gas plunger lift. The system digitized, stored and processed acoustic pulse signals generated by the plunger as it fell through each tubing collar recess when the well was shut in. Data were used to determine depth; fall velocity; the amount of appropriate cycle times for optimum operation; and the volume and rate of gas flowing into the well. The stored signals were then used to determine plunger position, plunger fall velocity, and plunger arrival at the liquid level in the tubing. Analysis of the data were used to optimize and troubleshoot the operation of plunger lifted wells. Examples of various operational problems encountered during the operation of the plunger lift system were also provided. It was concluded that the monitoring system increases the safety of plunger lift operations by allowing operators to know the exact placement of the plunger. 5 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  19. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  20. Artificial ribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J R

    1994-01-01

    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  1. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  2. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  3. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  4. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  5. Win a lift to the future!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Group is organising a competition offering people at CERN the chance to submit their ideas and win a ticket to the Lift10 Conference, which will be held in Geneva from 5 to7 May.   Lift is a community of technology "pioneers", created in 2006. It now involves more than 4,000 people from over 60 countries, who meet regularly in Europe and in Asia to explore the social implications of new technologies and the major shifts ahead. CERN is one of the academic partners of the next Lift conference, whose theme is "Connected people”. For this occasion, 10 free tickets to the conference will be awarded to the "CERNois" who come up with the best answers to the question: “How would you contribute to Lift10?” Those taking part in the competition can choose from among the following categories: - run workshop(s); - cover the conference on a blog; - coordinate a discussion during the breaks; - organize a lift@home ...

  6. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Anush; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Barba, L A

    2013-01-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, showing that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift appears also in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the ...

  7. CERN takes off at Lift11

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    CERN was especially featured at the Lift11 conference, held in Geneva early this month. Tara Shears delivered a keynote speech at the event, while Paul Oortman Gerlings (DGS-SEE) and Erik van der Bij (BE-CO) – winners of the Bulletin’s Lift11 competition – organised the CERN workshop.   Paul Oortman Gerlings takes questions at CERN's Lift11 workshop. Lift11 was an opportunity for CERN to reach today’s innovators and developers. “The event was filled with people eager to learn new ideas, who were not afraid to ask questions,” says Tara Shears, physicist from the LHCb Collaboration who presented an update on the status of the LHC. “People were amazed by what goes on inside CERN, by our science, our facilities – even by the way we carry out our day-to-day work. It is a branch of fundamental research that really seems to inspire everyone.” A small Lift11 group had the chance to take a tour of CERN, ...

  8. Coiled gas lift design installing at the well PM02, Morichal District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.C.; Marfissi, S.; Campos, F.; Lozada, E. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    This paper provided details of a new artificial lift alternative used to increase oil production of a gas lift producer well at an oilfield in Venezuela. Oil wells in the district typically suffered from corrosion damage which resulted in the eventual abandonment of the wells when casings became corroded. The gas lift system was designed to use gas injection through a 1.9 inch pipe with a special tool that injected gas to the bottom of the pipe through an additional 1.9 inch pipe placed within a 4.5 inch pipe. A hole inserted in the pipe was packed so that the fluids were produced through the annular between the 4.5 and 1.9 inch pipes. Pilot tests conducted at the well showed an increase in oil production from 200 barrels per day to an average of 1104 barrels per day using the new method. Required gas consumption for the gas lift was also reduced by 65 per cent. It was concluded that the method will now be used in a further 20 wells in the field. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  9. Lifted Inference for Relational Continuous Models

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Jaesik; Hill, David J

    2012-01-01

    Relational Continuous Models (RCMs) represent joint probability densities over attributes of objects, when the attributes have continuous domains. With relational representations, they can model joint probability distributions over large numbers of variables compactly in a natural way. This paper presents a new exact lifted inference algorithm for RCMs, thus it scales up to large models of real world applications. The algorithm applies to Relational Pairwise Models which are (relational) products of potentials of arity 2. Our algorithm is unique in two ways. First, it substantially improves the efficiency of lifted inference with variables of continuous domains. When a relational model has Gaussian potentials, it takes only linear-time compared to cubic time of previous methods. Second, it is the first exact inference algorithm which handles RCMs in a lifted way. The algorithm is illustrated over an example from econometrics. Experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms both a groundlevel inferenc...

  10. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  11. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  12. Asymmetric Gepner Models II. Heterotic Weight Lifting

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study of "lifted" Gepner models is presented. Lifted Gepner models are obtained from standard Gepner models by replacing one of the N=2 building blocks and the $E_8$ factor by a modular isomorphic $N=0$ model on the bosonic side of the heterotic string. The main result is that after this change three family models occur abundantly, in sharp contrast to ordinary Gepner models. In particular, more than 250 new and unrelated moduli spaces of three family models are identified. We discuss the occurrence of fractionally charged particles in these spectra.

  13. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector. Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a...

  14. Asymmetric Gepner models II. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-21

    A systematic study of 'lifted' Gepner models is presented. Lifted Gepner models are obtained from standard Gepner models by replacing one of the N=2 building blocks and the E{sub 8} factor by a modular isomorphic N=0 model on the bosonic side of the heterotic string. The main result is that after this change three family models occur abundantly, in sharp contrast to ordinary Gepner models. In particular, more than 250 new and unrelated moduli spaces of three family models are identified. We discuss the occurrence of fractionally charged particles in these spectra.

  15. NASA HL-20 PLS Lifting Body (Mockup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    NASA HL-20 PLS Lifting Body (Mockup): The HL-20 came into use at Langley in October 1990 and is a full-scale non-flying mockup. This mockup was used for engineering studies of maintainability of the vehicle, as testing crew positions, pilot visibility and other human factors considerations.

  16. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE

    2004-01-01

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Inter

  17. Complications of lower blepharoplasty and midface lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Robert M; Kotlus, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Lower eyelid blepharoplasty and midface lifting share a complex anatomy, which should be mastered before attempting these types of surgeries. In recent years, there have been significant contributions to rejuvenating this area. A thorough understanding of the rejuvenative approaches and their outcomes is imperative. Thus, the problem must be preoperatively evaluated to offer the appropriate technique and minimize complications.

  18. Image Compression using Space Adaptive Lifting Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Satyabama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Digital images play an important role both in daily life applications as well as in areas of research and technology. Due to the increasing traffic caused by multimedia information and digitized form of representation of images; image compression has become a necessity. Approach: Wavelet transform has demonstrated excellent image compression performance. New algorithms based on Lifting style implementation of wavelet transforms have been presented in this study. Adaptively is introduced in lifting by choosing the prediction operator based on the local properties of the image. The prediction filters are chosen based on the edge detection and the relative local variance. In regions where the image is locally smooth, we use higher order predictors and near edges we reduce the order and thus the length of the predictor. Results: We have applied the adaptive prediction algorithms to test images. The original image is transformed using adaptive lifting based wavelet transform and it is compressed using Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree algorithm (SPIHT and the performance is compared with the popular 9/7 wavelet transform. The performance metric Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR for the reconstructed image is computed. Conclusion: The proposed adaptive algorithms give better performance than 9/7 wavelet, the most popular wavelet transforms. Lifting allows us to incorporate adaptivity and nonlinear operators into the transform. The proposed methods efficiently represent the edges and appear promising for image compression. The proposed adaptive methods reduce edge artifacts and ringing and give improved PSNR for edge dominated images.

  19. Redheffer representations and relaxed commutant lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, S.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the solutions of a (relaxed) commutant lifting problem can be described via a linear fractional representation of the Redheffer type. The coefficients of such Redheffer representations are analytic operator-valued functions defined on the unit disc D of the complex plane. In th

  20. Innovative Alternatives to Lifting Overturned Military Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-25

    objects. For instance, Mine -Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles, which can weigh up to 55,000 lbs, have in the past overturned, trapping people...through long, small wires, and gives the user great control over the lift. The motors are powered by high performance 6.0 amp-hour lithium

  1. Soft sensing for gas-lift wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.H.J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Sturm, W.L.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the use of extended Kalman filtering as a soft-sensing technique for gas lift wells. This technique is deployed for the estimation of dynamic variables that are not directly measured. Possible applications are the estimation of flow rates from surface and downhole pressure measu

  2. Lift estimation of Half-Rotating Wing in hovering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Dong, Y. P.; Qiu, Z. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Shan, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new kind of flapping wing system with rotating flapping instead of oscillating flapping. Estimating approach of hovering lift which generated in hovering flight was important theoretical foundation to design aircraft using HRW. The working principle of HRW based on Half-Rotating Mechanism (HRM) was firstly introduced in this paper. Generating process of lift by HRW was also given. The calculating models of two lift mechanisms for HRW, including Lift of Flow Around Wing (LFAW) and Lift of Flow Dragging Wing (LFDW), were respectively established. The lift estimating model of HRW was further deduced, by which hovering lift for HRW with different angular velocity could be calculated. Case study using XFLOW software simulation indicates that the above estimating method was effective and feasible to predict roughly the hovering lift for a new HRW system.

  3. The Design of Wheelchair Lifting Mechanism and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cong; WANG Zheng-xing; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHANG Li; LIU Zheng-yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair lift function, this paper designs a tri-scissors mechanism. Through the so-called H-type transmission and L-type swing rod, the three scissors mechanisms lift in the same rate with only one liner motor while ensuring the stability of the lift. Finite element analysis in ANSYS is performed to verify the material strength. The control system with Sunplus SCM achieves the voice control of wheelchair walking and lifting.

  4. Clinical application of palatal lift appliance in velopharyngeal incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Premkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nasal air leak in cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal incompetence leads to characteristic nasal snort. The efficacy of the palatal lift appliance in patients with adequate velopharyngeal tissue with incompetence was tested. Speech quality improved after the wearing of palatal lift appliance. Palatal lift appliances are simple and efficient in reducing the nasal air leak. Ongoing speech therapy is necessary and advised for patients receiving palatal lift.

  5. On lifting line analysis of horizontal axis windturbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, G. K.; Loukakis, T. A.

    A convergent iteration scheme for lifting line performance analysis of horizontal axis windturbines is presented. Lifting line correction factors are introduced and compared with those of Prandtl and Goldstein. Lifting line and strip theory formulations are applied for the calculation of performance for two windturbines. Differences of engineering importance are shown to exist in the prediction of the Power coefficient.

  6. δ-Lifting and δ-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammet Tamer Kosan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, δ-lifting and δ-supplemented modules are defined as generalizations of lifting and supplemented modules. Several properties of these modules are proved.New characterizations of δ-semiperect and b-perfect rings studied in [9] are obtained using δ-lifting and δ-supplemented modules.

  7. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied vertically for a period of five minutes; and (ii) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices so that the hoisting forces are... which it is designed until clear of the floor and maintained in that position for a period of...

  8. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  9. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... notice that it had issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an overhead... determination concerning the country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered to the U.S....

  10. Approximately isometric lifting in quasidiagonal extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG XiaoChun; ZHAO YiLe

    2009-01-01

    Let O→I→A→A/I→O be a short exact sequence of C*-algebras with A unital.Suppose that the extension O→I→A→A/I→O is quasidiagonal,then it is shown that any positive element (projection,partial isometry,unitary element,respectively) in A/I has a lifting with the same form which commutes with some quasicentral approximate unit of I consisting of projections.Furthermore,it is shown that for any given positive number e,two positive elements (projections,As an application,it is shown that for any positive numbers e and (u) in U(A/I)0,there exists u in U(A)0which is a lifting of (u) such that cel(u) < cel(u) +e.

  11. Lift and drag of cetacean flippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mark; Weber, Paul; Howle, Laurens; Fish, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Field observation and collection of biological samples has resulted in cetacean (whales, dolphins and porpoises) flipper geometry being known for most species. However, the hydrodynamic properties of cetacean flippers have not been rigorously tested and thus their performance characteristics are unknown. Here, conducting water tunnel testing using scale models of cetacean flippers derived via computed tomography (CT) scans, as well as computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, we present a baseline work to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of cetacean flippers. We found that flippers of similar planform shape had similar hydrodynamic performance characteristics. Furthermore, one group of flippers of planform shape similar to a modern swept wing was found to have lift coefficient versus angle of attack curves that were biphasic rather than linear in nature, which was caused by the onset of vortex-dominated lift. Drag coefficient versus angle of attack curves were found to be less dependant on planform shape.

  12. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-10-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  13. Lift and Drag Measurements of Superhydrophobic Hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Samrat; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For several years, superhydrophobic surfaces which are chemically hydrophobic with micron or nanometer scale surface features have been considered for their ability to reduce drag and produce slip in microfluidic devices. More recently it has been demonstrated that superhydrophobic surfaces reduce friction coefficient in turbulent flows as well. In this talk, we will consider that modifying a hydrofoil's surface to make it superhydrophobic has on the resulting lift and drag measurements over a wide range of angles of attack. Experiments are conducted over the range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000hydrofoil is made superhydrophobic. The hydrofoils are coated Teflon that has been hot embossed with a 325grit stainless steel woven mesh to produce a regular pattern of microposts. In addition to fully superhydrophobic hydrofoils, selectively coated symmetrical hydrofoils will also be examined to study the effect that asymmetries in the surface properties can have on lift and drag. Partially funded by NSF CBET-1334962.

  14. Lifting CERN entrepreneurs to new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    William Rode

    2014-01-01

    How can an international research institution help employees who wish to leave their comfort zone for the risky endeavour of starting a company? CERN encourages the creation of companies as a way of disseminating technology developed here. But what else can be done to foster these initiatives?   William Rode, a technical student in CERN’s Knowledge Transfer Group, studied spin-off creations in some leading research institutions as part of his Master's thesis in entrepreneurship at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. William, who was offered a ticket to attend the Lift14 conference in Geneva, shares some insight into how we can support entrepreneurship at CERN: "A while ago I attended the Lift conference in Geneva. The conference explores the business and social implications of technology innovation through talks and workshops, as well as through art and discussion. Innovation is at the core of the conference and is reflected in the open-mindedness of th...

  15. Eisenhart lift for higher derivative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galajinsky, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The Eisenhart lift provides an elegant geometric description of a dynamical system of second order in terms of null geodesics of the Brinkmann-type metric. In this work, we attempt to generalize the Eisenhart method so as to encompass higher derivative models. The analysis relies upon Ostrogradsky's Hamiltonian. A consistent geometric description seems feasible only for a particular class of potentials. The scheme is exemplified by the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  16. Unified treatment of lifting atmospheric entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Lehman, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of the effect of lift on peak acceleration during atmospheric entry. Earlier studies were restricted to different regimes because of approximations invoked to solve the same transcendental equation. This paper shows the connection between the earlier studies by employing a general expression for the peak acceleration and obtains solutions to the transcendental equation without invoking the earlier approximations. Results are presented and compared with earlier studies where appropriate.

  17. Dragonfly flight. III. Lift and power requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, JM; Ellington, CP

    1997-02-01

    A mean lift coefficient quasi-steady analysis has been applied to the free flight of the dragonfly Sympetrum sanguineum and the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. The analysis accommodated the yaw and accelerations involved in free flight. For any given velocity or resultant aerodynamic force (thrust), the damselfly mean lift coefficient was higher than that for the dragonfly because of its clap and fling. For both species, the maximum mean lift coefficient L was higher than the steady CL,max. Both species aligned their strokes planes to be nearly normal to the thrust, a strategy that reduces the L required for flight and which is different from the previously published hovering and slow dragonfly flights with stroke planes steeply inclined to the horizontal. Owing to the relatively low costs of accelerating the wing, the aerodynamic power required for flight represents the mechanical power output from the muscles. The maximum muscle mass-specific power was estimated at 156 and 166 W kg-1 for S. sanguineum and C. splendens, respectively. Measurements of heat production immediately after flight resulted in mechanical efficiency estimates of 13 % and 9 % for S. sanguineum and C. splendens muscles, respectively.

  18. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS AND HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES OF THE "SIBERIAN LIFT CO., LTD."].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, V P; Usatov, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was carried out a hygienic assessment of the working conditions and health of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". When studying occupational factors on workplaces intensity, the temperature radiation, natural and artificial lighting, and also the content of chemicals they were revealed to fail to answer to the hygienic specifications. It is established that in 82% of employees the class of working conditions was detected as admissible (2) and in 18%--harmful (3.1 and 3.2). Results of the performed periodic medical examination of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". It is testified that 6.14% out of them are persistently unfit of the work with harmful and (or) dangerous substances and occupational factors also. 4.68% of employees demand an additional examination. 11,70% of workers need for out-patient examination and treatment. Sanatorium treatment is required for 1 (0.29%) the person. 4,68% of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd." need dispensary supervision. There are suggested measures for the improvement of working conditions and health of the employees.

  19. Nonlinear approach for oil field optimization based on gas lift optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamehchi, Ehsan; Rashidi, Fariborz [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran). Faculty of Chemical Engineering; Karimi, Behrooz [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran). Faculty of Industrial Engineering; Pourafshary, Peyman [Tehran Univ. (Iran). Petroleum Engineering Inst.

    2009-12-15

    When the initial energy of a virgin reservoir is not sufficient or when this energy falls below a certain limit after a production history, the production rates won't be able to meet economic margins. It is then time for artificial lift methods to come to aid. Among which, gas lift is the most commonly used scenario. Being somehow an ancient tool with an age of over a century, gas lift is though still a challenging problem when overall optimization is the concern. When the injection gas is of limited supply the problem is finding the best gas allocation scheme. However there are ever more cases emerging in certain geographic localities where the gas supplies are usually unlimited. The optimization problem then totally relates to the wellbore and completion string and fully engages with multiphase flow concepts. In the present study an intelligent genetic algorithm has been developed to simultaneously optimize all role playing factors, namely gas injection rate, injection depth and tubing diameter towards the maximum oil production rate with the water cut and injection pressure as the restrictions. The computations and real field data are mutually compared. (orig.)

  20. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  1. Optimization of Cricket-inspired, Biomimetic Artificial Hair Sensors for Flow Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, N; Floris, J; Krijnen, G

    2008-01-01

    High density arrays of artificial hair sensors, biomimicking the extremely sensitive mechanoreceptive filiform hairs found on cerci of crickets have been fabricated successfully. We assess the sensitivity of these artificial sensors and present a scheme for further optimization addressing the deteriorating effects of stress in the structures. We show that, by removing a portion of chromium electrodes close to the torsional beams, the upward lift at the edges of the membrane due to the stress, will decrease hence increase the sensitivity.

  2. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...... on the simple observation that all functions in each component need the same extra parameters and thus a transitive closure is not needed. We therefore simplify the search for extra parameters by treating each strongly connected component instead of each function as a unit, thereby reducing the time complexity...

  3. Lambda-lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, O.; Schultz, U.P.

    2004-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...... on the simple observation that all functions in each component need the same extra parameters and thus a transitive closure is not needed. We therefore simplify the search for extra parameters by treating each strongly connected component instead of each function as a unit, thereby reducing the time complexity...

  4. Variable-Compliance Couplings For Heavy Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne; Burkhardt, Raymond; Richardson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    New coupling devices contain manual or electronically controlled, motorized drives that vary stiffnesses. Short, clamped lengths of cable provide compliance. Using threaded rods, cables stretched, relaxed, or folded to make coupling more or less stiff. In more-advanced device, brackets holding cables moved by stepping motor via gearbox and ball screw. Motor operates under computer control with position feedback. Control computer commands greater stiffness during operations requiring precise positioning, and greater compliance to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Intended for use in wrist joints of robotic manipulators and other industrial equipment that must lift heavy objects.

  5. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  6. Pure spinor equations to lift gauged supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2014-01-31

    We rewrite the equations for ten-dimensional supersymmetry in a way formally identical to a necessary and sufficient G-structure system in N=2 gauged supergravity, where all four-dimensional quantities are replaced by combinations of pure spinors and fluxes in the internal space. This provides a way to look for lifts of BPS solutions without having to reduce or even rewrite the ten-dimensional action. In particular this avoids the problem of consistent truncation, and the introduction of unphysical gravitino multiplets.

  7. Fixed Wordsize Implementation of Lifting Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Tanja

    2006-12-01

    We present a reversible nonlinear discrete wavelet transform with predefined fixed wordsize based on lifting schemes. Restricting the dynamic range of the wavelet domain coefficients due to a fixed wordsize may result in overflow. We show how this overflow has to be handled in order to maintain reversibility of the transform. We also perform an analysis on how large a wordsize of the wavelet coefficients is needed to perform optimal lossless and lossy compressions of images. The scheme is advantageous to well-known integer-to-integer transforms since the wordsize of adders and multipliers can be predefined and does not increase steadily. This also results in significant gains in hardware implementations.

  8. Lift enhancement by dynamically changing wingspan in forward flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2014-06-01

    Dynamically stretching and retracting wingspan has been widely observed in the flight of birds and bats, and its effects on the aerodynamic performance particularly lift generation are intriguing. The rectangular flat-plate flapping wing with a sinusoidally stretching and retracting wingspan is proposed as a simple model for biologically inspired dynamic morphing wings. Numerical simulations of the low-Reynolds-number flows around the flapping morphing wing are conducted in a parametric space by using the immersed boundary method. It is found that the instantaneous and time-averaged lift coefficients of the wing can be significantly enhanced by dynamically changing wingspan in a flapping cycle. The lift enhancement is caused by both changing the lifting surface area and manipulating the flow structures responsible to the vortex lift generation. The physical mechanisms behind the lift enhancement are explored by examining the three-dimensional flow structures around the flapping wing.

  9. Lift Enhancement by Dynamically Changing Wingspan in Forward Flapping Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shizhao; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Stretching and retracting wingspan has been widely observed in the flight of birds and bats, and its effects on the aerodynamic performance particularly lift generation are intriguing. The rectangular flat-plate flapping wing with a sinusoidally stretching and retracting wingspan is proposed as a simple model of biologically-inspired dynamic morphing wings. Direct numerical simulations of the low-Reynolds-number flows around the flapping morphing wing in a parametric space are conducted by using immersed boundary method. It is found that the instantaneous and time-averaged lift coefficients of the wing can be significantly enhanced by dynamically changing wingspan in a flapping cycle. The lift enhancement is caused not only by changing the lifting surface area, but also manipulating the flow structures that are responsible to the generation of the vortex lift. The physical mechanisms behind the lift enhancement are explored by examining the three-dimensional flow structures around the flapping wing.

  10. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker.

  11. Linnainstallatsioonide festival "Lift 11" = Urban installations festival Lift 11 / Margit Aule, Margit Argus ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    Linnainstallatsioonide festivalist "Lift 11", installatsioonidest. Festivali kuraatorid Margit Argus ja Margit Aule ning kaaskuraatorid Maarin Ektermann ja Ingrid Ruudi pälvisid EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2011. a. arhitektuurialase tegevuse preemia avaliku linnaruumi mitmekesisust märkama, kasutama ning mõtestama ärgitanud ürituse korraldamise eest

  12. HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

  13. Masculinity and Lifting Accidents among Danish Ambulance Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent J

    Background Work injuries related to lifting are the most prevalent among ambulance personnel (AP) despite the introduction of ‘assistive technologies’ (AT) that help reduce situations of manual lifting. One third of the AP report using AT only ‘sometimes’ and 10% report having lifted a patient...... alone. For those 5% scoring lowest on MRNI the probability of reporting lifting alone was 6% while this figure was 17% for those scoring above the 95th percentile. Conclusion This study suggests that male ambulance workers performance of masculinity might pose a threat to their safety. AP...

  14. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media.   Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention.   Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction.   Conclusion:  A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies.

  15. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  16. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  17. Artificiality in Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Rennard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  18. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  19. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  20. Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonne evan Polanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, the weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in

  1. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.

    2005-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...

  2. On the Relationship between Integer Lifting and Rounding Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vargic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the relationship between integer Lifting scheme and Rounding transform as means to compute the wavelet transform in signal processing area. We bring some new results which better describe relationship, reversibility and equivalence of integer lifting scheme and rounding transform concept.

  3. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortel, J.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  4. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied vertically, for a period of five minutes; and (ii) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied towards... designed until clear of the floor and maintained in that position for a period of five minutes. (2)...

  5. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground rea

  6. Efficient assessment of exposure to manual lifting using company data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, Allard J.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study, based on an extensive dataset on manual materials handling during scaffolding, was to explore whether routinely collected company data can be used to estimate exposure to manual lifting. The number of manual lifts of scaffold parts while constructing/dismantling scaffold

  7. Efficient assessment of exposure to manual lifting using company data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.J. van der; Mathiassen, S.E.; Burdorf, A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study, based on an extensive dataset on manual materials handling during scaffolding, was to explore whether routinely collected company data can be used to estimate exposure to manual lifting.The number of manual lifts of scaffold parts while constructing/dismantling scaffolds

  8. Fitness Tracker for Weight Lifting Style Workouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wihl, B. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document proposes an early, high level design for a fitness tracking system which can automatically log weight lifting style workouts. The system will provide an easy to use interface both physically through the use of several wireless wristband style motion trackers worn on the limbs, and graphically through a smartphone application. Exercise classification will be accomplished by calibration of the user’s specific motions. The system will accurately track a user’s workout, miscounting no more than one repetition in every 20, have sufficient battery life to last several hours, work with existing smartphones and have a cost similar to those of current fitness tracking devices. This document presents the mission background, current state-of-theart, stakeholders and their expectations, the proposed system’s context and concepts, implementation concepts, system requirements, first sublevel function decomposition, possible risks for the system, and a reflection on the design process.

  9. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). An inner vessel receives liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including upper and lower guard chambers and middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid allowing easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  10. Fixed Wordsize Implementation of Lifting Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Karp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a reversible nonlinear discrete wavelet transform with predefined fixed wordsize based on lifting schemes. Restricting the dynamic range of the wavelet domain coefficients due to a fixed wordsize may result in overflow. We show how this overflow has to be handled in order to maintain reversibility of the transform. We also perform an analysis on how large a wordsize of the wavelet coefficients is needed to perform optimal lossless and lossy compressions of images. The scheme is advantageous to well-known integer-to-integer transforms since the wordsize of adders and multipliers can be predefined and does not increase steadily. This also results in significant gains in hardware implementations.

  11. Vector lifting schemes for stereo image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaniche, Mounir; Benazza-Benyahia, Amel; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2009-11-01

    Many research efforts have been devoted to the improvement of stereo image coding techniques for storage or transmission. In this paper, we are mainly interested in lossy-to-lossless coding schemes for stereo images allowing progressive reconstruction. The most commonly used approaches for stereo compression are based on disparity compensation techniques. The basic principle involved in this technique first consists of estimating the disparity map. Then, one image is considered as a reference and the other is predicted in order to generate a residual image. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, based on vector lifting schemes (VLS), which offers the advantage of generating two compact multiresolution representations of the left and the right views. We present two versions of this new scheme. A theoretical analysis of the performance of the considered VLS is also conducted. Experimental results indicate a significant improvement using the proposed structures compared with conventional methods.

  12. WECS incompressible Lifting Surface Aerodynamics (WILSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, E.; Morino, L.

    1976-05-01

    A method is described for computing the distribution for a zero-thickness horizontal axis windmill, as well as for obtaining the power coefficient. The problem is formulated in terms of velocity potential, and the study deals with a nonlinear finite-element lifting-surface analysis of horizontal-axis windmills in a steady incompressible, inviscid, irrotational flow, with a prescribed helicoidal wake. A zero-order-finite-element analysis is used with a straight-vortex line wake. The correct wake geometry is obtained and the pressure coefficient calculated using both linearized and nonlinear forms of the Bernoulli Theorem. The numerical results compare well with those obtained with Windmill Incompressible Complex Configuration Aerodynamics (WICCA), a computer program for solving the same problem which uses a completely different integral equation. A number of suggestions are offered to improve the model presented.

  13. Separation of blood cells using hydrodynamic lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geislinger, T. M.; Eggart, B.; Braunmüller, S.; Schmid, L.; Franke, T.

    2012-04-01

    Using size and deformability as intrinsic biomarkers, we separate red blood cells (RBCs) from other blood components based on a repulsive hydrodynamic cell-wall-interaction. We exploit this purely viscous lift effect at low Reynolds numbers to induce a lateral migration of soft objects perpendicular to the streamlines of the fluid, which closely follows theoretical prediction by Olla [J. Phys. II 7, 1533, (1997)]. We study the effects of flow rate and fluid viscosity on the separation efficiency and demonstrate the separation of RBCs, blood platelets, and solid microspheres from each other. The method can be used for continuous and label-free cell classification and sorting in on-chip blood analysis.

  14. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  15. Shape Design of Lifting body Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyuan Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept and history of lifting body, and puts forward a new method for the optimization of lifting body. This method has drawn lessons from the die line design of airplane is used to parametric numerical modeling for the lifting body, and extract the characterization of shape parameters as design variables, a combination of lifting body reentry vehicle aerodynamic conditions, aerodynamic heating, volumetric Rate and the stability of performance. Multi-objective hybrid genetic algorithm is adopted to complete the aerodynamic shape optimization and design of hypersonic lifting body vehicle when under more variable and constrained condition in order to obtain the Pareto optimal solution of Common Aero Vehicle shape.

  16. Soft shape-adaptive gripping device made from artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, E.; Vunder, V.; Johanson, U.; Kaasik, F.; Aabloo, A.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a multifunctional four-finger gripper for soft robotics, suitable for performing delicate manipulation tasks. The gripping device is comprised of separately driven gripping and lifting mechanisms, both made from a separate single piece of smart material - ionic capacitive laminate (ICL) also known as artificial muscle. Compared to other similar devices the relatively high force output of the ICL material allows one to construct a device able to grab and lift objects exceeding multiple times its own weight. Due to flexible design of ICL grips, the device is able to adapt the complex shapes of different objects and allows grasping single or multiple objects simultaneously without damage. The performance of the gripper is evaluated in two different configurations: a) the ultimate grasping strength of the gripping hand; and b) the maximum lifting force of the lifting actuator. The ICL is composed of three main layers: a porous membrane consisting of non-ionic polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVdF-HFP), ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate (EMITFS), and a reinforcing layer of woven fiberglass cloth. Both sides of the membrane are coated with a carbonaceous electrode. The electrodes are additionally covered with thin gold layers, serving as current collectors. Device made of this material operates silently, requires low driving voltage (<3 V), and is suitable for performing tasks in open air environment.

  17. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  18. Lifting kernel-based sprite codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasu, Aravind R.; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2000-12-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) has proposed a family of standards for compression of image and video sequences, including the JPEG, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. The latest MPEG-4 standard has many new dimensions to coding and manipulation of visual content. A video sequence usually contains a background object and many foreground objects. Portions of this background may not be visible in certain frames due to the occlusion of the foreground objects or camera motion. MPEG-4 introduces the novel concepts of Video Object Planes (VOPs) and Sprites. A VOP is a visual representation of real world objects with shapes that need not be rectangular. Sprite is a large image composed of pixels belonging to a video object visible throughout a video segment. Since a sprite contains all parts of the background that were at least visible once, it can be used for direct reconstruction of the background Video Object Plane (VOP). Sprite reconstruction is dependent on the mode in which it is transmitted. In the Static sprite mode, the entire sprite is decoded as an Intra VOP before decoding the individual VOPs. Since sprites consist of the information needed to display multiple frames of a video sequence, they are typically much larger than a single frame of video. Therefore a static sprite can be considered as a large static image. In this paper, a novel solution to address the problem of spatial scalability has been proposed, where the sprite is encoded in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). A lifting kernel method of DWT implementation has been used for encoding and decoding sprites. Modifying the existing lifting scheme while maintaining it to be shape adaptive results in a reduced complexity. The proposed scheme has the advantages of (1) avoiding the need for any extensions to image or tile border pixels and is hence superior to the DCT based low latency scheme (used in the current MPEG-4 verification model), (2) mapping the in place computed wavelet coefficients into a zero

  19. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  20. The Lifting Scheme Based on the Second Generation Wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hui; GUO Lanying; XIAO Jinsheng

    2006-01-01

    The lifting scheme is a custom-design construction of Biorthogonal wavelets, a fast and efficient method to realize wavelet transform, which provides a wider range of application and efficiently reduces the computing time with its particular frame. This paper aims at introducing the second generation wavelets, begins with traditional Mallat algorithms, illustrates the lifting scheme and brings out the detail steps in the construction of Biorthogonal wavelets. Because of isolating the degrees of freedom remaining the biorthogonality relations, we can fully control over the lifting operators to design the wavelet for a particular application, such as increasing the number of the vanishing moments.

  1. Drag and lift coefficients evolution of a Savonius rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Benghrib, D.

    1989-10-01

    The lift and drag coefficients of the rotating Savonius wind machine are determined from the pressure difference measured between the upper plane and the lower plane of a blade. Pressure measurements have been performed for two sets of experiments; the first one for U ∞ = 10 m/s and the second one for U ∞ = 12.5 m/s. In each case it is to be noted that a negative lift effect is present for low values of the tip speed ratio λ. The lift coefficient becomes positive when λ increases. The drag coefficient is of course always negative.

  2. Hydrofoils: optimum lift-off speed for sailboats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R M

    1968-12-13

    For a hydrofoil sailboat there is a unique optimum lift-off speed. Before this speed is reached, if there are no parasitic vertical hydrofoil appendages, the submerged or partially submerged hydrofoils increase drag and degrade performance. As soon as this speed is reached and the hydrofoils are fully and promptly deployed, the performance of a hydrofoil-borne craft is significantly improved. At speeds exceeding optimum lift-off speed, partially submerged hydrofoils impair performance if there is no significant effect of loading on the hydrofoil lift-to-drag ratio.

  3. Neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    Weight lifting and other forms of strength training are becoming more common because of an increased awareness of the need to maintain individual physical fitness. Emergency room data indicate that injuries caused by weight training have become more universal over time, likely because of increased participation rates. Neurologic injuries can result from weight lifting and related practices. Although predominantly peripheral nervous system injuries have been described, central nervous system disease may also occur. This article illustrates the types of neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting.

  4. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  5. Advanced Epitaxial Lift-Off Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a high-efficiency, triple-junction, epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell by incorporating quantum dots (QDs) within the current-limiting...

  6. Large-Eddy Simulations of Flapping-Induced Lift Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Jennifer; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    This work isolates the heaving motion of flapping flight in order to numerically investigate the fluid-structure interaction at Reynolds numbers relevant to birds and bats. Although there has been much focus on insect flight, larger vertebrates fly at a higher Reynolds number, which leads to different dynamics in terms of flow separation, reattachment, and high-lift mechanisms. In this work, an incompressible large-eddy simulation is used to simulate the periodic heaving of a flat plate at various angles of attack. It is found that the heaving motion can increase the average lift when compared with the steady flow, more so than is expected from the relative angle of attack. The additional lift is attributed to the vortex dynamics at the leading edge. The lift enhancement and flow features are compared with experimental results.

  7. Lift-Off Processing and Superconducting Circuit Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, C. M.; Megrant, A.; Dunsworth, A.; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-03-01

    As superconducting circuit coherence continues to increase, careful attention must be paid to device fabrication techniques. Substantial evidence points to dielectric loss from two-level state defects in thin amorphous interfacial regions as a limiting relaxation mechanism for superconducting qubits. Transmon qubits have traditionally been fabricated using lift-off aluminum deposited together with their Josephson junctions; however, improved coherence times have recently been found in transmons which use lift-off metal for only a small fraction of the qubit. To better understand this improvement and predict any remaining limits imposed by the incorporation of lift-off, we characterize the increased loss found in coplanar waveguide resonators formed with lift-off metal. We vary surface treatment such as oxygen ashing and ion milling, and study the effects of double-angle evaporation, e-beam resist residue, and surface roughness on resonator quality factors.

  8. Lifting of a sector block for YE-2 at Kawasaki.

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin

    2000-01-01

    YE-2 is build from machined sector blocks. Trial assembly is carried out horizontally. This picture represents the lifting of a machined sector block destined to the trial assembly of a half disk YE-2 at Kawasaki (KHI) Kobe, Japan.

  9. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of... bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load...

  10. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  11. Lift augmentation via spanwise tip blowing - A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a low aspect ratio wing with and without a spanwise directed jet issuing from the wing tip have been performed. The results show that the tip vortex is displaced outward and upward by the blowing. This gives rise to a local lift augmentation mechanism, vortex lift caused by the vortex core being above the wing, and a global mechanism, the reduction of induced velocities due to greater apparent spin.

  12. Searching for ski-lift injury: an uphill struggle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Pam; Chalmers, David

    2010-03-01

    Injuries arising from ski-lift malfunction are rare. Most arise from skier error when embarking or disembarking, or from improper lift operation. A search of the literature failed to uncover any studies focusing specifically on ski-lift injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise ski-lift injury resulting in hospitalisation and comment on barriers to reporting and reporting omissions. New Zealand hospitalised injury discharges 2000-2005 formed the primary dataset. To aid case identification these data were linked to ACC compensated claims for the same period and the data searched for all hospitalised cases of injury arising from ski-lifts. 44 cases were identified representing 2% of snow-skiing/snowboarding cases. 28 cases (64%) were male and 16 (36%) female, the average age was 32 yrs (range 5-73 yrs). The majority of cases were snow-skiers (35 cases, 80%). Most of the injuries were serious, or potentially so, with 1 case of traumatic pneumothorax, one of pulmonary embolism (after jumping from a ski-lift) and 28 cases sustaining fractures (six to the neck-of-femur, one to the lumbar spine and one to the pubis). ICISS scores for all cases ranged from 1.00 to 0.8182 (probability of dying in hospital 0-18.18%). Only 14 (32%) cases could be easily identified from ICD-10-AM e-codes and activity codes in the discharge summary. The ICD-10-AM external cause code for ski-lift injury V98 ("other specified transport accidents") was only assigned to 39% of cases. The type of ski-lift could only be determined in 24 cases (55%).

  13. Fuzzy-PID controlled lift feedback fin stabilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan-hua; JIN Hong-zhang; LIANG Li-hua

    2008-01-01

    Conventional PID controllers are widely used in fin stabilizer control systems,but they have time-variations,nonlinearity,and uncertainty influencing their control effects.A lift feedback fuzzy-PID control method was developed to better deal with these problems,and this lift feedback fin stabilizer system was simulated under different sea condition.Test results showed the system has better anti-rolling performance than traditional fin-angle PID control systems.

  14. Generalizing Lifted Tensor-Product Wavelets to Irregular Polygonal Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2002-04-11

    We present a new construction approach for symmetric lifted B-spline wavelets on irregular polygonal control meshes defining two-manifold topologies. Polygonal control meshes are recursively refined by stationary subdivision rules and converge to piecewise polynomial limit surfaces. At every subdivision level, our wavelet transforms provide an efficient way to add geometric details that are expanded from wavelet coefficients. Both wavelet decomposition and reconstruction operations are based on local lifting steps and have linear-time complexity.

  15. Lift and Drag Performance of Odontocete Cetacean Flippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cooper et al., 2008). The cross-section of a typical flipper is similar to that of a modern engineered air/ hydrofoil (Fish, 2004; Miklosovic et al., 2004...to modern engineered hydrofoils , which have hydrodynamic properties such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient and associated efficiency. Field...study are differentiated by whether or not their lift curves are linear. An engineered hydrofoil with linear behavior in the non-stall region was also

  16. Research on the Aerodynamic Lift of Vehicle Windshield Wiper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Zhengqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research on the aerodynamic lift of vehicle windshield wipers is confined to the steady results, and there are very few test results. In the face of this truth, a wind tunnel test is conducted by using the Multipoint Film Force Test System (MFF. In this test, the aerodynamic lift of four kinds of wiper is measured at different wind speeds and different rotation angles. And then, relevant steady-state numerical simulations are accomplished and the mechanism of the aerodynamic lift is analyzed. Furthermore, combined with dynamic meshing and user-defined functions (UDF, transient aerodynamic characteristics of wipers are obtained through numerical simulations. It is found that the aerodynamic lift takes great effect on the stability of wipers, and there is maximum value of the lift near a certain wind speed and rotation angle. The lift force when wipers are rotating with the free stream is less than steady, and the force when rotating against the free stream is greater than steady.

  17. ANALYSIS OF VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS RECORDED IN THE PASSENGER LIFT CABIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydło

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of private tests is presented in the article. The applicable tests refer to accelerations, the level of the sound pressure as well as to the sound power emitted by the passenger lift cabin at different technical conditions of the lift. For a group of lifting devices the accelerations were tested at three axes with the use of an accelerometer. The accelerometer was placed in the central part of the cabin with simultaneous measurement of the acoustic parameters with the sound analyzer equipped with the sound volume double microphone probe. The attempt was made to determine the impact of the frame - cabin system construction as well as the lift technical condition on the recorded parameters. It can allow to establish the limit values of the lift structure parameters under which a rapid drop of comfort takes place while travelling in the lift as well as to indicate those construction elements the modification of which would affect the improvement of the operation noiselessness.

  18. Classification of similar medical images in the lifting domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Chad W.; Tashakkori, Rahman

    2002-03-01

    In this paper lifting is used for similarity analysis and classification of sets of similar medical images. The lifting scheme is an invertible wavelet transform that maps integers to integers. Lifting provides efficient in-place calculation of transfer coefficients and is widely used for analysis of similar image sets. Images of a similar set show high degrees of correlation with one another. The inter-set redundancy can be exploited for the purposes of prediction, compression, feature extraction, and classification. This research intends to show that there is a higher degree of correlation between images of a similar set in the lifting domain than in the pixel domain. Such a high correlation will result in more accurate classification and prediction of images in a similar set. Several lifting schemes from Calderbank-Daubechies-Fauveue's family were used in this research. The research shows that some of these lifting schemes decorrelates the images of similar sets more effectively than others. The research presents the statistical analysis of the data in scatter plots and regression models.

  19. Toward "pseudo-haptic avatars": modifying the visual animation of self-avatar can simulate the perception of weight lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, David Antonio Gómez; Argelaguet, Ferran; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marchal, Maud; Multon, Franck; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we study how the visual animation of a self-avatar can be artificially modified in real-time in order to generate different haptic perceptions. In our experimental setup, participants could watch their self-avatar in a virtual environment in mirror mode while performing a weight lifting task. Users could map their gestures on the self-animated avatar in real-time using a Kinect. We introduce three kinds of modification of the visual animation of the self-avatar according to the effort delivered by the virtual avatar: 1) changes on the spatial mapping between the user’s gestures and the avatar, 2) different motion profiles of the animation, and 3) changes in the posture of the avatar (upper-body inclination). The experimental task consisted of a weight lifting task in which participants had to order four virtual dumbbells according to their virtual weight. The user had to lift each virtual dumbbells by means of a tangible stick, the animation of the avatar was modulated according to the virtual weight of the dumbbell. The results showed that the altering the spatial mapping delivered the best performance. Nevertheless, participants globally appreciated all the different visual effects. Our results pave the way to the exploitation of such novel techniques in various VR applications such as sport training, exercise games, or industrial training scenarios in single or collaborative mode.

  20. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  1. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

  2. A comparative study of DRL-lift and lift on integrated polyisobutylene polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, V.; Palla Papavlu, A.; Matei, A.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Lippert, T.; di Pietrantonio, F.; Cannata, D.; Benetti, M.; Verona, E.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of polymer pixel on sensors obtained by Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) assisted by a triazene polymer as Dynamic Release Layer (DRL). Polyisobutylene (PIB) was selected as model for chemoselective polymers which could be used as hydrogen-bond acidic polymer for vapor sensors. PIB films deposited on fused silica, respectively, on triazene polymer coated fused silica substrates were used as targets. Both targets were prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE). The parameters related to a regular, well-defined transfer were analyzed and compared for the substrates with and without the DRL. The morphological characterization of the transferred PIB was performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Optical Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was found that a minimal thickness of the dynamic release layer, i.e. 100 nm is required to protect the sensitive PIB polymer in a clean laser transfer process.

  3. Automated gas-lift satellites; Satelites de gas-lift automatizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Carlos Eduardo M. [PETROBRAS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao; Lira, Franklin S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). SERINF

    1998-12-31

    A gas-lift satellite automation system was developed by E and P-BA, exploration and production PETROBRAS unit in Bahia State. In the past, individual digital controllers were installed in each production well. As they were manufactured specifically for the oil industry their prices were high what resulted in high costs to completely install a satellite besides not permitting to synchronize the injection times of the various wells. PC (programmable controllers) were used what enable that one equipment control various wells simultaneously. That enable additional developments in the technology as using operational research to optimize the injection and inactive times so that the number of simultaneous injections were reduced. After the need to go the satellite in order to alter the times was on obstacle. Further development were done to enable the times to be changed remotely using ratio links through a supervisory system running in a microcomputer in an Operation Central. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ming Kuan

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  5. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  6. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  7. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  8. Lower body lift with superficial fascial system suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, T

    1993-11-01

    Multiple body contour deformities of the trunk and thighs are commonly treated in separate stages to limit postoperative complications and disability. Recent advances in the surgical design of the medial thigh lift and the lateral thigh/buttock lift along with an understanding of the functional anatomy of the superficial fascial system have significantly improved results and decreased complications of trunk/thigh lifts. The enhanced safety of current trunk/thigh lifts has allowed new combinations to treat multiple body contour deformities in a single stage. Laxity of the entire lower trunk and thigh regions can be treated in one stage in selected patients. The lower body lift combines the transverse flank/thigh/buttock lift and the fascial anchoring medial thigh lift in one operation. In addition to the expected tightening of the flank, buttocks, and total thighs, this procedure results in a surprising degree of epigastric and hypogastric tightening of mild to moderate abdominal laxity without direct surgical undermining or umbilical transposition. Ten patients having the lower body lift alone or in combination with liposuction and other body contouring procedures were followed for 6 to 24 months. The primary indication for surgery is moderate to severe soft-tissue laxity of the lower trunk and thighs with minimal or mild residual fat deposits. Skin contour irregularities due to skin laxity (cellulite of laxity) or to postliposuction adhesions are frequently present and may be severe. Patients with significant fat deposits may be treated initially with liposuction 3 to 4 months earlier to become candidates for this procedure. Key technical elements of this procedure include (1) both supine and lateral decubitus positioning with the hip flexed and abducted to allow overcorrection, (2) appropriate direct surgical undermining through superficial fascial system zones of adherence in the superior thigh while avoiding the lymphatics of the femoral triangle, (3) more

  9. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  10. Experimental research on dust lifting by propagating shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żydak, P.; Oleszczak, P.; Klemens, R.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the presented work was to study the dust lifting process from a layer of dust behind a propagating shock wave. The experiments were conducted with the use of a shock tube and a specially constructed, five-channel laser optical device enabling measurements at five positions located in one vertical plane along the height of the tube. The system enabled measurements of the delay in lifting up of the dust from the layer, and the vertical velocity of the dust cloud was calculated from the dust concentration measurements. The research was carried out for various initial conditions and for three fractions of black coal dust. In the presented tests, three shock wave velocities: 450, 490 and 518 m/s and three dust layer thicknesses, equal to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm, were taken into consideration. On the grounds of the obtained experimental results, it was assumed that the vertical component of the lifted dust velocity is a function of the dust particle diameter, the velocity of the air flow in the channel, the layer thickness and the dust bulk density. It appeared, however, that lifting up of the dust from the thick layers, thicker than 1 mm, is a more complex process than that from thin layers and still requires further research. A possible explanation is that the shock wave action upon the thick layer results in its aggregation in the first stage of the dispersing process, which suppresses the dust lifting process.

  11. Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of congruent voxels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Alberto; Kim, Heungsoo; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Beniam, Iyoel; Breckenfeld, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of functional materials offers unique advantages and capabilities for the rapid prototyping of electronic, optical and sensor elements. The use of LIFT for printing high viscosity metallic nano-inks and nano-pastes can be optimized for the transfer of voxels congruent with the shape of the laser pulse, forming thin film-like structures non-lithographically. These processes are capable of printing patterns with excellent lateral resolution and thickness uniformity typically found in 3-dimensional stacked assemblies, MEMS-like structures and free-standing interconnects. However, in order to achieve congruent voxel transfer with LIFT, the particle size and viscosity of the ink or paste suspensions must be adjusted to minimize variations due to wetting and drying effects. When LIFT is carried out with high-viscosity nano-suspensions, the printed voxel size and shape become controllable parameters, allowing the printing of thin-film like structures whose shape is determined by the spatial distribution of the laser pulse. The result is a new level of parallelization beyond current serial direct-write processes whereby the geometry of each printed voxel can be optimized according to the pattern design. This work shows how LIFT of congruent voxels can be applied to the fabrication of 2D and 3D microstructures by adjusting the viscosity of the nano-suspension and laser transfer parameters.

  12. Lifting Wing in Constructing Tall Buildings —Aerodynamic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Skelton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on previous research by the authors which determined the global state-of-the-art of constructing tall buildings by surveying the most active specialist tall building professionals around the globe. That research identified the effect of wind on tower cranes as a highly ranked, common critical issue in tall building construction. The research reported here presents a design for a “Lifting Wing,” a uniquely designed shroud which potentially allows the lifting of building materials by a tower crane in higher and more unstable wind conditions, thereby reducing delay on the programmed critical path of a tall building. Wind tunnel tests were undertaken to compare the aerodynamic performance of a scale model of a typical “brick-shaped” construction load (replicating a load profile most commonly lifted via a tower crane against the aerodynamic performance of the scale model of the Lifting Wing in a range of wind conditions. The data indicate that the Lifting Wing improves the aerodynamic performance by a factor of up to 50%.

  13. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  14. Conditional moment closure modeling of a lifted turbulent flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yong; QIU Rong; ZHOU Wei; FAN Weicheng

    2005-01-01

    Results obtained using conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to modeling a lifted turbulent hydrogen flame are presented. Predictions are based on k-ε-g turbulent closure, a 23-step chemical mechanism and a radially averaged CMC model. The objectives are to find out how radially averaged CMC can represent a lifted flame and which mechanism of flame stabilization can be described by this modeling method. As a first stage of the study of multi-dimensional CMC for large eddy simulation (LES) of the lifted turbulent flames, the effect of turbulence upon combustion is included, the high-order compact finite- difference scheme (Padé) is used and previously developed characteristic-wave-based boundary conditions for multi- component perfect gas mixtures are here extended to their conditional forms but the heat release due to combustion is not part of the turbulent calculations. Attention is focused to the lift-off region of the flame which is commonly considered as a cold flow. Comparison with published experimental data and the computational results shows that the lift-off height can be accurately determined, and Favre averaged radial profiles of temperature and species mole fractions are also reasonably well predicted. Some of the current flame stabilization mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Advances in Engineering Software for Lift Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff

    2012-03-01

    In this paper an attempt is performed at computer modelling of ropeway ski lift systems. The logic in these systems is based on a travel form between the two terminals, which operates with high capacity cabins, chairs, gondolas or draw-bars. Computer codes AUTOCAD, MATLAB and Compaq-Visual Fortran - version 6.6 are used in the computer modelling. The rope systems computer modelling is organized in two stages in this paper. The first stage is organization of the ground relief profile and a design of the lift system as a whole, according to the terrain profile and the climatic and atmospheric conditions. The ground profile is prepared by the geodesists and is presented in an AUTOCAD view. The next step is the design of the lift itself which is performed by programmes using the computer code MATLAB. The second stage of the computer modelling is performed after the optimization of the co-ordinates and the lift profile using the computer code MATLAB. Then the co-ordinates and the parameters are inserted into a program written in Compaq Visual Fortran - version 6.6., which calculates 171 lift parameters, organized in 42 tables. The objective of the work presented in this paper is an attempt at computer modelling of the design and parameters derivation of the rope way systems and their computer variation and optimization.

  16. Mid-L/D Lifting Body Entry Demise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The mid-lift-to-drag ratio (mid-L/D) lifting body is a fully autonomous spacecraft under design at NASA for enabling a rapid return of scientific payloads from the International Space Station (ISS). For contingency planning and risk assessment for the Earth-return trajectory, an entry demise analysis was performed to examine three potential failure scenarios: (1) nominal entry interface conditions with loss of control, (2) controlled entry at maximum flight path angle, and (3) controlled entry at minimum flight path angle. The objectives of the analysis were to predict the spacecraft breakup sequence and timeline, determine debris survival, and calculate the debris dispersion footprint. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of the initial pitch rate on the spacecraft stability and breakup during the entry. This report describes the mid-L/D lifting body and presents the results of the entry demise and sensitivity analyses.

  17. Lifting a large object from an anisotropic porous bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Timir; Raja Sekhar, G. P.

    2016-09-01

    An analytical study of two dimensional problem of lifting an object from the top of a fully saturated rigid porous bed is discussed. It is assumed that the porous bed is anisotropic in nature. The flow within the gap region between the object and the porous bed is assumed to be governed by Stokes equation while the flow within the porous bed is governed by Brinkman equation. The breakout phenomenon for different kinds of soil is reported. The effect of mechanical properties like anisotropic permeability, grain diameter size, and porosity on streamlines, velocity, and force is analyzed. Relevant comparison with C. C. Mei, R. W. Yeung, and K. F. Liu ["Lifting a large object from a porous bed," J. Fluid. Mech. 152, 203-215 (1985)] and Y. Chang, L. H. Huang and F. P. Y. Yang ["Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed," Phys. Fluids, 27, 053101 (2015)] is done.

  18. The cycloconverter based on fuzzy controller for lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gen-ping; YI Ling-zhi

    2005-01-01

    In order to ensure the lift can go up and down steadily and safely, a cycloconverter based on fuzzy control algorithm for lift was introduced, which can keep the output voltage to be symmetric sine wave. In this cycloconverter system,the main circuit structure was designed as circumfluence mode, with the strong DSP as the control unit, the fuzzy control policy of average weight accumulation decision was used to control the tuning of the triggering angle for thyristor in the main circuit, and then,the output voltage of the cycloconverter can be controlled. The experiment and simulation prove that the performance of the fuzzy cycloconverter is improved a lot and the output voltage is very similar to symmetric sine wave. This kind of cycloconverter can help the lift stop accurately, and the shock can be decreased.

  19. Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  20. Influences of Lorentz force on the hydrofoil lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaohui Chen; Baochun Fan; Zhihua Chen; Hongzhi Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Lorentz forces are proved to be able to suppress separation in flows over hydrofoils. Further-more, a differential equation of pressure distributions on the hydrofoil surface is derived, from which it is found that BVF (boundary vortex flux) cr is a suitable criterion for describing the lift coefficient variations during the electromagnetic control process. According to our numerical results, the peri-odic variations of lift for a hydrofoil at an attack angle of 17 o are analyzed and its inherent mechanism is discussed in detail with the concept of BVE On the other hand, the effects of Lorentz force on the hydrofoil's lift are investigated both experimentally and numerically for different magnitudes and locations.

  1. To design a belt drive scissor lifting table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the design of a belt drive scissor lifting table to be install on platforms, called skillet, that constitute a typical line of handling on which the operator can stay and proceed to assembly, with times established by the product manufacturing. The aim of this work is to design a new lifting table with the cheapest actuation commercially available, simple and able to respond to the functional requirements, in order to replace two commercial lifting tables actually in use on the skillets along the handling line. In order to satisfy these requirements, the design has involved two different analysis: a dynamic motion analysis and a structural analysis.

  2. Lift 2013⎜February 6 to 8

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The Lift Conference returns to the Centre International de Conférence de Genève, with speakers ranging from a science fiction author to a cognitive neuroscience researcher. As one of the foremost talk events of Europe, Lift 2013 seeks to discover new trends and turn them into opportunities.   The three-day conference is designed to engage and arouse intellectual curiosity by exploring the business and social implications of technological innovation. This year’s schedule also includes discussion of the political implications of technology and the impact of the online market on the future of economy. Alongside talks, workshops will be held on a wide range of topics, including the relationship between entrepreneur and investor, designs that influence social behaviour, and how ordinary people are changing the urban space. Lift 2013 also seeks to promote new business ventures and will award prizes to the start-up company that succeeds in convincing the audience an...

  3. High lift generation of low-aspect-ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoria, Adam; Mohseni, Kamran

    2016-11-01

    The time-averaged flow field in the center-span of low-aspect-ratio rectangular wings is experimentally measured. It is shown that lift stall is preceded by shedding of strong trailing-edge vorticity. The induced downwash of the tip vortices delays the growth of the attached boundary layer as well as leading-edge separation. Reattached flow occurs for sufficiently low aspect ratios and results in a smooth merging of the flow at the trailing edge thus assisting in satisfying a Kutta condition there. As a consequence, the strength of vorticity shed from the trailing edge is decreased and allows for continued lift generation at high angles of attack. When the reattachment point passes beyond the trailing edge, a strong shear layer is generated there and represents negative lift, leading to stall with a slight increase in angle of attack or aspect ratio.

  4. Complications of Lower Body Lift Surgery in Postbariatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Martine M.; Klein, Steven; Hoogbergen, Maarten M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an exponential rise of patients with massive weight loss because of bariatric surgery or lifestyle changes. The result is an increase of patients with folds of redundant skin that may cause physical and psychological problems. The lower body lift is a procedure to correct deformities in the abdomen, mons, flanks, lateral thighs, and buttocks. Complication rates are quite high and could negatively affect the positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to assess complication rates and to identify predictors of complications to optimize outcomes for patients after lower body lift surgery. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 100 patients who underwent a lower body lift procedure was performed. The patients were reviewed for complications, demographic data, comorbidities, smoking, highest lifetime body mass index, body mass index before lower body lift surgery, percentage of excess weight loss, and amount of tissue excised. Results: The overall complication rate was 78%. Twenty-two percent of the patients had major complications and 56% had minor complications. There is a linear relationship between body mass index before lower body lift surgery and complications (P = 0.03). The percentage of excess weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–1.00), highest lifetime body mass index (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01–1.15), body mass index before lower body lift surgery (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.02–1.33), and smoking (OR 7.74; CI 0.98–61.16) are significantly associated with the development of complications. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of a good weight status before surgery and cessation of smoking to minimize the risk of complications.

  5. Lift outs: how to acquire a high-functioning team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Abrahams, Robin

    2006-12-01

    More and more, expanding companies are hiring high-functioning groups of people who have been working together effectively within one company and can rapidly come up to speed in a new environment. These lifted-out teams don't need to get acquainted with one another or to establish shared values, mutual accountability, or group norms; their long-standing relationships and trust help them make an impact very quickly. Of course, the process is not without risks: A failed lift out can lead to loss of money, opportunity, credibility, and even native talent. Boris Groysberg and Robin Abrahams studied more than 40 high-profile moves and interviewed team leaders in multiple industries and countries to examine the risks and opportunities that lift outs present. They concluded that, regardless of industry, nationality, or size of the team, a successful lift out unfolds over four consecutive, interdependent stages that must be meticulously managed. In the courtship stage, the hiring company and the leader of the targeted team determine whether the proposed move is, in fact, a good idea, and then define their business goals and discuss strategies. At the same time, the team leader discusses the potential move with the other members of his or her group to assess their level of interest and prepare them for the change. The second stage involves the integration of the team leader with the new company's top leadership. This part of the process ensures the team's access to senior executives-the most important factor in a lift out's success. Operational integration is the focus of the third stage. Ideally, teams will start out working with the same or similar clients, vendors, and industry standards. The fourth stage entails full cultural integration. To succeed, the lifted-out team members must be willing to re-earn credibility by proving their value and winning their new colleagues' trust.

  6. LIFT: analysis of performance in a laser assisted adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantet, Cedric; Meimon, Serge; Conan, Jean-Marc; Neichel, Benoît; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Laser assisted adaptive optics systems rely on Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave-Front Sensors (WFS) for high order aberration measurements, and rely on Natural Guide Stars (NGS) WFS to complement the measurements on low orders such as tip-tilt and focus. The sky-coverage of the whole system is therefore related to the limiting magnitude of the NGS WFS. We have recently proposed LIFT, a novel phase retrieval WFS technique, that allows a 1 magnitude gain over the usually used 2×2 Shack-Hartmann WFS. After an in-lab validation, LIFT's concept has been demonstrated on sky in open loop on GeMS (the Gemini Multiconjugate adaptive optics System at Gemini South). To complete its validation, LIFT now needs to be operated in closed loop in a laser assisted adaptive optics system. The present work gives a detailed analysis of LIFT's behavior in presence of high order residuals and how to limit aliasing effects on the tip/tilt/focus estimation. Also, we study the high orders' impact on noise propagation. For this purpose, we simulate a multiconjugate adaptive optics loop representative of a GeMS-like 5 LGS configuration. The residual high orders are derived from a Fourier based simulation. We demonstrate that LIFT keeps a high performance gain over the Shack-Hartmann 2×2 whatever the turbulence conditions. Finally, we show the first simulation of a closed loop with LIFT estimating turbulent tip/tilt and focus residuals that could be induced by sodium layer's altitude variations.

  7. Control of manual lifting hazards: II. Job redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, M A

    1982-09-01

    Job content and workplace components can be altered to assure that lifting stresses remain within the acceptable limits defined for the industrial population-at-large. The plan for redesign advocates (1) maintaining the weight handled within the recommended limits; (2) modifying the workplace to enhance postural stability and to avoid handling weights and excessive physical loading; and (3) increasing available job time by reducing frequency of lifts and/or introducing appropriate rest periods. Limits recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on acceptable loads are reviewed.

  8. Block-based adaptive lifting schemes for multiband image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Hela; Benazza-Benyahia, Amel; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, we are interested in designing lifting schemes adapted to the statistics of the wavelet coefficients of multiband images for compression applications. More precisely, nonseparable vector lifting schemes are used in order to capture simultaneously the spatial and the spectral redundancies. The underlying operators are then computed in order to minimize the entropy of the resulting multiresolution representation. To this respect, we have developed a new iterative block-based classification algorithm. Simulation tests carried out on remotely sensed multispectral images indicate that a substantial gain in terms of bit-rate is achieved by the proposed adaptive coding method w.r.t the non-adaptive one.

  9. The lifting scheme of 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lizhong; CHU Xiaoyong

    2006-01-01

    The 4-channel smooth wavelets with linear phase and orthogonality are designed from the 2-channel orthogonal wavelets with high transfer vanishing moments. Reversely, for simple lifting scheme of such 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transforms, a new 2-channel orthogonal wavelet associated with this 4-channel wavelet is constructed. The new 2-channel wavelet has at least the same number of vanishing moments as the associated 4-channel one. Finally, by combining the two such 2-channel wavelet systems, the lifting scheme of 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transform, which has simple structure and is easy to apply, is presented.

  10. Artificial vision workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  12. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  13. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  14. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  15. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  16. Artificial human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  17. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  18. General artificial neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  19. Control of a Buoyancy-Based Pilot Underwater Lifting Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Haugen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about position control of a specific small-scale pilot underwater lifting body where the lifting force stems from buoyancy adjusted with an air pocket in the lifting body. A mathematical model is developed to get a basis for a simulator which is used for testing and for designing the control system, including tuning controller parameters. A number of different position controller solutions were tried both on a simulator and on the physical system. Successful control on both the simulator and the physical system was obtained with cascade control based on feedback from measured position and height of the air pocket in the lifting body. The primary and the secondary controllers of the cascade control system were tuned using Skogestad's model-based PID tuning rules. Feedforward from estimated load force was implemented in combination with the cascade control system, giving a substantial improvement of the position control system, both with varying position reference and varying disturbance (load mass.

  20. Bubble Size Effect on the Gas-lift Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guet, S.C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The gas-lift technique uses gas injection in vertical oil wells to decrease the gravitational pressure drop. The decreased pressure in the production pipe results in an increase of the pressure drop from the reservoir to the oil well and enhances the oil production. In this thesis we investigated th

  1. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  2. Lift of a rotating circular cylinder in unsteady flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Stefan; Mandviwalla, Xerxes; Vita, Luca;

    2012-01-01

    A cylinder rotating in steady current experiences a lift known as the Magnus effect. In the present study the effect of waves on the Magnus effect has been investigated. This situation is experienced with the novel floating offshore vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept called the DEEPWIND...

  3. Analysis of a distributed system for lifting trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pang, J.; Wouters, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The process-algebraic language muCRL is used to analyse an existing distributed system for lifting trucks. Four errors are found in the original design. We propose solutions for these problems and show by means of model-checking that the modified system meets the requirements.

  4. Accelerating Wavelet Lifting on Graphics Hardware Using CUDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wladimir J. van der; Jalba, Andrei C.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has a wide range of applications from signal processing to video and image compression. We show that this transform, by means of the lifting scheme, can be performed in a memory and computation-efficient way on modern, programmable GPUs, which can be regarded as

  5. On the lifting and approximation theorem for nonsmooth vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bramanti, Marco; Pedroni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We prove a version of Rothschild-Stein's theorem of lifting and approximation and some related results in the context of nonsmooth Hormander's vector fields for which the highest order commutators are only Holder continuous. The theory explicitly covers the case of one vector field having weight two while the others have weight one.

  6. Lifted Java: A Minimal Calculus for Translation Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingesman, Matthias Diehn; Ernst, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To support roles and similar notions involving multiple views on an object, languages like Object Teams and CaesarJ include mechanisms known as lifting and lowering. These mechanisms connect pairs of objects of otherwise unrelated types, and enable programmers to consider such a pair almost as a ...

  7. Lambda-lifting and CPS conversion in an imperative language

    CERN Document Server

    Kerneis, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a companion technical report to the article "Continuation-Passing C: from threads to events through continuations". It contains the complete version of the proofs of correctness of lambda-lifting and CPS-conversion presented in the article.

  8. Lifting the ban on brothels : Prostitution in 2000-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    On October 1, 2000 the general ban on brothels in the Netherlands was lifted. The core of the legislation is that those forms of prostitution in which adult prostitutes are voluntarily engaged are no longer illegal. This report is the English translation of the first comprehensive, evaluative report

  9. Lowering the Error Floor of LDPC Codes Using Cyclic Liftings

    CERN Document Server

    Asvadi, Reza; Ahmadian-Attari, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic liftings are proposed to lower the error floor of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The liftings are designed to eliminate dominant trapping sets of the base code by removing the short cycles which form the trapping sets. We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the cyclic permutations assigned to the edges of a cycle $c$ of length $\\ell(c)$ in the base graph such that the inverse image of $c$ in the lifted graph consists of only cycles of length strictly larger than $\\ell(c)$. The proposed method is universal in the sense that it can be applied to any LDPC code over any channel and for any iterative decoding algorithm. It also preserves important properties of the base code such as degree distributions, encoder and decoder structure, and in some cases, the code rate. The proposed method is applied to both structured and random codes over the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The error floor improves consistently by increasing the lifting degree, and the results show significant improvemen...

  10. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The...

  11. The temporal endoscopic midface lift -centrofacial rejuvenation without facial scars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Haffner

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The author describes a new endoscopic midface lifting technique using solely temporal access and evaluates its advantages and perspectives.Methods: This is a single-surgeon case study. Through a short temporal incision, dissection is performed along a single plane connecting the superifcial surfaces of both the facial and temporal superifcial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) layers. Subsequent midface dissection divides the malar fat pad into the deeper and superifcial parts. A new concept of a combination high malar SMAS lift and internal skin lfap anchorage that provides long-term stability is described.Results: The temporal endoscopic midface (TEM) lift technique resulted in good objective results with high patient satisfaction. The temporal access allowed proper vertical vector correction of the sagging centro-facial structures. The resulting scar was inconspicuous and hidden in the hair bearing skin, and its length was measured between 5-6 cm. A conversion to the conventional long facial scar approach was completely avoided.Conclusion:The TEM lift is a new and effective procedure for facial rejuvenation, especially the midface and cheek. The results illustrate the importance of internal anchorage of both the midface SMAS and skin lfap. These are the keys to long-lasting and pleasing results. The procedure is best suited for younger men and women with little or no neck skin laxity.

  12. Assembly and lifting of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Viebæk, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Pearl-Chain arches were invented at the Technical University of Denmark in cooporation with the company Abeo A/S. The system uses specially designed, pre-fabricated concrete elements that are post-tensioned together into an arch shape, which is then lifted into place. The arches can be used both...

  13. Usefulness of Kent retractor and lifting hook for Nuss procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-11-01

    Although the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum has been widely employed, a variety of complications have been reported. The most dangerous complication is cardiac injury from the insertion of the introducer. To eliminate these complications, we present a sternum elevating technique using a Kent retractor and a lifting hook.

  14. Tip vorticity reduction and optimization of lifting surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparenberg, JA

    2001-01-01

    In linearized optimization theory, lifting surfaces, moving in an inviscid and incompressible fluid, shed tip vorticity of which the strength has infinite square-root singularities. Here we discuss that an optimization procedure can be coupled to constraints so that the strength of the shed vorticit

  15. Cleft-lift operation for pilonidal sinuses under tumescent local anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2011-01-01

    The use of tumescent local anesthesia in the Bascom cleft-lift procedure has not been described before.......The use of tumescent local anesthesia in the Bascom cleft-lift procedure has not been described before....

  16. Thermal lift generation and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekardan, Cem; Alexeenko, Alina

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of the new technologies in low pressure environments such as Hyperloop and helicopters designed for Martian applications, understanding the aerodynamic behavior of airfoils in rarefied environments are becoming more crucial. In this paper, verification of rarefied ES-BGK solver and ideas such as prediction of the thermally induced lift and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics are investigated. Validation of the rarefied ES-BGK solver with Runge-Kutta discontinous Galerkin method with experiments in transonic regime with a Reynolds number of 73 showed that ES-BGK solver is the most suitable solver in near slip transonic regime. For the quantification of lift generation, A NACA 0012 airfoil is studied with a high temperature surface on the bottom for the lift creation for different Knudsen numbers. It was seen that for lower velocities, continuum solver under predicts the lift generation when the Knudsen number is 0.00129 due to local velocity gradients reaching slip regime although lift coefficient is higher with the Boltzmann ES-BGK solutions. In the second part, the feasibility of using thermal transpiration for drag reduction is studied. Initial study in drag reduction includes an application of a thermal gradient at the upper surface of a NACA 0012 airfoil near trailing edge at a 12-degree angle of attack and 5 Pa pressure. It was seen that drag is reduced by 4 percent and vortex shedding frequency is reduced due to asymmetry introduced in the flow due to temperature gradient causing reverse flow due to thermal transpiration phenomena.

  17. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  18. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  19. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  20. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  1. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  2. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  3. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  4. Effect of lifting height and load mass on low back loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoozemans, Marco J M; Kingma, Idsart; de Vries, Wiebe H K; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of lifting height and mass lifted on the peak low back load in terms of net moments, compression forces and anterior-posterior shear forces. Ten participants had to lift a box using four handle heights. Low back loading was quantified using a dynamic 3-D linked segment model and a detailed electromyographic driven model of the trunk musculature. The effects of lifting height and lifting mass were quantified using a regression technique (GEE) for correlated data. Results indicate that an increase in lifting height and a decrease in lifting mass were related to a decrease in low back load. It is argued that trunk flexion is a major contributor to low back load. For ergonomic interventions it can be advised to prioritise optimisation of the vertical location of the load to be lifted rather than decreasing the mass of the load for handle heights between 32 cm and 155 cm, and for load masses between 7.5 and 15 kg. Lifting height and load mass are important determinants of low back load during manual materials handling. This paper provides the quantitative effect of lifting height and mass lifted, the results of which can be used by ergonomists at the workplace to evaluate interventions regarding lifting height and load mass.

  5. Investigation of Maximum Blade Loading Capability of Lift-Offset Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Maximum blade loading capability of a coaxial, lift-offset rotor is investigated using a rotorcraft configuration designed in the context of short-haul, medium-size civil and military missions. The aircraft was sized for a 6600-lb payload and a range of 300 nm. The rotor planform and twist were optimized for hover and cruise performance. For the present rotor performance calculations, the collective pitch angle is progressively increased up to and through stall with the shaft angle set to zero. The effects of lift offset on rotor lift, power, controls, and blade airloads and structural loads are examined. The maximum lift capability of the coaxial rotor increases as lift offset increases and extends well beyond the McHugh lift boundary as the lift potential of the advancing blades are fully realized. A parametric study is conducted to examine the differences between the present coaxial rotor and the McHugh rotor in terms of maximum lift capabilities and to identify important design parameters that define the maximum lift capability of the rotor. The effects of lift offset on rotor blade airloads and structural loads are also investigated. Flap bending moment increases substantially as lift offset increases to carry the hub roll moment even at low collective values. The magnitude of flap bending moment is dictated by the lift-offset value (hub roll moment) but is less sensitive to collective and speed.

  6. 75 FR 17754 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the lift boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... Regulations, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the lift boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR. The Certificate...

  7. Design, characterization and application of the Multiple Air-lift Loop bioreactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A new bioreactor is introduced: the Multiple Air-lift Loop reactor (MAL). The MAL consists of a series of air-lift loop reactors within one vessel. With the MAL, a new type of geometry for air-lift reactors with an internal loop is introduced. This new geometry was characterized with respect to hydr

  8. Double-Sided Opportunities Using Chemical Lift-Off Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Anne M; Liao, Wei-Ssu; Weiss, Paul S

    2016-08-16

    We discuss the origins, motivation, invention, development, applications, and future of chemical lift-off lithography, in which a specified pattern of a self-assembled monolayer is removed, i.e., lifted off, using a reactive, patterned stamp that is brought into contact with the monolayer. For Au substrates, this process produces a supported, patterned monolayer of Au on the stamp in addition to the negative pattern in the original molecular monolayer. Both the patterned molecular monolayer on the original substrate and the patterned supported metal monolayer on the stamp are useful as materials and for further applications in sensing and other areas. Chemical lift-off lithography effectively lowers the barriers to and costs of high-resolution, large-area nanopatterning. On the patterned monolayer side, features in the single-nanometer range can be produced across large (square millimeter or larger) areas. Patterns smaller than the original stamp feature sizes can be produced by controlling the degree of contact between the stamp and the lifted-off monolayer. We note that this process is different than conventional lift-off processes in lithography in that chemical lift-off lithography removes material, whereas conventional lift-off is a positive-tone patterning method. Chemical lift-off lithography is in some ways similar to microtransfer printing. Chemical lift-off lithography has critical advantages in the preparation of biocapture surfaces because the molecules left behind are exploited to space and to orient functional(ized) molecules. On the supported metal monolayer side, a new two-dimensional material has been produced. The useful important chemical properties of Au (vis-à-vis functionalization with thiols) are retained, but the electronic and optical properties of bulk Au or even Au nanoparticles are not. These metal monolayers do not quench excitation and may be useful in optical measurements, particularly in combination with selective binding due to

  9. Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of congruent voxels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqué, Alberto, E-mail: pique@nrl.navy.mil [Materials Science and Technology Division, Code 6364, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kim, Heungsoo; Auyeung, Raymond C.Y.; Beniam, Iyoel [Materials Science and Technology Division, Code 6364, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Breckenfeld, Eric [National Research Council Fellow at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is demonstrated with high viscosity Ag nanopaste. • Under the right conditions (viscosity and fluence) the transfer of congruent voxels was achieved. • For viscosities under 100 Pa s, congruent voxel transfer of silver nano-suspensions is only possible under a very narrow range of conditions. • For viscosities over 100 Pa s, congruent voxel transfer of silver nano-pastes works over a wider range of fluences, donor substrate thickness, gap distances and voxel areas. • The laser transfer of congruent voxels can be used for printing electronic patterns in particular interconnects. - Abstract: Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of functional materials offers unique advantages and capabilities for the rapid prototyping of electronic, optical and sensor elements. The use of LIFT for printing high viscosity metallic nano-inks and nano-pastes can be optimized for the transfer of voxels congruent with the shape of the laser pulse, forming thin film-like structures non-lithographically. These processes are capable of printing patterns with excellent lateral resolution and thickness uniformity typically found in 3-dimensional stacked assemblies, MEMS-like structures and free-standing interconnects. However, in order to achieve congruent voxel transfer with LIFT, the particle size and viscosity of the ink or paste suspensions must be adjusted to minimize variations due to wetting and drying effects. When LIFT is carried out with high-viscosity nano-suspensions, the printed voxel size and shape become controllable parameters, allowing the printing of thin-film like structures whose shape is determined by the spatial distribution of the laser pulse. The result is a new level of parallelization beyond current serial direct-write processes whereby the geometry of each printed voxel can be optimized according to the pattern design. This work shows how LIFT of congruent voxels can be applied to the fabrication of 2D

  10. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. Methods A large dataset (approximately 22,000 frames, derived from six subjects) of simultaneous lifting and other motions recorded in a laboratory setting using the Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States) and a standard optical motion capture system (Qualysis, Qualysis Motion Capture Systems, Qualysis AB, Sweden) was assembled. Error-correction regression models were developed to improve the accuracy of NIOSH lifting equation parameters estimated from the Kinect skeleton. Kinect-Qualysis errors were modelled using gradient boosted regression trees with a Huber loss function. Models were trained on data from all but one subject and tested on the excluded subject. Finally, models were tested on three lifting trials performed by subjects not involved in the generation of the model-building dataset. Results Error-correction appears to produce estimates for NIOSH lifting equation parameters that are more accurate than those derived from the Microsoft Kinect algorithm alone. Our error-correction models substantially decreased the variance of parameter errors. In general, the Kinect underestimated parameters, and modelling reduced this bias, particularly for more biased estimates. Use of the raw Kinect skeleton model tended to result in falsely high safe recommended weight limits of loads, whereas error-corrected models gave more conservative, protective estimates. Conclusions Our results suggest that it may be possible to produce reasonable estimates of

  11. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  12. Design and implementation of an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in ship lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship lift was developed by analysis of the fault tree and combination with VPN. The fault tree was constructed based on the operation condition of the ship lift. The diagnosis model was constructed by hierarchical classification of the fault tree structure, and the inference mechanism was given. Logical structure of the fault diagnosis in the ship lift was proposed. The implementation of the expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship lift was discussed, and the expert system developed was realized on the VPN virtual network. The system was applied to the Gaobaozhou ship lift project, and it ran successfully.

  13. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  14. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  15. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  16. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  17. Incremental wind tunnel testing of high lift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Pricop Mihai; Mircea, Boscoianu; Daniel-Eugeniu, Crunteanu

    2016-06-01

    Efficiency of trailing edge high lift systems is essential for long range future transport aircrafts evolving in the direction of laminar wings, because they have to compensate for the low performance of the leading edge devices. Modern high lift systems are subject of high performance requirements and constrained to simple actuation, combined with a reduced number of aerodynamic elements. Passive or active flow control is thus required for the performance enhancement. An experimental investigation of reduced kinematics flap combined with passive flow control took place in a low speed wind tunnel. The most important features of the experimental setup are the relatively large size, corresponding to a Reynolds number of about 2 Million, the sweep angle of 30 degrees corresponding to long range airliners with high sweep angle wings and the large number of flap settings and mechanical vortex generators. The model description, flap settings, methodology and results are presented.

  18. Procedure for utilizing the lift and thrust forces of ornithopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezard, C.

    1985-01-01

    This procedure is distinguished by two beating wings which together describe, in space, a succession of interlaced triangles. On these wings, whose incidence varies automatically, identical forces are exerted: simultaneous lift and thrust when they make their descent, which is inclined toward the front of the craft, and lift alone when they make their ascent, which is inclined toward the rear of the craft and follows a slide horizontal movement. A mechanical device makes these movements possible. It includes: two wings with hollow profiles, connected by a framework located above a rigid frame and attached to it by bars with joints. These bars are moved with control rods which gear down the drive force. A mechanism with elastic bands or springs automatically varies the incidence of the wings.

  19. THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF ENDOSCOPE IN FRONTO-TEMPORAL LIFTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To introduce and discuss the usage and effects of endoscopic technique in the frontal-temporal lifting. Methods 15 endoscopic forehead-lift cases were treated from 1996 to 1999. The frontal and deep temporal fascia dissection were performed to produce a visualization pocket. The resection of the procerus and corrugator muscles were performed under direct vision to correct the imbalance of the muscles. The periosteum was also released along the supraobital rim. Results The results were satisfactory. The pro- cedure was usually performed to rejuvenate the ptosis of the eyebrow, to eliminate the temporal and glabellar wrinkles as well. Conclusion Small incision, less bleeding, mild numbness and less alopecia are the advan- tages of endoscopic operation.

  20. A New Lift for Those Who Need It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The eZ-uP device was designed by NASA engineer, Paul Neal, who worked with Kennedy Space Center. He took his idea to RJDesigns & Associates. With refinements, they developed a lightweight aluminium structure to assist the elderly in lifting themselves from seated positions. It can support people in excess of 500 pounds and is quickly assembled without tools. It is completely adjustable to fit under most sofas, chairs, and beds and will not slip on wood or tile floors. Also, it is relatively inexpensive compared to other products on the market. The apparatus is placed under the seat and adjusted so that the hand supports are in front of the person just under shoulder level. The seated person then takes hold and easily lifts himself from the seat. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  1. Maximizing aesthetics in lateral-tension abdominoplasty and body lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Ted E

    2004-10-01

    The high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty addresses the practical and theoretic faults of standard abdominoplasty design. Key features include limited direct undermining, increased lateral skin resection with highest-tension wound closure along lateral limbs, two-layer superficial fascial system repair, and significant truncal liposuction when needed. The high-lateral-tension design limits the unfavorable features of standard abdominoplasty and produces balanced natural aesthetic contours. The high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty is the foundation for treatment of more generalized relaxation problems in the circumferential trunk and thighs. For more significant thigh laxity and buttock ptosis, the lateral-tension abdominoplasty is combined with the transverse thigh/buttock lift to produce the lower body lift #2.

  2. Asymmetric Gepner Models III. B-L Lifting

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    In the same spirit as heterotic weight lifting, B-L lifting is a way of replacing the superfluous and ubiquitous U(1)_{B-L} with something else with the same modular properties, but different conformal weights and ground state dimensions. This method works in principle for all variants of (2,2) constructions, such as orbifolds, Calabi-Yau manifolds, free bosons and fermions and Gepner models, since it only modifies the universal SO(10) x E_8 part of the CFT. However, it can only yield chiral spectra if the ``internal" sector of the theory provides a simple current of order 5. Here we apply this new method to Gepner models. Including exceptional invariants, 86 of them have the required order 5 simple current, and 69 of these yield chiral spectra. Three family spectra occur abundantly.

  3. Eisenhart lifts and symmetries of time-dependent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cariglia, M; Gibbons, G W; Horvathy, P A

    2016-01-01

    Certain dissipative systems, such as Caldirola and Kannai's damped simple harmonic oscillator, may be modelled by time-dependent Lagrangian and hence time dependent Hamiltonian systems with $n$ degrees of freedom. In this paper we treat these systems, their projective and conformal symmetries as well as their quantisation from the point of view of the Eisenhart lift to a Bargmann spacetime in $n+2$ dimensions, equipped with its covariantly constant null Killing vector field. Reparametrization of the time variable corresponds to conformal rescalings of the Bargmann metric. We show how the Arnold map lifts to Bargmann spacetime. We contrast the greater generality of the Caldirola-Kannai approach with that of Arnold and Bateman. At the level of quantum mechanics, we are able to show how the relevant Schr\\"odinger equation emerges naturally using the techniques of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, since a covariantly constant null Killing vector field gives rise to well defined one particle Hilbert space...

  4. Asymmetric Gepner models III. B-L lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-06-21

    In the same spirit as heterotic weight lifting, B-L lifting is a way of replacing the superfluous and ubiquitous U(1){sub B-L} with something else with the same modular properties, but different conformal weights and ground state dimensions. This method works in principle for all variants of (2,2) constructions, such as orbifolds, Calabi-Yau manifolds, free bosons and fermions and Gepner models, since it only modifies the universal SO(10)xE{sub 8} part of the CFT. However, it can only yield chiral spectra if the 'internal' sector of the theory provides a simple current of order 5. Here we apply this new method to Gepner models. Including exceptional invariants, 86 of them have the required order 5 simple current, and 69 of these yield chiral spectra. Three family spectra occur abundantly.

  5. On the Use of Surface Porosity to Reduce Unsteady Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative application of existing technology is proposed for attenuating the effects of transient phenomena, such as rotor-stator and rotor-strut interactions, linked to noise and fatigue failure in turbomachinery environments. A computational study was designed to assess the potential of passive porosity technology as a mechanism for alleviating interaction effects by reducing the unsteady lift developed on a stator airfoil subject to wake impingement. The study involved a typical high bypass fan Stator airfoil (solid baseline and several porous configurations), immersed in a free field and exposed to the effects of a transversely moving wake. It was found that, for the airfoil under consideration, the magnitude of the unsteady lift could be reduced more than 18% without incurring significant performance losses.

  6. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  7. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BOVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  8. Prostatic urethral lift vs transurethral resection of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gratzke, Christian; Barber, Neil; Speakman, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare prostatic urethral lift (PUL) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with regard to symptoms, recovery experience, sexual function, continence, safety, quality of life, sleep and overall patient perception. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 patients with lowe...... in statistically significant improvement in sleep. CONCLUSION: PUL was compared to TURP in a randomised, controlled study which further characterized both modalities so that care providers and patients can better understand the net benefit when selecting a treatment option....

  9. Predictive Maintenance of Hydraulic Lifts through Lubricating Oil Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatios S. Kalligeros

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of measuring lift maintenance through analysis of used hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils have proved to be a reliable indicator for the maintenance performed on elevators. It has also been proved that the end users or the maintenance personnel do not always conform to the instructions of the elevators’ hydraulic machine manufacturer. Furthermore, by examining the proportion of the metals, an estimation of the corrosion and the wear resistance of the joined mo...

  10. Transcutaneous Serdev Suture For Buttock’s Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Serdev

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's technique and experience in the treatment of the flaccid "unhappy buttock" form with his surgical procedure of buttock lift by suture, without incision scars. The author first presented this new operation technique on a national level at the 2nd Annual Meeting of the National Bulgarian Society for Aesthetic Surgery and Aesthetic Medicine in Sofia on March 18, 1994 [1] and internationally at many scientific meetings over the world [2, 3, 4…]. The result is a ...

  11. Video Coding with Motion-Compensated Lifted Wavelet Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Flierl, M.; Girod, B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the efficiency of motion-compensated three-dimensional transform coding, a compression scheme that employs a motion-compensated transform for a group of pictures. We investigate this coding scheme experimentally and theoretically. The practical coding scheme employs in temporal direction a wavelet decomposition with motion-compensated lifting steps. Further, we compare the experimental results to that of a predictive video codec with single-hypothesis motion compensation...

  12. Spatial model of lifting scheme in wavelet transforms and image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Li, Gang; Wang, Guoyin

    2002-03-01

    Wavelet transforms via lifting scheme are called the second-generation wavelet transforms. However, in some lifting schemes the coefficients are transformed using mathematical method from the first-generation wavelets, so the filters with better performance using in lifting are limited. The spatial structures of lifting scheme are also simple. For example, the classical lifting scheme, predicting-updating, is two-stage, and most researchers simply adopt this structure. In addition, in most design results the lifting filters are not only hard to get and also fixed. In our former work, we had presented a new three-stage lifting scheme, predicting-updating-adapting, and the results of filter design are no more fixed. In this paper, we continue to research the spatial model of lifting scheme. A group of general multi-stage lifting schemes are achieved and designed. All lifting filters are designed in spatial domain and proper mathematical methods are selected. Our designed coefficients are flexible and can be adjusted according to different data. We give the mathematical design details in this paper. Finally, all designed model of lifting are used in image compression and satisfactory results are achieved.

  13. Investigation into Interface Lifting Within FSW Lap Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. S. Miller; C. R. Tolle; D. E. Clark; C. I. Nichol; T. R. McJunkin; H. B. Smartt

    2008-06-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is rapidly penetrating the welding market in many materials and applications, particularly in aluminum alloys for transportation applications. As this expansion outside the research laboratory continues, fitness for service issues will arise, and process control and NDE methods will become important determinants of continued growth. The present paper describes research into FSW weld nugget flaw detection within aluminum alloy lap welds. We present results for two types of FSW tool designs: a smooth pin tool and a threaded pin tool. We show that under certain process parameters (as monitored during welding with a rotating dynamometer that measures x, y, z, and torque forces) and tooling designs, FSW lap welds allow significant nonbonded interface lifting of the lap joint, while forming a metallurgical bond only within the pin region of the weld nugget. These lifted joints are often held very tightly together even though unbonded, and might be expected to pass cursory NDE while representing a substantial compromise in joint mechanical properties. The phenomenon is investigated here via radiographic and ultrasonic NDE techniques, with a copper foil marking insert (as described elsewhere) and by the tensile testing of joints. As one would expect, these results show that tool design and process parameters significantly affect plactic flow and this lifted interface. NDE and mechanical strength ramifications of this defect are discussed.

  14. Lift and drag performance of odontocete cetacean flippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Paul W; Howle, Laurens E; Murray, Mark M; Fish, Frank E

    2009-07-01

    Cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) have evolved flippers that aid in effective locomotion through their aquatic environments. Differing evolutionary pressures upon cetaceans, including hunting and feeding requirements, and other factors such as animal mass and size have resulted in flippers that are unique among each species. Cetacean flippers may be viewed as being analogous to modern engineered hydrofoils, which have hydrodynamic properties such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient and associated efficiency. Field observations and the collection of biological samples have resulted in flipper geometry being known for most cetacean species. However, the hydrodynamic properties of cetacean flippers have not been rigorously examined and thus their performance properties are unknown. By conducting water tunnel testing using scale models of cetacean flippers derived via computed tomography (CT) scans, as well as computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, we present a baseline work to describe the hydrodynamic properties of several cetacean flippers. We found that flippers of similar planform shape had similar hydrodynamic performance properties. Furthermore, one group of flippers of planform shape similar to modern swept wings was found to have lift coefficients that increased with angle of attack nonlinearly, which was caused by the onset of vortex-dominated lift. Drag coefficient versus angle of attack curves were found to be less dependent on planform shape. Our work represents a step towards the understanding of the association between performance, ecology, morphology and fluid mechanics based on the three-dimensional geometry of cetacean flippers.

  15. Adaptive lifting scheme of wavelet transforms for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Guoyin; Nie, Neng

    2001-03-01

    Aiming at the demand of adaptive wavelet transforms via lifting, a three-stage lifting scheme (predict-update-adapt) is proposed according to common two-stage lifting scheme (predict-update) in this paper. The second stage is updating stage. The third is adaptive predicting stage. Our scheme is an update-then-predict scheme that can detect jumps in image from the updated data and it needs not any more additional information. The first stage is the key in our scheme. It is the interim of updating. Its coefficient can be adjusted to adapt to data to achieve a better result. In the adaptive predicting stage, we use symmetric prediction filters in the smooth area of image, while asymmetric prediction filters at the edge of jumps to reduce predicting errors. We design these filters using spatial method directly. The inherent relationships between the coefficients of the first stage and the other stages are found and presented by equations. Thus, the design result is a class of filters with coefficient that are no longer invariant. Simulation result of image coding with our scheme is good.

  16. Lichen planopilaris following hair transplantation and face-lift surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y Z; Tosti, A; Chaudhry, I H; Lyne, L; Farjo, B; Farjo, N; Cadore de Farias, D; Griffiths, C E M; Paus, R; Harries, M J

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetic surgical procedures, including hair transplantation and face-lift surgery, are becoming increasingly popular. However, there is very little information regarding the associated development of dermatological conditions following these procedures. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an uncommon inflammatory hair disorder of unknown aetiology that results in permanent alopecia and replacement of hair follicles with scar-like fibrous tissue. Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a variant of LPP, involves the frontal hairline and shares similar histological findings with those of LPP. We report 10 patients who developed LPP/FFA following cosmetic scalp surgery. Seven patients developed LPP following hair transplantation, and three patients developed FFA following face-lift surgery. In all cases there was no previous history of LPP or FFA. There is currently a lack of evidence to link the procedures of hair transplantation and cosmetic face-lift surgery to LPP and FFA, respectively. This is the first case series to describe this connection and to postulate the possible pathological processes underlying the clinical observation. Explanations include Koebner phenomenon induced by surgical trauma, an autoimmune process targeting an (as yet, unknown) hair follicle antigen liberated during surgery or perhaps a postsurgery proinflammatory milieu inducing hair follicle immune privilege collapse and follicular damage in susceptible individuals.

  17. Assessing manual lifting tasks based on segment angle interpolations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Chi; Xu, Xu; Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; Dennerlein, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the number of interpolation points on the prediction accuracy of segment angle trajectory during lifting. Ten participants performed various lifting tasks while a motion tracking system recorded their movements. Two-point through ten-point equal time-spaced segment angles extracted from major segment trajectory data captured by the motion tracking system were used to re-generate the whole body lifting motion by using polynomial and cubic spline interpolation methods. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the reference (motion tracking system) and the estimated (interpolation method) segment angle trajectories were calculated to quantify the prediction accuracy. The results showed that the cubic spline interpolation will yield a smaller RMSE value than one based on the polynomial interpolation. While increasing the number of interpolation points can reduce the RMSE of the estimated segment angle trajectories, there was a diminishing advantage in continuing to add interpolation points. A sensitivity analysis suggests that if the estimation of the segment angles at each interpolation point deviates considerably from the real value, and cannot be controlled at a low level (interpolation points will not improve the estimation accuracy.

  18. Separation efficiency of a vacuum gas lift for microalgae harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrut, Bertrand; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Muller-Feuga, Arnaud; René, François; Narváez, César; Champagne, Jean-Yves; Grasmick, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy and low-cost separation of microalgae from water is important to the economics of microalgae harvesting and processing. Flotation under vacuum using a vacuum gas lift for microalgae harvesting was investigated for different airflow rates, bubble sizes, salinities and harvest volumes. Harvesting efficiency (HE) and concentration factor (CF) of the vacuum gas lift increased by around 50% when the airflow rate was reduced from 20 to 10 L min(-1). Reduced bubble size multiplied HE and CF 10 times when specific microbubble diffusers were used or when the salinity of the water was increased from 0‰ to 40‰. The reduction in harvest volume from 100 to 1L increased the CF from 10 to 130. An optimized vacuum gas lift could allow partial microalgae harvesting using less than 0.2 kWh kg(-1) DW, thus reducing energy costs 10-100 times compared to complete harvesting processes, albeit at the expense of a less concentrated biomass harvest.

  19. Robust GPS Satellite Signal Acquisition Using Lifting Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Djebbouri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel GPS satellite signal acquisition scheme that utilizes lifting wavelet to improve acquisition performance is proposed. Acquisition in GPS system is used to calculate the code phase (or shift and find the pseudo-range, which is used to calculate the position. The performance of a GPS receiver is assessed by its ability to precisely measure the pseudo-range, which depends on noise linked to the signals in the receiver’s tracking loops. The level of GPS receiving equipment system noise determines in part how precisely pseudo-range can be measured. Our objective, in this paper, is to achieve robust real-time positioning with maximum of accuracy in the presence of noise. Robust positioning describes a positioning system's ability to maintain position data continuity and accuracy through most or all anticipated operational conditions. In order to carry out a robust less complex GPS signals acquisition system and to facilitate its implementation, a substitute algorithm for calculating the convolution by using lifting wavelet decomposition is proposed. Simulation is used for verifying the performance which shows that the proposed scheme based lifting wavelet transform outperforms both FFT search and signal decimation schemes in the presence of a hostile environment.

  20. Palatal lifting prosthesis and velopharyngeal insufficiency: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ibrahim Aboloyoun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Our study aimed to highlight the effectiveness of palatal lift prosthesis in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency with previous operated cleft palate. Methods. This study was done undertaken January 2008 to December of 2009 in the Phoniatic unit of Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Ten patients of ≥ 8 years to ≤ 10 years of age, who had previously undergone surgery for cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, with no other systemic illness and normal intelligent quotient level, were selected and managed by palatal lift prosthesis. All the study subjects were subjected to auditory perceptual speech evaluation for assessment of the degree of hypernasality, compensatory articulator mechanisms, glottal and pharyngeal articulation, audible nasal emission, facial grimace and overall intelligibility of speech. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results. The study included 10 subjects whose mean ± standard deviation of age was (8.9±0.9. On auditory speech perceptual evaluation after prosthesis application, significant improvement was found in glottal articulation 6 (85.7%, p=0.04, facial grimace 6 (85.7% p=0.04, hyper nasality 10 (10% p=0.008, and speech intelligibility 9 (90% p=0.008. Conclusion. Young patients with repaired palatal cleft have significant improvement after application of palatal lift prosthesis.

  1. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO (book on the handling / gas lift system). Report on the results of the R and D of the overall base technology of ocean resources (R and D of submarine oil drilling technology, etc.); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shine Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kaitei sekiyu kussaku gijutsu nado kenkyu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho (handling / gas lift system hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper conducted a R and D on the handling of drilling equipment in drilling/collecting of submarine oil and the gas lift of artificial oil extraction technology. As to each equipment of a barge style handling system, conducted were assembly/adjustment/trial run on land and pipe handling experiments on sea. In the experiment, confirmed were pipe transfer function, lifting function, fitting function, grasping function, etc. In the ocean experiment, studied were pipe bending stress, Karman vortex control effects, etc. Relating to the gas lift system, experiments were made on confirmation of fabrication/performance of air compressor. Moreover, a technique of air transportation to the blowing inlet of the gas lift pipe was established by developing an air blowing system and fabricating a long-distance flexible pipe. Concerning the gas/liquid/solid three-phase separator, a cyclone separator was developed, and improvement in lifting efficiency was confirmed. Helped by these, the problems of the gas lift system were almost solved, and a possibility of the commercial-base production system was obtained. 2 refs., 182 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. LIFT AND POWER REQUIREMENTS OF HOVERING INSECT FLIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茂; 杜刚

    2003-01-01

    Lift and power requirements for hovering flight of eight species of insects are studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically. The solution provides velocity and pressure fields,from which unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments are obtained. The inertial torque of wing mass are computed analytically. The wing length of the insects ranges from 2 mm (fruit fly) to 52 mm (hawkmoth); Reynolds numbers Re (based on mean flapping speed and mean chord length) ranges from 75 to 3 850. The primary findings are shown in the following: (1) Either small (R = 2 mm, Re = 75),medium (R ≈ 10 mm, Re ≈ 500) or large (R ≈ 50 mm, Re ≈ 4 000) insects mainly employ the same high-lift mechanism, delayed stall, to produce lift in hovering flight. The midstroke angle of attack needed to produce a mean lift equal to the insect weight is approximately in the range of 25° to 45°,which is approximately in agreement with observation. (2) For the small insect (fruit fly) and for the medium and large insects with relatively small wingbeat frequency (cranefly, ladybird and hawkmoth),the specific power ranges from 18 to 39W.kg-1 , the major part of the power is due to aerodynamic force, and the elastic storage of negative work does not change the specific power greatly. However for medium and large insects with relatively large wingbeat frequency (hoverfly, dronefly, honey bee and bumble bee), the specific power ranges from 39 to 61W.kg-1 , the major part of the power is due to wing inertia, and the elastic storage of negative work can decrease the specific power by approximately 33%. (3) For the case of power being mainly contributed by aerodynamic force (fruit fly, cranefly,ladybird and hawkmoth), the specific power is proportional to the product of the wingbeat frequency,the stroke amplitude, the wing length and the drag-to-lift ratio. For the case of power being mainly contributed by wing inertia (hoverfly, dronefly, honey bee and bumble bee), the specific power (without

  3. Does the personal lift-assist device affect the local dynamic stability of the spine during lifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ryan B; Sadler, Erin M; Stevenson, Joan M

    2011-02-03

    The personal lift-assist device (PLAD) is an on-body ergonomic aid that reduces low back physical demands through the restorative moment of an external spring element, which possesses a mechanical advantage over the erector spinae. Although the PLAD has proven effective at reducing low back muscular demand, spinal moments, and localized muscular fatigue during laboratory and industrial tasks, the effects of the device on the neuromuscular control of spinal stability during lifting have yet to be assessed. Thirty healthy subjects (15M, 15F) performed repetitive lifting for three minutes, at a rate of 10 lifts per minute, with and without the PLAD. Maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents, representing short-term (λ(max-s)) and long-term (λ(max-l)) divergence were calculated from the measured trunk kinematics to estimate the local dynamic stability of the lumbar spine. Using a mixed-design repeated-measures ANOVA, it was determined that wearing the PLAD did not significantly change λ(max-s) (μ(NP)=0.335, μ(P)=0.321, p=0.225), but did significantly reduce λ(max-l) (μ(NP)=0.0024, μ(P)=-0.0011, p=0.014, η(2)=0.197). There were no between-subject effects of sex, or significant interactions (p>0.720). The present results indicated that λ(max-s) was not statistically different between the device conditions, but that the PLAD significantly reduced λ(max-l) to a negative (stable) value. This shows that subjects' neuromuscular systems were able to respond to local perturbations more effectively when wearing the device, reflecting a more stable control of spinal movements. These findings are important when recommending the PLAD for long-term industrial or clinical use.

  4. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  5. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  6. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  7. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  8. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  9. Artificial muscles from fishing line and sewing thread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Lima, Márcio D; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Foroughi, Javad; Madden, John D W; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Fang, Shaoli; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Göktepe, Fatma; Göktepe, Özer; Mirvakili, Seyed M; Naficy, Sina; Lepró, Xavier; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Kim, Seon Jeong; Xu, Xiuru; Swedlove, Benjamin J; Wallace, Gordon G; Baughman, Ray H

    2014-02-21

    The high cost of powerful, large-stroke, high-stress artificial muscles has combined with performance limitations such as low cycle life, hysteresis, and low efficiency to restrict applications. We demonstrated that inexpensive high-strength polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread can be easily transformed by twist insertion to provide fast, scalable, nonhysteretic, long-life tensile and torsional muscles. Extreme twisting produces coiled muscles that can contract by 49%, lift loads over 100 times heavier than can human muscle of the same length and weight, and generate 5.3 kilowatts of mechanical work per kilogram of muscle weight, similar to that produced by a jet engine. Woven textiles that change porosity in response to temperature and actuating window shutters that could help conserve energy were also demonstrated. Large-stroke tensile actuation was theoretically and experimentally shown to result from torsional actuation.

  10. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  11. Tolerability to prolonged lifting tasks. A validation of the recommended limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P; Bazzini, G

    1997-01-01

    Prolonged physical exertion is subjectively regulated by the perception of effort. This preliminary study was conducted to validate the use of subjective perceptions of effort in assessing objectively tolerable workloads for prolonged lifting tasks. Ten healthy male subjects tested their maximal lifting capacity (MLC) on a lift dynamometer (LidoLift, Loredan Biomed., West Sacramento, CA) and underwent incremental and 30-minute endurance lifting tests. Cardiorespiratory parameters were monitored with an oxygen uptake analyzer, mechanical parameters were calculated using a computerized dynamometer. Ratings of perceived exertion were given on Borg's 10-point scale. Physiological responses to repetitive lifting were matched with subjective perceptions. A single-variable statistical regression for power functions was performed to obtain the individual "iso-perception" curves as functions of the mechanical work exerted. We found that the "iso-perception" curve corresponding to a "moderate" perception of effort may represent the individual "tolerance threshold" for prolonged lifting tasks, since physiological responses at this level of intensity did not change significantly and the respiratory exchange ratio was less than one. The individually tolerable weight for lifting tasks lasting 30 min has been expressed as a percentage of the isoinertial MLC value and compared with the currently recommended limits for prolonged lifting tasks (Italian legislation D.L. 626/94). On the basis of our preliminary results a "tolerance threshold" of 20% MLC has been proposed for prolonged lifting tasks.

  12. Flow pattern and lift evolution of hydrofoil with control of electro-magnetic forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The initial responses and evolutions of the flow pattern and lift coefficient of a hydrofoil under the action of electro-magnetic (Lorentz) force have been studied experimentally and numerically, and trace particle methods are employed for them. With the introduction of BVF (boundary vortex flux), the quantitative relation among Lorentz forces, BVF and lifts is deduced. The influences of flow patterns on the hydrofoil lift coefficient have been discussed based on the BVF distribution, and the flow control mechanism of Lorentz force for a hydrofoil has been elucidated. Our results show that the flow pattern and lift of the hydrofoil vary periodically without any force. However, with the action of streamwise Lorentz forces, the separation point on the hydrofoil surface moves backward with a certain velocity, which makes the flow field steady finally. The streamwise Lorentz force raises the foil lift due to the increase of BVF intensity. On the other hand, Lorentz force also increases the hydrofoil surface pressure, which makes the lift decrease. However, the factor leading to the lift enhancement is determinant, therefore, the Lorentz force on the suction side can increase the lift, and the stronger the Lorentz force, the larger the lift enhancement. Our results also show that the localized Lorentz force can also both suppress the flow separation and increase the hydrofoil lift coefficient, furthermore, the Lorentz force located on the tail acts better than that located on the front.

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  14. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  15. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  16. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  17. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María

    2011-11-01

    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  18. Development of artificial empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  19. Creating an Artificial Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja

    1997-03-01

    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  20. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  1. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  2. Nonlinear prediction of the aerodynamic loads on lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    A numerical procedure is used to predict the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of lifting surfaces of low aspect ratio at high angles of attack for low subsonic Mach numbers. The procedure utilizes a vortex-lattice method and accounts for separation at sharp tips and leading edges. The shapes of the wakes emanating from the edges are predicted, and hence the nonlinear characteristics are calculated. Parallelogram and delta wings are presented as numerical examples. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. A continuous-vorticity panel method for lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous-vorticity panel method is developed and utilized to predict the steady aerodynamic loads on lifting surfaces having sharp-edge separation. Triangular panels with linearly varying vorticity are used. The velocity field generated by an individual element is obtained in closed form. An optimization scheme is constructed for finding the vorticity at the nodes of the elements. The method is not restricted by aspect ratios, angles of attack, planforms, or camber. Rectangular and delta wings are presented as numerical examples. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data for incompressible flows.

  4. Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2011-01-01

    A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

  5. Predictive Maintenance of Hydraulic Lifts through Lubricating Oil Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios S. Kalligeros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possibility of measuring lift maintenance through analysis of used hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils have proved to be a reliable indicator for the maintenance performed on elevators. It has also been proved that the end users or the maintenance personnel do not always conform to the instructions of the elevators’ hydraulic machine manufacturer. Furthermore, by examining the proportion of the metals, an estimation of the corrosion and the wear resistance of the joined moving parts can be observed. Additionally, the presence of chlorine and calcium in hydraulic oils demonstrates their function in a highly corrosive environment.

  6. Lift-off dynamics in a simple jumping robot

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, Jeffrey; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Goldman, Daniel I

    2012-01-01

    We study vertical jumping in a simple robot comprising an actuated mass-spring arrangement. The actuator frequency and phase are systematically varied to find optimal performance. Optimal jumps occur above and below (but not at) the robot's resonant frequency $f_0$. Two distinct jumping modes emerge: a simple jump which is optimal above $f_0$ is achievable with a squat maneuver, and a peculiar stutter jump which is optimal below $f_0$ is generated with a counter-movement. A simple dynamical model reveals how optimal lift-off results from non-resonant transient dynamics.

  7. Large-Area Laser-Lift-Off Processing in Microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, R.; Pätzel, R.; Brune, J.

    Laser lift-off is an enabling technology for microelectronics growth markets such as light emitting diodes, densely packaged semiconductor devices, and flexible displays. For example, thin film transistor structures fabricated on top of polymer layers spun on glass carriers must be delaminated from rigid substrates to create lightweight and rugged flexible displays on polymers. Low-thermal-budget processes are generically required to protect adjacent functional films. Excimer lasers provide short UV wavelength and short pulse duration required for highly-localized energy coupling. The high output power of excimer lasers enables a large processing footprint and the high-throughput rates needed in mass manufacturing.

  8. Lifted Java: A Minimal Calculus for Translation Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingesman, Matthias Diehn; Ernst, Erik

    2011-01-01

    To support roles and similar notions involving multiple views on an object, languages like Object Teams and CaesarJ include mechanisms known as lifting and lowering. These mechanisms connect pairs of objects of otherwise unrelated types, and enables programmers to consider such a pair almost...... as a single object which has both types. In the terminology of Object Teams this is called translation polymorphism. In both Object Teams and CaesarJ the type system of the Java programming language has been extended to support this through the use of advanced language features. However, so far the soundness...

  9. Measuring the needle lift and return timing of a CRDI injector using an accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The needle lift and return timing of a CRDI (common rail direct injection injector were investigated using an accelerometer and the Bosch injection rate measurement method. The Bosch method was used to measure the fuel injection rate shape when fuel was injected with several patterns. An accelerometer was mounted on the outside of the injector to catch the needle lift and return timing of the injector according to the switching signal of the injector driving voltage. The accelerometer accurately caught the timing of the injector needle lift and return for a single-injection pattern, but it could not for the second or third injection when multiple injections occurred. Only the first needle lift timing of the injector was caught with the injection rate shape obtained from the Bosch method, however, this method cannot identify any other lift or return timing values after the first lift timing.

  10. Development of a Low-Lift Chiller Controller and Simplified Precooling Control Algorithm - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayeski, N.; Armstrong, Peter; Alvira, M.; Gagne, J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2011-11-30

    KGS Buildings LLC (KGS) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed a simplified control algorithm and prototype low-lift chiller controller suitable for model-predictive control in a demonstration project of low-lift cooling. Low-lift cooling is a highly efficient cooling strategy conceived to enable low or net-zero energy buildings. A low-lift cooling system consists of a high efficiency low-lift chiller, radiant cooling, thermal storage, and model-predictive control to pre-cool thermal storage overnight on an optimal cooling rate trajectory. We call the properly integrated and controlled combination of these elements a low-lift cooling system (LLCS). This document is the final report for that project.

  11. On the estimation of time dependent lift of a European Starling during flapping

    CERN Document Server

    Stalnov, Oksana; Kirchhefer, Adam J; Guglielmo, Christoper G; Kopp, Gregory A; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wings in birds' flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists attempt to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of the unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through unsteady thin airfoil theory and lift calculation using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both are presented over wingbeat cycles. Using long sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lif...

  12. Articulated Lifting System Modeling Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-Body Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In lifting sub-system of deep-sea mining system, spherical joint is used to connect lifting pipes to replace fixed joint. Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-body systems, the mechanics model of articulated lifting system is established. Under the four-grade and six-grade oceanic condition, dynamic responses of lifting system are simulated and experiment verified. The simulation results are consistent with experimental ones. The maximum moment of flexion is 322 kN-m on the first pipe under six-grade sea condition. It is seen that the articulated connection can reduce the moment of flexion. The bending deformation of pipe center is researched, and the maximum is 0.000479 m on the first pipe. Deformation has a little effect on the motion of system. It is feasible to analyze articulated lifting system by applying the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics. The articulated lifting system is obviously better than the fixed one.

  13. Study on lift-up speed of aerodynamic compliant foil thrust bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Lihua; Shi Jianhua; Liu Heng; Yu Lie

    2007-01-01

    Objective The experimental study on the lift-up speed of a new kind of compliant aerodynamic foil thrust bearings was performed on the multifunctional test rig established for testing the performances of foil gas bearings. Methods The lift-up speed of foil gas thrust bearing under given axial load was analyzed through the spectrum of axial displacement response in frequency domain. Results The test results indicated that the difference in the spectrum of axial displacement responses before and after lifting up of the rotor was obvious. After lifting up of the rotor, there were only larger components of rotation frequency and lower harmanic frequencies. If the rotor wasn't lift-up, there were also larger components of other frequencies in the spectrum. Conclusion So by analyzing the spectrum of axial displacement response, the results showed that the lift-up speed was about 1 860 rpm when the axial load was 31N.

  14. Comparison of two stump-lifting heads in final felling Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karha, K.

    2012-07-01

    The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2010 it was approximately 2 TWh. Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research evaluated two stump-lifting devices for the lifting of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stumps. The productivity and costs of stump lifting were determined. There was one base machine with one operator in the time study. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 30 cm, the effective hour productivity of stump lifting was 11.2 m{sup 3} solid over bark (sob)/E0 (4.8 ton{sub D}/E{sub 0}) without site preparation using a Vaekevae Stump Processor, and when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the productivity was 14.9 m{sup 3} sob/E{sub 0} (6.5 tonD/E0). When the site preparation (mounding) was integrated into lifting work, the stump-lifting productivity decreased 21-27%. The stump-lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Jarvinen) was lower than that of the Vaekevae Stump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Jarvinen lifting head were presented and discussed. The cost calculations showed that stump-lifting costs are extremely high when stump diameter is less than 20 cm. Therefore, the study recommended a change in the current stump-harvesting guidelines of Finland: The study suggested that all the stumps with a diameter less than 20 cm should be left on the harvesting site. (orig.)

  15. LiFTinG: Lightweight Freerider-Tracking Protocol in Gossip

    OpenAIRE

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Huguenin, Kévin; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Monod, Maxime; Prusty, Swagatika

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents LiFTinG, the first protocol to detect freeriders, including colluding ones, in gossip-based content dissemination systems with asymmetric data exchanges. LiFTinG relies on nodes tracking abnormal behaviors by cross-checking the history of their previous interactions, and exploits the fact that nodes pick neighbors at random to prevent colluding nodes from covering up each others' bad actions. We present a methodology to set the parameters of LiFTinG...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5510 - Non-AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-AC-powered patient lift. 880.5510 Section 880... Devices § 880.5510 Non-AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. A non-AC-powered patient lift is a... patient in the horizontal or other required position from one place to another, as from a bed to a...

  17. The Use of a Stylet to Aid the Lifting of the Epiglottis With a Video Laryngoscope

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 154 anesthetized patients requiring endotracheal intubation, in whom the epiglottis was visible but not lifted, which restricted the view of the glottis. A simple stylet was used to lift the epiglottis, thus improving the view of the glottis with the Glide Scope®, allowing tracheal tubes to be inserted into the patients. The stylet easily resolved the difficulty of lifting the epiglottis when using a video laryngoscope, thus facilitating endotracheal intubation in patients...

  18. Remote sensing image compression method based on lift scheme wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hongjiu; Tang, Xinjian; Liu, Jian; Tian, Jinwen

    2003-06-01

    Based on lifting scheme and the construction theorem of the integer Haar wavelet and biorthogonal wavelet, we propose a new integer wavelet transform construct method on the basis of lift scheme after introduciton of constructing specific-demand biorthogonal wavelet transform using Harr wavelet and Lazy wavelet. In this paper, we represent the method and algorithm of the lifting scheme, and we also give mathematical formulation on this method and experimental results as well.

  19. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  20. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  1. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  2. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  3. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  4. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  5. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  6. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the rotor of the Apache helicopter; the smooth transition from vertical takeoff to cruise flight needs some extra forward thrust to overcome a low peak of drag; the aircraft with the lift fan system enclosed during cruise flight theoretically may fly faster than helicopters and tiltrotors based on aerodynamic drag prediction, due to the elimination of rotor drag and compressibility effects on the rotor blade tips; and pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust of a 300 m/s velocity can provide enough moment to spin the lift fan. The CFD results provide insight for future experimental study of the annular-ducted lift fan VTOL aircraft.

  7. Application of adaptive wavelet transforms via lifting in image data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shujiang; Zhang, Ye; Liu, Baisen

    2008-10-01

    The adaptive wavelet transforms via lifting is proposed. In the transform, update filter is selected by the signal's character. Perfect reconstruction is possible without any overhead cost. To make sure the system's stability, in the lifting scheme of adaptive wavelet, update step is placed before prediction step. The Adaptive wavelet transforms via lifting is benefit for the image compression, because of the high stability, the small coefficients of high frequency parts, and the perfect reconstruction. With the adaptive wavelet transforms via lifting and the SPIHT, the image compression is realized in this paper, and the result is pleasant.

  8. An improved method for lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs within an animal facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Flescher, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    Transporting anesthetized pigs in a laboratory setting often requires strenuous manual lifting, posing a hazard to the safety of animal care personnel and to the welfare of the pigs. The authors developed an improved approach to lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs weighing up to 350 kg using...... mechanical lifts. Different equipment was used to accommodate pigs of different sizes as well as the building designs of three animal facilities. Using the lifts, anesthetized pigs are carried on sheets to maintain their comfort while being transported. The approach refines previous methods for handling...

  9. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  10. Study on dynamic characteristics of coupled model for deep-water lifting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunxia; Lu, Jianhui; Zhang, Chunlei

    2016-10-01

    The underwater installation of marine equipment in deep-water development requires safe lifting and accurate positioning. The heave compensation system is an important technology to ensure normal operation and improve work accuracy. To provide a theoretical basis for the heave compensation system, in this paper, the continuous modeling method is employed to build up a coupled model of deep-water lifting systems in vertical direction. The response characteristics of dynamic movement are investigated. The simulation results show that the resonance problem appears in the process of the whole releasing load, the lifting system generates resonance and the displacement response of the lifting load is maximal when the sinking depth is about 2000 m. This paper also analyzes the main influencing factors on the dynamic response of load including cable stiffness, damping coefficient of the lifting system, mass and added mass of lifting load, among which cable stiffness and damping coefficient of the lifting system have the greatest influence on dynamic response of lifting load when installation load is determined. So the vertical dynamic movement response of the load is reduced by installing a damper on the lifting cable and selecting the appropriate cable stiffness.

  11. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  12. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  13. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial temperature over 920 K, the threshold temperature for autoignition in methane jets, exhibited features typical of either a tribrachial edge or mild combustion depending on fuel mole fraction and the liftoff height increased with jet velocity. The liftoff height in the hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime was dependent on the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the addition of small amounts of hydrogen, as was the case for pure methane jets. When the initial temperature was below 920 K, where the methane fuel did not show autoignition behavior, the flame was autoignited by the addition of hydrogen, which is an ignition improver. The liftoff height demonstrated a unique feature in that it decreased nonlinearly as the jet velocity increased. The differential diffusion of hydrogen is expected to play a crucial role in the decrease in the liftoff height with increasing jet velocity.

  14. Building the Composite Face Lift: A Personal Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Sam T

    2016-07-01

    This article is a 42-year history of the development of a comprehensive face-lift technique by the author. It describes how the composite rhytidectomy has been constructed, anatomical area by anatomical area, over the author's lifetime career as a plastic surgeon. Over the course of these years, beginning with Skoog's 1973 description of using the platysma muscle of the lower face, it describes how progressively the other significant structures of anatomy necessary to be used in achieving significant rejuvenation have been analyzed by the author and in turn surgically repositioned. The theory was based on creating a composite flap of the face, keeping the orbicularis oculi muscle, facial platysma muscle, and cheek fat in their normal anatomical and intimate relationship with each other by using the skin as the carriage. In addition, differences of vectors between the composite rhytidectomy and traditional techniques are demonstrated. The gradual and persistent pursuit of periorbital rejuvenation using the lower eyelid fat and the septal orbitale is described. Each of the anatomical structures involved and the description of their importance and surgical execution have been published over the surgical career of the author, including use of the same principles for reversing suboptimal face-lift results.

  15. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eYamada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders’ satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality. A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors’ impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  16. Experiments to investigate lift production mechanisms on pitching flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P. R. R. J.; Babinsky, H.

    2017-01-01

    Pitching flat plates are a useful simplification of flapping wings, and their study can provide useful insights into unsteady force generation. Non-circulatory and circulatory lift producing mechanisms for low Reynolds number pitching flat plates are investigated. A series of experiments are designed to measure forces and study the unsteady flowfield development. Two pitch axis positions are investigated, namely a leading edge and a mid-chord pitch axis. A novel PIV approach using twin laser lightsheets is shown to be effective at acquiring full field of view velocity data when an opaque wing model is used. Leading-edge vortex (LEV) circulations are extracted from velocity field data, using a Lamb-Oseen vortex fitting algorithm. LEV and trailing-edge vortex positions are also extracted. It is shown that the circulation of the LEV, as determined from PIV data, approximately matches the general trend of an unmodified Wagner function for a leading edge pitch axis and a modified Wagner function for a mid-chord pitch axis. Comparison of experimentally measured lift correlates well with the prediction of a reduced-order model for a LE pitch axis.

  17. Jet flow control at the blade scale to manipulate lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Caroline; Guilmineau, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    The turbulent atmospheric boundary layer in which wind turbines are implemented is strongly inhomogeneous and unsteady. This induces unsteady mechanical loads at different characteristic time scales from seconds to minutes which limits significantly their life time. Different control strategies have been proposed in the framework of the French ANR SmartEole project to alleviate the impact of these upstream fluctuations at the farm, wind turbine and blade scales (i.e. characteristic time scales from seconds to minutes). The present work, which is part of this ANR project, focuses on the flow control strategies at the blade scale, to manipulate lift and thus alleviate fatigue loads. The design of a NACA654-421 airfoil profile has been modified to be able to implement jet control. Slotted jet and discrete jet configurations were implemented numerically and experimentally respectively. Results show the ability of both configurations to increase the lift by up to 30% using a significant redistribution of the mean shear. Efficiency seems to be more important using slotted jets, which however needs to be confirmed from 3D simulations.

  18. Eisenhart lifts and symmetries of time-dependent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariglia, M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horváthy, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Certain dissipative systems, such as Caldirola and Kannai's damped simple harmonic oscillator, may be modelled by time-dependent Lagrangian and hence time dependent Hamiltonian systems with n degrees of freedom. In this paper we treat these systems, their projective and conformal symmetries as well as their quantisation from the point of view of the Eisenhart lift to a Bargmann spacetime in n + 2 dimensions, equipped with its covariantly constant null Killing vector field. Reparametrisation of the time variable corresponds to conformal rescalings of the Bargmann metric. We show how the Arnold map lifts to Bargmann spacetime. We contrast the greater generality of the Caldirola-Kannai approach with that of Arnold and Bateman. At the level of quantum mechanics, we are able to show how the relevant Schrödinger equation emerges naturally using the techniques of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, since a covariantly constant null Killing vector field gives rise to well defined one particle Hilbert space. Time-dependent Lagrangians arise naturally also in cosmology and give rise to the phenomenon of Hubble friction. We provide an account of this for Friedmann-Lemaître and Bianchi cosmologies and how it fits in with our previous discussion in the non-relativistic limit.

  19. Lifting a Butterfly – A Component-Based FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Schupp

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While modern software engineering, with good reason, tries to establish the idea of reusability and the principles of parameterization and loosely coupled components even for the design of performance-critical software, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs tend to be monolithic and of a very low degree of parameterization. The data structures to hold the input and output data, the element type of these data, the algorithm for computing the so-called twiddle factors, the storage model for a given set of twiddle factors, all are unchangeably defined in the so-called butterfly, restricting its reuse almost entirely. This paper shows a way to a component-based FFT by designing a parameterized butterfly. Based on the technique of lifting, this parameterization includes algorithmic and implementation issues without violating the complexity guarantees of an FFT. The paper demonstrates the lifting process for the Gentleman-Sande butterfly, i.e., the butterfly that underlies the large class of decimation-in-frequency (DIF FFTs, shows the resulting components and summarizes the implementation of a component-based, generic DIF library in C++.

  20. Lifting gate polydimethylsiloxane microvalves and pumps for microfluidic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Kang, Minjee; Jensen, Erik C; Mathies, Richard A

    2012-02-21

    We describe the development and characterization of pneumatically actuated "lifting gate" microvalves and pumps. A fluidic layer containing the gate structure and a pneumatic layer are fabricated by soft-lithography in PDMS and bonded permanently with an oxygen plasma treatment. The microvalve structures are then reversibly bonded to a featureless glass or plastic substrate to form hybrid glass-PDMS and plastic-PDMS microchannel structures. The break-through pressures of the microvalve increase linearly up to 65 kPa as the closing pressure increases. The pumping capability of these structures ranges from the nanoliter to microliter scale depending on the number of cycles and closing pressure employed. The micropump structures exhibit up to 86.2% pumping efficiency from flow rate measurements. The utility of these structures for integrated sample processing is demonstrated by performing an automated immunoassay. These lifting gate valve and pump structures enable facile integration of complex microfluidic control systems with a wide range of lab-on-a-chip substrates.

  1. Image compression with directional lifting on separated sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieying; Wang, Nengchao

    2007-11-01

    A novel image compression scheme is presented that the directional sections are separated and transformed differently from the rest of image. The discrete directions of anisotropic pixels are calculated and then grouped to compact directional sections. One dimensional (1-D) adaptive directional lifting is continuously applied along orientations of direction sections other than applying 1-D wavelet transform alternately in two dimensions for the whole image. For the rest sections, 2-D adaptive lifting filters are applied according to pixels' positions. Our single embedded coding stream can be truncated exactly for any bit rate. Experiments have showed that large coefficients can be significantly reduced along directional sections by our transform which makes energy more compact than traditional wavelet transform. Though rate-distortion (R-D) optimization isn't exploited, the PSNR is still comparable to that of JPEG-2000 with 9/7 filters at high bit rates. And at low bit rates, the visual quality is better than that of JPEG-2000 for along directional sections both blurring and ringing artifacts can be avoided and edge preservation is good.

  2. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) Applications at Solar System Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Polidan, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Northrop Grumman and L'Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere. The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieve this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the "habitable layers" of Venus' atmosphere at night. Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low, medium, or high altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  3. What Is a Total Artificial Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  4. Use of natural gas as a driving force in a diluent gas artificial lift system applied to heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.; Garcia, L.; Brown, J. [PDVSA PETROLEOS S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Heavy oils constitute one of the largest fossil fuel reserves on earth; their exploitation usually requires the use of diluents. In Venezuela, the diluent used is light crude, it is injected into the well with natural gas to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil production. This method requires the use of diluent pumps which are critical to the project as their maintenance costs are high. This paper presents new equipment called gas displacement pump to replace diluent pumps. Simulations were conducted on the well PC-152 in Pilon field to compare the two pumping systems. Results showed that the gas displacement pump is cheaper than the other pumping systems in both capital expenditure and maintenance costs while having no restriction in flow areas. The utilization of the gas displacement pump system proposed herein would allow companies to reduce their expenses.

  5. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  6. Abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in lifting pipe of pebble-bed HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ke; Su, Jiageng [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Zhou, Hongbo [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Chinergy Co., LTD., Beijing 100193 (China); Peng, Wei; Liu, Bing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Yu, Suyun, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, The Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Educations, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative determination of abrasion rate of graphite pebbles in different lifting velocities. • Abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in helium, air and nitrogen. • In helium, intensive collisions caused by oscillatory motion result in more graphite dust production. - Abstract: A pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (pebble-bed HTR) uses a helium coolant, graphite core structure, and spherical fuel elements. The pebble-bed design enables on-line refueling, avoiding refueling shutdowns. During circulation process, the pebbles are lifted pneumatically via a stainless steel lifting pipe and reinserted into the reactor. Inevitably, the movement of the fuel elements as they recirculate in the reactor produces graphite dust. Mechanical wear is the primary source of graphite dust production. Specifically, the sources are mechanisms of pebble–pebble contact, pebble–wall (structural graphite) contact, and fuel handling (pebble–metal abrasion). The key contribution to graphite dust production is from the fuel handling system, particularly from the lifting pipe. During pneumatic lift, graphite pebbles undergo multiple collisions with the stainless steel lifting pipe, thereby causing abrasion of the graphite pebbles and producing graphite dust. The present work explored the abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in the lifting pipe by measuring the abrasion rate at different lifting velocities. The abrasion rate of the graphite pebble in helium was found much higher than those in air and nitrogen. This gas environment effect could be explained by either tribology behavior or dynamic behavior. Friction testing excluded the possibility of tribology reason. The dynamic behavior of the graphite pebble was captured by analysis of the audio waveforms during pneumatic lift. The analysis results revealed unique dynamic behavior of the graphite pebble in helium. Oscillation and consequently intensive collisions occur during pneumatic lift, causing

  7. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  8. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  9. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Eric [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  10. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  11. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  12. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  13. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  14. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  15. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  16. 78 FR 3356 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. The existing AD... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 57, Wings....

  17. 78 FR 79599 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... 99-01-05 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts... aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. The list of affected airplanes in the Applicability section is incorrect. Several Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-18 airplanes were inadvertently omitted from the final...

  18. KAPPEL Propeller. Development of a Marine Propeller with Non-planar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, J.; Andersen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or "winglet" at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the non-planar principle to marine propellers, dealt...

  19. 78 FR 73997 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped with Wing Lift Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    .... SUMMARY: We are revising Airworthiness Directive (AD) 99-01-05 for certain aircraft equipped with wing... unseal a sealed wing lift strut should be coordinated with the Atlanta Aircraft Certification Office (ACO...)(2) of this AD that occurs later, remove the wing lift struts following Piper Aircraft...

  20. Mechanical discrete simulator of the electro-mechanical lift with n:1 roping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, F. J.; Herrera, I.

    2016-05-01

    The design process of new products in lift engineering is a difficult task due to, mainly, the complexity and slenderness of the lift system, demanding a predictive tool for the lift mechanics. A mechanical ad-hoc discrete simulator, as an alternative to ‘general purpose’ mechanical simulators is proposed. Firstly, the synthesis and experimentation process that has led to establish a suitable model capable of simulating accurately the response of the electromechanical lift is discussed. Then, the equations of motion are derived. The model comprises a discrete system of 5 vertically displaceable masses (car, counterweight, car frame, passengers/loads and lift drive), an inertial mass of the assembly tension pulley-rotor shaft which can rotate about the machine axis and 6 mechanical connectors with 1:1 suspension layout. The model is extended to any n:1 roping lift by setting 6 equivalent mechanical components (suspension systems for car and counterweight, lift drive silent blocks, tension pulley-lift drive stator and passengers/load equivalent spring-damper) by inductive inference from 1:1 and generalized 2:1 roping system. The application to simulate real elevator systems is proposed by numeric time integration of the governing equations using the Kutta-Meden algorithm and implemented in a computer program for ad-hoc elevator simulation called ElevaCAD.

  1. Liftings in Finite Graphs and Linkages in Infinite Graphs with Prescribed Edge-Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Seongmin; Richter, R. Bruce; Thomassen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a graph and let s be a vertex of G. We consider the structure of the set of all lifts of two edges incident with s that preserve edge-connectivity. Mader proved that two mild hypotheses imply there is at least one pair that lifts, while Frank showed (with the same hypotheses) that there ...

  2. Characterization of metal sprays created by a picosecond Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, R.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.B.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    A new method to analyze and quantify results obtained with the Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) process is presented. This experiment based characterization method was designed to investigate the spraying behavior of the LIFT process, that occurs in certain fluence regimes. This method was impl

  3. Deploying time investigation of automotive active hood lift mechanism with different design parameters of hinge part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the change in deploying time of an active hood lift mechanism of a passenger vehicle activated by a gunpowder actuator. Especially, in this work, the deploying time is investigated by changing the principal design parameters of the hinge part of the hood mechanism. After briefly introducing the working principle of the active hood lift mechanism operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing dynamic equations of the active hood lift mechanism are formulated for deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations of motion, the response time for deploying the hood lift mechanism is investigated by changing several geometric locations such as the location of actuator. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift mechanism with the existing conventional hood lift mechanism and the proposed active hood lift mechanism. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed active hood lift mechanism is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  4. Concepts for a theoretical and experimental study of lifting rotor random loads and vibrations, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1967-01-01

    A number of lifting rotor conditions with random inputs are discussed. The present state of random process theory, applicable to lifting rotor problems is sketched. Possible theories of random blade flapping and random blade flap-bending are outlined and their limitations discussed. A plan for preliminary experiments to study random flapping motions of a see-saw rotor is developed.

  5. Higher-dimensional lifts of Killing–Yano forms with torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, David D. K.

    2017-01-01

    Using a Kaluza–Klein-type lift, it is shown how Killing–Yano forms with torsion can remain symmetries of a higher-dimensional geometry, subject to an algebraic condition between the Kaluza–Klein field strength and the Killing–Yano form. The lift condition’s significance is highlighted, and is satisfied by examples of black holes in supergravity.

  6. Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik;

    2014-01-01

    When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization set...

  7. Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

  8. Engineering safety evaluation for 22 ton steel disposal box lifting bail design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    1999-11-23

    The objective of this analysis is to design and analyze the lifting bail of the 22 Ton Steel Waste Disposal Box (SWDB). The new design takes the original lifting bail and adds a hinge allowing the top portion of the bail to fold over towards the lid.

  9. Research on the special lifting devices for steel box girders of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ming; Wu Qihe; Luo Chengbin; Zhou Hanfa

    2009-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a steel box girder and a main span of 1 088 m. The steel box girder of main span includes five portions: back span large unit, large block of pylon, standard girder, back span closure girder and middle span closure girder. Each back span large unit is fabricated by welding several deck segments together in factory, and is erected by floating crane. As navigational clearance of the main bridge is high, the traditional truss lifting device can' t satisfy the requirement of domestic lifting cranes for this kind of lifting height and weight. Hence, a kind of lighter lifting device for the erection of back span large units was accepted for this bridge. In this paper, the design and use of this lifting device is introduced.The upper structure used lifting gantry to install the standard girder segment by cantilever method. Because the bridge's navigation clearance is high, and the girder segment is wide and heavy, the meteorology and hydrology condition of the bridge district is abominable, and the requirements of long cable girder side pull-in, structure and performance propose high request to the lifting gantry. In this paper, the design and use key point of long cable pull-in angle adjustment device integrate into lifting gantry is introduced.

  10. Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

  11. Trunk muscle activation and low back loading in lifting in the absence of load knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Steenhuizen, S.; Boeken-Kruger, M.C.; Baten, C.T.M.; Kingma, I.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2000-01-01

    People who know the actual mass of an object to be lifted normally prepare themselves before attempting a lift to control the movement and to minimize low back loading. In this study, the trunk muscular reactions and low back torque were investigated in the situation in which the individual did not

  12. Women's Weight Lifting: Elevating a Sport to World-Class Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, D

    1988-04-01

    The first women's world weight-lifting competition-held last fall in Daytona Beach, Florida-is evidence that the sport is growing and building its case for Olympic medal status. But little is known about the medical aspects of weight lifting for women.

  13. Influence of Physical Therapists' Kinesiophobic Beliefs on Lifting Capacity in Healthy Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakke, Sandra E.; Soer, Remko; Krijnen, Wim P.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical therapists' recommendations to patients to avoid daily physical activity can be influenced by the therapists' kinesiophobic beliefs. Little is known about the amount of influence of a physical therapist's kinesiophobic beliefs on a patient's actual lifting capacity during a lift

  14. Nuclear power for commercial high-speed sea-lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A.J.; Holiday, S. [Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    A 1000 MW (thermal) pressurized water reactor concept design for large, fast merchant ships is presented here. The design study was undertaken to provide an input to an overall assessment of the near future economic viability of nuclear merchant shipping. The intention was to use a widely available nuclear industrial base completed with features considered necessary like: the diversity of shutdown (reactivity compensation rods, safety rods and soluble boron), a large pressurizer (to tolerate loss of steam demand without relief valve lift and to support a long response time for small leak events), the loop isolation (to manage risks of steam generator tube bundle leaks) and the passive long-term cooling to the atmosphere via duplicate systems. It appears that nuclear propulsion will have an advantage if oil prices rise by 25% or more.

  15. Leveraging Parallel Data Processing Frameworks with Verified Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaz Bin Safeer Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many parallel data frameworks have been proposed in recent years that let sequential programs access parallel processing. To capitalize on the benefits of such frameworks, existing code must often be rewritten to the domain-specific languages that each framework supports. This rewriting–tedious and error-prone–also requires developers to choose the framework that best optimizes performance given a specific workload. This paper describes Casper, a novel compiler that automatically retargets sequential Java code for execution on Hadoop, a parallel data processing framework that implements the MapReduce paradigm. Given a sequential code fragment, Casper uses verified lifting to infer a high-level summary expressed in our program specification language that is then compiled for execution on Hadoop. We demonstrate that Casper automatically translates Java benchmarks into Hadoop. The translated results execute on average 3.3x faster than the sequential implementations and scale better, as well, to larger datasets.

  16. Linear decentralized systems with special structure. [for twin lift helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    Certain fundamental structures associated with linear systems having internal symmetries are outlined. It is shown that the theory of finite-dimensional algebras and their representations are closely related to such systems. It is also demonstrated that certain problems in the decentralized control of symmetric systems are equivalent to long-standing problems of linear systems theory. Even though the structure imposed arose in considering the problems of twin-lift helicopters, any large system composed of several identical intercoupled control systems can be modeled by a linear system that satisfies the constraints imposed. Internal symmetry can be exploited to yield new system-theoretic invariants and a better understanding of the way in which the underlying structure affects overall system performance.

  17. Body-rock or lift-off in flow

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Frank T

    2013-01-01

    Conditions are investigated under which a body lying at rest or rocking on a solid horizontal surface can be removed from the surface by hydrodynamic forces or instead continues rocking. The investigation is motivated by recent observations on Martian dust movement as well as other small- and large-scale applications. The nonlinear theory of fluid-body interaction here has unsteady motion of an inviscid fluid interacting with a moving thin body. Various shapes of body are addressed together with a range of initial conditions. The relevant parameter space is found to be subtle as evolution and shape play substantial roles coupled with scaled mass and gravity effects. Lift-off of the body from the surface generally cannot occur without fluid flow but it can occur either immediately or within a finite time once the fluid flow starts up: parameters for this are found and comparisons are made with Martian observations.

  18. Lifting, restricting and sifting integral points on affine homogeneous varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodnik, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In a previous paper {GN2} an effective solution of the lattice point counting problem in general domains in semisimple S-algebraic groups and affine symmetric varieties was established. The method relies on the mean ergodic theorem for the action of G on G/Gamma, and implies uniformity in counting over families of lattice subgroups admitting a uniform spectral gap. In the present paper we extend some methods developed in {NS} and use them to establish several useful consequences of this property, including : Effective upper bounds on lifting for solutions of congruences in affine homogeneous varieties, effective upper bounds on the number of integral points on general subvarieties of semisimple group varieties, effective lower bounds on the number of almost prime points on symmetric varieties, and effective upper bounds on almost prime solutions of Linnik-type congruence problems in homogeneous varieties.

  19. Leading-Edge Velocities and Lifted Methane Jet Flame Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current interest exists in understanding reaction-zone dynamics and mechanisms with respect to how they counterpropagate against incoming reactants. Images of flame position and flow-field morphology are presented from flame chemiluminescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements. In the present study, PIV experiments were carried out to measure the methane jet lifted-flame flow-field velocities in the vicinity of the flame leading edge. Specifically, velocity fields within the high-temperature zone were examined in detail, which complements previous studies, whose prime focus is the flow-field upstream of the high-temperature boundary. PIV data is used not only to determine the velocities, but, along with chemiluminescence images, to also indicate the approximate location of the reaction zone (further supported by/through the leading-edge flame velocity distributions. The velocity results indirectly support the concept that the flame is anchored primarily through the mechanism of partially premixed flame propagation.

  20. Quantum unique ergodicity on locally symmetric spaces: the degenerate lift

    CERN Document Server

    Silberman, Lior

    2011-01-01

    Given a measure $\\bar\\mu$ on a locally symmetric space $Y=\\Gamma\\backslash G/K$, obtained as a weak-{*} limit of probability measures associated to eigenfunctions of the ring of invariant differential operators, we construct a measure $\\mu$ on the homogeneous space $X=\\Gamma\\backslash G$ which lifts $\\bar\\mu$ and which is invariant by a connected subgroup $A_{1}\\subset A$ of positive dimension, where $G=NAK$ is an Iwasawa decomposition. If the functions are, in addition, eigenfunctions of the Hecke operators, then $\\mu$ is also the limit of measures associated to Hecke eigenfunctions on $X$. This generalizes previous results of the author and A.\\ Venkatesh to the case of "degenerate" limiting spectral parameters.

  1. Lifting the Franck-Condon blockade in driven quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughian, Patrick; Walter, Stefan; Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2016-11-01

    Electron-vibron coupling in quantum dots can lead to a strong suppression of the average current in the sequential tunneling regime. This effect is known as Franck-Condon blockade and can be traced back to an overlap integral between vibron states with different electron numbers which becomes exponentially small for large electron-vibron coupling strength. Here, we investigate the effect of a time-dependent drive on this phenomenon, in particular the effect of an oscillatory gate voltage acting on the electronic dot level. We employ two different approaches: perturbation theory based on nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's functions and a master equation in Born-Markov approximation. In both cases, we find that the drive can lift the blockade by exciting vibrons. As a consequence, the relative change in average current grows exponentially with the drive strength.

  2. Topological wave functions and the 4D-5D lift

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peng

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the holomorphic anomaly equations satisfied by the topological string amplitude from the perspective of the 4D-5D lift, in the context of ``magic'' N=2 supergravity theories. In particular, we interpret the Gopakumar-Vafa relation between 5D black hole degeneracies and the topological string amplitude as the result of a canonical transformation from 4D to 5D charges. Moreover we use the known Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of 5D black holes to constrain the asymptotic behavior of the topological wave function at finite topological coupling but large K\\"ahler classes. In the process, some subtleties in the relation between 5D black hole degeneracies and the topological string amplitude are uncovered, but not resolved. Finally we extend these considerations to the putative one-parameter generalization of the topological string amplitude, and identify the canonical transformation as a Weyl reflection inside the 3D duality group.

  3. Vector lifting scheme for phase-shifting holographic data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yafei; Kaaniche, Mounir; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Dufaux, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    With the increasing interest in holography in three-dimensional imaging applications, the use of hologram compression techniques is mandatory for storage and transmission purposes. The state-of-the-art approach aims at encoding separately each interference pattern by resorting to common still-image compression techniques. Contrary to such an independent scheme, a joint hologram coding scheme is investigated in this paper. More precisely, instead of encoding all the interference patterns, it is proposed that only two sets of data be compressed by taking into account the redundancies existing among them. The resulting data are encoded by applying a joint multiscale decomposition based on the vector lifting concept. Experimental results show the benefits that can be drawn from the proposed hologram compression approach.

  4. Lossy Compression Color Medical Image Using CDF Wavelet Lifting Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. beladghem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the coming era is that of digitized medical information, an important challenge to deal with is the storage and transmission requirements of enormous data, including color medical images. Compression is one of the indispensable techniques to solve this problem. In this work, we propose an algorithm for color medical image compression based on a biorthogonal wavelet transform CDF 9/7 coupled with SPIHT coding algorithm, of which we applied the lifting structure to improve the drawbacks of wavelet transform. In order to enhance the compression by our algorithm, we have compared the results obtained with wavelet based filters bank. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to traditional methods in both lossy and lossless compression for all tested color images. Our algorithm provides very important PSNR and MSSIM values for color medical images.

  5. Reentry control of a low-lift maneuverable spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneke, Axel J.; Well, Klaus H.

    1992-08-01

    Commercial operation of space laboratories will rely on small, unmanned reentry capsules to retrieve experimental products independent from Shuttle services. An example for such a concept is the Space Mail system studied by the ESA. This paper presents a trajectory control system based on linear state feedback to guide and control the reentry glide of low-lifting capsules. A technique to design a time-varying controller is derived and applied. Simulation results of spatial flights over a rotating earth show that the designed controller effectively responds to entry condition offsets on several reference trajectories. Also, the controller is capable of tolerating modified vehicle parameters as well as atmospheric disturbances, and the same controller gain functions are successfully applied to different reference trajectories.

  6. Active Aerothermoelastic Control of Hypersonic Double-wedge Lifting Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laith K Abbas; Chen Qian; Piergiovanni Marzocca; Gürdal Zafer; Abdalla Mostafa

    2008-01-01

    Designing reentry space vehicles and high-speed aireraft requires special attention to the nonlinear thermoelastic and aerodynamic instability of their structural components. The thermal effects are important since temperature environment brings dramatic influences on the static and dynamic behaviors of flight structures in supersonic/hypersonic regimes and is likely to cause instability, catastrophic failure and oscillations resulting in structural failure due to fatigue. In order to understand the dynamic behaviors of these "hot"structures, a double-wedge lifting surface with combining freeplay and cubic structural nonlinearities in both plunging and pitching degrees-of-freedom operating in supersonic/hypersonic flight speed regimes has been analyzed. A third order piston theory aerodynamic isused to estimate the applied nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads. Also considered is the loss of torsiunal stiffness that may be incurredby lifting surfaces subject to axial stresses induced by aerodynamic heating. The aerodynamic heating effects are estimated based on theadiabatic wall temperature due to high speed airstreams. As a recently emerging technology, the active aerothermoelastic control isaimed at providing solutions to a large number of problems involving the aeronautica Faerospace flight vehicle structures. To preventsuch damaging phenomena from occurring, an application of linear and nonlinear active control methods on both flutter boundary andpost-flutter behavior has been fulfilled. In this paper, modeling issues as well as numerical simulation have been presented and pertinent conclusions outlined. It is evidenced that a serious loss of torsional stiffness may induce the dynamic instability; however active controlcan be used to expand the flutter boundary and convert unstable limit cycle oscillations (LCO) into the stable LCO and/or to shift the transition between these two states toward higher flight Mach numbers.

  7. Ion implantation of diamond: Damage, doping, and lift-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, N.R.; McGucken, E.; Swanson, M.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Hunn, J.D.; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    In order to make good quality economical diamond electronic devices, it is essential to grow films and to dope these films to obtain n- and p- type conductivity. This review talk discuss first doping by ion implantation plus annealing of the implantation damage, and second flow to make large area single crystal diamonds. C implantation damage below an estimated Frenkel defect concentration of 7% could be recovered almost completely by annealing at 950C. For a defect concentration between 7 and 10%, a stable damage form of diamond (``green diamond``) was formed by annealing. At still higher damage levels, the diamond graphitized. To introduce p-type doping, we have co-implanted B and C into natural diamond at 77K, followed by annealing up to 1100C. The resulting semiconducting material has electrical properties similar to those of natural B-doped diamond. To create n-type diamond, we have implanted Na{sup +}, P+ and As{sup +} ions and have observed semiconducting behavior. This has been compared with carbon or noble element implantation, in an attempt to isolate the effect of radiation damage. Recently, in order to obtain large area signal crystals, we have developed a novel technique for removing thin layers of diamond from bulk or homoepitaxial films. This method consists of ion implantation, followed by selective etching. High energy (4--5 MeV) implantation of carbon or oxygen ions creates a well-defined layer of damaged diamond buried at a controlled depth. This layer is graphitized and selectivity etched either by heating at 550C in an oxygen ambient or by electrolysis. This process successfully lifts off the diamond plate above the graphite layer. The lift-off method, combined with well-established homoepitaxial growth processes, has potential for fabrication of large area single-crystal diamond sheets.

  8. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  9. Test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying in a 2-day functional capacity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneman, M F; Dijkstra, P U; Westmaas, M; Göeken, L N H

    2002-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using a 2-day FCE protocol. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for weight lifted and carried. Predictive relationships between test and retest were explored by means of a regression analysis. The results of ICC were lifting low 0.87, lifting overhead 0.87, and carrying 0.77. Performances on day 2 were on an average 6-9% higher. Other than the amount of weight handled on day 1, no variable was found to predict performance on day 2. It was concluded that test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying was good, and the need for a 2-day protocol could not be confirmed.

  10. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorning, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  11. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  12. Lift-enhancing surfaces on several advanced V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, D. A.; Smith, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of forward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate that larger LEX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  13. Lift Enhancing Surfaces on Several Advanced V/STOL Fighter/Attack Aircraft Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, Donald A.; Smith, Stephen C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of for-ward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate surface that larger LFX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  14. Undecimated Lifting Wavelet Packet Transform with Boundary Treatment for Machinery Incipient Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiang Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective signal processing in fault detection and diagnosis (FDD is an important measure to prevent failure and accidents of machinery. To address the end distortion and frequency aliasing issues in conventional lifting wavelet transform, a Volterra series assisted undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform (ULWPT is investigated for machinery incipient fault diagnosis. Undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform is firstly formulated to eliminate the frequency aliasing issue in traditional lifting wavelet packet transform. Next, Volterra series, as a boundary treatment method, is used to preprocess the signal to suppress the end distortion in undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform. Finally, the decomposed wavelet coefficients are trimmed to the original length as the signal of interest for machinery incipient fault detection. Experimental study on a reciprocating compressor is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented method. The results show that the presented method outperforms the conventional approach by dramatically enhancing the weak defect feature extraction for reciprocating compressor valve fault diagnosis.

  15. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  16. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  17. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  18. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  19. Mechanical properties of artificial snow

    OpenAIRE

    Lintzén, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties of snow have been a subject of research since the mid-20th century. Theresearch done is based on natural snow. During the last decades the winter business industryhas been growing and also the interest for constructing buildings and artwork of snow. Suchconstructions are generally built using artificial snow, i.e. snow produced by snow guns. Up tothe present constructions of snow are designed based on knowledge by experience. Only minorscientific studies on artificial sn...

  20. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  1. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  2. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  3. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  4. Supporting the upper body with the hand on the thigh reduces back loading during lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Idsart; Faber, Gert S; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-04-11

    When picking objects from the floor, low back pain patients often tend to support the upper body by leaning with one hand on a thigh. While this strategy may reduce back load, this has not yet been assessed, probably due to the difficulty of measuring the forces between hand and thigh. Ten healthy male subjects lifted a pencil and a crate from the floor, with four lifting techniques (free, squat, stoop and a Weight Lifters Technique (WLT)), each of which was performed with and without supporting with one hand on the thigh. A six Degrees of Freedom force transducer, with a comfortable surface to support the hand on, was mounted just above the subject׳s left knee. Hand forces, ground reaction forces, full body kinematics, and trunk EMG were measured. Using inverse dynamics and taking the forces between hand and thigh into account, we calculated 3D L5S1 joint moments, and subsequently estimated spine forces using an EMG-assisted trunk model. For lifting a pencil, hand support reduced average peak total moments by 17-25%, dependent on lifting technique. For crate lifting, hand support reduced total moments by 13-19% compared with one-handed lifting and by 14-26% compared to two-handed lifting. Hand support slightly increased asymmetric motions and caused a substantial increase in asymmetric moments in crate lifting. For compression forces, reductions (up to 28%) were seen in all techniques except in stoop lifts. It is concluded that leaning with a hand on the thigh can lead to substantial reductions of low back loading during lifting.

  5. Flow pattern and lift evolution of hydrofoil with control of electro-magnetic forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YaoHui; FAN BaoChun; CHEN ZhiHua; LI HongZhi

    2009-01-01

    The Initial responses and evolutions of the flow pattern and lift coefficient of a hydrofoil under the ac-tion of electro-magnetic (Lorentz) force have been studied experimentally and numerically,and trace particle methods are employed for them.With the introduction of BVF (boundary vortex flux),the quantitative relation among Lorentz forces,BVF and lifts is deduced.The influences of flow patterns on the hydrofoil lift coefficient have been discussed based on the BVF distribution,and the flow control mechanism of Lorentz force for a hydrofoil has been elucidated.Our results show that the flow pattern and lift of the hydrofoil vary periodically without any force.However,with the action of streamwise Lorentz forces,the separation point on the hydrofoil surface moves backward with a certain velocity,which makes the flow field steady finally.The streamwise Lorentz force raises the foil lift due to the Increase of BVF intensity.On the other hand,Lorentz force also increases the hydrofoil surface pres-sure,which makes the lift decrease.However,the factor leading to the lift enhancement is determinant,therefore,the Lorentz force on the suction side can increase the lift,and the stronger the Lorentz force,the larger the lift enhancement.Our results also show that the localized Lorentz force can also both suppress the flow separation and increase the hydrofoil lift coefficient,furthermore,the Lorentz force located on the tail acts better than that located on the front.

  6. A large array of high-performance artificial stars using airship-supported small mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Robert; Foxwell, Mark; Murray, Graham J.

    2004-10-01

    We propose a practical system that can provide a large number of high performance artificial stars, of the order of a few hundred, using an array of small mirrors on an airship supported platform illuminated from the ground by a laser. Our concept offers several advantages over other guide star schemes: Airborne mirror arrays can furnish tip-tilt information; they also permit a considerable reduction in the total ground-laser power required; high intensity guide stars with very small angular image size are possible; and finally they offer very low scattered parasite laser light. More basic & simpler launch-laser & AO technologies can therefore be employed, with potentially huge cost savings, with potentially significant improvement in the quality of the AO correction. The general platform scheme and suitable lift technologies are also discussed. A novel concept for achieving precise positioning is presented whereby the platform & the lifting vehicle are linked by a tether, the platform having a degree of independent control. Our proposal would employ as the lift vehicle an autonomous high altitude airship of the type currently under widespread development in the commercial sector, for use as hubs for telecommunication networks, mobile telephone relay stations, etc.

  7. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP

    1996-01-01

    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  8. Size selectivity in field-flow fractionation: lift mode of retention with near-wall lift force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michel; Beckett, Ronald

    2012-06-28

    A simple theoretical model for the size selectivity, S(d), in the lift mode of retention in field-flow fractionation (FFF) is developed on the basis of the near-wall lift force expression. S(d) is made up of two contributions: the flow contribution, S(d,f), arising from the variation of the flow velocity at center of particle due to a change in particle position with particle size, and a slip contribution, S(d,s), arising from the concomitant change in the extent of retardation due to the presence of a nearby channel wall. The slip contribution is minor, but not negligible, and amounts to 10-20% of the overall size selectivity. It contributes to reduce S(d) in sedimentation FFF but to enhance it in flow FFF. S(d) would steadily increase with particle size if the flow profile was linear (Couette flow). Because of the curvature of the flow profile encountered in the classical Poiseuille flow, S(d) exhibits a maximum at some specific particle size. The model predicts a significant difference in S(d) between sedimentation FFF and flow FFF, arising from the different functional dependences of the field force with particle size between these two methods. The predictions are in good agreement with the various S(d) values reported in the literature in both sedimentation and flow FFF. On the basis of the model, guidelines are given for adjusting the operating parameters (carrier flow rate and field strength) to optimize the size selectivity. Finally, it is found that S(d) generally decreases with decreasing channel thickness.

  9. Lower extremity joint kinetics and lumbar curvature during squat and stoop lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Youngho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity joint and the lumbar lordosis during two different symmetrical lifting techniques(squat and stoop were examined using the three-dimensional motion analysis. Methods Twenty-six young male volunteers were selected for the subjects in this study. While they lifted boxes weighing 5, 10 and 15 kg by both squat and stoop lifting techniques, their motions were captured and analyzed using the 3D motion analysis system which was synchronized with two forceplates and the electromyographic system. Joint kinematics was determined by the forty-three reflective markers which were attached on the anatomical locations based on the VICON Plug-in-Gait marker placement protocol. Joint kinetics was analyzed by using the inverse dynamics. Paired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the differences of variables between two techniques, and among three different weights. Correlation coefficient was calculated to explain the role of lower limb joint motion in relation to the lumbar lordosis. Results There were not significant differences in maximum lumbar joint moments between two techniques. The hip and ankle contributed the most part of the support moment during squat lifting, and the knee flexion moment played an important role in stoop lifting. The hip, ankle and lumbar joints generated power and only the knee joint absorbed power in the squat lifting. The knee and ankle joints absorbed power, the hip and lumbar joints generated power in the stoop lifting. The bi-articular antagonist muscles' co-contraction around the knee joint during the squat lifting and the eccentric co-contraction of the gastrocnemius and the biceps femoris were found important for maintaining the straight leg during the stoop lifting. At the time of lordotic curvature appearance in the squat lifting, there were significant correlations in all three lower extremity joint moments with the lumbar joint

  10. High performance electrochemical and electrothermal artificial muscles from twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ah; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-04-01

    High performance torsional and tensile artificial muscles are described, which utilize thermally- or electrochemically-induced volume changes of twist-spun, guest-filled, carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. These yarns were prepared by incorporating twist in carbon nanotube sheets drawn from spinnable CNT forests. Inserting high twist into the CNT yarn results in yarn coiling, which can dramatically amplify tensile stroke and work capabilities compared with that for the non-coiled twisted yarn. When electrochemically driven in a liquid electrolyte, these artificial muscles can generate a torsional rotation per muscle length that is over 1000 times higher than for previously reported torsional muscles. All-solid-state torsional electrochemical yarn muscles have provided a large torsional muscle stroke (53° per mm of yarn length) and a tensile stroke of up to 1.3% when lifting loads that are ~25 times heavier than can be lifted by the same diameter human skeletal muscle. Over a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles have been demonstrated for thermally powered CNT hybrid yarns muscles filled with paraffin wax, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. At lower actuation rates, these thermally powered muscles provide tensile strokes of over 10%.

  11. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance.

  12. Research on speed control of secondary regulation lifting system of parking equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Faye

    2005-12-01

    Hydrostatic transmission with secondary regulation is a new kind of hydrostatic transmission that can regenerate inertial and gravitational energy of load. On the basis of an in-depth analysis of the working principles and energy-saving mechanisms of the parking equipment lifting systems with, secondary regulating technology, this paper proposes a method of regenerating a lifting system's inertial energy by controlling rotational speed and reclaiming the gravitational energy by use of a constant rotational speed. Considering large changes of the parameters of lifting systems and then non-linearity, a fuzzy control was adopted to control the lifting system, and a mathematical model of the system was established. By simulation and experiment of the lifting system, the conclusion was reached a lifting system's braking achieved by controlling rotational speed is reliable and stable at a definite speed. It also permits changing the efficiency of recovery by changing the rotational speed. The design power of the lifting system can be chosen in terms of the system's average power, so the system's power can be reduced and energy savings achieved.

  13. Lift Enhancement of a Vortex-Sink Attached to a Flat Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Xi; Mohseni, Kamran

    2012-01-01

    As observed in natural fliers, stabilized vortices on the surface of an airfoil or wing could provide lift enhancement. Similar concept can be applied in fixed lifting surfaces. Potential flow theory is employed to model lift enhancement by attaching a vortex-sink pair to the top surface of a flat plate in a pseudo-steady flow. Using this flow model, a parametric study on the location of the vortex-sink pair is performed in order to optimize lift enhancement. Lift coefficient calculations are presented for a range of vortex-sink positions, vortex-sink strengths, and flat-plate angles of attack. It is shown that beyond the lift contribution terms due to the vortex-sink strength, lift enhancement could be also achieved by a translating velocity of the vortex-sink in a non-equilibrium position. This vortex-sink velocity term is more pronounced when the vortex-sink is placed close to the top surface of the flat-plate near the leading or the trailing edges of the flat plate. It is concluded that increasing the vor...

  14. Hydraulic lift as a determinant of tree-grass coexistence on savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    The coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas is determined by a complex set of interacting factors that determine access to resources and demographic dynamics, under the control of external drivers and vegetation feedbacks with the physical environment. Existing theories explain coexistence mainly as an effect of competitive relations and/or disturbances. However, theoretical studies on the way facilitative interactions resulting from hydraulic lift affect tree-grass coexistence and the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable are still lacking. We investigated the role of hydraulic lift in the stability of tree-grass coexistence in savannas. To that end, we developed a new mechanistic model that accounts for both competition for soil water in the shallow soil and fire-induced disturbance. We found that hydraulic lift favors grasses, which scavenge the water lifted by woody plants. Thus, hydraulic lift expands (at the expenses of woodlands) the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable. These results indicate that hydraulic lift can be an important mechanism responsible for the coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas. Grass facilitation by trees through the process of hydraulic lift could allow savannas to persist stably in mesic regions that would otherwise exhibit a forest cover.

  15. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris during Flapping Flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Stalnov

    Full Text Available We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion.

  16. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) during Flapping Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam J; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Liberzon, Alexander; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion.

  17. Analysis of the Effects of Streamwise Lift Distribution on Sonic Boom Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of sonic boom has been one of the major areas of study in aeronautics due to the benefits a low-boom aircraft has in both civilian and military applications. This work conducts a numerical analysis of the effects of streamwise lift distribution on the shock coalescence characteristics. A simple wing-canard-stabilator body model is used in the numerical simulation. The streamwise lift distribution is varied by fixing the canard at a deflection angle while trimming the aircraft with the wing and the stabilator at the desired lift coefficient. The lift and the pitching moment coefficients are computed using the Missile DATCOM v. 707. The flow field around the wing-canard- stabilator body model is resolved using the OVERFLOW-2 flow solver. Overset/ chimera grid topology is used to simplify the grid generation of various configurations representing different streamwise lift distributions. The numerical simulations are performed without viscosity unless it is required for numerical stability. All configurations are simulated at Mach 1.4, angle-of-attack of 1.50, lift coefficient of 0.05, and pitching moment coefficient of approximately 0. Four streamwise lift distribution configurations were tested.

  18. Development of high-lift laminar wing using steady active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Patrick J.

    Fuel costs represent a large fraction of aircraft operating costs. Increased aircraft fuel efficiency is thus desirable. Laminar airfoils have the advantage of reduced cruise drag and increased fuel efficiency. Unfortunately, they cannot perform adequately during high-lift situations (i.e. takeoff and landing) due to low stall angles and low maximum lift caused by flow separation. Active flow control has shown the ability to prevent or mitigate separation effects, and increase maximum lift. This fact makes AFC technology a fitting solution for improving high-lift systems and reducing the need for slats and flap elements. This study focused on experimentally investigating the effects of steady active flow control from three slots, located at 1%, 10%, and 80% chord, respectively, over a laminar airfoil with 45 degree deflected flap. A 30-inch-span airfoil model was designed, fabricated, and then tested in the Bill James 2.5'x3' Wind Tunnel at Iowa State University. Pressure data were collected along the mid-span of the airfoil, and lift and drag were calculated. Five test cases with varying injection locations and varying Cμ were chosen: baseline, blown flap, leading edge blowing, equal blowing, and unequal blowing. Of these cases, unequal blowing achieved the greatest lift enhancement over the baseline. All cases were able to increase lift; however, gains were less than anticipated.

  19. Transcutaneous Serdev Suture For Buttock’s Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Serdev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the author's technique and experience in the treatment of the flaccid "unhappy buttock" form with his surgical procedure of buttock lift by suture, without incision scars. The author first presented this new operation technique on a national level at the 2nd Annual Meeting of the National Bulgarian Society for Aesthetic Surgery and Aesthetic Medicine in Sofia on March 18, 1994 [1] and internationally at many scientific meetings over the world [2, 3, 4…]. The result is a visual change in the buttock position to a higher one, which elongates the lower limbs and changes the proportions between lower and upper half of the body. The aim of this study is to describe a mini-invasive procedure of beautification of the buttock form without scars by creating a lifting effect on the buttock's subcutaneous tissue, using a suture that takes the inferiorly positioned deep fibrose tissue and fixes it upwards to the sacro-cutaneous fascia, discovered by the author. Aesthetic and technical considerations required properly sculpting the buttocks into a higher position, demonstrating nicely rounded form. Preoperative shape is discussed and patient evaluations, operative techniques, postoperative management and results after 4 years of experience are emphasized. 1032 female patients, and 26 male patients aged 18-62 years, with ptosis and cellulite on the buttocks were treated since 1993 on an outpatient basis by the "Serdev suture technique without visible scars". Important instrumentarium is a long, curved, elastic needle and Polycon semi-elastic Bulgarian antimicrobial polycaproamide long term (in 2 years absorbable surgical threads Polycon, produced in Bulgaria. This operation has been performed either alone or after ultrasonic assisted liposculpture (UAL that reduces the amount of fat and heaviness. All patients reported a high degree of satisfaction. A stable improvement in the buttock position and form was observed for the period

  20. Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Siebers; B. S. Higgins

    2000-07-01

    The effects of injection pressure and orifice diameter on the lift-off length of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray (defined as the farthest upstream location of high temperature combustion) were investigated using a natural light emission imaging technique. The lift-off length experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel under quiescent, heavy-duty DI diesel engine conditions using a Phillips research grade No.2 diesel fuel. The results show that natural light emission at 310 nm provides an excellent marker of the lift-off length. At this location, natural light emission at 310 nm is dominated by OH chemiluminescence generated by high-temperature combustion chemistry. Lift-off lengths determined from images of natural light emission at 310 nm show that as either injection pressure (i.e., injection velocity) or orifice diameter increase, the lift-off length increases. The observed lift-off length increase was linearly dependent on injection velocity, the same dependency as previously noted for gas jets. The lift-off length increase with increasing orifice diameter, however, is different than the independence of lift-off length on orifice diameter noted for gas jets An important overall observation was made by considering the lift-off length data in conjunction with data from recent investigations of liquid-phase fuel penetration and spray development. The combined data suggests that a systematic evolution of the relationship and interaction between various processes in a DI diesel spray has been occurring over time, as injection pressures have been increased and orifice diameters reduced as part of efforts to meet emissions regulations. The trends observed may eventually help explain effects of parameters such as injection pressure and orifice diameter on emissions.

  1. Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C. M. (Christopher M.); Wohlberg, B. E. (Brendt E.)

    2004-01-01

    A matrix theory is developed for the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet transforms as developed by Sweldens and Daubechies. This theory provides the fundamental lifting methodology employed in the ISO/IEC JPEG-2000 still image coding standard, which the authors helped to develop. Lifting structures for polyphase-with-advance filter banks are depicted in Figure 1. In the analysis bank of Figure 1(a), the first lifting step updates x{sub 0} with a filtered version of x{sub 1} and the second step updates x{sub 1} with a filtered version of x{sub 0}; gain factors 1/K and K normalize the lowpass- and highpass-filtered output subbands. Each of these steps is inverted by the corresponding operations in the synthesis bank shown in Figure 1(b). Lifting steps correspond to upper- or lower-triangular matrices, S{sub i}(z), in a cascade-form decomposition of the polyphase analysis matrix, H{sub a}(z). Lifting structures can also be implemented reversibly (i.e., losslessly in fixed-precision arithmetic) by rounding the lifting updates to integer values. Our treatment of the polyphase-with-advance representation develops an extensive matrix algebra framework that goes far beyond the results of. Specifically, we focus on analyzing and implementing linear phase two-channel filter banks via linear phase lifting cascade schemes. Whole-sample symmetric (WS) and half-sample symmetric (HS) linear phase filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the polyphase-with-advance representation. The theory benefits significantly from a number of new group-theoretic structures arising in the polyphase-with-advance matrix algebra from the lifting factorization of linear phase filter banks.

  2. Software design to calculate and simulate the mechanical response of electromechanical lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, I.; Romero, E.

    2016-05-01

    Lift engineers and lift companies which are involved in the design process of new products or in the research and development of improved components demand a predictive tool of the lift slender system response before testing expensive prototypes. A method for solving the movement of any specified lift system by means of a computer program is presented. The mechanical response of the lift operating in a user defined installation and configuration, for a given excitation and other configuration parameters of real electric motors and its control system, is derived. A mechanical model with 6 degrees of freedom is used. The governing equations are integrated step by step through the Meden-Kutta algorithm in the MATLAB platform. Input data consists on the set point speed for a standard trip and the control parameters of a number of controllers and lift drive machines. The computer program computes and plots very accurately the vertical displacement, velocity, instantaneous acceleration and jerk time histories of the car, counterweight, frame, passengers/loads and lift drive in a standard trip between any two floors of the desired installation. The resulting torque, rope tension and deviation of the velocity plot with respect to the setpoint speed are shown. The software design is implemented in a demo release of the computer program called ElevaCAD. Further on, the program offers the possibility to select the configuration of the lift system and the performance parameters of each component. In addition to the overall system response, detailed information of transients, vibrations of the lift components, ride quality levels, modal analysis and frequency spectrum (FFT) are plotted.

  3. Lifting without seeing: the role of vision in perceiving and acting upon the size weight illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Buckingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our expectations of an object's heaviness not only drive our fingertip forces, but also our perception of heaviness. This effect is highlighted by the classic size-weight illusion (SWI, where different-sized objects of identical mass feel different weights. Here, we examined whether these expectations are sufficient to induce the SWI in a single wooden cube when lifted without visual feedback, by varying the size of the object seen prior to the lift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants, who believed that they were lifting the same object that they had just seen, reported that the weight of the single, standard-sized cube that they lifted on every trial varied as a function of the size of object they had just seen. Seeing the small object before the lift made the cube feel heavier than it did after seeing the large object. These expectations also affected the fingertip forces that were used to lift the object when vision was not permitted. The expectation-driven errors made in early trials were not corrected with repeated lifting, and participants failed to adapt their grip and load forces from the expected weight to the object's actual mass in the same way that they could when lifting with vision. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Vision appears to be crucial for the detection, and subsequent correction, of the ostensibly non-visual grip and load force errors that are a common feature of this type of object interaction. Expectations of heaviness are not only powerful enough to alter the perception of a single object's weight, but also continually drive the forces we use to lift the object when vision is unavailable.

  4. Estimation of morphing airfoil shape and aerodynamic load using artificial hair sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Nathan S.; Su, Weihua; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Reich, Gregory W.

    2016-04-01

    An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape as well as the aerodynamic loads at all times. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this work, the hair sensor measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the hair sensor measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Various aerodynamic and geometrical properties approximated from the artificial hair sensor and artificial neural network system will be compared with the results of XFoil in order to validate the approximation approach.

  5. Wind tunnel investigation of a high lift system with pneumatic flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Pricop Mihai; Mircea, Boscoianu; Daniel-Eugeniu, Crunteanu

    2016-06-01

    Next generation passenger aircrafts require more efficient high lift systems under size and mass constraints, to achieve more fuel efficiency. This can be obtained in various ways: to improve/maintain aerodynamic performance while simplifying the mechanical design of the high lift system going to a single slotted flap, to maintain complexity and improve the aerodynamics even more, etc. Laminar wings have less efficient leading edge high lift systems if any, requiring more performance from the trailing edge flap. Pulsed blowing active flow control (AFC) in the gap of single element flap is investigated for a relatively large model. A wind tunnel model, test campaign and results and conclusion are presented.

  6. Design and implementation of an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in ship lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship lift was developed by analysis of the fault tree and combination with VPN. The fault tree was constructed based on the operation condition of the ship lift. The diagnosis model was constructed by hierarchical classification of the fault tree structure, and the inference mechanism was given. Logical structure of the fault diagnosis in the ship lift was proposed. The implementation of the expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship...

  7. An experimental study of spanwise flow effects on lift generation in flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youngsun

    Using a combination of force transducer measurement to quantify net lift force, a high frame rate camera to quantify and subtract inertial contributions, and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) to calculate aerodynamic contributions in the spanwise plane, the contribution of spanwise flow to the generation of lift force in wings undergoing a pure flapping motion in hover is shown as a function of flapping angle throughout the flapping cycle. When flapping a flat plate wing and a wing of identical wing area and aspect ratio, but cambered in span (both wings in hover with no change in pitch), the spanwise cambered wing was found to generate a greater mean lift force through the whole flap cycle under the same acceleration. However, depending on the angle in flapping arc, the spanwise cambered wing can generate less lift than the flat wing. Additionally, since the lift force generated by the wingtip vortex in the spanwise plane resulting from the flapping motion has yet to be directly quantified, the wingtip vortex is investigated to determine precisely how it augments the lift force through the various phases in the flapping motion. Vortices in the vicinity of the wingtip generate lift force in the spanwise plane of flapping wings. In classical fixed wing aerodynamics, the presence of wing tip vortices has been shown to increase the lift locally near the tip. Also, the impingement of large vortices on the upper surface of delta wings is considered to contribute largely to the lift force at higher angles of attack. This study determined that vortices in the spanwise plane (streamwise vorticity) generate lift in a similar manner in flapping wings. Using a mechanical ornithopter with wings fabricated in-house, vortices were identified at several different locations along the span of the wing, and at numerous different points throughout the flapping cycle under a variety of operating conditions. The lift generated by these spanwise planar oriented vortices was

  8. STRUCTURAL AND GEOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LIFTING MANIPULATORS FOR A GREEN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana POPESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifting and getting off the bins, to and from the body of special waste trucks, by some planar linkage – manipulators are studied. These lifting manipulators are equipped with gripper systems in order to load and unload the bins. Several kinematical schemas of type mono– and bi-mobile manipulators are analyzed, these being driven by one or two linear actuators. The kinematical geometry of these planar manipulators by means of scale drawing of the kinematical schema is displayed. Two solutions for a better efficiency and a green environment have been proposed. Finally, a modeling and simulation case of the lifting manipulator is presented.

  9. Design, characterization and application of the Multiple Air-lift Loop bioreactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, W.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A new bioreactor is introduced: the Multiple Air-lift Loop reactor (MAL). The MAL consists of a series of air-lift loop reactors within one vessel. With the MAL, a new type of geometry for air-lift reactors with an internal loop is introduced. This new geometry was characterized with respect to hydrodynamics, mixing and oxygen transfer. The hydrodynamics were described by an existing model. Hydrodynamics, mixing and oxygen transfer in the new reactor configuration were comparable to that in c...

  10. A method of image compression based on lifting wavelet transform and modified SPIHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shiliang; Wang, Xiaoqian; Liu, Jinguo

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of remote sensing image data storage and transmission we present a method of the image compression based on lifting scheme and modified SPIHT(set partitioning in hierarchical trees) by the design of FPGA program, which realized to improve SPIHT and enhance the wavelet transform image compression. The lifting Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) architecture has been selected for exploiting the correlation among the image pixels. In addition, we provide a study on what storage elements are required for the wavelet coefficients. We present lena's image using the 3/5 lifting scheme.

  11. Field Observations with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Transient (LIFT Method in Barley and Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Raesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced fluorescence transient (LIFT method is a non-invasive remote sensing technique for measurement of photosynthetic performance of plants under laboratory and field conditions. We report here a long-term comparative study to monitor the performance of different cultivars of barley and sugar beet during the growth season of these crops. The LIFT measurements provided useful results about photosynthetic light use efficiency on selected leaves in the canopy of the studied crops. The different canopy architectures, with different optical properties, influenced the LIFT measurements.

  12. The coupled nonlinear dynamics of a lift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rafael Sánchez; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan; Picton, Phil; Su, Huijuan

    2014-12-01

    Coupled lateral and longitudinal vibrations of suspension and compensating ropes in a high-rise lift system are often induced by the building motions due to wind or seismic excitations. When the frequencies of the building become near the natural frequencies of the ropes, large resonance motions of the system may result. This leads to adverse coupled dynamic phenomena involving nonplanar motions of the ropes, impact loads between the ropes and the shaft walls, as well as vertical vibrations of the car, counterweight and compensating sheave. Such an adverse dynamic behaviour of the system endangers the safety of the installation. This paper presents two mathematical models describing the nonlinear responses of a suspension/ compensating rope system coupled with the elevator car / compensating sheave motions. The models accommodate the nonlinear couplings between the lateral and longitudinal modes, with and without longitudinal inertia of the ropes. The partial differential nonlinear equations of motion are derived using Hamilton Principle. Then, the Galerkin method is used to discretise the equations of motion and to develop a nonlinear ordinary differential equation model. Approximate numerical solutions are determined and the behaviour of the system is analysed.

  13. The coupled nonlinear dynamics of a lift system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Rafael Sánchez, E-mail: rafael.sanchezcrespo@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: phil.picton@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan, E-mail: rafael.sanchezcrespo@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: phil.picton@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Picton, Phil, E-mail: rafael.sanchezcrespo@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: phil.picton@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Su, Huijuan, E-mail: rafael.sanchezcrespo@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: phil.picton@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk [The University of Northampton, School of Science and Technology, Avenue Campus, St George' s Avenue, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    Coupled lateral and longitudinal vibrations of suspension and compensating ropes in a high-rise lift system are often induced by the building motions due to wind or seismic excitations. When the frequencies of the building become near the natural frequencies of the ropes, large resonance motions of the system may result. This leads to adverse coupled dynamic phenomena involving nonplanar motions of the ropes, impact loads between the ropes and the shaft walls, as well as vertical vibrations of the car, counterweight and compensating sheave. Such an adverse dynamic behaviour of the system endangers the safety of the installation. This paper presents two mathematical models describing the nonlinear responses of a suspension/ compensating rope system coupled with the elevator car / compensating sheave motions. The models accommodate the nonlinear couplings between the lateral and longitudinal modes, with and without longitudinal inertia of the ropes. The partial differential nonlinear equations of motion are derived using Hamilton Principle. Then, the Galerkin method is used to discretise the equations of motion and to develop a nonlinear ordinary differential equation model. Approximate numerical solutions are determined and the behaviour of the system is analysed.

  14. Energy expenditure characteristics of weight lifting: 2 sets to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher B; Leary, Michael P; Tenbraak, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the work performed and energy expenditure characteristics within and among 2 sets of the bench press at 70%, 80%, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). For both sets fatigue was the end point. We asked: do multiple sets affect subsequent work output along with aerobic, anaerobic, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) contributions? Ten males participated. Work was significantly less for the 2nd set within the 70% and 80% protocols, but not the 90% protocol. Anaerobic (glycolytic) energy expenditure was less for the 2nd set within all protocols. However, within all protocols, the work / energy expenditure ratio was not different between sets. Overall work was significantly different among protocols, becoming less as the weight lifted was increased: 70%, 637.1 ± 122.4 J; 80%, 512.4 ± 93.4 J; 90%, 324.7 ± 92.6 J (p EPOC was not different among protocols after the 1st set, 2nd set, or combined overall. Moreover, the overall EPOC did not correlate with overall work performed (r = 0.31, p = 0.11). EPOC overall did correlate with aerobic (r = 0.68, p EPOC that is similar for all. As more work is completed (i.e., lower weight, more repetitions), aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditures appear to increase accordingly, yet absolute EPOC remains essentially unchanged, contributing less to the overall energy expenditure.

  15. Proceedings of the heavy lift launch vehicle tropospheric effects workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A workshop, sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory, on Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) troposheric effects was held in Chicago, Illinois, on September 12, 13, and 14, 1978. Briefings were conducted on the latest HLLV congigurations, launch schedules, and proposed fuels. The geographical, environmental, and ecological background of three proposed launch sites were presented in brief. The sites discussed were launch pads near the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), a site in the southwestern United States near Animus, New Mexico, and an ocean site just north of the equator off the coast of Ecuador. A review of past efforts in atmospheric dynamics modeling, source term prediction, atmospheric effects, cloud rise modeling, and rainout/washout effects for the Space Shuttle tropospheric effects indicated that much of the progress made in these areas has direct applicability to the HLLV. The potential pollutants from the HLLV are different and their chymical interactions with the atmosphere are more complex, but the analytical techniques developed for the Space Shuttle can be applied, with the appropriate modification, to the HLLV. Reviews were presented of the ecological baseline monitoring being performed at KSC and the plant toxicology studies being conducted at North Carolina State. Based on the proposed launch sites, the latest HLLV configuration fuel, and launch schedule, the attendees developed a lit of possible environmental issues associated with the HLLV. In addition, a list of specific recommendations for short- and long-term research to investigate, understand, and possibly mitigate the HLLV environmental impacts was developed.

  16. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  17. Lift off for second pair of Cluster II spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    At 13.13 CEST, (17.13 Baikonur Time - 13.13 CEST) ) a Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle provided by the French-Russian Starsem consortium lifted off with Cluster satellites FM 5 (Rumba) and FM 8 (Tango). Approximately 75 minutes into the mission, the Fregat transfer module fired for a second time to insert the spacecraft into a 250 km x 18,000 km separation orbit. About 20 minutes later, the ground station in Kiruna, Sweden, confirmed that the satellites had successfully separated from the Fregat and were now flying in good health. "This second perfect launch within less than four weeks means that Cluster is on track for a highly successful mission," said Professor Roger-Maurice Bonnet, ESA science director. "We are now looking forward to receiving the unique three-dimensional data that will give new understanding of the interaction between the Sun and Earth." Over the next week, Rumba and Tango will participate in a complex series of orbital manoeuvres in order to rendezvous with the other spacecraft in the Cluster flotilla (Salsa and Samba). The quartet will then undergo three months of instrument and system commissioning before beginning their two-year scientific mission. For regular status reports on the mission dial +49.6151.90.2609 at ESA/ESOC.

  18. A General Theory for Gauge-Free Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.

    2010-11-01

    Given a Hamiltonian set of orbit equations, defined on a phase space of arbitrary dimension, with `forces' that depend explicitly on given electric and magentic fields and possibly all of their derivatives, how does one lift to a Hamiltonian kinetic theory coupled to Maxwell's equations? A general theory that answers this question will be presented. The theory produces magnetization and polarization effects in Maxwell's equations via a noncanonical Poisson bracket that generalizes that for the Vlasov-Maxwell systemootnotetextP.J. Morrison, Phys. Lett. 80A, 383 (1980); AIP Conference Proceedings 88, 13 (1982); J. Marsden and A. Weinstein, Physica 4D, 394 (1982).. Several examples will be treated, including the generalized guiding-center kinetic theory of Pfirsch and the authorootnotetextD. Pfirsch and P. J. Morrison, Phys. Rev. 32A, 1714 (1985); Phys. Fluids 3B, 271 (1991)., which relies on the introduction of redundant variables via Dirac constraint theory. Theories without the redundant variables are also being investigatedootnotetextA. Brizard et al., adjacent poster; P.J. Morrison and M. Vittot, research in progress..

  19. General equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1986-01-01

    The equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system are examined. The system consists of the cargo attached by cables to the endpoints of a spreader bar which is suspended by cables below two helicopters. Results are given for the orientation angles of the suspension system and its internal forces, and for the helicopter thrust vector requirements under general circumstances, including nonidentical helicopters, any accelerating or static equilibrium reference flight condition, any system heading relative to the flight direction, and any distribution of the load to the two helicopters. Optimum tether angles which minimize the sum of the required thrust magnitudes are also determined. The analysis does not consider the attitude degrees of freedom of the load and helicopters in detail, but assumes that these bodies are stable, and that their aerodynamic forces in equilibrium flight can be determined independently as functions of the reference trajectory. The ranges of these forces for sample helicopters and loads are examined and their effects on the equilibrium characteristics are given parametrically in the results.

  20. Lifted Temperature Minimum during the atmospheric evening transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blay-Carreras

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations of Lifted Temperature Minimum (LTM profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer were first reported by Ramdas and Atmanathan (1932. It was defined by the existence of a temperature minimum some centimeters above the ground. During the following decades, several research studies analyzed this phenomenon verifying its existence and postulating different hypothesis about its origin. The aim of this work is to study the existence and characteristics of LTM during the evening transition by using observations obtained during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST campaign. Data obtained from two masts instrumented with thermocouples and wind sensors at different heights close to the ground, and a mast with radiometers are used to study the role of mechanical turbulence and radiation in LTM development. The study shows that LTM profiles can be detected under calm conditions during the day–night transition, several hours earlier than reported in previous work. These conditions are fulfilled under weak synoptic forcing during local flow shifts associated with a mountain–plain circulation in relatively complex orography. Under these special conditions, turbulence becomes a crucial parameter in determining the ideal conditions for observing LTM profiles. Additionally, LTM observed profiles are also related to a change in the atmospheric radiative characteristics under calm conditions.

  1. A contrarotative aircraft lifting concept for a future Titan mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesnay, P.; Coustenis, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Tavel, J.

    2008-09-01

    Titan has a thick and cold atmosphere (surface pressure 1.5 bar and surface temperature 94 K) and the surface gravity is about 1/7 of Earth's. Surface wind velocities are low. These unique characteristics make Titan's atmosphere an ideal place for an helicopter type of aircraft with vertical lift capability. Here we present a conceptual idea of a Titan helicopter designed as a student project. Two cases have been considered: a 100-kg helicopter and a 2-kg one. The concept is based on a contra-rotating double rotor. The device would be powered by a combination of rechargeable batteries and a low-power radioisotope source. The double rotor and the body of the helicopter would be protected by a mesh structure. It would carry a science payload at its base that would allow surface sampling and analysis each time it would land. During landing, it would also recharge its batteries to allow flying to the next stop. The concept has been inspired by studying modelaircraft- making devices. Various concepts developed for industrial and military applications have also been a source of inspiration. The following web sites were consulted: • www.onera.fr/conferences/drones • www.aurora.aero • www.sikorsky.com/sik/index.asp • www.microdrones.com The poster will present a preliminary design of the device. Its capability to contribute to the exploration of Titan's surface will be illustrated.

  2. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  3. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  4. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  5. [Implantation of the artificial retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, T; Hayashida, Y

    1999-05-01

    In some degenerative retinal diseases, e.g., retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, the photoreceptors are destroyed to cause serious visual defects. Recent studies on blind human subjects revealed that a large number of ganglion cells remains intact and is capable of transmitting signals to the brain to evoke partial visual perception. This provided hope to compensate for the visual defects with retinal prostheses. The recent progress of microfabrication technique made it possible to implement the Vary Large Scale Integrated circuit, the artificial retina, which emulates a part of retinal function. The idea of implanting the artificial retina to the patients was proposed recently and experiments using animals have been put into practice. This article surveys the front line of the artificial retina implantation.

  6. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  7. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  8. Training Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    nearifest tLer,sclvCs in ELO r operatii.L costs in the life C’VclE Of the ef’uijjteft. E F re\\ lously rcntione6 ey~ arrle of usingF the 1lirefineer...Ibid., p. 35. 4. Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum, The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 1, p. 2. 5. Wissam W. Ahmed, "Theories of Artificial...Barr, Avron and Geigenbaum, Edward A. ed. The Handbook of Arti- ficial Intelligence. Vol. 1. Stanford: heuristech Press. 1981. Gevartner, William B

  9. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  10. Fecundación artificial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculo...

  11. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  12. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2010-12-01

    The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800. K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. © 2010 The Combustion Institute.

  13. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane/hydrogen mixtures in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2012-04-01

    Autoignited lifted flame behavior in laminar jets of methane/hydrogen mixture fuels has been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. Three regimes of autoignited lifted flames were identified depending on initial temperature and hydrogen to methane ratio. At relatively high initial temperature, addition of a small amount of hydrogen to methane improved ignition appreciably such that the liftoff height decreased significantly. In this hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime, the liftoff height increased with jet velocity, and the characteristic flow time - defined as the ratio of liftoff height to jet velocity - correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. At lower temperature, the autoignited lifted flame demonstrated a unique feature in that the liftoff height decreased with increasing jet velocity. Such behavior has never been observed in lifted laminar and turbulent jet flames. A transition regime existed between these two regimes at intermediate temperature. © 2011 The Combustion Institute.

  14. Excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Urachal sinus excision using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy seems to surpass the previously reported methods in term of safety, cosmetics, and adequacy of surgical procedures.

  15. Design and Implementation of Fast- Lifting Based Wavelet Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh B.S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The digital data can be compressed and retrieved using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Inverse Discrete wavelet Transform (IDWT. The medical images need to be compressed and retrieved without loosing of information. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT is based on time-scale representation which provides efficient multi-resolution. This paper mainly describes the lifting based scheme gives lossless mode of information. The lifting based DWT and IDWT are having lower computational complexity and reduced memory requirement. Conventional convolution based DWT and IDWT are area and power hungry. These drawbacks can be overcome by using the lifting based scheme. This system adopts lifting based scheme DWT and IDWT which gives the lossless information of the data, reduces the complexity and optimized in area and power. In this research the DWT and IDWT are simulated and the design of hardware model is carried out using RTL level coding.

  16. Validated Design and Analysis Tool for Small Vertical-Lift Unmanned Air Vehicle Noise Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A procedure and supporting computer code for the prediction of noise that radiates from small, vertical lift UAV aircraft is proposed. The resulting building block...

  17. Lift 11 paneb arhitektid ja kunstnikud linna arendama / Oliver Õunmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õunmaa, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Kultuuripealinna programmi raames maist septembrini Tallinna avalikus ruumis toimuvast linnainstallatsioonide festivalist "Lift11". Kuraatorid Margit Aule, Margit Argus, Maarin Mürk, Ingrid Ruudi. Ideekonkursile esitatud 129 teosest valiti teostamiseks 17 installatsiooni. Tutvustab Margit Aule

  18. 76 FR 15798 - Special Conditions: Boeing 747-468, Installation of a Medical Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... 747-400: Table 1--Optional Requirements Requirement Section Ditching provisions 25.801 Ice-protection... spindles are supported at the lifting gear on the lower support structure and with a strut support on...

  19. 75 FR 27662 - Special Conditions: Boeing 747-468, Installation of a Medical Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Ditching provisions 25.801 Ice-protection provisions 25.1419 The following equivalent-safety findings... gear on the lower support structure and with a strut support on the upper deck. The lift platform...

  20. Development of Lifting and Propulsion Mechanism for Biped Robot Inspired by Basilisk Lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifting and propulsion mechanism of a novel biped robot inspired by the basilisk lizard's water-walking function has been developed. The movement trajectories of the Watt-I planar linkage are brought out by combining the movement equations of the four-bar mechanism and the coordinate transformation equations, which are used to simulate the foot trajectories of the basilisk lizard, and the lifting and propulsion mechanism of the biped robot walking on water is carried out. The links' parameters are optimized by taking the trajectories overlap ratio as the objective function. The prototype of the biped robot walking on water is manufactured by the results of the kinematic analysis on the robot. And the lifting and propulsion force curve on the robot from water is measured. The experiment results show that the lifting and propulsion system can satisfy the function requirement of the biped robot walking on water.

  1. Video coding with lifted wavelet transforms and complementary motion-compensated signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flierl, Markus H.; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Girod, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates video coding with wavelet transforms applied in the temporal direction of a video sequence. The wavelets are implemented with the lifting scheme in order to permit motion compensation between successive pictures. We improve motion compensation in the lifting steps and utilize complementary motion-compensated signals. Similar to superimposed predictive coding with complementary signals, this approach improves compression efficiency. We investigate experimentally and theoretically complementary motion-compensated signals for lifted wavelet transforms. Experimental results with the complementary motion-compensated Haar wavelet and frame-adaptive motion compensation show improvements in coding efficiency of up to 3 dB. The theoretical results demonstrate that the lifted Haar wavelet scheme with complementary motion-compensated signals is able to approach the bound for bit-rate savings of 2 bits per sample and motion-accuracy step when compared to optimum intra-frame coding of the input pictures.

  2. Assessment of computational issues associated with analysis of high-lift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1992-01-01

    Thin-layer Navier-Stokes calculations for wing-fuselage configurations from subsonic to hypersonic flow regimes are now possible. However, efficient, accurate solutions for using these codes for two- and three-dimensional high-lift systems have yet to be realized. A brief overview of salient experimental and computational research is presented. An assessment of the state-of-the-art relative to high-lift system analysis and identification of issues related to grid generation and flow physics which are crucial for computational success in this area are also provided. Research in support of the high-lift elements of NASA's High Speed Research and Advanced Subsonic Transport Programs which addresses some of the computational issues is presented. Finally, fruitful areas of concentrated research are identified to accelerate overall progress for high lift system analysis and design.

  3. Computational Visualization and Simulation of Diesel Engines Valve Lift Performance Using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper visualized and simulated the intake and exhaust valve lift in the single-cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The visualization and simulation computational development were using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics of STAR-CD 3.15A software and GT-SUITE 6.2 software. The one dimensional of valve lift modeling was developed using GT-POWER software and the visualization the model using STAR-CD. The model simulation covers the full engine cycle consisting of intake, compression, power and exhaust. The visualization and simulation shown the diesel engine intake and exhaust valve lifting and moving based on the crank angle degree parameters. The result of this visualization and simulation shows the intake and exhaust valve lift moving and air fluid flow of the diesel engine model.

  4. Power consumption of lifts and potential for energy savings; Elektrizitaetsverbrauch und Einspar-Potenziale bei Aufzuegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the results of a study made on the electricity consumption of lifts, which estimates that around 0.5% of Swiss power consumption is caused by lift installations. The results of measurements made on 33 various lift installations and their power consumption are presented. The SIA 380/4 model used to determine energy consumption on the basis of the number of movements is described. Stand-by and lighting consumption is examined, which, according to the authors' conclusions, offer considerable room for improvement, especially for lifts in residential buildings. A further significant potential for improvement is also noted which can be achieved when renewing older systems. The avoidance of inefficient concepts by the use of guidelines for architects, planners and customers is recommended.

  5. A case of mediastinal goiter treated surgically using a clavicle-lifting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisaku Ito

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Although further study is necessary, it appears that a transcervical approach using the clavicle-lifting technique may be an acceptable treatment for mediastinal goiters that extend to the aortic arch.

  6. Comparison of Bottomless Lift Nets and Breder Traps for Sampling Salt-Marsh Nekton

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set contains: the length of mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) caught on lift nets and Breder traps from May to September 2002; the sizes of green crabs caught...

  7. Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell with grooved plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujata Tarafdar; Soma Nag; Tapati Dutta; Suparna Sinha

    2009-10-01

    We simulate viscous fingering generated by separating two plates with a constant force, in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell. Variation in the patterns for different fluid viscosity and lifting force is studied. Viscous fingering is strongly affected by anisotropy. We report a computer simulation study of fingering patterns, where circular or square grooves are etched on to the lower plate. Results are compared with experiments.

  8. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Riley, James T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24 percent on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3 percent on the PIWT model at 8 angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2 percent. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3 to 9.2 percent, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  9. Measuring the needle lift and return timing of a CRDI injector using an accelerometer

    OpenAIRE

    Choong Hoon Lee

    2014-01-01

    The needle lift and return timing of a CRDI (common rail direct injection) injector were investigated using an accelerometer and the Bosch injection rate measurement method. The Bosch method was used to measure the fuel injection rate shape when fuel was injected with several patterns. An accelerometer was mounted on the outside of the injector to catch the needle lift and return timing of the injector according to the switching signal of the injector driving voltage. The accelerometer accura...

  10. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small......, however, be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power, and we suggest that future studies include detailed, individual information on job functions and ergonomic routines of lifting procedures....

  11. Research on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with a drag-type vertical axis wind turbines, one of the greatest advantages for a lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is its higher power coefficient (Cp. However, the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is not a self-starting turbine as its starting torque is very low. In order to combine the advantage of both the drag-type and the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines was designed in this article and its aerodynamics and starting performance was studied in detail with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations. Numerical results indicate that the power coefficient of this lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines declines when the distance between its drag-type blades and the center of rotation of the turbine rotor increases, whereas its starting torque can be significantly improved. Studies also show that unlike the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, this lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines could be able to solve the problem of low start-up torque. However, the installation position of the drag blade is very important. If the drag blade is mounted very close to the spindle, the starting torque of the lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines may not be improved at all. In addition, it has been found that the power coefficient of the studied vertical axis wind turbines is not as good as expected and possible reasons have been provided in this article after the pressure distribution along the surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blades of the hybrid turbine was analyzed.

  12. Lessons Learned and Future Goals of the High Lift Prediction Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth; Slotnick, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) High Lift Prediction Workshop series is described. Two workshops have been held to date. Major conclusions are summarized, and plans for future workshops are outlined. A compilation of lessons learned from the first two workshops is provided. This compilation includes a summary of needs for future high-lift experiments that are intended for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation.

  13. ADAPTIVE LIFTING BASED IMAGE COMPRESSION SCHEME WITH PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat kanvel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive lifting scheme with Particle Swarm Optimization technique for image compression. Particle swarm Optimization technique is used to improve the accuracy of the predictionfunction used in the lifting scheme. This scheme is applied in Image compression and parameters such as PSNR, Compression Ratio and the visual quality of the image is calculated .The proposed scheme iscompared with the existing methods.

  14. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF INTAKE VALVE LIFT ON THE PERFORMANCE IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can ÇINAR

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of intake valve lift variation on engine performance have been investigated experimentally. An alternative prototype has been designed and constructed for variable valve systems. A fourstroke, single cylinder, spark ignition engine has been used for experiments. The effects of four different intake valve lift value (6.5 mm, 5 mm, 4 mm and 3 mm on volumetric efficiency, engine torque, specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been investigated.

  15. Outgoing Cuntz Scattering System for a Coisometric Lifting and Transfer Function

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalpesh J Haria

    2013-08-01

    We study a coisometry that intertwines Popescu’s presentations of minimal isometric dilations of a given operator tuple and of a coisometric lifting of the tuple. Using this we develop an outgoing Cuntz scattering system which gives rise to an input–output formalism. A transfer function is introduced for the system. We also compare the transfer function and the characteristic function for the associated lifting.

  16. Hybrid Lifting Wavelet-Like Transform for Solution of Electromagnetic Integral Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming-Sheng; WU Xian-Liang; SHA Wei; HUANG Zhi-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    @@ A hybrid lifting wavelet-like transform scheme is successfully applied to the solution of electric field integral equation using Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions.To speed up the matrix transform process,the lifting scheme is adopted.Numerical examples of different three-dimensional perfectly electric conducting objects are considered.Compared with the method of moments,the proposed matrix transform scheme can save considerable CPU time and memory.

  17. A Quasi-Steady Lifting Line Theory for Insect-Like Hovering Flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R A Nabawy

    Full Text Available A novel lifting line formulation is presented for the quasi-steady aerodynamic evaluation of insect-like wings in hovering flight. The approach allows accurate estimation of aerodynamic forces from geometry and kinematic information alone and provides for the first time quantitative information on the relative contribution of induced and profile drag associated with lift production for insect-like wings in hover. The main adaptation to the existing lifting line theory is the use of an equivalent angle of attack, which enables capture of the steady non-linear aerodynamics at high angles of attack. A simple methodology to include non-ideal induced effects due to wake periodicity and effective actuator disc area within the lifting line theory is included in the model. Low Reynolds number effects as well as the edge velocity correction required to account for different wing planform shapes are incorporated through appropriate modification of the wing section lift curve slope. The model has been successfully validated against measurements from revolving wing experiments and high order computational fluid dynamics simulations. Model predicted mean lift to weight ratio results have an average error of 4% compared to values from computational fluid dynamics for eight different insect cases. Application of an unmodified linear lifting line approach leads on average to a 60% overestimation in the mean lift force required for weight support, with most of the discrepancy due to use of linear aerodynamics. It is shown that on average for the eight insects considered, the induced drag contributes 22% of the total drag based on the mean cycle values and 29% of the total drag based on the mid half-stroke values.

  18. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  19. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  20. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  1. Artificial penile nodules: case reports.

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, K B; Seow, C.S.; Tulip, T; Daniel, M.; Vijayasingham, S M

    1986-01-01

    An interesting cultural practice of implanting foreign bodies under the skin of the penis for enhancing sexual excitement in the man's sexual partner is described. Recognition of this is important to venereologists because of their primary concern with the genital area. The term artificial penile nodule has been suggested for the condition resulting from this practice.

  2. Artificial Video for Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  3. Making Artificial Seawater More Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Marine fish will die if placed in fresh water and they cannot live in simple salt water. Instead, they need water that contains a mixture of different ingredients, as found in natural seawater. Conventional methods of making artificial seawater have shortcomings, because the water so achieved is only composed of mineral elements and lacks organic components similar to those in natural seawater.

  4. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Harbili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.

  5. Analysis of power and lift for a hovering piezoelectrically actuated flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Adam Grant

    A dynamic model of piezoelectrically actuated flapping flight was developed to find an actuator and wing combination capable of providing maximum net lift. Using empirically determined wing characteristics, a best-case wing was constructed and experimentally verified, and a driving point impedance model was developed to describe the dynamic properties of the wing as it moves through a fluid and generates lift. This impedance model was then used to find fluid induced damping and inertial terms, which were used to predict lift and complete the dynamic wing model of the best-case wing. Once the wing model was complete a lumped parameter actuator model was coupled to the wing through a kinematic linkage to search for a piezoelectric actuator capable of self-lifting flight. Optimizations using two piezoceramics, PZT-5H and single-crystal PZN-PT were performed. The results for PZT-5H, which was used in the previous ornithopter designs, confirmed that it is not power dense enough for self-lifting. The PZN-PT optimization however, found a range of actuator dimensions capable of self-lifting flight.

  6. The behavior of tillage tools with acute and obtuse lift angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Abbaspour-Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to study the trend of draft force against forward speed and working depth for a range of lift angles beyond acute angles for a simple plane tillage tool. The experiments were performed in an indoor soil bin facility equipped with a tool carriage and a soil preparation unit propelled by an integrated hydraulic power system. The system was also equipped with electronic instrumentation including an Extended Octagonal Ring Transducer (EORT and a data logger. The factorial experiment (4×3×3 with three replications was used based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The independent variables were lift angle of the blade (45, 70, 90 and 120°, forward speed (2, 4 and 6 km h-1 and working depth (10, 25 and 40 cm. The variance analysis for the draft force shows that all independent variables affect the draft force at 1% level of significance. The trend of the draft force against working depth and forward speed had almost a linear increase. However, the trend of the draft force against the lift angle is reversed for lift angles >90. This finding, conflicts with the results of analytical and numerical studies which extrapolate the results achieved for acute lift angles to obtuse lift angles and have not been reported experimentally.

  7. The behavior of tillage tools with acute and obtuse lift angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspour-Fard, M. H.; Hoseini, S. A.; Agkhani, M. H.; Sharifi, A.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the trend of draft force against forward speed and working depth for a range of lift angles beyond acute angles for a simple plane tillage tool. The experiments were performed in an indoor soil bin facility equipped with a tool carriage and a soil preparation unit propelled by an integrated hydraulic power system. The system was also equipped with electronic instrumentation including an Extended Octagonal Ring Transducer (EORT) and a data logger. The factorial experiment (4 × 3 × 3) with three replications was used based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The independent variables were lift angle of the blade (45, 70, 90 and 120 degree centigrade), forward speed (2, 4 and 6 km h{sup -}1) and working depth (10, 25 and 40 cm). The variance analysis for the draft force shows that all independent variables affect the draft force at 1% level of significance. The trend of the draft force against working depth and forward speed had almost a linear increase. However, the trend of the draft force against the lift angle is reversed for lift angles > 90 degree centigrade. This finding, conflicts with the results of analytical and numerical studies which extrapolate the results achieved for acute lift angles to obtuse lift angles and have not been reported experimentally. (Author)

  8. An optimized design of in-shoe heel lifts reduces plantar pressure of healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianyi; Li, Bo; Liang, Kaiyun; Wan, Qiufeng; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2016-06-01

    Conventional heel lift with a flat surface increases the risk of foot problems related to higher plantar pressure and decreased stability. In this study, an optimized design of in-shoe heel lifts developed to maintain the midfoot function was tested to investigate if the plantar pressure distribution was improved. The design was based on three dimensional foot plantar contour which was captured by an Infoot 3D scanning system while the heel was elevated by a heel wedge. To facilitate midfoot function, an arch support was designed to support the lateral longitudinal arch, while allowing functional movement of the medial longitudinal arch. Twenty healthy male subjects were asked to walk along an 8m walkway while wearing high-cut footwear with and without the optimized heel lift. Peak pressure, contact area and force-time integral were measured using the Pedar insole system. Range and velocity of medial-lateral center of pressure during forefoot contact phase and foot flat phase were collected using a Footscan pressure plate. Compared to the shoe only condition, peak pressure under the rearfoot decreased with the optimized heel lift, while no increase of peak pressure was observed under the forefoot and midfoot regions, indicating improved plantar pressure distribution. The findings of this study suggest that this optimized heel lift has better biomechanical performance than a conventional flat heel lift. Results from this study may have implications for insole and shoe last design, especially for people who need additional heel height without sacrificing midfoot function.

  9. High Lift Common Research Model for Wind Tunnel Testing: An Active Flow Control Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Melton, Latunia P.; Viken, Sally A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Koklu, Mehti; Hannon, Judith A.; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project to achieve the required high-lift performance using active flow control (AFC) on simple hinged flaps while reducing the cruise drag associated with the external mechanisms on slotted flaps of a generic modern transport aircraft. The removal of the external fairings for the Fowler flap mechanism could help to reduce drag by 3.3 counts. The main challenge is to develop an AFC system that can provide the necessary lift recovery on a simple hinged flap high-lift system while using the limited pneumatic power available on the aircraft. Innovative low-power AFC concepts will be investigated in the flap shoulder region. The AFC concepts being explored include steady blowing and unsteady blowing operating in the spatial and/or temporal domain. Both conventional and AFC-enabled high-lift configurations were designed for the current effort. The high-lift configurations share the cruise geometry that is based on the NASA Common Research Model, and therefore, are also open geometries. A 10%-scale High Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) is being designed for testing at the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel during fiscal year 2018. The overall project plan, status, HL-CRM configurations, and AFC objectives for the wind tunnel test are described.

  10. Does posture of the cervical spine influence dorsal neck muscle activity when lifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Marstein, Eivind; McNamara, Timothy; Nolan, Damien; Sjaaberg, Espen; Peolsson, Michael; Jull, Gwendolen; O'Leary, Shaun

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that postural orientations of the neck, such as flexed or forward head postures, are associated with heightened activity of the dorsal neck muscles. While these studies describe the impact of variations in neck posture alone, there is scant literature regarding the effect of neck posture on muscle activity when combined with upper limb activities such as lifting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different neck postures on the activity of the different layers of the dorsal neck muscles during a lifting task. Ultrasound measurements of dorsal neck muscle deformation were compared over two time points (rest, during lift) during a lifting task performed in three different neck postural conditions (neutral, flexed and forward head posture) in 21 healthy subjects. Data were analysed by post-process speckle tracking analysis. Results demonstrated significantly greater muscle deformation induced by flexed and forward head postures, compared to the neutral posture, for all dorsal neck muscles at rest (pposture of the cervical spine influenced the level of muscle deformation not only at rest, but also when lifting. The findings of the study suggest that neck posture should be considered during the evaluation or design of lifting activities as it may contribute to excessive demands on dorsal neck muscles with potential detrimental consequences.

  11. Experimental investigation on optimal temperature lift of an inverter heat pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature lift directly influences the efficiency of the heat pump, meanwhile, the coefficient of performance and the heat sink temperature lift of heat pump systems are mutually exclusive parameters, i.e., the higher temperature lift leads to the lower coefficient of performance while the lower temperature lift leads to the higher coefficient of performance. To deal with the dilemma, a primary theoretical analysis is performed, and a case study of an inverter water source heat pump is carried out, which is operated under the conditions of compressor frequency of 15-85 Hz and heat sink flow rate of 120/160/180/200 kg/h, respectively. The relationships among the temperature lift, coefficient of performance and compressor power consumption are analyzed, The results show that the optimal temperature lift mainly depends on the inlet temperature of heat sink, and has little to do with the compressor frequency and water flow rate, which are of significance for the optimal operation of heat pump systems.

  12. Vortex lift augmentation by suction on a 60 deg swept Gothic wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic performance of suction applied near the wing tips above the trailing edge of a 60 deg swept Gothic wing. Moveable suction inlets were symmetrically mounted in the proximity of the trailing edge, and the amount of suction was varied to maximize wing lift. Tests were conducted at Mach 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45, and the angle of attack was varied from -4 to 50 deg. The suction augmentation increases the lift coefficient over the entire range of angle of attack. The lift improvement exceeds the unaugmented wing lift by over 20%. Moreover, the augmented lift exceeds the lift predicted by vortex lattice theory to 30 deg angle of attack. Suction augmentation is postulated to strengthen the vortex system by increasing its velocity and making it more concentrated. This causes the vortex breakdown to be delayed to a higher angle of attack

  13. Motor-Evoked Potentials in the Lower Back Are Modulated by Visual Perception of Lifted Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Behrendt

    Full Text Available Facilitation of the primary motor cortex (M1 during the mere observation of an action is highly congruent with the observed action itself. This congruency comprises several features of the executed action such as somatotopy and temporal coding. Studies using reach-grasp-lift paradigms showed that the muscle-specific facilitation of the observer's motor system reflects the degree of grip force exerted in an observed hand action. The weight judgment of a lifted object during action observation is an easy task which is the case for hand actions as well as for lifting boxes from the ground. Here we investigated whether the cortical representation in M1 for lumbar back muscles is modulated due to the observation of a whole-body lifting movement as it was shown for hand action. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to measure the corticospinal excitability of the m. erector spinae (ES while subjects visually observed the recorded sequences of a person lifting boxes of different weights from the floor. Consistent with the results regarding hand action the present study reveals a differential modulation of corticospinal excitability despite the relatively small M1 representation of the back also for lifting actions that mainly involve the lower back musculature.

  14. Cognitive-motor interference while grasping, lifting and holding objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Guillery

    Full Text Available In daily life, object manipulation is usually performed concurrently to the execution of cognitive tasks. The aim of the present study was to determine which aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources using a motor-cognitive dual-task paradigm. Eighteen healthy participants took part in the experiment, which comprised two conditions. In the first condition, participants performed a motor task without any concomitant cognitive task. They were instructed to grip, lift and hold an apparatus incorporating strain gauges allowing a continuous measurement of the force perpendicular to each contact surface (grip force, GF as well as the total tangential force applied on the object (load force, LF. In the second condition, participants performed the same motor task while concurrently performing a cognitive task consisting in a complex visual search combined with counting. In the dual-task condition, we found a significant increase in the duration of the preload phase (time between initial contact of the fingers with the apparatus and onset of the load force, as well as a significant increase of the grip force during the holding phase, indicating that the cognitive task interfered with the initial force scaling performed during the preload phase and the fine-tuning of grip force during the hold phase. These findings indicate that these aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources. In contrast, other aspects of the precision grip, such as the temporal coupling between grip and load forces, were not affected by the cognitive task, suggesting that they reflect more automatic processes. Taken together, our results suggest that assessing the dynamic and temporal parameters of precision grip in the context of a concurrent cognitive task may constitute a more ecological and better-suited tool to characterize motor dysfunction in patients.

  15. Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162357.html Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood Synthetic product could save lives on battlefield and ... 5, 2016 SATURDAY, Dec. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Artificial blood stored as a powder could one day revolutionize ...

  16. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a... inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for...

  17. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  18. The Application of Surface Electromyography in the Assessment of Ergonomic Risk Factors Associated with Manual Lifting Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 杨磊; 丁嘉顺; 王正伦

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ergonomic risk factors associated with manual lifting tasks using surface electromyography (EMG). 13 volunteers lifted loads of 6 and 13kg at two speeds and at two horizontal distances in 3 different postures and three boxes of different sizes, from floor to knuckle height, performing 72 lifting tasks. For each lift, the surface electromyography signals from the erector spinae muscles, bilaterally at T10 and L3, was recorded. The ergonomic risk factors associated with manual lifting tasks were evaluated by comparing the average amplitude of EMG signals from the erector spinae muscles. The EMG average amplitude for lifting the load of 13 kg was 14.3 % greater than that for lifting the load of 6kg (t= -10.93, P<0.01).The EMG average amplitude at the site of L3 was 10.3 % greater than that at the site of T10 (t= -7.98, P<0.01). The EMG average amplitude when performing "fast" lift was 5.9 %greater than the "slow" lift (t= -4.63, P<0.01 ). The posture of lifting affected the EMG average amplitude.It was lowest with semi-squat posture and greatest with squat posture (F= 27.76, P<0.01). The result of multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the loads of lifting, the size of box, horizontal distance, posture of lifting, the site of the spine subjected to force, lifting speed were the factors affecting the EMG average amplitude. The most significant factor was the loads of lifting,followed by the site of the spine subjected to force and the lifting speed in terms of risk. The ergonomic risk factors associated with manual lifting tasks includes the loads, posture, lifting speed,horizontal distance, the site of the spine subjected to force etc. The results of signal amplitude of EMG from the erector spinae muscles showed that semi-squat posture is the best posture for lifting tasks.

  19. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  20. Topological Optimization of Artificial Microstructure Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate...Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies Report Title During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and...Artificial Microstructure Strategies (Yale and Johns Hopkins) During DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate a 3D microstructural