WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial kidneys

  1. Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159246.html Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney? Small trial suggests device might be ... themselves of clunky machines, moving about with a "wearable artificial kidney" instead. That's the promise of a ...

  2. Three-dimensional fracture and fragmentation of artificial kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brittle fracture of a gypsum cylinder, which is used as an artificial kidney stone in lithotripsy research, is simulated by the use of the finite element method. The cylinder is submerged in water and is subjected to a pressure front parallel to one of its planar faces. The stresses induced by the pressure wave lead to fracture in the interior of the cylinder, with the formation of a spall plane located about 2/3 of the length from the face on which the pressure is applied. We show that the simulation reproduces the salient features of experimental observations

  3. Three-dimensional fracture and fragmentation of artificial kidney stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Alejandro [Division of Engineering and Applied Science California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Knap, Jaroslaw [Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ortiz, Michael [Division of Engineering and Applied Science California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The brittle fracture of a gypsum cylinder, which is used as an artificial kidney stone in lithotripsy research, is simulated by the use of the finite element method. The cylinder is submerged in water and is subjected to a pressure front parallel to one of its planar faces. The stresses induced by the pressure wave lead to fracture in the interior of the cylinder, with the formation of a spall plane located about 2/3 of the length from the face on which the pressure is applied. We show that the simulation reproduces the salient features of experimental observations.

  4. A Study of Mass Transport Towards the Design and Characterization of an Artificial Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Soler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the design, fabrication, and study necessary for a renal cell device that mimics the bioreactor component of a bioartificial kidney. The motivation behind the project is to further the development toward an implantable bioartificial human kidney that will improve the quality of life for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The bioartificial kidney system contains two units: i) a hemofilter based upon nanoporous silicon membranes, and ii) a bioreactor composed ...

  5. Adhesion and biofilm formation in artificial saliva and susceptibility of yeasts isolated from chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Paula Assis; Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Negri, Melyssa

    2015-09-01

    Yeasts of the genera Candida and Saccharomyces are opportunist pathogens and cause oral lesions, especially in immunocompromised patients. This study assessed yeasts isolated from chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis for their adhesion capacity, biofilm formation and susceptibility to antifungal agents. Ten isolates of Candida spp. and one isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested for adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BECs), adhesion and formation of biofilm in artificial saliva and their susceptibility profile to antifungal agents. Adhesion and biofilm formation were undertaken in polystyrene plates with artificial saliva, whilst susceptibility to antifungal agents was evaluated by broth microdilution. Candida parapsilosis had the highest adhesion index in BECs (154.55 ± 22.13) and Candida rugosa was the species with the highest adhesion capacity (18 398  Abs cm(-2)) in abiotic surface with artificial saliva. Candida albicans provided the greatest biofilm formation (2035  Abs cm(-2) ± 0.09) but was revealed to be susceptible to the five antifungal agents under analysis. However, some non-albicans Candida isolates showed a lower susceptibility for the antifungal agents itraconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole. All of the species were sensitive to amphotericin B and nystatin. The current analysis showed that yeasts isolated from the mouth of chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis varied significantly with regard to their capacity for adherence, biofilm formation and susceptibility to antifungal agents, underscoring the high virulence of non-albicans Candida species. PMID:26297016

  6. Inadequate awareness among chronic kidney disease patients regarding food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shutto

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Patients with CKD are advised to consume a low phosphate diet and are often prescribed phosphate-lowering drug therapy. However, commercially processed food and drinks often contain phosphate compounds, but the phosphate level is not usually provided in the ingredient list, which makes it difficult for CKD patients to choose a correct diet. We conducted a survey of the awareness of food/beverages containing artificially added phosphate among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The subjects were 153 patients (77 males and 76 females; average age 56±11 years who were randomly selected from the Dialysis Center of Hirosaki City, Japan. The subjects were provided with a list of questions. The survey results showed that 93% of the subjects were aware of the presence of high sugar content in soda, whereas only 25% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid in such drinks. Despite 78% of the subjects being aware of the detrimental effects of consumption of a high phosphate diet, 43% drank at least 1 to 5 cans of soda per week and about 17% consumed "fast food" once each week. We also assessed the immediate effects of high-phosphate containing carbonated soda consumption by determining urinary calcium, phosphate, protein and sugar contents in overnight fasted healthy volunteers (n = 55; average age 20.7±0.3 years old, 20 males and 35 females. Significantly higher urinary calcium (adjusted using urinary creatinine excretion was found 2 h after consuming 350 ml of carbonated soda compared to the fasting baseline level (0.15±0.01 vs. 0.09±0.01, p = 0.001. Our survey results suggest that CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis are not adequately aware of the hidden source of phosphate in their diet, and emphasize the need for educational initiatives to raise awareness of this issue among CKD patients.

  7. Multilayered microfilter using a nanoporous PES membrane and applicable as the dialyzer of a wearable artificial kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a multilayered microfilter for use as a dialyzer of a wearable artificial kidney separating metabolic wastes such as urea, uric acid and creatinine from blood. The microfilter device is assembled by alternately bonding chamber layers made of Ti by wet etching and semipermeable polymeric membranes made of polyethersulfone (PES) by the wet phase inversion method. The PES membranes sandwiched between each two chamber layers act as barriers to molecules larger than 1.7 nm. The multilayered microfilter was geometrically optimized with respect to our theoretical equations and experimental results in order to obtain kidney-competitive performance. Each diffusing unit of our device, which is only 24 × 24 × 0.4 mm3 in size, was proved experimentally to be capable of allowing a flow rate of up to 1 ml min−1 under an input pressure of only 10 kPa, which is the hydrostatic pressure in human renal arteries, while having a urea removal rate of 18 µg min−1

  8. Application of artificial neural network to predict graft survival after kidney transplantation: Reports of 22 years follow up of 316 patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Kidney transplantation had been evaluated in some researches in Iran mainly with clinical approach. In this research we evaluated graft survival in kidney recipients and factors impacting on survival rate. Artificial neural networks have a good ability in modeling complex relationships, so we used this ability to demonstrate a model for prediction of 5yr graft survival after kidney transplantation."n"n"n Methods: This retrospective study was done on 316 kidney transplants from 1984 through 2006 in Isfahan. Graft survival was calculated by Kaplan-meire method. Cox regression and artificial neural networks were used for constructing a model for prediction of graft survival."n"n"n Results: Body mass index (BMI and type of transplantation (living/cadaver had significant effects on graft survival in cox regression model. Effective variables in neural network model were recipient age, recipient BMI, type of transplantation and donor age. One year, 3 year and 5 year graft survival was 96%, 93% and 90% respectively. Suggested artificial neural network model had good accuracy (72% with the area under the Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC curve 0.736 and appropriate results in goodness of fit test (κ2=33.924. Sensitivity of model in identification of true positive situations was more than false negative situations (72% Vs 61%."n"n"nConclusion: Graft survival in living donors was more than cadaver donors. Graft survival decreased when the BMI increased at transplantation time. In traditional statistical approach Cox regression analysis is used in survival analysis, this research shows that artificial neural networks also can be used in constructing models to predict graft survival in kidney transplantation.  

  9. Development of a fast ultrasonic three-dimensional imaging system for diagnosing blood vessels of artificial-kidney-dialyzed patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Mutsuhiro; Mochizuki, Takashi; Yamashita, Yuko; Kasai, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Kishino, Osamu; Ogawa, Tomoya

    2001-05-01

    It is very important to observe the vessels of the patient who are dialyzed artificially. An X-ray examination using contrast medium injected to the patient has been used for this purpose up to the present, but sometimes the examination has a risk of radiation damage. Therefore, we developed a safe and easy-to-use system in which 3D images of the vessels in the patients are reconstructed very quick from ultrasonic echoes. In this system, a view point for 3D rendering is set on the above position of the ultrasonic transducer, and a ray for the rendering is coincided with an ultrasonic beam. These features enable 3D images to be gradually reconstructed in real time while the echoes are being received. A magnetic position sensor system and a special 3D scanner which was developed were adopted for acquiring 3D echo data. In signal processing, intensity inversion technology is carried out before the 3D rendering process in order to detect and emphasize the vessels. With this system, we have acquired echo signals from the vessels in the arm of kidney dialyzed patients and made similar 3D images of X-ray angiography with the echoes in a short time such as 4 to 8 seconds.

  10. An experimental and numerical study of the flow and mass transfer in a model of the wearable artificial kidney dialyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfeld Moshe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published studies of the past decades have established that mass transfer across the dialyzer membrane is governed by diffusion, convection and osmosis. While the former is independent of the pressure in the liquids, the latter two are pressure dependent and are enhanced when the pressure difference across the membrane is increased. The goal of the present study is to examine the impact of pulsatile flow on the transport phenomena across the membrane of a high-flux dialyzer in a wearable artificial kidney (WAK with a novel single small battery-operated pulsatile pump that drives both the blood and dialysate in a counter-phased manner, maximizing the trans-membrane pressure. Methods Both in-vitro experimental and numerical tools are employed to compare the performance of the pulsatile WAK dialyzer with a traditional design of a single-channel roller blood pump together with a centrifugal pump that drives the dialysate flow. The numerical methods utilize the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and mass transfer equations to model the flow in the fibers of the dialyzer. Results While diffusion is still the dominating transport regime, the WAK pump enhances substantially the trans-membrane pressure and thus increases mass convection that might be as high as 30% of the overall transfer. This increase is obtained due to the design of the pulsatile WAK pump that increases ultrafiltration by increasing the trans-membrane pressure. Conclusions The experimental and numerical results revealed that when pumping at similar flow rates, a small battery-operated pulsatile pump provides clearances of urea and creatinine similar as or better than a large heavy AC-powered roller pump.

  11. The osteopontin-controlled switching of calcium oxalate monohydrate morphologies in artificial urine provides insights into the formation of papillary kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Aaron; Grohe, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stones. To gain insight into these mechanisms, crystallization was induced by addition of human kidney OPN to artificial urine (ionic strength comparable to urine; without citrate), and the OPN-COM interaction studied using a combination of scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy. By SEM, we found that increasing OPN concentrations formed large monoclinic penetration twins (no protein added) and, at higher concentrations (1-, 2μg/ml OPN), super and hyper twins with crystal habits not found in previous studies. For instance, the hyper twins indicate well-facetted gearwheel-like habits with "teeth" developed in all crystallographic directions. At OPN concentrations ≥2μg/ml, a switching to small dumbbell-shaped COM habits with fine-textured surfaces occurred. Confocal microscopy of these dumbbells indicates protein incorporation in almost the entire crystal structure (in contrast to facetted COM), proposing a threshold concentration of ∼2μg/ml OPN for the facetted to the non-facetted habit transformation. Both the gearwheel-like and the dumbbell-shaped habit are again found side-by-side (presumably triggered by OPN concentration gradients within the sample) in in-vitro formed conglomerates, which resemble cross-sections of papillary kidney stones. The abrupt transformation from facetted to non-facetted habits and the unique compliance of the two in-vitro formed habits with the two main morphologies found in papillary kidney stones propose that OPN is a main effector in direct stone-forming processes. Moreover, stone structures which exhibit these two morphologies side-by-side might serve as a novel indicator for OPN concentrations surrounding those structures. PMID:27362921

  12. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information > Health Communication Programs > National Kidney Disease Education Program > Learn About Kidney Disease > Living With Kidney Disease > Kidney Failure | Share External Link Disclaimer Living With Kidney Disease ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little different about kidney transplants compared to, say, heart transplants or liver transplants is it’s not necessary to ... our time. “Are doctors using manmade kidneys for transplant?” That ... artificial heart and ventricular assist device that have been successful. ...

  14. 组合型人工肾治疗肾性骨病的前瞻性研究%Prospective study of combinative artificial kidney treatment on renal osteopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林永明; 伍艳萍; 李妙玲; 陈英华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨组合型人工肾对尿毒症患者肾性骨病的治疗作用.方法 我院于2008年6月至2009年2月采用血液透析(HD)+血液灌流(HP)方法 治疗30例尿毒症患者(HD+HP组),并与单纯HD治疗尿毒症患者31例(HD组)进行对比研究,通过比较治疗前与治疗后3个月时2组患者的骨痛、皮肤瘙痒、血压、食欲、睡眠等临床症状及尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(SXr)、血红蛋白(Hb)、血小板(BPC)、钙(Ca)、磷(P)、全段甲状旁腺素(iPTH)等生化指标的变化,客观评价两种方法 治疗尿毒症患者肾性骨病的疗效.结果 HD组、HD+HP组治疗后骨痛的缓解率分别为67.7%(21/31)、96.7%(29/30),皮肤瘙痒的缓解率分别为71.0%(22/31)、96.7%(29/30),HD+HP在缓解维持性透析患者的骨痛与皮肤瘙痒中显著优于单纯HD(P均<0.01);HD组治疗前后iPTH分别为(65.5±34.4)pmol/L和(57.1±21.4)pmol/L,HD+HP组治疗前后iPTH分别为(73.5±44.4)pmol/L和(19.1±17.4)pmol/L,单纯HD未能很好地清除iPTH(P>0.05),而HD+HP则可(P<0.05).结论 对于iPTH水平较高的维持性HD患者,可通过增加HP,达到更好地清除这些患者血中大、中、小分子毒素物质,从而降低肾性骨病发生率,提高其生存质量.%Objective To explore therapeutic effects of combinative artificial kidney treatment on renal osteopathy.Methods HD + HP Group composed by 30 urinaemia was treated with hemodialysis and hemoperfusion,and the HD Group was treated only with hemodialysis.Clinical symptoms and lab indicators including osteodynia,itch of skin,blood pressure,appetite,sleep,as well as BUN,SCr,Hb,BPC,Ca,P and iPTH,were compared between the two groups.Results Osteodynia decreased by 67.7% (21/31),and itch of skin by 71.0% (22/31)in HD group.Osteodynia decreased by 96.7% (29/30) ,and itch of skin by 96.7% (29/30) in HD + HP group (P <0.01 ).iPTH were (65.5 ± 34.4) pmol/L before treatment and (57.1 ± 21.4) pmol/L after treatment in HD group,and (73.5 ± 44.4)pmol

  15. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced with aging. As ... more sensitive to certain medicines. For example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and some antibiotics may harm ...

  16. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  17. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other mineral levels. Common Kidney Conditions in Teens Sometimes, the kidneys aren't able to do ... conditions is a renal ultrasound . Like the ultrasound pictures that pregnant women get of their fetuses, a ...

  18. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensing agreement Kidneys: How They Work, How They Fail, What You Can Do For people at any ... Kidney School is a program of the Medical Education Institute, Inc. , a 501(c)(3) organization, © 2002– ...

  19. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Kidney Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & ... The kidneys also help maintain body fluids at normal levels. In addition, the kidneys play important roles in controlling blood pressure and ...

  20. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Kidney Transplant Click to watch a video on this topic Click to watch a video on Hemodialysis When kidneys fail, there ... 05/2016 - 10:00am Philadelphia, PA Kidney Camp Sun, 07/17/2016 - 6:00pm Ingleside, IL Register ...

  1. Transport of artificial amino acid into kidney epithelial cell line monolayer: 3-[125I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine comparison with L-[14C]Tyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: We investigated the carrier systems involved in 3-[125I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (125I-IMT) and L-[14C]Tyr transport in pig kidney epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 monolayer. These cells, from an oriented monolayer with microvilli and tight junctions, exhibit unidirectional transcellular transport of electrolytes and some nutrients. Materials and Methods: Cell line studies were performed as follows, using methods described by Satoh et al.. LLC-PK1 cells were grown on plastic dishes in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum without antibiotics in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 370C. Subculturing was conducted every 7 days using 0.02% EDTA and 0.05% trypsin. For uptake studies, LLC-PK1 cells were seeded on 60-mm dishes at a cell density of 5x105 cells/dish in 5 mL of complete medium, and were used on day 6-7 after inoculation. The composition of the incubation medium was as follows: 145 mM NaCl, 3 mM KCl, 1 mM CaCl2, 0.5 mM MgCl2, and 5 mM HEPES, pH 7.4. In the sodium dependence study, NaCl was replaced with same concentration of choline-Cl. After removal of culture medium, each dish was washed once with 5 mL of incubation medium for 10 min at 370C. Cells were then incubated with 2 mL of incubation medium containing 125I-IMT for the specified periods at 370C, or at 40C in a temperature dependence study. For inhibition studies, L-Tyr, D-Tyr, probenecid and DNP were added to give final concentrations of 5.0 mM, 5.0 mM, 1 mM and 0.1 mM, respectively. Cells were incubated for 5 min at 370C with 1.11 kBq 125I-IMT or L-[14C]Tyr. After incubation, the medium was aspirated, and monolayers were rinsed rapidly twice with 5 ml of ice-cold incubation medium. Cells were solubilized in 1.5 mL of 1 N NaOH, and the radioactivity of each aliquot was quantitated using a well-type scintillation counter. Results: Significant inhibition of 125I-IMT and L-[14C]Tyr uptake (62.61% and 80.0%, respectively) was noted with L-Tyr (P125I-IMT and L-[14C

  2. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goodpasture syndrome IgA nephropathy Interstitial nephritis Lupus nephritis Medullary cystic kidney disease Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Membranous nephropathy Minimal change disease Nephrotic ...

  3. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  4. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  5. Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to go to the bathroom. When you pee, the urine goes from the bladder down another tube called the urethra (say: yu-REE-thruh) and out of your body. The kidneys, the bladder, and their tubes ...

  6. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  7. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  8. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear Kicking Kidney Stones Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor ... is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may be ...

  9. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary tract defects. 2 1 Swiatecka-Urban A. Multicystic renal dysplasia. Medscape website. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/982560- ... 27, 2013. Accessed July 14, 2014. 2 Fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney. Anne & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago ...

  10. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  11. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  12. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  13. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    OpenAIRE

    Hemalatha; Komarabattina; Nageshwar Rao; Kotikala Prabhakara

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric ...

  14. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  15. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  16. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: What is a ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...

  17. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...

  18. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney stone disease Radiation to the belly area Trauma ... Emergency symptoms may include: Abdominal pain and swelling Severe ... one kidney is affected and the other kidney is healthy, you may ...

  19. Artificial noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

  20. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  1. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  2. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  3. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  4. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury . This can occur in a person with normal kidneys or in someone who already has kidney problems. ... attack. What your kidneys do. You have two kidneys. They are bean-shaped and about the size of a fist. They are located in the ...

  5. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cysts do not enlarge the kidneys, replace their normal structure, or cause reduced kidney function like cysts do in people with PKD. ... the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the ...

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  7. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  8. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  9. Kidney bioengineering in regenerative medicine: An emerging therapy for kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Qian; Wang, Li-Ren; Pan, Liang-Liang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Gui-Qi; Liu, Wen-Yue; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Braddock, Martin; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of end-stage renal disease is emerging as a serious worldwide public health problem because of the shortage of donor organs and the need to take lifelong immunosuppressive medication in patients who receive a transplanted kidney. Recently, tissue bioengineering of decellularization and recellularization scaffolds has emerged as a novel strategy for organ regeneration, and we review the critical technologies supporting these methods. We present a summary of factors associated with experimental protocols that may shed light on the future development of kidney bioengineering and we discuss the cell sources and bioreactor techniques applied to the recellularization process. Finally, we review some artificial renal engineering technologies and their future prospects, such as kidney on a chip and the application of three-dimensional and four-dimensional printing in kidney tissue engineering. PMID:26596504

  10. National Kidney Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  11. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  12. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  13. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  14. Tests for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  15. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  16. HIV and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project ... Disease WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT KIDNEY DISEASE? WHAT IS NORMAL KIDNEY FUNCTION? HOW DO I KNOW IF THERE ARE PROBLEMS ...

  17. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many foods contain extra iron (liver, beef, pork, chicken, lima and kidney beans, iron-fortified cereals). Talk to your provider or dietitian about which foods with iron you can eat because of your kidney disease.

  18. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a healthy kidney from a donor. Most U.S. citizens who develop kidney failure are eligible for federally ... Budget & Legislative Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees Research Areas Jobs at NIDDK FAQs Visit Us ...

  19. Kidney transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions that both kidneys perform in healthy people. Kidney transplant recipients are required to take immunosuppressive medications for the rest of the lives, to prevent immune rejection of the transplanted organ.

  20. Kidney transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor kidneys are obtained from either brain-dead organ donors, or from living relatives or friends of the ... the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. The donor kidney is transplanted into the right lower pelvis of the recipient.

  1. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Download the AfiniTRAC patient support brochure . National Kidney Foundation: www.kidney.org Kidney and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology.org Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation: www. ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you can see the left kidney here and right kidney here. And we generally use the left ... that the vein to the kidney of the right kidney. Here is another CT angiogram image, and ...

  3. Keeping Your Single Kidney Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for kidney problems? Certain treatments for childhood cancer can sometimes cause kidney problems. These include radiation to the kidney , chemotherapy that can affect the kidney (cisplatin, carboplatin, methotrexate and/or ifosfamide), or other medications that can ...

  4. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to kidney impairment and even kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, the least ... kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How kidney cysts develop ...

  5. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can maintain normal kidney function. Additional Resources Afinitor® www.afinitor.com | Download the AfiniTRAC patient support brochure . National Kidney Foundation: www.kidney.org Kidney and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology. ...

  6. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  7. Myofibroblasts in Fibrotic Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of the kidney glomerulus and interstitium are characteristic features of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Fibrosis is tightly associated with destruction of capillaries, inflammation, and epithelial injury which progresses to loss of nephrons, and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. Understanding the origins and nature of the cells known as myofibroblasts that make scar tissue is central to development of new therapeutics for kidney disease. Whereas many cell lineag...

  8. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. Causes ... over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some time. The loss of function may be so slow that you ...

  9. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a physical exam urinalysis blood tests a kidney biopsy Medical and Family History Taking a medical and family history may help ... of the kidneys with a medical and family history a physical exam urinalysis blood tests a kidney biopsy A health care provider diagnoses dialysis-related amyloidosis ...

  10. Myofibroblasts in Fibrotic Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of the kidney glomerulus and interstitium are characteristic features of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Fibrosis is tightly associated with destruction of capillaries, inflammation, and epithelial injury which progresses to loss of nephrons, and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. Understanding the origins and nature of the cells known as myofibroblasts that make scar tissue is central to development of new therapeutics for kidney disease. Whereas many cell lineages in the body have become defined by well-established markers, myofibroblasts have been much harder to identify with certainty. Recent insights from genetic fate mapping and the use of dynamic reporting of cells that make fibrillar collagen in mice have identified with greater clarity the major population of myofibroblasts and their precursors in the kidney. This review will explore the nature of these cells in health and disease of the kidney to underst and their central role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. PMID:24187654

  11. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  12. [(Bio)artificial liver support: ready for the patient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuleau, R A F M

    2016-05-01

    In 2016, an intensive-care physician has at his disposal a number of artificial organs for the support of patients with organ failure. Examples are the artificial kidney and the heart-lung machine. Artificial livers are being developed for patients with severe liver failure whose lives can only be saved at the present time by a transplant with a donor liver. These artificial livers are based either on a device that removes toxic materials from the patient's blood with, for example, albumin dialysis, or make use of bio-reactors filled with functioning liver cells, the so-called bio-artificial liver. In theory, the bio-artificial liver has the greatest potential to increase life expectancy. The results of clinical studies are also very promising. They are not yet sufficient, however, to permit general clinical use. PMID:27166453

  13. Towards Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Roemeling-Van Rhijn (Marieke)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Body homeostasis is maintained by vital organs such as the heart, lungs, kidney and liver. Organ failure due to injury or disease will ultimately result in a life threatening situation. Heart and lung function can be supported and even temporarily replaced by artificial

  14. Diabetes and kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of sickness and death in people with diabetes. It can ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. There is plenty of room for the new kidney. We actually put it down in part ... to both remove their kidneys and put a new one in, so that’s not necessary. We now ...

  16. Eating Right for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating Right for Kidney Health Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program hat ... eat healthier. These tips will help you eat right as you manage your CKD. The First Steps ...

  17. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased blood pressure, but usually they do not cause discomfort. However, sometimes the kidney is filled with cysts, and this can lead to kidney impairment and even kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painful, we have really excellent visualization of the anatomy of the kidney and organs around the kidney. ... which gives us an excellent view of the anatomy of the kidneys, including the blood vessels. And ...

  19. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure can accelerate the loss of kidney function when the kidneys are filled with cysts. If ... surgical removal can lead to loss of kidney function. As of April 26, 2012, adults with TSC ...

  20. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    11.1.Kidney function2005391 Increased levels of advanced oxidationproducts are associated with atherosclerosis in chron-ic kidney disease.YANG Xiaobing(杨小兵),et al.Dept Nephrol,Nanfang Hops,1st Milit Med Univ,Guangzhou.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(5):342-346.Objective:Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein

  1. Acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joanna; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates up to 20% of all hospital admissions. Responding to the increase in admissions, complications, mortality, morbidity, and cost of AKI, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes convened an expert panel to study the issue, review the literature, and publish guidelines to evaluate and treat patients with AKI in the acute setting. This article reviews those guidelines. PMID:27023656

  2. [Hyperhydration and dialysis in acute kidney failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Fuat H; Bienholz, Anja; Tyczynski, Bartosz; Kribben, Andreas; Feldkamp, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    Despite the advances in critical care medicine, the hospital mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis remains high. Depending on the underlying disease the in-house mortality is reported to be up to 80%. Several observational studies demonstrated an association between mortality and fluid overload. A primary mechanism of interest is that fluid overload causes tissue edema and subsequent reduction of perfusion, oxygenation and nutrient delivery. This results in further renal damage. In addition, fluid overload-related dilution within the extracellular space causes artificially low serum creatinine, which masks AKI diagnosis. As a consequence, renal protective management strategies are deferred, which further aggravates kidney injury. This aggravation of renal damage subsequently increases the mortality. This review discusses the role of fluid overload for outcomes in critically ill patients as described in the current literature and assesses criteria for the initiation of renal replacement therapy in this critically ill population. PMID:25970415

  3. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  4. A Soft Computing Approach to Kidney Diseases Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, José; Martins, M Rosário; Vilhena, João; Neves, João; Gomes, Sabino; Abelha, António; Machado, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2015-10-01

    Kidney renal failure means that one's kidney have unexpectedly stopped functioning, i.e., once chronic disease is exposed, the presence or degree of kidney dysfunction and its progression must be assessed, and the underlying syndrome has to be diagnosed. Although the patient's history and physical examination may denote good practice, some key information has to be obtained from valuation of the glomerular filtration rate, and the analysis of serum biomarkers. Indeed, chronic kidney sickness depicts anomalous kidney function and/or its makeup, i.e., there is evidence that treatment may avoid or delay its progression, either by reducing and prevent the development of some associated complications, namely hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular complications. Acute kidney injury appears abruptly, with a rapid deterioration of the renal function, but is often reversible if it is recognized early and treated promptly. In both situations, i.e., acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, an early intervention can significantly improve the prognosis. The assessment of these pathologies is therefore mandatory, although it is hard to do it with traditional methodologies and existing tools for problem solving. Hence, in this work, we will focus on the development of a hybrid decision support system, in terms of its knowledge representation and reasoning procedures based on Logic Programming, that will allow one to consider incomplete, unknown, and even contradictory information, complemented with an approach to computing centered on Artificial Neural Networks, in order to weigh the Degree-of-Confidence that one has on such a happening. The present study involved 558 patients with an age average of 51.7 years and the chronic kidney disease was observed in 175 cases. The dataset comprise twenty four variables, grouped into five main categories. The proposed model showed a good performance in the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease, since the

  5. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  6. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  7. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Your Kidneys Healthy Testing for Kidney Disease Diet and Lifestyle Changes Medicines and Kidney Disease Treatment for Kidney Failure ​ Identify & M​anage Patients Managing CKD in Primary Care Promoting Patient Self Management CKD and Nutrition​​ Training for CDEs, RDs, and ...

  8. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statement, and the Director's Update newsletter Offices & Divisions Organizational structure and descriptions ... kidney disease usually does not have signs (a change in your body) or symptoms (a change in ...

  9. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  10. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital emergency room. To make a diagnosis of kidney stones, the doctor will ask about the symptoms and how long they've been going on; your child's diet; factors that could be causing dehydration; any family ...

  11. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ... Other symptoms of kidney disease include loss of sleep, poor appetite, upset stomach, weakness, and difficulty concentrating. ...

  12. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and cys tic kidney diseases. Participants in clinical trials can play ... Life Options Rehabilitation Resource Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 ...

  13. Diet and Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of kidney stone is a uric acid stone. Red meat and shellfish have high concentrations of a natural ... cut down on high-purine foods such as red meat, organ meats, and shellfish, and follow a healthy ...

  14. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  15. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  16. Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day or so in the intensive care unit (ICU) for close watching to make sure both kidney ... worker at your center for information about the rehabilitation services provided through your state's Department of Vocational ...

  17. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Diabetes ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...

  18. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this special diet to limit the buildup of waste products in the body. Limiting fluids between dialysis ... up when the kidneys no longer function well. Dangerous heart rhythms may result, which can lead to ...

  19. Kidney Stones in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as orange juice or lemonade. Talk with your health care ... perform a physical exam and take a medical history. The health care provider may perform urine, blood, ...

  20. Medullary cystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood), especially with end-stage kidney disease Hypokalemia (too little potassium in the blood) Infertility Menstrual problems Miscarriage Pericarditis Peripheral neuropathy Platelet dysfunction with easy bruising Skin color ...

  1. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 One of the more ... thereafter.) This content was last reviewed January 2016. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  2. Sulfadiazine for kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R.R.; Bernier, A.F.; Whipple, W.J.; Burrows, R.E.

    1951-01-01

    The blueback salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Station at Winthrop, Washington, underwent an infection that was caused by a very short, Gram-positive, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacterium. A further description is impossible at this time, as the organism has not been grown satisfactorily for proper identification. The disease was characterized by white, raised areas of dead tissue mainly in the kidney: for this reason it is referred to as kidney disease. Belding and Merrill (1935) described a disease among the brook, brown, and rainbow trout at a State hatchery in Massachusetts which, from the description, might be the same as kidney disease. J.H. Wales of the California Division of Fish and Game described (unpublished manuscript, 1941) a disease in hatchery trout in California which seems to be identical to kidney disease.

  3. Pediatric Kidney Transplantation 2011

    OpenAIRE

    N. K. Kanzelmeyer; Lehner, F; Pape, L.

    2011-01-01

    As recently as 50 years ago, children suffering from renal insuffiency were dying due to a lack of adequate treatment. Nowadays providing different kinds a dialysis modalities, e. g. peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, as well as kidney transplantation have nearly become routine therapeutic options in children. Today, dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation can even be performed in infants.Patient survival of 20 years and near-normal mental and physical development is observed in more ...

  4. Ablation and Other Local Therapy for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  5. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Schuster; Daniel Berrar; Naoyuki Sato

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  6. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  7. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  8. Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Libal, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is rai...

  9. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  10. Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Amy L. Weaver; Lieske, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population.

  11. Active Osmotic Exchanger for Efficient Nanofiltration Inspired by the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the physical mechanisms underlying one of the most efficient filtration devices: the kidney. Building on a minimal model of the Henle loop—the central part of the kidney filtration—we investigate theoretically the detailed out-of-equilibrium fluxes in this separation process in order to obtain absolute theoretical bounds for its efficiency in terms of separation ability and energy consumption. We demonstrate that this separation process operates at a remarkably small energy cost as compared to traditional sieving processes while working at much smaller pressures. This unique energetic efficiency originates in the double-loop geometry of the nephron, which operates as an active osmotic exchanger. The principles for an artificial-kidney-inspired filtration device could be readily mimicked based on existing soft technologies to build compact and low-energy artificial dialytic devices. Such a "kidney on a chip" also points to new avenues for advanced water recycling, targeting, in particular, sea-water pretreatment for decontamination and hardness reduction.

  12. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transplantation would be indicated. Renal Cell Carcinoma (Kidney Cancer) Over the past 20 years, there have been at least 25 published reports of kidney cancer occurring in individuals with TSC. Drs. Bjornsson, Short, ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here and right kidney here. And we generally use the left kidney because the vein for the ... of the renal vein. We’re going to use this ligature device, again, to basically heat this ...

  14. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early ... should be performed by a team with TSC experience, many individuals with TSC can maintain normal kidney ...

  15. Flu Season and Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  16. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... year-old white gentleman who's got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having ... patient with Lithotripsy. Now the stones -- there are three stones here in the pelvis of the kidney, ...

  17. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... campuses in Maryland and Arizona Research Resources Protocols, repositories, mouse models, plasmids, and more Technology Advancement & Transfer ... chronic kidney disease Pharmacy Working Group Increase pharmacists' knowledge of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and provide them ...

  18. Staying Fit with Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  19. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How kidney cysts develop is not known. The TSC genes are tumor suppressor genes. Normally, tumor suppressor genes ...

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prior to putting the patient on the immunosuppressive medicines to take care of their new kidney. But ... Absolutely. All of our patients take three immunosuppressive drugs to keep them from rejecting the kidney. Even ...

  1. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  2. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of this information. The majority of individuals ( ... the least common renal association with TSC, is a cancerous growth of the kidney. Although it is ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospitals in the America for patients with kidney disease, and only one other hospital in the State ... as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively such as ...

  4. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the kidneys are filled with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is ... can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early adulthood. Renal Angiomyolipomas ...

  5. Aging changes in the kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004010.htm Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder To use ... in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Kidneys and ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively ... the diseased kidneys really don’t tend to cause any problem. They actually get smaller and smaller ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Absolutely. All of our patients take three immunosuppressive drugs to keep them from rejecting the kidney. Even ... the recipient that the recipient could have fewer drugs to take to keep from rejecting the kidney. ...

  8. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  9. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ended or closed at one end; some newer machines are designed to allow the person to lie in a more open space. Like CT scans, MRIs can show cysts and tumors. [ Top ] How are simple kidney cysts treated? Treatment is not needed for ...

  10. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  11. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2003454 Effects of protein kinase C on type 1 inosi-tol 1,4, 5-triphosphate receptor expression in smooth muscle cells of rat glomerular afferent arterioles.WANG Jingyan(王静艳), et al. Dept Infect DLs, 2nd Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110004. China World J Digestol 2003; (11)6:705-707.

  12. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2004416 The role of adhesion molecules and dendritic cells in hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and the effect of antiadhesive treatment in rats.ZHOU Tong(周同), et al. Dept Nephrol, Ruijing Hosp Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Emerg Med 2004; 13(5):315 -318.

  13. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see bones, tissues, and organs inside the body. Health care providers commonly choose one or more of three imaging techniques to diagnose medullary sponge kidney: intravenous pyelogram computerized tomography (CT) scan ultrasound A radiologist—a doctor who specializes in medical imaging—interprets ...

  14. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common kidney and urinary tract problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal ... congenital abnormalities (meaning abnormalities that exist at birth) is ...

  15. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules...

  16. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper JE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Compared with rapamycin, everolimus is characterized by a shorter half-life and improved bioavailability. Prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval, a number of Phase II and III clinical trials were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of everolimus in combination with calcineurin inhibitors for preventing acute rejection and promoting allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. In this report, we review the pharmacokinetic properties of everolimus, the clinical efficacy studies that led to its approval for use in kidney transplantation, as well as reported data on patient safety and tolerability associated with its use.Keywords: mTOR inhibitors, kidney transplantation, everolimus

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of non-steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after ... for you? “How does having only one kidney affect a patient’s life? Is kidney function still normal?” ...

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  19. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can arise including hematuria (bloody urine) and nephrolithiasis (kidney stones). Often the best drugs to use to lower the blood pressure in this situation are either angiotensin converting enzyme ... the loss of kidney function when the kidneys are filled with cysts. ...

  20. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats. PMID:27593574

  1. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  2. Anorexia nervosa and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquegneau, Antoine; Dubois, Bernard E; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Delanaye, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a common psychiatric disorder that disproportionately affects adolescents and young adults and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Anorexia nervosa can affect the kidney in numerous ways, including increased rates of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, electrolyte abnormalities, and nephrolithiasis. Additionally, the diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa-associated kidney diseases are challenging, reflecting complications such as refeeding syndrome, as well as the limitations of serum creatinine level in this population to estimate kidney function and the psychosocial challenges inherent with treating systemic manifestations of psychiatric conditions. In this review, we discuss kidney diseases and kidney-associated conditions that occur in individuals with anorexia nervosa, summarizing many of the challenges in treating patients with this disease. PMID:22609034

  3. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO-incompatible ......INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...

  4. Kidneys in chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Hartleb; Krzysztof Gutkowski

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI),defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL,occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis.Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state,reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones.The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia,hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis.Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development,natriuresis,urine osmolality,response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion,and rarely on renal biopsy.Chronic glomeruIonephritis and obstructive uropathy are rare causes of azotemia in cirrhotic patients.AKI is one of the last events in the natural history of chronic liver disease,therefore,such patients should have an expedited referral for liver transplantation.Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is initiated by progressive portal hypertension,and may be prematurely triggered by bacterial infections,nonbacterial systemic inflammatory reactions,excessive diuresis,gastrointestinal hemorrhage,diarrhea or nephrotoxic agents.Each type of renal disease has a specific treatment approach ranging from repletion of the vascular system to renal replacement therapy.The treatment of choice in type 1 hepatorenal syndrome is a combination of vasoconstrictor with albumin infusion,which is effective in about 50% of patients.The second-line treatment of HRS involves a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt,renal vasoprotection or systems of artificial liver support.

  5. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  6. Artificial ecosystem selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R

    2000-08-01

    Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915

  7. [Kidney diseases: new issues].

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects two to four million people in France and most of them are not aware of their disease. CKD is a major, independent risk factor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity; the cardiovascular risk increases with the severity of renal failure. Evaluation of renal function (GFR) relies on MDRD and CKD-EPI equations. The French CKD-REIN cohort with more than 3000 patients followed for 5 years, will hopefully provide substantial advances in the knowledge of CKD ep...

  8. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper JE; Christians U; Wiseman AC

    2011-01-01

    James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR)-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney...

  9. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>2015225 Systolic blood pressure and progression of renal dysfunction in the elderly patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease:a cohort study from a tertiary hospital.ZHAO Hui(赵慧),et al.Renal Div,Dept Med,Peking Univ 1st Hosp,Instit Nephrol,Peking Univ,Beijing 100034.Chin J Intern Med 2015;54(3):181-187.

  10. Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary condition for making this argument. Rather than requiring that the system be hermetically sealed to avoid perceptions...

  11. Trasplante renal Kidney transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante renal es la terapia de elección para la mayoría de las causas de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal porque mejora la calidad de vida y la supervivencia frente a la diálisis. El trasplante renal de donante vivo es una excelente alternativa para el paciente joven en situación de prediálisis porque ofrece mejores resultados. El tratamiento inmunosupresor debe ser individualizado buscando la sinergia inmunosupresora y el mejor perfil de seguridad, y debe adaptarse a las diferentes etapas del trasplante renal. En el seguimiento del trasplante renal hay que tener muy en cuenta los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los tumores puesto que la muerte del paciente con injerto funcionante es la segunda causa de pérdida del injerto tras el primer año del trasplante. La función alterada del injerto es un factor de mortalidad cardiovascular independiente que requerirá seguimiento y control de todas sus complicaciones para retrasar la entrada en diálisis.The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, and must be adapted to the different stages of the kidney transplant. In the follow-up to the kidney transplant, cardiovascular risk factors and tumours must be especially taken into account, given that the death of the patient with a working graft is the second cause of loss of the graft following the first year of the transplant. The altered function of the graft is a factor of independent cardiovascular mortality that will require follow-up and the control of all its complications to postpone the entrance in dialysis.

  12. Fragmentation of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Fragmentation, i.e. the breaking of particulate materials into smaller pieces is abundant in nature and underlies several industrial processes, which attracted a continuous interest in scientific and engineering research over the past decades. In industrial applications, fragmentation processes are mostly used for the comminution of ores in various types of mills. Kidney stone is a well known human dis- ease which embitters the life of many people (in a country like the USA about 106 cases are registered yearly). In order to extract large kidney stones (diameter ≥ 1 cm) from the human body without operation, one of the most efficient treatment is the fragmentation of kidney stones by the so-called extracorporal shock wave lithography method: a shock wave penetrating the human body is generated by an electric pulse. The repeated application of the shock wave gradually fragments the stones into pieces of size ≤ 2 mm which then leave the body through the urine system. Recently, a novel type of lithographic method has been suggested by using widely focused shock waves which fragment the stones by a squeezing mechanism. Laboratory experiments showed that the widely focused squeezing waves achieve a higher fragmentation efficiency than the frequently used shock waves of sharp focus. Based on this method a novel medical treatment can be introduced which is less demanding for the patients. Before the application of the method in the clinical practice a detailed understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of kidney stones due to shock waves is required. Since analytic theoretical methods have serious limitations in this field, we develop a realistic model of the mechanical behavior of kidney stones and a simulation code which makes possible to study the mechanism of breakup under various external conditions. Computer simulations in two dimensions have revealed a peculiar way of crack formation, i.e. the crack which finally breaks

  13. Sirolimus and kidney growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, A. L.; Poster, D.; Kistler, A.D.; Krauer, F.; Raina, S; Young, J.; Rentsch, K M; Spanaus, K S; Senn, O; Kristanto, P; Scheffel, H.; Weishaupt, D; Wüthrich, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), aberrant activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is associated with progressive kidney enlargement. The drug sirolimus suppresses mTOR signaling. METHODS: In this 18-month, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we sought to determine whether sirolimus halts the growth in kidney volume among patients with ADPKD. We randomly assigned 100 patients between the ages of 18 and 40 years to receive either ...

  14. Kidney volume and function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Higashihara, Eiji; Nutahara, Kikuo; Okegawa, Takatsugu; Shishido, Toshihide; Tanbo, Mitsuhiro; Kobayasi, Kuninori; Nitadori, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The significance of total kidney volume (TKV) as a biomarker of kidney function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is controversial and has been reappraised. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, 64 patients were followed with a mean 39.7-month observation period. TKV measurements by magnetic resonance imaging and estimation of renal function with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and 24-h urine creati...

  15. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  16. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  17. Artificial Personality and Disfluency

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, Mirjam; Aylett, Matthew; Tomalin, Marcus; Dall, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is artificial voices with different personalities. Previous studies have shown links between an individual's use of disfluencies in their speech and their perceived personality. Here, filled pauses (uh and um) and discourse markers (like, you know, I mean) have been included in synthetic speech as a way of creating an artificial voice with different personalities. We discuss the automatic insertion of filled pauses and discourse markers (i.e., fillers) into otherwise f...

  18. The Artificial Anal Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, John

    2000-01-01

    The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...

  19. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  20. Hyperphosphatemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Keith A.; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard; Qiu, Ping; Pratt, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Observational studies have determined hyperphosphatemia to be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease. Mechanistic studies have elucidated that hyperphosphatemia is a direct stimulus to vascular calcification, which is one cause of morbid cardiovascular events contributing to the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease. This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that develops as a consequence of positive phosphate balance in chronic kidney disease and the me...

  1. Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Nalesso, Federico; Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys' imaging provides useful information in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and management. Today, several imaging techniques give information on kidneys anatomy, urinary obstruction, differential diagnosis between AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Ultrasound is a safe, non-invasive and repeatable imaging technique so it is widely used in the first level work-up of AKI. The utility of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in AKI or in AKI during CKD is limited because of renal toxicity associated with contrast agents used. PMID:27169556

  2. Polycystic kidney disease: The cadence of kidney growth in ADPKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Arlene

    2009-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the development and expansion of cysts, which ultimately results in kidney failure. The rate of this expansion can now be quantified within a short period of time, which has implications for assessing the risk of renal failure in affected patients. PMID:19474826

  3. Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Webinars Tips & Stories Links & Resources Learn About Chronic Kidney Disease Kidney Glossary Ask Our Expert Toll-Free Helpline: ... Questions What You Can Do Download all the chronic kidney disease information presented here. Preview Our CKD Booklets Stage ...

  4. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  5. Update on Renal Replacement Therapy: Implantable Artificial Devices and Bioengineered Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Chiara; Latancia, Marcela T; Otterbein, Leo E; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are now joining forces in the areas of organ transplantation and bioengineering to solve continued challenges for patients with end-stage renal disease. The waiting lists for those needing a transplant continue to exceed demand. Dialysis, while effective, brings different challenges, including quality of life and susceptibility to infection. Unfortunately, the majority of research outputs are far from delivering satisfactory solutions. Current efforts are focused on providing a self-standing device able to recapitulate kidney function. In this review, we focus on two remarkable innovations that may offer significant clinical impact in the field of renal replacement therapy: the implantable artificial renal assist device (RAD) and the transplantable bioengineered kidney. The artificial RAD strategy utilizes micromachining techniques to fabricate a biohybrid system able to mimic renal morphology and function. The current trend in kidney bioengineering exploits the structure of the native organ to produce a kidney that is ready to be transplanted. Although these two systems stem from different technological approaches, they are both designed to be implantable, long lasting, and free standing to allow patients with kidney failure to be autonomous. However, for both of them, there are relevant issues that must be addressed before translation into clinical use and these are discussed in this review. PMID:26905099

  6. Dual kidney transplantation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidas, Zeljko; Kocman, Branislav; Knotek, Mladen; Skegro, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    Chronic shortage of kidney transplants worldwide has led to the use of organs from so called marginal or borderline donors, now termed "expanded-criteria donors". There has been an emerging practice of dual kidney transplantation (DKT) to compensate for sub optimal nephron mass of such kidneys. We performed DKT in "Merkur" University Hospital in August 2005. The donor was a 72-year old female with a history of long-term hypertension, aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery, cerebrovascular insult (CVI), and with normal creatinine values and kidney function at the time of explantation. Initial biopsy of donor kidneys revealed acute tubular damage, with connective changes in 22% and 11% of glomeruli in the left and the right kidney, respectively. The recipient was a 60-year old male diagnosed with the IgA nephropathy on the last biopsy in 1999, and on dialysis since November 2003. Postoperative course was uneventful without any surgical complications. A triple immunosuppressive protocol was used. On follow-up ultrasonography 4 years posttransplantation both kidneys appeared of normal size and parenchymal pattern and with no signs of dilatation of the canal system, and color Doppler examination demonstrated normal flow in both kidneys. In conclusion, the use of DKT ie. donors by the expanded-criteria will continue to increase, and further studies of the results will, with no doubt, support this method. PMID:20698157

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Can someone receive a transplant before going into kidney failure?” Absolutely. That’s call a “preemptive transplant.” There are ... donor cleared, and to get everybody together before kidney failure actually occurs. But we do do preemptive transplants ...

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells, which surround a fluid-filled cavity. Some children and adults with TSC and severe cystic kidneys can have mutations (changes in the DNA) of both the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16 and the gene for polycystic kidney disease (PKD1), which lies right next to the TSC2 gene. Mutations in the ...

  9. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Podduturi, Varsha; Adair, Carol F.; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC) of the kidney is a unique, rare, and recently recognized neoplasm. Although originally considered a low-grade collecting duct carcinoma, TCC is now considered to be a distinct entity. TCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic renal neoplasms. We report a case of TCC arising in the left kidney.

  10. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  11. Artificial ionospheric turbulence (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an analysis of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) arising near the level at which a powerful wave is reflected with ordinary polarization. AIT is an inhomogeneous structure in the ionosphere with a size on the order of centimeters or tens of kilometers and with characteristic frequencies from a fraction of a hertz (aperiodic inhomogeneity) to several megahertz (plasma waves). The authors are primarily concerned with small-scale artificial ionospheric turbulence (SAIT), i.e., with inhomogeneities that are greatly extended along the geomagnetic field with transverse dimensions that are less than the wavelengths of the perturbing waves - the pumping waves (PW) - in a vacuum

  12. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  13. Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borque

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Some tumors are known to have a definite cause-effect etiology, but renal cell carcinoma (RCC is not one of them precisely. With regard to RCC we can only try to identify some clinical and occupational factors as well as substances related to tumorigenesis. Smoking, chemical carcinogens like asbestos or organic solvents are some of these factors that increase the risk of the RCC. Viral infections and radiation therapy have also been described as risk factors. Some drugs can increase the incidence of RCC as well as other neoplasms. Of course, genetics plays an outstanding role in the development of some cases of kidney cancer. Chronic renal failure, hypertension, and dialysis need to be considered as special situations. Diet, obesity, lifestyle, and habits can also increase the risk of RCC. The aim of this review is to summarize the well-defined causes of renal cell carcinoma.

  14. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

  15. Perioperative acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Stacey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious complication in the perioperative period, and is consistently associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Two major consensus definitions have been developed in the last decade that allow for easier comparison of trial evidence. Risk factors have been identified in both cardiac and general surgery and there is an evolving role for novel biomarkers. Despite this, there has been no real change in outcomes and the mainstay of treatment remains preventive with no clear evidence supporting any therapeutic intervention as yet. This review focuses on definition, risk factors, the emerging role of biomarkers and subsequent management of AKI in the perioperative period, taking into account new and emerging strategies.

  16. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choyke, P.L. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2000-11-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  17. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  18. Production of artificial radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in the production of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)

  19. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  20. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  1. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  2. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  3. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  4. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  5. Natural or Artificial Intelligence?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plzeň (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  7. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  8. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  9. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such ... An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon ...

  10. Acute Kidney Injury due to Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maggard, Reuben; Makary, Raafat; Monteiro, Carmela l.; James, Leighton R.

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition, characterized by the development of cysts in the kidney, as well as in other organs. Patients with polycystic kidney can suffer from the same causes of acute kidney injury as the general population. Nephritic syndrome is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury in the general population and less common in patients with polycystic kidney disease. We report the second case of crescentic glomerulonephritis, causing acute kidney injury, in a pa...

  11. Acute kidney injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, A; Flechelles, O; Jouvet, P

    2012-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5% of critically ill hospitalized children and is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. The current review focuses on new definitions of acute kidney injury, standardized to reflect the entire spectrum of the disease, as well as on ongoing research to identify early biomarkers of kidney injury. Its also provides an overview of current practice and available therapies, with emphasis on new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Furthermore, a decision-making algorithm is presented for the use of renal replacement therapies in critically ill children with AKI. PMID:22495187

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  13. Late Kidney Dysfunction in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Late kidney transplant dysfunction may be a harbinger of graft failure. For many years, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity was felt to be the main cause for graft dysfunction with fibrosis and transplant loss. Recently this idea has come into question. With the observation that peritubular capillary C4d staining in kidney allografts may indicate antibody-mediated injury in conjunction with biopsy study findings, an appreciation for antibody-mediated rejection as a major cause of late graft dysfun...

  14. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... One example is polycystic kidney disease, in which normal kidney tissue is replaced by fluid-filled sacs. Glomerular ... kidney will be needed. In some cases, donor kidneys come from a close relative ... whose organs are similar in size to the child's. If a living donor can' ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make it so that a person who has antibodies against another person, that recipient can be treated with treatments that will bind up their antibodies and allow them to accept a kidney from ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re quite secure. They have been tested in animal models and have shown to have high, what ... them a kidney, first we will do compatibility testing, see who is the best match in terms ...

  17. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These ... in almost every major medical center. The renal ultrasound provides the least detailed image of the kidney, ...

  18. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in TSC: renal cysts, renal angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma . Renal angiomyolipomata, or angiomyolipomas, are usually the ... kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, the least common renal association with TSC, ...

  19. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and lead to bleeding. About 20% of the time this bleeding is life-threatening. Approximately 80 percent ... with TSC will experience angiomyolipomas. Most of the time both kidneys are involved. Renal cysts are often ...

  20. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severe kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early adulthood. Renal Angiomyolipomas Angiomyolipomas are named because they ...

  1. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal or back pain, nausea and vomiting and fever. For the individual who is non-verbal, this ... significant back or abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and fever. If these growths involve both kidneys, renal failure ...

  2. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the tumor suppressor genes are inactivated by mutations, cell growth is unchecked, leading to tumors. Cysts ... with TSC and severe cystic kidneys can have mutations (changes in the DNA) of both the TSC2 ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some basic medical tests ... steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after surgery, I’ ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... monofilament suture like fishing line. We wear magnifying lenses while we sew it in, and here you ... and you can see the ureter, which the tube that drains the urine down from the kidney ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iliac vein of the recipient actually has the big clamp on it, and you can see the ... kilos in size, just so that they’re big enough to accommodate the kidney. I know there’s -- ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the 50 best hospitals in the America for patients with kidney disease, and only one other hospital ... these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients because the incisions are less painful, we have ...

  7. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... followed in several studies that angiomyoliopama in TSC patients continued to grow. The risk of hemorrhage appears ... MRI if possible, or a CT to identify patients with kidney involvement. Then, depending on the size ...

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lesions that lack the fat component. The kidneys should be scanned, preferably with MRI, at the time ... are identified, then the growth of these lesions should be followed using repeated MRI every year or ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just ...

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of this information. The majority of individuals (greater than 80 ... lead to bleeding. About 20% of the time this bleeding is life-threatening. Approximately 80 percent of ...

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or two, unless symptoms develop or the lesion has an unusual growth pattern. For individuals with TSC ... kidney lesions are present and/or if there has been a change in any of the existing ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Norfolk General was started in 1972. Since that time, over 1,800 kidneys have been transplanted, and ... that came in. They would come in three times a week, so basically you become their family. ...

  13. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased blood pressure, but usually they do not cause discomfort. However, sometimes the kidney is filled with ... ultrasound until adulthood. Usually the cysts do not cause symptoms, but can lead to hypertension (high blood ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... day as well. It takes about four to five hours to remove the kidney in terms of ... does occasionally happen, but it is less than five percent of the time, whereas with the deceased ...

  15. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History Database Tissue Donation Audio & Video Archives Brochures, Books, & Booklets Information Sheets Perspective Magazine Archives Life Stages ... Scientific Advisory Board 2015 International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC ...

  16. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three particular renal disorders in TSC: renal cysts, renal ... at the time of diagnosis, and at 2-3 year intervals if no cysts or angiomyolipomas are ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to do the surgery if we ran into something like that, which has happened on two occasions ... year survival of the kidney. At five years, something like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what ...

  18. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... must be kept in mind. Diagnosis The current methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, ... cells, which surround a fluid-filled cavity. Some children and adults with TSC and severe cystic kidneys ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

  20. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells, which surround a fluid-filled cavity. Some children and adults with TSC and severe cystic kidneys ... vomiting. However, bleeding or rupture rarely occurred in children; larger tumors occurred at an older age (greater ...

  1. How Is Kidney Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people find disturbing. Some centers provide headphones with music to block this noise out. MRI scans are used less often than CT scans in people with kidney cancer. They may be done in cases where CT ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been living donor transplants, and that will ... John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the spleen and the colon fall into that space, and the patient doesn’t really notice that. ... the liver and the colon would fill the space where the kidney was located. 7 And this ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prior to putting the patient on the immunosuppressive medicines to take care of their new kidney. But ... days, I think. And then they gave you medicine through the IV after that. Right. So the ...

  5. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Mission Statement/History Annual and Financial Reports Strategic Plan Results Reporting Staff Directory Board of ... years, there have been at least 25 published reports of kidney cancer occurring in individuals with TSC. ...

  6. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years. PMID:27571467

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How ... significant and occasionally life threatening. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment guidelines have been proposed to initially identify which ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gene for polycystic kidney disease (PKD1), which lies right next to the TSC2 gene. Mutations in the ... Disclaimer • Privacy Policy . © 2016 Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance - All Rights Reserved. Website by Teramark

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vasodilator or a tissue -- or a fluid that increases blood flow through the arteries to keep them ... a little line on the kidneys just to help me maintain the orientation when I put them ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to three days until they can eat solid foods. A few images of the procedure show this ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...

  14. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transplantation: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 3. Inker LA, Astor BC, ... Primer on Kidney Diseases . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 53. Taal M. Risk factors ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ever be a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’ ... And you had that PCA pump for pain control to where you push the button to help ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... choose one donor over another? There are several factors go into that. If somebody’s fortunate enough to have more than one person who is willing to donate them a kidney, ...

  17. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... individuals (greater than 80 percent) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) ... intended to provide basic information about tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). It is not intended to, nor does ...

  18. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a cancerous growth of the kidney. Although it is very rare, such a lesion must be ... older age (greater than 10 years of age). It appeared in the limited number of individuals followed ...

  19. Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Urinary Tract Infections in Adults Vesicoureteral Reflux Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800- ... or both kidneys. This problem, which is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), happens when the valve mechanism that normally ...

  20. Kidney Failure and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... narrows due to plaque buildup (stenosis) and blood flow is restricted to even one kidney, high blood pressure (hypertension) ... can be detected by physical examination or special tests: A physician’s ... through narrowed renal arteries. An Abdominal Ultrasound examination ...

  1. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that...... successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well as...

  2. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  3. Impacts of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Trappl, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book, which is intended to serve as the first stage in an iterative process of detecting, predicting, and assessing the impacts of Artificial Intelligence opens with a short "one-hour course" in AI, which is intended to provide a nontechnical informative introduction to the material which follows. Next comes an overview chapter which is based on an extensive literature search, the position papers, and discussions. The next section of the book contains position papers whose richness...

  4. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  5. Artificial Intelligence in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Peter E.

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years artificial intelligence has changed from being the preoccupation of a handful of scientists to a thriving enterprise that has captured the imagination of world leaders and ordinary citizens alike. While corporate and government officials organize new projects whose potential impact is widespread, to date few people have been more affected by the transition than those already in the field. I review here some aspects of this transition, and pose some issues that it rai...

  6. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  7. Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise

    OpenAIRE

    Chace, William M.

    1984-01-01

    I rise now to speak with the assumption that all of you know very well what I am going to say. I am the humanist here, the professor of English. We humanists, when asked to speak on questions of science and technology, are notorious for offering an embarrassed and ignorant respect toward those matters, a respect, however, which can all too quickly degenerate into insolent condescension. Face to face with the reality of computer technology, say, or with "artificial intelligence," we humanists ...

  8. Adiponectin effects on the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Sweiss, Natalie; Sharma, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is a 30-kDa polypeptide secreted primarily by adipose tissue and plays a key role in kidney disease. In obesity, reduced adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and obesity related kidney disease. The latter includes microalbuminuria, glomerulomegaly, overt proteinuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetics also negatively correlate with early features of nephropathy. However, in patients with establ...

  9. Claudins and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianghui; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Yu, Alan S L

    2013-01-01

    Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that regulate paracellular permeability of renal epithelia to small ions, solutes, and water. Claudins interact within the cell membrane and between neighboring cells to form tight junction strands and constitute both the paracellular barrier and the pore. The first extracellular domain of claudins is thought to be the pore-lining domain and contains the determinants of charge selectivity. Multiple claudins are expressed in different nephron segments; such differential expression likely determines the permeability properties of each segment. Recent evidence has identified claudin-2 as constituting the cation-reabsorptive pathway in the proximal tubule; claudin-14, -16, and -19 as forming a complex that regulates calcium transport in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle; and claudin-4, -7, and -8 as determinants of collecting duct chloride permeability. Mutations in claudin-16 and -19 cause familial hypercalciuric hypomagnesemia with nephrocalcinosis. The roles of other claudins in kidney diseases remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:23140368

  10. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  11. Pediatric kidney transplantation: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Amit Sharma, Rajesh Ramanathan, Marc Posner, Robert A Fisher Hume-Lee Transplant Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Pediatric kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for children with end-stage renal disease. The most common indications for transplantation in children are renal developmental anomalies, obstructive uropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Living donor kidney transplants are often performed pre-emptively and offer excellent graft function. Policy changes in deceased-donor kidney allocation have increased the proportion of such transplants in pediatric recipients. Adequate pretransplant workup along with evaluation of urologic abnormalities is imperative in achieving good outcomes. Overall, patient and graft outcomes after kidney transplantation have improved, with five-year deceased donor and living donor graft survivals of 78.8% and 84.3%, respectively. Improvements in induction and maintenance immunosuppression have contributed to the gradual improvement in outcomes. Unique challenges in pediatric recipients include increased graft thrombosis, adverse growth, and abnormal development relating to immunosuppression, increased rejection due to nonadherence, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and post-transplant malignancy. This review focuses on the current practices and outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation in North America. We discuss the indications for transplantation, the evaluation process, some key surgical and immunologic considerations, and the common risk factors for graft dysfunction. Keywords: pediatric kidney transplantation, end-stage renal disease, dialysis, organ donors, immunosuppression

  12. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  13. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Ist. Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  14. Novel Imaging Techniques in Acute Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantarinia, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    Imaging of the kidneys can provide valuable information in the work up and management of acute kidney injury. Several different imaging modalities are used to gather information on anatomy of the kidney, to rule out obstruction, differentiate acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease and to obtain information on renal blood flow and GFR. Ultrasound is the most widely used imaging modality used in the initial work up of AKI. The utility of contrast enhanced computerized tomography a...

  15. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems. PMID:16203606

  16. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yamanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii blastocyst decomplementation; (iii use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv embryonic organ transplantation; and (v use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

  17. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  18. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  19. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  20. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... weigh enough to really perceive that on the scales. And another question. “Why do you cut off ... yet. Certainly, we’ve all heard about artificial heart and ventricular assist device that have been successful. ...

  2. Fetal Kidney Anomalies: Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Nielsen, Marlene Louise;

    undergone postmortem examination. The approximately 110 genes included in the targeted panel were chosen on the basis of their potential involvement in embryonic kidney development, cystic kidney disease, or the renin-angiotensin system. DNA was extracted from fetal tissue samples or cultured chorion villus...... the nephronophthisis associated gene, TMEM67 and six fetuses had mutations in kidney developmental genes. For these fetuses kidney histology is presented. Conclusion and Perspectives In eight (14%) fetuses we identified a likely genetic cause of the kidney anomalies. Ten fetuses from eight families......, in which no mutations were identified, have been selected for exome sequencing in order to uncover novel genes associated to fetal kidney anomalies....

  3. The exposome for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  4. Computational analysis of kidney scintigrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrincianu, D.; Puscasu, E.; Creanga, D. [University Al. I. Cuza, Faculty of Physics, 11 Blvd. Carol I, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stefanescu, C. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr. T. Popa, Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The scintigraphic investigation of normal and pathological kidneys was carried out using specialized gamma-camera device from nuclear medicine hospital department. Technetium 90m isotope with gamma radiation emission, coupled with vector molecules for kidney tissues was introduced into the subject body, its dynamics being recorded as data source for kidney clearance capacity. Two representative data series were investigated, corresponding to healthy and pathological organs respectively. The semi-quantitative tests applied for the comparison of the two distinct medical situations were: the shape of probability distribution histogram, the power spectrum, the auto-correlation function and the Lyapunov exponent. While power spectrum led to similar results in both cases, significant differences were revealed by means of distribution probability, Lyapunov exponent and correlation time, recommending these numerical tests as possible complementary tools in clinical diagnosis.

  5. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  6. VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: evaluation of the incidence and the pattern of vessel complications, efficacy of the prophylactic anticoagulation therapy after kidney transplantation. Materials and methods. From March 2007 till January 2013 421 patients: 230 men (54,6% and 191 women (45,4%; mean age 43,07 ± 11,62 undergone 429 kidney transplantations in the department of pancreas and kidney transplantation of the Scientific-Research Institute of Emergency Care named after N.V. Sklifosovsky. In order to evaluate the condition and the function of the kidney transplant ultrasound investigation (daily andacquisition(weekly wereused. In cases of kidney dysfunction and assumption of vessel complications we used computerized tomography. Besides, we used daily analysis of biochemical and clinical parameters of blood and urine. Results. The most common vessel complication was the thrombosis of the microvasculature of the kidney transplant due to acute humoral and combined rejection resistant to antirejection therapy (n = 9; 2,1%; in 4 cases there was a breakage of the transplant due to the acute rejection and the urgent transplantatectomy in an effort to save the patient; thrombosis of the transplantat artery occurred in 1 case (0,23%; we observed 2 cases (0,46% of the artery stenosis and 2 cases (0,46% of venous thrombosis. Conclusion. Summary frequency of vessel complications in our clinic, including thrombosis due to rejection, was 3,49%. It fully corresponds with data obtained from the global medical community. The incidence of great vessel thrombosis was less than 1% which indicates the adequate prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. For the benefit of early diacrisis of complications Doppler sonography is needed. In case of assumption of vessel complications urgent acquisition, computerized tomography and/ or angiography are to be held. 

  7. Myeloperoxidase in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhana Rao, A; Anand, Usha; Anand, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence implicate a role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a well accepted fact that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for CVD. MPO is a pro-oxidant enzyme which could be involved in the increased susceptibility of these patients to CVD. Hence, the levels of plasma MPO was determined in healthy controls as well as in patients with CKD [stratified with the level of their kidney failure as CKD...

  8. Kidney care beyond our borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jane; Zuber, Kim

    2015-11-01

    Whether it is the heartland of America or a remote village in a developing country, one overriding theme to providing care for kidney patients is person power--or the lack of it. In the developed countries, notably the U.S., Australia, New Zealand and Europe, medical schools prepare advanced practitioners who can then fill the gap left by the lack of nephrologists. However in areas where physicians are in short supply, nurses often have only basic training and trained APs are not available. In the meantime, kidney disease is taking its toll on the best and the brightest. PMID:26677594

  9. Why kidneys fail in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Jared J; Mulamalla, Sumanth; Swenson-Fields, Katherine I

    2011-10-01

    The weight of evidence gathered from studies in humans with hereditary polycystic kidney disease (PKD)1 and PKD2 disorders, as well as from experimental animal models, indicates that cysts are primarily responsible for the decline in glomerular filtration rate that occurs fairly late in the course of the disease. The processes underlying this decline include anatomic disruption of glomerular filtration and urinary concentration mechanisms on a massive scale, coupled with compression and obstruction by cysts of adjacent nephrons in the cortex, medulla and papilla. Cysts prevent the drainage of urine from upstream tributaries, which leads to tubule atrophy and loss of functioning kidney parenchyma by mechanisms similar to those found in ureteral obstruction. Cyst-derived chemokines, cytokines and growth factors result in a progression to fibrosis that is comparable with the development of other progressive end-stage renal diseases. Treatment of renal cystic disorders early enough to prevent or reduce cyst formation or slow cyst growth, before the secondary changes become widespread, is a reasonable strategy to prolong the useful function of kidneys in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:21862990

  10. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498

  11. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fund National Kidney Foundation American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Page Content On ...

  12. Do We Know What Causes Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can kidney cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes kidney cancer? Although many risk ... genes − the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  13. Study Links Climate Change to Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... policy. More Health News on: Chronic Kidney Disease Climate Change Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Chronic Kidney Disease Climate Change About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  14. Working with Kidney Disease: Rehabilitation and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  15. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  16. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  17. Acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvesh Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. The definition, staging, risk factors, biomarkers and management of acute kidney injury in children is detailed in the following review article.

  18. Artificial liver support: a real step forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, F; Samuel, D

    2015-02-01

    Since the early 1960s, several authors reported on the use of some experimental artificial liver devices in order to support patients with either acute liver failure (ALF) or end-stage chronic liver disease. In the 1980s, liver transplantation became an established real treatment replacing the whole liver with a major survival benefit. In the 1990s, the concept of albumin dialysis appeared as a new revolution in the concept of dialysis with the great capacity of removal of toxins, drugs and molecules strongly bound to albumin. Currently, three artificial liver support devices are available: The MARS®, the Prometheus® and the SPAD®. The most widely studied and used system is the MARS® that uses albumin dialysis to replace the detoxification function of the liver. MARS has shown in several uncontrolled studies and few randomized studies an improvement in the patient condition in terms of clinical symptoms (hepatic encephalopathy, pruritus, jaundice) and in liver and kidney biological parameters bringing these patients safely to liver transplantation. MARS® has shown for some patients with ALF (mainly paracetamol intoxication) an improvement of spontaneous or transplant free survival. The use of MARS in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) require further studies based on strict definition of the syndrome. The use of albumin dialysis technique, require the performance of multiple sessions of treatment or even (in situations of ALF) a continuous treatment in order to improve spontaneous recovery or bridge these patients to liver transplantation. The performance of these systems would need further improvement. Large randomized trials are still needed in both patients with ALF and ACLF to establish the indications, the timing and the real place of liver support therapies. Meanwhile, early use of these devices in patients with ALF and ACLF could be considered as an additional tool among others in the management of these patients in specialized liver units. PMID

  19. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  20. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  1. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  2. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  3. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from a...

  4. An assessment of chronic kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, José; Rosário Martins, M.; Vilhena, João; Neves, João; Gomes, Sabino; Abelha, António; Machado, José Manuel; Vicente, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Kidney renal failure means that one’s kidney have unexpectedlystoppedfunctioning,i.e.,oncechronicdiseaseis exposed, the presence or degree of kidney dysfunction and its progression must be assessed, and the underlying syndrome has to be diagnosed. Although the patient’s history and physical examination may denote good practice, some key information has to be obtained from valuation of the glomerular filtration rate, and the analysis of serum biomarkers. Indeed, chronic kidney sickness depicts...

  5. Kidney Research National Dialogue Overview and Commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Ketchum, Christian J.; Star, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives to improve understanding of kidney function and disease. The Kidney Research National Dialogue welcomed all interested parties to submit, discuss, and prioritize ideas via an interactive website. More than 1600 participants posted approximately 300 ideas and assigned them to 12 topic areas (AKI, CKD, diabetic nephropathy, National Kidney D...

  6. Imaging of horseshoe kidneys and their complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseshoe kidney is the most common renal fusion anomaly and the patients are prone to a variety of complications, such as stone disease, pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction, trauma, infections and tumours. As result of the abnormal anatomy of a horseshoe kidney, imaging and treatment pathways vary substantially from the normal kidney. In this review, we describe the role of modern imaging in depicting horseshoe kidneys and their complications, in tandem with the role the interventional radiologist plays in treating these patients.

  7. Acute Kidney Injury in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Palevsky, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The aging kidney undergoes a number of important anatomic and physiologic changes that increase the risk of acute kidney injury (formerly acute renal failure) in the elderly. This article reviews these changes and discusses the diagnoses frequently encountered in the elderly patient with acute kidney injury. The incidence, staging, evaluation, management, and prognosis of acute kidney injury are also examined with special focus given to older adults.

  8. Controversies in Chronic Kidney Disease Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Polkinghorne, Kevan R

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, a new chronic kidney disease staging system was developed by the US National Kidney Foundation. The classification system represented a new conceptual framework for the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (moving to a schema based on disease severity defined by the glomerular filtration rate). While the introduction of the staging system stimulated significant clinical and research interest in kidney disease, there has been vigorous debate on its merits. This mini-review aims to summ...

  9. CKD-MBD after kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Bacchetta, Justine

    2011-01-01

    Successful kidney transplantation corrects many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, skeletal and cardiovascular morbidity remain prevalent in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and current recommendations from the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group suggest that bone disease—including turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth, and strength—as well as cardiovascular disease be evaluated in all patients with ...

  10. Ritonavir-induced acute kidney injury: kidney biopsy findings and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shafi, T.; Choi, M.J.; Racusen, L. C.; Spacek, L. A.; Berry, C; Atta, M.; Fine, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ritonavir therapy is not generally considered nephrotoxic. We report a case of acute kidney injury secondary to ritonavir, with kidney biopsy demonstrating extensive acute tubular injury. This is the first report of a kidney biopsy and pathology in acute kidney injury associated with ritonavir. A review of published medical literature on the topic is also presented.

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to take care of her so much, I would donate my kidney to help somebody get off of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It was 20 years ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient doesn’t really notice that. On the right side it would be the liver and the colon would fill the space where the kidney was located. 7 And this question I’ll give you to ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the kidney, they are admitted the same day as the surgery, and the recipient’s admitted that day as well. It takes about four to five ... Patients are generally in the hospital about three days. Occasionally they’re ready to go home in ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney, I would say if that’s where you heart is at, because it’s a wonderful feeling to ... to do. Make sure that it’s in your heart to do that, and then just do it. ...

  15. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Page Content On this ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ...

  16. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and preventing all types of kidney stones. Staying hydrated (having enough fluid in your body) will keep your urine diluted, which makes it harder for stones to form. Water is best. You can also drink ginger ale, lemon-lime sodas, and fruit juices. Drink enough liquids throughout ...

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 and kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Amelia; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Gámez-Méndez, Ana Maria; Escalante, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent prostaglandins are necessary for normal kidney function. These prostaglandins are associated with inflammation, maintenance of sodium and water homeostasis, control of renin release, renal vasodilation, vasoconstriction attenuation, and prenatal renal development. COX-2 expression is regulated by the renin-angiotensin system, glucocorticoids or mineralcorticoids, and aldosterone, supporting a role for COX-2 in kidney function. Indeed, COX-2 mRNA and protein levels as well as enzyme activity are increased, along with PGE2, during kidney failure. In addition, changes in COX-2 expression are associated with increased blood pressure, urinary volume, sodium and protein and decreased urinary osmolarity. Intrarenal mechanisms such as angiotensin II (Ang II) production, increased sodium delivery, glomerular hypertension, and renal tubular inflammation have been suggested to be responsible for the increase in COX-2 expression. Although, specific COX-2 pharmacological inhibition has been related to the prevention of kidney damage, clinical studies have reported that COX-2 inhibition may cause side effects such as edema or a modest elevation in blood pressure and could possibly interfere with antihypertensive drugs and increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Thus, administration of COX-2 inhibitors requires caution, especially in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. PMID:22119250

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... possible to transplant an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...

  20. Ageing and kidney: a primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is an inevitable process that affects all organs and kidneys are no way an exception. There is an urgent need to understand ageing as a holistic process. The changes occurring in ageing kidneys resemble to those occurring in chronic kidney disease. However, many differences exist between them. Old age is a risk factor for acute kidney injury and increased risk of urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriruria, Serum creatinine is a suboptimal indicator of renal function in the elderly because loss of muscle mass in elderly decreases creatinine production. Serum cystatinc measurement, with reference values adjusted for age represents a promising marker to measure renal function in the elderly. The default management strategy for renal failure in elderly is more of conservative in developing countries when compared to developed countries where there is changing trend from conservative to initiation of renal replacement therapy. The decision when to initiate renal replacement therapy is more challenging. Haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis each has its own advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of individuals (greater than 80 percent) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal ( ... muscle (“myo”) and fat (“lipoma”). Usually angiomyolipomas are multiple and occur in both kidneys. The presence of ...

  2. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology.org Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation: www.pkdcure.org Reviewed and updated by Elizabeth Petri Henske, M.D., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, John J. Bissler, M. ...

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology.org Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation: www.pkdcure.org Reviewed and updated by Elizabeth Petri Henske, M.D., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, John J. Bissler, M. ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to begin to feel like your kidney was working normally? Well, it’s funny, even right after the surgery, I was still -- I mean I was still in pain and recovering, but it’s funny, I already could ...

  5. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These are all non-invasive procedures that are ... least detailed image of the kidney, while the MRI provides the most detailed. In general, the ultrasound ...

  6. Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease of salmonid fish that impacts sustainable production for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in juvenile salmonids and prespawning a...

  7. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  8. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  9. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kidney Stones In most children and teens, kidney stones are due to the diet and/or amount of fluid the child drinks. ... prevent new stones from forming. All children with kidney stones should: Drink a lot ... the salt in their diet Limit the amount of soda or soft drinks ...

  10. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many people in the United States are living normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. Some people do not have any working kidneys ... the same treatments that are also used for kidney cancers, such as surgery, ... on many factors, such as the size of the tumor and if it is causing ...

  11. Clinical implications of the solitary functioning kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Schreuder, M.F.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Sanna-Cherchi, S.; Wijk, J.A. van

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the major cause of ESRD in childhood. Children with a solitary functioning kidney form an important subgroup of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract patients, and a significant fraction of these children is at risk for progress

  12. Kidney regeneration and repair after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Franquesa (Marcella); M. Flaquer (Maria); J.M. Cruzado; J. Grinyo (Josep)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To briefly show which are the mechanisms and cell types involved in kidney regeneration and describe some of the therapies currently under study in regenerative medicine for kidney transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidney contains cell progenitors that under specif

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Kidney Cancer (Adult) - Renal Cell Carcinoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What happens after treatment for kidney cancer? Can I get another cancer after having kidney ...

  14. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ordered to monitor people who have had a kidney transplant to detect early signs of rejection. It may also be ordered to monitor people ... urine B2M in a person with a kidney transplant may indicate early kidney rejection. Increases in someone who is exposed to high ...

  15. Renal Cell Carcinoma in Transplanted Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    M. Naroienejad; Salouti, R

    2005-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are prescribed routinely to kidney transplant recipients to prevent rejection. These medications are associated wi th an increased risk of secondary malignancies,including renal cell carcinoma in the transplanted kidney itself. We present a case of renal cell carcinoma in a transplanted kidney.

  16. BARTERING FOR A COMPATIBLE KIDNEY USING YOUR INCOMPATIBLE, LIVE KIDNEY DONOR: LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES RELATED TO KIDNEY CHAINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Evelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Kidney chains are a recent and novel method of increasing the number of available kidneys for transplantation and have the potential to save thousands of lives. However, because they are novel, kidney chains do not fit neatly within existing legal and ethicalframeworks, raising potential barriers to their full implementation. Kidney chains are an extension of paired kidney donation, which began in the United States in 2000. Paired kidney donations allow kidney patients with willing, but incompatible, donors to swap donors to increase the number of donor/recipient pairs and consequently, the number of transplants. More recently, transplant centers have been using non-simultaneous, extended, altruistic donor ("NEAD") kidney chains--which consist of a sequence of donations by incompatible donors--to further expand the number of donations. This Article fully explains paired kidney donation and kidney chains and focuses on whether NEAD chains are more coercive than traditional kidney donation to a family member or close friend and whether NEAD chains violate the National Organ Transplant Act's prohibition on the transfer of organs for valuable consideration. PMID:27263265

  17. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Aggarwal; Porter, Anna C.; Tang, Ignatius Y. S.; Becker, Bryan N.; Sanjeev K. Akkina

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault), GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration), and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors inc...

  18. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  19. Pelvic kidney in organ donation: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, Yuriy; Giudice, Anthony

    2009-12-01

    An ectopic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs when the kidney fails to ascend to its normal position. Often an ectopic kidney is asymptomatic and the kidney is an unexpected finding during organ recovery. The kidney described in this case report had normal function and could have been used for transplantation, if it had been recovered without 2 renal arteries being damaged because of anatomic variation. The renal vasculature in this type of abnormality usually ascends from the iliac vessels, and this variation in anatomy should be taken into consideration by the recovering surgeon during arterial cannulation for organ flushing. PMID:20050461

  20. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  1. Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C.; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and we...

  2. Adult stem-like cells in kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keiichi Hishikawa; Osamu Takase; Masahiro Yoshikawa; Taro Tsujimura; Masaomi Nangaku; Tsuyoshi Takato

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatmentfor kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivationof kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidneytissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lowervertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephronsafter tubular damages is commonly observed after renalinjury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitorcell or system is reportedly presents suggesting thatadult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinicaltargets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclearif kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. Ingeneral, stemness is defined by several factors suchas self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency andcharacteristic gene expression profiles. The definiteuse of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidneyregeneration, and here we describe the recent broadfindings of kidney regeneration and the cells thatcontribute regeneration.

  3. Artificial frustrated spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2015-09-01

    Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.

  4. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  5. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  6. Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively, followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy. Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment, followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14% and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic

  7. Peripheral neuroepithelioma of the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K W; Ha, D. H.; Jung, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral neuroepithelioma is a rare tumor, comprising less than 1% of all soft tissue malignancies arising from the peripheral nonautonomic nervous system. Most peripheral neuroepitheliomas reported were located in the extremities, thoraco-pulmonary region, and pelvic areas, and as many as 30% of cases were associated with peripheral nerve. We report one case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising in the kidney, mimicking renal cell carcinoma on the CT scan.

  8. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Tuazon; David Casalino; Ehteshamuddin Syed; Daniel Batlle

    2008-01-01

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly ca...

  9. Carnosine, carnosinase and kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska

    2012-01-01

     Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide which is present in different human tissues, including the kidney. Carnosine is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carnosinase. There are two carnosinase homologues: serum secreted carnosinase and non-specific cytosolic dipeptidase, encoded by the genes CNDP1 and CNDP2 respectively and located on chromosome 18q22.3. Carnosine functions as a radical oxygen species scavenger and as a natural angiotensin converting enzyme inhibi...

  10. Artificial Life Meets Computational Creativity?

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    I (briefly) review the history of work in Artificial Life on the problem of the open-ended evolutionary growth of complexity in computational worlds. This is then put into the context of evolutionary epistemology and human creativity.

  11. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications. PMID:20812798

  12. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  14. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Marcuccilli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  15. Clofarabine-induced kidney toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kenar D; Chidella, Shailaja; Allen, Steven L; Fishbane, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog indicated for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. The drug is also increasingly used, outside of its FDA approved indication, for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia in adults. It acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis, the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase and repair and activation of mitochondrial repair processes. We describe a case of a 48-year-old male with refractory acute myeloid leukemia with acute kidney injury associated with clofarabine treatment. We conducted a review of the literature and utilized the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System to identify spontaneous reporting of renal adverse events with this drug in 29 other cases. Since clofarabine inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, we postulate by extrapolation from the animal studies that collapsing glomerulopathy or severe tubular injury or a combination of both may be the mechanism of acute kidney injury observed with this agent. This would be consistent with the observed severe acute kidney injury and proteinuria in humans. PMID:24081220

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease and Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Rebić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial cell layer is responsible for molecular traffic between the blood and surrounding tissue, and endothelial integrity plays a pivotal role in many aspects of vascular function. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and its incidence and severity increase in direct proportion with kidney function decline. Non-traditional risk factors for CVDs, including endothelial dysfunction (ED, are highly prevalent in this population and play an important role in cardiovascular (CV events. ED is the first step in the development of atherosclerosis and its severity has prognostic value for CV events. Several risk markers have been associated with ED. Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide plays a central role, linking kidney disease to ED, atherosclerosis, and CV events. Inflammation, loss of residual renal function, and insulin resistance are closely related to ED in CKD. ED may be followed by structural damage and remodelling that can precipitate both bleeding and thrombotic events. The endothelium plays a main role in vascular tone and metabolic pathways. ED is the first, yet potentially reversible step in the development of atherosclerosis and its severity has prognostic value for CV events.

  17. Pregnancy in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellanki, Kavitha

    2013-05-01

    Despite vast improvements in fetal outcomes, pregnancy in women with CKD is fraught with hazards; worsening of renal function and complications like preeclampsia and premature delivery are common. To date, there is no accurate formula to calculate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Also, whether the current CKD classification is better than the older classification at predicting outcomes in pregnant women with CKD is unknown. Women with an estimated GFR ≥1.4 mg/dL are at increased risk of progressive worsening of renal function regardless of the cause of the underlying kidney disease. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in pregnant women with underlying CKD, and serum markers such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PIGF) may lead the way for definitive diagnosis. New-onset lupus or lupus flare is an indication for kidney biopsy during pregnancy; cyclosporine is safe and is the most effective agent that can be used during pregnancy. Women with adult polycystic kidney disease are at increased risk of hypertension and preeclampsia during pregnancy, as well as hepatic cysts later in life, the latter occurring with multiple pregnancies. Strict blood pressure control is important in pregnant women with diabetic nephropathy. A multidisciplinary team that includes nephrologists and obstetricians who deal with high-risk pregnancies should be involved in the care of pregnant women with CKD for successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23928386

  18. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities. PMID:22732046

  19. Functional CT of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, Yoshito. E-mail: yoshito@xa2.so-net.ne.jp

    1999-06-01

    The iodinated contrast agents used for computed tomography (CT) are filtered at the glomerulus and not reabsorbed by the tubules and have pharmacokinetics comparable to inulin. They can thus measure physiological indices such as contrast clearance per unit volume, which is closely related to glomerular filtration rate per unit renal volume of kidney, after due allowance for the difference between blood and plasma clearance. In this review, we show how dynamic CT can be used to measure both regional and global blood clearance of contrast material. A single slice of kidney is scanned sequentially after bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of contrast material. Next, time-attenuation curves are constructed and contrast clearance per unit volume is calculated using a Patlak graphical analysis. CT determination of renal volume is made and global contrast clearance can be then also calculated. In normal kidneys, clearance/volume averaged 0.49{+-}0.11 ml min{sup -1} ml{sup -1} (mean {+-}S.D.), and these values agreed with literature data obtained using other techniques. A negative correlation between patient's age and clearance/volume was seen. A strong correlation was observed between creatinine whole blood clearance and the global contrast clearance (the product of renal volume determined by CT and contrast clearance/volume). Dynamic CT can provide quantitative renal physiological information on a regional basis non-invasively.

  20. Carnosine, carnosinase and kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide which is present in different human tissues, including the kidney. Carnosine is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carnosinase. There are two carnosinase homologues: serum secreted carnosinase and non-specific cytosolic dipeptidase, encoded by the genes CNDP1 and CNDP2 respectively and located on chromosome 18q22.3. Carnosine functions as a radical oxygen species scavenger and as a natural angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Carnosine inhibits advanced glycation end product formation and reduces the synthesis of matrix proteins such as fibronectin and collagen type VI of podocytes and mesangial cells. In experimental studies it was shown that carnosine reduces the level of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. It is suggested that carnosine is a naturally occurring anti-aging substance in human organisms with a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system.This paper reports the results of studies concerning carnosine’s role in kidney diseases, particularly in ischemia/reperfusion induced acute renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and also in blood pressure regulation. The correlations between serum carnosine and serum carnosinase activity and polymorphism in the CNDP1 gene are analyzed. The role of CNDP1 gene polymorphism in the development of diabetic nephropathy and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease is discussed. Carnosine is engaged in different metabolic pathways. It has nephroprotective features. Further studies of carnosine metabolism and its biological properties, particularly those concerning the human organism, are required.

  1. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  2. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  3. Rewritable Artificial Magnetic Charge Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-01-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge state...

  4. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  5. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  6. [Renal failure and cystic kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correas, J-M; Joly, D; Chauveau, D; Richard, S; Hélénon, O

    2011-04-01

    Cystic kidney diseases often are discovered at the time of initial work-up of renal failure through ultrasound or family history, or incidentally at the time of an imaging test. Hereditary diseases include autosomal dominant or recessive polycystic kidney disease (PKD), tuberous sclerosis (TS) and medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD). Autosomal dominant PKD is characterized by large renal cysts developing in young adults. Renal failure is progressive and becomes severe around 50-60 years of age. Atypical cysts (hemorrhagic or hyperdense) are frequent on CT and MRI examinations. Imaging plays a valuable role in the management of acute complications such as cyst hemorrhage or infection. Autosomal recessive PKD is often detected in neonates, infants or young adults. It is characterized by renal enlargement due to the presence of small cysts and liver disease (fibrosis and biliary ductal dilatation). Late manifestation or slow progression of autosomal recessive PKD may be more difficult to distinguish from autosomal dominant PKD. These cystic kidney diseases should not be confused with non-hereditary incidental multiple renal cysts. In tuberous sclerosis, renal cysts are associated with angiomyolipomas and sometimes pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Renal failure is inconstant. Other hereditary cystic kidney diseases, including MCKD and nephronophtisis, are usually associated with renal failure. Non-hereditary cystic kidney diseases include multicystic renal dysplasia (due to complete pelvi-ureteric atresia or hydronephrosis), acquired multicystic kidney disease (chronic renal failure, chronic hemodialysis) and varied cystic kidney diseases (multicystic renal disease, glomerulocystic kidney disease, microcystic kidney disease). PMID:21549887

  7. Gender Disparity in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghibi Orode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination in benefiting from medical treatment is a worldwide pro-blem. Kidney transplantation, as the ideal treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, is not an exception. Considering the unique kidney donation patterns and different family styles in the Middle East, studying this problem in Iran seemed justifiable and necessary. In addition to comparing the numbers of female and male recipients, which has been done in other similar studies, considering the critical effect of waiting time on the outcome, we assessed and compared the waiting times also. The data of age, gender, nationality, donor type and waiting time before transplantation of 1426 (61.85% male, 38.14% female recipients who underwent transplantation in Imam Reza Hospital in the northeast of Iran from 1990 to 2003, was analyzed. Recipients were categorised into three groups based on donation patterns: those receiving kidney from live unrelated, live related and cadaver donors. The number of patients in each group was 1057 (61.96% male, 38.03% female, 232 (67.24% male, 32.75% female and 137 (51.82% male, 48.17% female respectively. The mean overall waiting time was 708 days. Comparing waiting time of male and female recipients in each of these groups did not show significant difference. In all categories of donors, females were less likely than males to be recipients. Furthermore, waiting time for females was longer than males when receiving kidney from sisters and children. For spousal donations, males were recipients more frequently than females although female recipients in this group waited less than their male counterparts to receive the kidney. Generally, our results are in accordance with results of similar researches. In all three mentioned groups, males com-prised the majority while the waiting time does not show significant difference between genders. We suggest some reasons for this phenomenon, of which the two main ones are: fewer females

  8. Organ Protective Effect of Isoflurane Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgeries with Artificial Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldyrev А.Y.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to give full estimation of organ protective effect of isoflurane anesthesia in cardiac surgeries with artificial circulation. Materials and Methods. There were analyzed the results of clinical, functional, biochemical and morphological examinations of 424 patients operated under the conditions of artificial circulation using two variants of anesthesia: 203 patients were given isoflurane (experimental group; 221 patients — propofol (control group. There were studied clinical progression of rehabilitation period, the change of myocardial contractile function indices, myocardial ultrastructure, and biochemical blood values after the operation. Conclusion. Isoflurane anesthesia provides an additional protective effect in cardiac surgeries with artificial circulation. This effect is proved by complex clinical studies regarding the heart, liver, and kidneys. Myocardial effect of additional protection is supported by clinical, functional, morphological, and biochemical criteria.

  9. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys

  10. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Slee Adrian D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabol...

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progressi...

  12. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    OpenAIRE

    Stanišić Marijana; Hrvačević Rajko; Paunić Zoran; Petrović Stanko

    2005-01-01

    Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent...

  13. The cell cycle and acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Peter M.; Safirstein, Robert L.; Megyesi, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) activates pathways of cell death and cell proliferation. Although seemingly discrete and unrelated mechanisms, these pathways can now be shown to be connected and even to be controlled by similar pathways. The dependence of the severity of renal-cell injury on cell cycle pathways can be used to control and perhaps to prevent acute kidney injury. This review is written to address the correlation between cellular life and death in kidney tubules, especially in acute ki...

  14. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S; A K Dinda

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also...

  15. Epidermal nevus syndrome and dysplatic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal nevus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder, characterized by epidermal nevi and multiple organ involvement. Multicystic kidney disease has been very rarely reported in this syndrome. Here is the report of a boy presented with multiple epidermal nevi, cardiac anomaly, seizure attack, hemi hypertrophy, and multicystic dysplastic kidney complicated with Wilms' tumor. According to this association, it is suggested to search for dysplastic kidney disease in patients with neurocutaneous disorders.

  16. Kidney biomimicry--a rediscovered scientific field that could provide hope to patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Johnson, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Most studies on kidney disease have relied on classic experimental studies in mice and rats or clinical studies in humans. From such studies much understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of kidney disease has been obtained. However, breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases have been relatively few, and new approaches to fight kidney disease are needed. Here we discuss kidney biomimicry as a new approach to understand kidney disease. Examples are given of how various animals have developed ways to prevent or respond to kidney failure, how to protect themselves from hypoxia or oxidative stress and from the scourge of hyperglycemia. We suggest that investigation of evolutionary biology and comparative physiology might provide new insights for the prevention and treatment of kidney disease. PMID:24220764

  17. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors including 49 with a BMI of 30–35 and 32 with a BMI >35 that have completed a routine living donor evaluation with a measured GFR. All the estimating equations performed poorly in obese donors. While 24-hour urine collections performed better, only 15% had an adequate 24-hour urine collection. Since obese kidney donors may be at higher than average risk for kidney failure, accurate assessment of kidney function in these donors is crucial to ensure their long-term health postdonation.

  18. The metabolism of parathyroid hormone in kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the mechanism and localization of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the degradation and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation in kidney, bovine PTH (b-PTH 1 - 84) and its synthetic N-terminal peptide (b-PTH 1 - 34) labeled with 125I by Chloramine T methods (125I-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125I-b-PTH 1 - 34) or labeled with horse radish peroxidase (125I-POX-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125I-POX-bPTH 1-34) were used to study the disappearance from the blood stream and degradation and retention in the kidney after intravenous injections in male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 350 - 450 g. Degradation of PTH was studied in vitro, using isolated cells and homogenates of the kidney, and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation were furthermore studied, using our kidney perfusion system. PTH labeled with 125I and POX was less degraded by the kidney than PTH labeled with 125I alone. PTH 1 - 34 was more delayed in blood stream than PTH 1 - 84. Isolated intact kidney cells degrade PTH less efficiently than homogenates, indicating the prominance of microsomal degradative system in the kidney. The degradation of PTH in kidney was supposed to be controlled by calcium ion in our kidney perfusion system. (author)

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M.; Wierwille, Jeremiah; Chen, Yu

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with both high mortality rates and an enormous economic burden [1]. The preferred treatment option for ESRD that can extend patients' lives and improve their quality of life is kidney transplantation. However, organ shortages continue to pose a major problem in kidney transplantation. Most kidneys for transplantation come from heart-beating cadavers. Although non-heart-beating cadavers represent a potentially large pool of donor kidneys, these kidneys are not often used due to the unknown extent of damage to the renal tubules (i.e., acute tubular necrosis or "ATN") induced by ischemia (i.e., lack of blood flow). Also, ischemic insult suffered by kidneys awaiting transplantation frequently causes ATN that leads to varying degrees of delayed graft function (DGF) after transplantation. Finally, ATN represents a significant risk for eventual graft and patient survival [2, 3] and can be difficult to discern from rejection. In present clinical practice, there is no reliable real-time test to determine the viability of donor kidneys and whether or not donor kidneys might exhibit ATN. Therefore, there is a critical need for an objective and reliable real-time test to predict ATN to use these organs safely and utilize the donor pool optimally. In this review, we provided preliminary data indicating that OCT can be used to predict the post-transplant function of kidneys used in transplantation.

  20. Frontiers in Research: Chronic Kidney Diseases: The pivotal role of pericytes in kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Yujiro; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2011-01-01

    Kidney pericytes were recently identified as collagen-Iα1 producing cells in healthy kidney, but the developmental, physiological and pathological roles of kidney pericytes remain poorly understood. Pericytes are stromal-derived cells that envelop, and have intimate connections with adjacent capillary endothelial cells (ECs). Recent studies in eye and brain have revealed that pericytes are crucial for angiogenesis, vascular stability and vessel integrity.In response to kidney injury, pericyte...

  1. On the occasion of world kidney day 2016; work together to better protect the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Context: World kidney day is a yearly global alertness and education ceremony, held on the second Thursday in March. Evidence Acquisition: Directory of open access journals (DOAJ), EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science have been searched. Results: Once again we reached to March 14, the world kidney day of 2016. This is the 10th anniversary of world kidney day, a program of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations ...

  2. Antibody-Mediated Rejection of the Kidney after Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Julio; Samaniego, Milagros D.; Torrealba, José R.; Odorico, Jon S.; Djamali, Arjang; Becker, Yolanda T.; Voss, Barbara; Leverson, Glen E.; Knechtle, Stuart J.; Sollinger, Hans W.; Pirsch, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of the kidney after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation are unknown. In 136 simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients who were followed for an average of 3.1 yr, 21 episodes of AMR of the kidney allograft were identified. Eight episodes occurred early (≤90 d) after transplantation, and 13 occurred later. Histologic evidence of concomitant acute cellular rejection was noted in 12 cases; the other nine had evi...

  3. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Shuo-Chun Weng; Kuo-Hsiung Shu; Ming-Ju Wu; Mei-Chin Wen; Shie-Liang Hsieh; Nien-Jung Chen; Der-Cherng Tarng

    2015-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft...

  4. Acute kidney injury in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a clinical condition considered to be the consequence of a sudden decrease (>25% or discontinuation of renal function. The term AKI is used instead of the previous term acute renal failure, because it has been demonstrated that even minor renal lesions may cause far-reaching consequences on human health. Contemporary classifications of AKI (RIFLE and AKIN are based on the change of serum creatinine and urinary output. In the developed countries, AKI is most often caused by renal ischemia, nephrotoxins and sepsis, rather than a (primary diffuse renal disease, such as glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, renovascular disorder and thrombotic microangiopathy. The main risk factors for hospital AKI are mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, stem cell transplantation and diuretic-resistant hypervolemia. Prerenal and parenchymal AKI (previously known as acute tubular necrosis jointly account for 2/3 of all AKI causes. Diuresis and serum creatinine concentration are not early diagnostic markers of AKI. Potential early biomarkers of AKI are neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, interleukins 6, 8 and 18, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP. Early detection of kidney impairment, before the increase of serum creatinine, is important for timely initiated therapy and recovery. The goal of AKI treatment is to normalize the fluid and electrolyte status, as well as the correction of acidosis and blood pressure. Since a severe fluid overload resistant to diuretics and inotropic agents is associated with a poor outcome, the initiation of dialysis should not be delayed. The mortality rate of AKI is highest in critically ill children with multiple organ failure and hemodynamically unstable patients.

  5. [Acute kidney injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira-Peco-Antić; Paripović, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical condition considered to be the consequence of a sudden decrease (> 25%) or discontinuation of renal function. The term AKI is used instead of the previous term acute renal failure, because it has been demonstrated that even minor renal lesions may cause far-reaching consequences on human health. Contemporary classifications of AKI (RIFLE and AKIN) are based on the change of serum creatinine and urinary output. In the developed countries, AKI is most often caused by renal ischemia, nephrotoxins and sepsis, rather than a (primary) diffuse renal disease, such as glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, renovascular disorder and thrombotic microangiopathy. The main risk factors for hospital AKI are mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, stem cell transplantation and diuretic-resistant hypervolemia. Prerenal and parenchymal AKI (previously known as acute tubular necrosis) jointly account for 2/3 of all AKI causes. Diuresis and serum creatinine concentration are not early diagnostic markers of AKI. Potential early biomarkers of AKI are neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), interleukins 6, 8 and 18, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). Early detection of kidney impairment, before the increase of serum creatinine, is important for timely initiated therapy and recovery. The goal of AKI treatment is to normalize the fluid and electrolyte status, as well as the correction of acidosis and blood pressure. Since a severe fluid overload resistant to diuretics and inotropic agents is associated with a poor outcome, the initiation of dialysis should not be delayed. The mortality rate of AKI is highest in critically ill children with multiple organ failure and hemodynamically unstable patients. PMID:25033598

  6. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  7. Metformin in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James

    2014-01-01

    Metformin has traditionally been regarded as contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), though guidelines in recent years have been relaxed to permit therapy if the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is > 30 mL/min. The main problem is the perceived risk of lactic acidosis (LA). Epidemiological...... reduction, including weight loss, which are beneficial to patients. The risk of death and cardiovascular disease is reduced by about a third in non-CKD patients. Since metformin intoxication undoubtedly causes LA, and metformin is renally excreted, inappropriate dosage of metformin will increase the risk of...

  8. Restructuring the National Kidney Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J L

    2000-04-01

    The National Kidney Foundation reorganized its governance structure for the first time in its 50-year history. Following a 2-year review, which involved all constituents of the Foundation and took advantage of the advice of professional consultants, the NKF delegated governance responsibilities to the Board of Directors and created a General Assembly of affiliate leaders and professional staff. NKF national and affiliate leaders agreed on this course of action so that power would be more appropriately shared between the national organization and the affiliates and the overall organization would be better positioned to succeed in the NKF's first national fund raising campaign. PMID:10766005

  9. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for impair

  10. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives. PMID:25842566

  11. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  12. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  13. Sleep disorders in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, R M; Perna, A; Di Iorio, B R; Cirillo, M

    2010-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However also a well functioning renal graft does not cure the poor sleep pattern which now emerges as a problem even in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). When patients are made aware for the first time of a disease such as CKD, which may brink to dialysis or at the best to a renal transplant patients begin to experience a disordered sleep. Sleeping disorders include insomnia (I), sleep apnoea (SAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), excessive daily sleeping (EDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, and narcolepsy. Disordered sleep did not meet the clinical and scientific interest it deserves, in addition and we do not have a well defined solution for sleeping complaints. However, awareness that a poor sleep is associated with poor quality of life and carries an increase in mortality risk has recently stimulated interest in the field. There are many putative causes for a disordered sleep in chronic kidney disease and in end-stage renal disease. For a unifying hypothesis demographic factors, lifestyles, disease related factors, psychological factors, treatment related factors, and social factor must be taken into consideration. PMID:20424573

  14. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

  15. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tuazon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1–2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  16. Nephrology Update: Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabu, Nagaraju; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to any acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate, regardless of etiology. Staging of AKI has been recommended to stratify AKI patients according to severity of the condition, based on serum creatinine level and urine output. Classification of AKI into prerenal, intrinsic renal, and postrenal etiologies is helpful in differential diagnosis and management. AKI in hospitalized patients typically occurs due to decreased renal perfusion. Drug-induced, contrast-associated, postoperative, and sepsis-associated AKI also can occur. Clinical assessment of a patient with AKI involves a medical record review, thorough history and physical examination, urinary and blood tests, renal imaging, and, in some instances, renal biopsy. Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common iatrogenic etiology of AKI associated with administration of intravenous iodinated contrast media. Measures to prevent AKI should be taken before administration of intravenous iodinated contrast. AKI can result in many short- and long-term complications, including chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Appropriate treatment of AKI patients involves management of the underlying etiology, when possible, and use of nondialytic and dialytic therapies. PMID:27163760

  17. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  18. Principles of artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graupe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are most suitable for solving problems that are complex, ill-defined, highly nonlinear, of many and different variables, and/or stochastic. Such problems are abundant in medicine, in finance, in security and beyond. This volume covers the basic theory and architecture of the major artificial neural networks. Uniquely, it presents 18 complete case studies of applications of neural networks in various fields, ranging from cell-shape classification to micro-trading in finance and to constellation recognition - all with their respective source codes. These case studies

  19. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhili; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-20

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  20. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  1. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  2. Scintigraphic determination of kidney volume for assessment of individual kidney function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C.; Vogt, H.; Schmitt, E.; Pohle, W.; Gaede, J.

    1980-09-01

    The right to left ratio in kidney function was evaluated in 145 patients by means of the secretory phase of the renogram as well as by means of the scintigraphically determined kidney volume. A good and linear correlation was found between both parameters, as far as there was no considerable obstructive uropathy. In this cases the right to left ratio in kidney volume can be directly used for judging the individual function of each kidney. The method seems to be most suitable for determining the functional portion of dystopic kidneys.

  3. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  4. [Causes of removal of kidney allotransplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental', R L; Il'inskiĭ, I M; Tikhomirova, T E; Bitsans, Ia B; Luse, L Ia

    1983-07-01

    The most frequent causes of cessation of the functioning of 60 kidney transplants was an acute rejection reaction and thrombosis of main vessels of the transplanted kidney. The authors believe the attraction of the cytological analysis of the urine, instrumental and roentgen-radiological examinations as well as biochemical data to improve the diagnosis of pathological changes in the transplant. PMID:6353738

  5. A Review of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, C D W; Bholah, R; Bunchman, T E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is complex in both adults and children, but the disease is far from the same between these populations. Here we review the marked differences in etiology, comorbidities, impact of disease on growth and quality of life, issues unique to adolescents and transitions to adult care, and special considerations of congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies for transplantation. PMID:26766175

  6. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  7. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new...

  8. The innate immune response in ischemic acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Rabb, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Kidney ischemia reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity in both allograft and native kidneys. Ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury is characterized by early, allo-antigen independent inflammation. Major components of the innate immune system are activated and participate in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury, plus prime the allograft kidney for rejection. Soluble members of innate immunity implicated in acute kidney injury include the complement system, cytokines, an...

  9. Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Linagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandikanti, Deepak K; Gosmanova, Elvira O; Gosmanov, Aidar R

    2016-01-01

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. About 5% of linagliptin is eliminated by the kidneys and no dose adjustment is recommended in kidney impairment. We report a first case of linagliptin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in a patient with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that AKI was due to renal hypoperfusion from linagliptin-induced natriuresis and intravascular volume contraction in the setting of concomitant lisinopril use, which is known to impair autoregulation and potentiate hypotension-induced AKI. It may be prudent to exert caution and closely monitor kidney function when initiating linagliptin in combination with ACE-inhibitors in CKD patients. PMID:26981294

  10. Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Linagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K. Nandikanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. About 5% of linagliptin is eliminated by the kidneys and no dose adjustment is recommended in kidney impairment. We report a first case of linagliptin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI in a patient with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD. We hypothesize that AKI was due to renal hypoperfusion from linagliptin-induced natriuresis and intravascular volume contraction in the setting of concomitant lisinopril use, which is known to impair autoregulation and potentiate hypotension-induced AKI. It may be prudent to exert caution and closely monitor kidney function when initiating linagliptin in combination with ACE-inhibitors in CKD patients.

  11. The multicystic dysplastic kidney in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W T; Chen, H C; Peng, H C

    1993-05-01

    Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is the most common renal cystic disease in infancy and the second most common neonatal abdominal mass. It represents an extreme form of renal dysplasia. The key features in MCDK include variability in size, loss of kidney shape, absence of function and obstruction of ureter. Current management is still controversial. The prognosis is largely depended upon the problems of associated anomalies and the condition of the contralateral kidney. From September '82 to September '91, twelve patients with multicystic kidney have been treated at Taichung Veterans General Hospital. Ten of them received elective nephrectomy. The postoperative condition was uneventful. However, there was a high frequency of associated anomalies (41.6%) and pathologic contralateral kidney (50%). Two patients who refused operation were put on close observation and follow-up with ultrasound. During the surgical patients' follow-up period, one suffered from repeated urinary tract infection and the other died of multiple congenital anomalies. PMID:8334562

  12. De Novo Kidney Regeneration with Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yokote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported on techniques to mobilize and activate endogenous stem-cells in injured kidneys or to introduce exogenous stem cells for tissue repair. Despite many recent advantages in renal regenerative therapy, chronic kidney disease (CKD remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the number of CKD patients has been increasing. When the sophisticated structure of the kidneys is totally disrupted by end stage renal disease (ESRD, traditional stem cell-based therapy is unable to completely regenerate the damaged tissue. This suggests that whole organ regeneration may be a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate patients with uncured CKD. We summarize here the potential of stem-cell-based therapy for injured tissue repair and de novo whole kidney regeneration. In addition, we describe the hurdles that must be overcome and possible applications of this approach in kidney regeneration.

  13. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  14. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an...

  15. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  16. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  17. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  18. Making Artificial Seawater More Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Marine fish will die if placed in fresh water and they cannot live in simple salt water. Instead, they need water that contains a mixture of different ingredients, as found in natural seawater. Conventional methods of making artificial seawater have shortcomings, because the water so achieved is only composed of mineral elements and lacks organic components similar to those in natural seawater.

  19. Artificial Video for Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  20. Relative length of human kidney as more precise measuring of normal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malformations in kidney development and kidney diseases are accompanied with changes in their size. For kidney evaluation in clinical practice, the kidney length is the most widely used measurement, since it provides the most precise results and it is easy to perform. Recently, the measurement of relative renal length has become more preferable as it takes into account the body height. The aim of this study was to measure both the absolute and relative length of normal cadaveric kidneys according to the body height, sex and age. Material and methods. In this study, we examined 95 adult cadaveric kidneys, without renal and vascular impairment, their age ranging from 23-87 years. To determine the period of the most abundant changes in kidney length, we separated them into a 10-year range. The relative renal length was calculated using the kidney length anybody height ratio (kidney/body ratio. Results. The absolute and relative length of left kidney in males was longer than the right one, with a statistically significant correlation. In females, the left kidney length was also longer than the right one, however, without a statistical significance. In contrast to the absolute length, the relative length of both kidneys did not show a significant difference between sexes, and did not manifest a significant decrease with age. There was a significant correlation between the kidney length and the subject’s height. Conclusion. The relative renal length represents kidney size better than the absolute renal length because it eliminates sex and height differences until the age of 59 year. From the seventh decade of life, there is a significant decrease in both the absolute and relative renal length.

  1. Exenatide induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M; Zuberi, Beyla J; Elhassan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Exenatide is an incretin mimetic. It was approved by the federal drug authority in 2005 for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Since it is a relatively new medicine clinicians have limited experience with regards to its side effects and safety profile. We report a 47 year old lady who presented with exenatide associated acute kidney injury. She had type-2 diabetes for 10 years with mild micro albuminuria and normal renal functions. She was also taking a stable dose of metformin, gliclazide, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and diuretic for over a year and there was no history of any recent use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory medications. One week after starting exenatide, she developed severe vomiting, followed by hypotension. She presented with acute renal insufficiency and severe lactic acidosis and had to be dialyzed on emergency basis. To our knowledge this is probably the first case reported in the local United Arab Emirate (U.A.E) population. PMID:25672206

  2. Chronic kidney disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Francesca; Roperto, Rosa Maria; Materassi, Marco; Romagnani, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Although relatively uncommon in children, it can be a devastating illness with many long-term consequences. CKD presents unique features in childhood and may be considered, at least in part, as a stand-alone nosologic entity. Moreover, some typical features of paediatric CKD, such as the disease aetiology or cardiovascular complications, will not only influence the child's health, but also have long-term impact on the life of the adult that they will become. In this review we will focus on the unique issues of paediatric CKD, in terms of aetiology, clinical features and treatment. In addition, we will discuss factors related to CKD that start during childhood and require appropriate treatments in order to optimize health outcomes and transition to nephrologist management in adult life. PMID:27478602

  3. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  4. Artificial Intelligence Databases: A Survey and Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and describes online databases containing references to materials on artificial intelligence, robotics, and expert systems, and compares them in terms of scope and usage. Recommendations for conducting online searches on artificial intelligence and related fields are offered. (CLB)

  5. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility February 18, 2009 From PinnacleHealth, Harrisburg, PA Welcome to this “OR ... this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has some significant benefits over the previous ...

  6. Imaging in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and staging are based on estimated or calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinalysis and kidney structure at renal imaging techniques. Ultrasound (US) has a key role in evaluating both morphological changes (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US), thus contributing to CKD diagnosis and to the follow-up of its progression. In CKD, conventional US allows measuring longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness and evaluating renal echogenicity and urinary tract status. Maximum renal length is usually considered a morphological marker of CKD, as it decreases contemporarily to GFR, and should be systematically recorded in US reports. More recently, it has been found to be a significant correlation of both renal longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness with renal function. Conventional US should be integrated by color Doppler, which shows parenchymal perfusion and patency of veins and arteries, and by spectral Doppler, which is crucial for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis and provides important information about intrarenal microcirculation. Different values of renal resistive indexes (RIs) have been associated with different primary diseases, as they reflect vascular compliance. Since RIs significantly correlate with renal function, they have been proposed to be independent risk factors for CKD progression, besides proteinuria, low GFR and arterial hypertension. Despite several new applications, US and color Doppler contribute to a definite diagnosis in <50% of cases of CKD, because of the lack of specific US patterns, especially in cases of advanced CKD. However, US is useful to evaluate CKD progression and to screen patients at risk for CKD. The indications and the recommended frequency of color Doppler US could differ in each case and the follow-up should be tailored. PMID:27170301

  7. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  8. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  10. Artificial Ant Species on Solving Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Pintea, Camelia-M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years several ant-based techniques were involved to solve hard and complex optimization problems. The current paper is a short study about the influence of artificial ant species in solving optimization problems. There are studied the artificial Pharaoh Ants, Lasius Niger and also artificial ants with no special specificity used commonly in Ant Colony Optimization.

  11. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Precautions During Loading and Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  12. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  13. Optimising the management of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Declan; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most common inherited renal disorder that results in chronic kidney disease. PKD has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The prevalence is between 1:500 and 1:1,000. Up to 10% of adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a genetic disorder such as PKD. A family history of PKD may be absent in up to 25% of affected individuals. The most common clinical features are visible haematuria, loin pain, UTI and hypertension. The typical clinical course is a progressive increase in the number and size of renal cysts associated with gradual loss of kidney function (falling eGFR). Risk factors for progression include: younger age at diagnosis; large kidney volume; rapid cyst growth; hypertension; male gender; and visible haematuria. Approximately 50% of individuals with PKD will require renal replacement therapy by the sixth decade of life. PKD is a multisystem disorder associated with multiple bilateral renal cysts, slowly increasing kidney size and progressive chronic kidney disease. Diagnosis of PKD is confirmed by ultrasound showing the presence of multiple kidney cysts. More than 80% will also have multiple liver cysts, which can lead to local pressure effects. Cerebral haemorrhage, secondary to rupture of a berry aneurysm, occurs in up to 8% of individuals. Mitral valve prolapse occurs in up to 25% of patients. PMID:27032221

  14. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Marijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent, and terminal renal failure appears later in life. These two forms have similar clinical and morphological findings but extrarenal manifestations, the median ages of occurrence of terminal renal failure, and siblings presence help us distinguish these diseases. Case report. In this article we illustrated the case of a 20- years old patient with the suspicion of having complex nephornophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease based upon mild renal failure, seen in routinely taken laboratory findings and bilateral cysts in corticomedullary region of the kidneys verified on abdominal ultrasound examination. Conclusion. This disease should rise suspicion in children or adolescents with progressive renal failure, a typical clinical manifestation, blood and urine samples results, bilateral cysts in the corticomedullary region of the kidneys seen during ultrasound examination of the kidneys and family inheritance.

  15. Heat shock proteins in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Rajasree; Van Why, Scott K

    2016-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are essential to cell survival through their function as protein chaperones. The role they play in kidney health and disease is varied. Hsp induction may be either beneficial or detrimental to the kidney, depending on the specific Hsp, type of cell, and context. This review addresses the role of Hsps in the kidney, including during development, as osmoprotectants, and in various kidney disease models. Heat shock transcription factor, activated by a stress on renal cells, induces Hsp elaboration and separately regulates immune responses that can contribute to renal injury. Induced Hsps in the intracellular compartment are mostly beneficial in the kidney by stabilizing and restoring cell architecture and function through acting as protein chaperones. Intracellular Hsps also inhibit apoptosis and facilitate cell proliferation, preserving renal tubule viability after acute injury, but enhancing progression of cystic kidney disease and malignancy. Induced Hsps in the extracellular compartment, either circulating or located on outer cell membranes, are mainly detrimental through enhancing inflammation pathways to injury. Correctly harnessing these stress proteins promises the opportunity to alter the course of acute and chronic kidney disease. PMID:26913726

  16. Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: Four-Year Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna AYTAÇ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a relatively common developmental abnormality in infants and children. Additional abnormalities like vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, and ureterovesical junction obstruction may accompany multicystic dysplastic kidney. In this article, we reviewed the pathogenesis, diagnosis, associated urinary tract anomalies and results of management of multicystic dysplastic kidney in the light of the literature.Material and Method: We retrospectively assessed 20 children with unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney between January 2005 and December 2009. Mean duration of follow-up was 35 ± 8.7 months. All children with multicystic dysplastic kidney underwent nephrectomy. Patient characteristics, the pathology findings, associated urinary tract anomalies and results of management were reviewed.Results: Abdominal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography and renal scintigraphy revealed vesicoureteral reflux in 3 (15% children, ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 3 (15% children, and a duplex system in the contralateral kidney in 1 (5% child. Blood pressure values, serum urea, creatinine and urinalysis were within normal range in all children during follow-up.Conclusion: A conservative approach to children with multicystic dysplastic kidney has been advocated, but surgical removal is also another management modality on the basis of risk of hypertension, mass effect, potential for malignant change, and cost of repeated ultrasound examination.

  17. The physiognomist's kidney in the fifteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Physiognomy, the art of deciphering a person's character and potential behavior by his or her external appearance, is an ancient body of knowledge which was gradually revived in the Latin West in the twelfth and particularly in the thirteenth century. This is a philological study of the scientific discourse about the physiognomy of the kidney in physiognomic sources from Pseudo-Aristotle's Physiognomonics (third century B.C.) through Pietro d'Abano's Liber compilationis phisonomie (ca 1295) to Rolandus Scriptoris's Reductorium phisonomie (ca 1430). Fifteenth-century learned physiognomists devoted specific chapters to the kidney. The physiognomists analyzed the fleshiness of the body-surface outside the kidneys (i.e. the loins and their vicinity). Firm loins denoted boldness, agility, and good fighting capacity and vice versa. The pre-modern kidney was of interest not only to physicians and surgeons wishing to treat kidney conditions and other pathologies arising from the urinary system. There were learned physicians who examined the body not to diagnose diseases, but to decipher their patient's personality. When engaged in this activity the kidneys, that is, the loins or the external area of the kidneys, were one of the body parts that could provide vital physiognomic information. PMID:15372426

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive means for evaluating pathological changes of kidney transplants. Thirty kidney transplants were examined by MRI study, comparing with 12 donor kidneys as control. Imaging of well functioning grafts using inversion recovery (IR) method displayed a clear figure of corticomedullary differentiation (CMD). Kidneys under acute rejection, chronic rejection, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity displayed poor CMD. CMD of Kidneys under ATN was poor on IR imaging, but clear on T1 weightened imaging. T1 values of kidney grafts were obtained as the mean value of T1 relaxation time of three areas including upper pole, lower pole, and the middle of the cortex. T1 value of the grafts under chronic rejection was similar to that of well functioning grafts. The value increased in case of acute rejection, ATN, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity and decreased as the graft function was getting better. Imaging and the estimation of T1 value of kidney transplants of MRI were effective for evaluating graft function but of no use for differentiation of causes of graft deterioration. (author)

  19. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Erum A

    2016-03-01

    Kidney disease and its related comorbidities impose a large public health burden. Despite this, the number of clinical trials in nephrology lags behind many other fields. An important factor contributing to the relatively slow pace of nephrology trials is that existing clinical endpoints have significant limitations. "Hard" endpoints for chronic kidney disease, such as progression to end-stage renal disease, may not be reached for decades. Traditional biomarkers, such as serum creatinine in acute kidney injury, may lack sensitivity and predictive value. Finding new biomarkers to serve as surrogate endpoints is therefore an important priority in kidney disease research and may help to accelerate nephrology clinical trials. In this paper, I first review key concepts related to the selection of clinical trial endpoints and discuss statistical and regulatory considerations related to the evaluation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in developing novel biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in three major areas of nephrology research: acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25980469

  20. Mechanisms of Chemical Carcinogenesis in the Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara McMorrow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical carcinogens are substances which induce malignant tumours, increase their incidence or decrease the time taken for tumour formation. Often, exposure to chemical carcinogens results in tissue specific patterns of tumorigenicity. The very same anatomical, biochemical and physiological specialisations which permit the kidney to perform its vital roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis may in fact increase the risk of carcinogen exposure and contribute to the organ specific carcinogenicity observed with numerous kidney carcinogens. This review will address the numerous mechanisms which play a role in the concentration, bioactivation, and uptake of substances from both the urine and blood which significantly increase the risk of cancer in the kidney.

  1. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...

  2. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progression. This review focuses on new findings that enhance understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the characteristics of myofibroblasts, their progenitors, and molecular pathways regulating both fibrogenesis and its resolution. PMID:24892703

  3. Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Kidney Involvement: New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez-Flores

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thromboses and pregnancy morbidity associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: lupus anticoagulant, IgG or IgM anticardiolipin or anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I. The kidney is one of the major target organs in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. However, beyond the known involvement of the kidney in primary and associated APS, we may be observing a new form of APS within the context of renal failure. This review describes the classical kidney manifestations of APS and provides new considerations to be taken into account.

  4. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  5. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. PMID:26185245

  6. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  7. Psychological Studies and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Ringle, Martin

    1983-01-01

    This paper argues for the position that experimental human studies are relevant to most facets of AI research and that closer ties between AI and experimental psychology will enhance the development of booth the principles of artificial intelligence and their implementation in computers. Raising psychological assumptions from the level of ad hoc intuitions to the level of systematic empirical observation, in the long run, will improve the quality of AI research and help to integrate it with r...

  8. Formation of artificial ionospheric ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shroff, H; Chang, C. L.; Wallace, T; E. V. Mishin; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    International audience It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents the first experimental evidence of plasma modifications associated with ion outflows due to HF heating. The experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater during t...

  9. Worldwide variations in artificial skyglow

    OpenAIRE

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Kai Pong Tong; Jonathan Bennie; Ignacio Birriel; Jennifer J. Birriel; Andrew Cool; Arne Danielsen; Davies, Thomas W; den Outer, Peter N.; William Edwards; Rainer Ehlert; Fabio Falchi; Jürgen Fischer; Andrea Giacomelli; Francesco Giubbilini

    2015-01-01

    Despite constituting a widespread and significant environmental change, understanding of artificial nighttime skyglow is extremely limited. Until now, published monitoring studies have been local or regional in scope, and typically of short duration. In this first major international compilation of monitoring data we answer several key questions about skyglow properties. Skyglow is observed to vary over four orders of magnitude, a range hundreds of times larger than was the case before artifi...

  10. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  11. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  12. Artificial Sweeteners versus Natural Sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Neacsu, N.A.; Madar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important dietary nutrient which is mostly used to supply energy to the body, as well as a carbon source for synthesis of other needed chemicals. In addition, mono- and disaccharides are craved because of their sweetness. We present different types of sweeteners, which are the basic contents of foods which we consume every day and are demonstrated the positive and negative effects of natural and artificial sweeteners.

  13. Artificial knowledge an evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Finbar Vincent

    1992-01-01

    I present a new analysis of the problem, situation in Artificial Intelligence (AI), grounded in a Popperian epistemology. I first review arguments purporting to establish that no purely “computational” system can realise genuine mentality. I conclude that the question is still open; but that the more pressing question is whether such a system can even exhibit intelligent behaviour. Attention is thus directed at the computational embodiment of knowledge, and its growth. I suggest that much...

  14. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Debesh; Caulfield, H. John

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving...

  15. Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Laura E.; Michigan Technological University; Kauchak, David; University of California, San Diego

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of massive open online courses has initiated a broad national-wide discussion on higher education practices, models, and pedagogy.  Artificial intelligence and machine learning courses were at the forefront of this trend and are also being used to serve personalized, managed content in the back-end systems. Massive open online courses are just one example of the sorts of pedagogical innovations being developed to better teach AI. This column will discuss and share innovative ed...

  16. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  17. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d' A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Comparison of Minimal Skin Incision Technique in Living Kidney Transplantation and Conventional Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Dong Kim; Ji-Il Kim; In-Sung Moon; Sun-Cheol Park

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, the most common incision for kidney transplantation (KT) is an inverted J-shaped incision known as the “hockey-stick.” However, demands for minimally invasive surgery in KT are increasing as in other various fields of surgery. Hence, we evaluated whether there is difference between minimal skin incision technique in kidney transplantation (MIKT) and conventional KT (CKT) . Methods: Between June 2006 and March 2013, a total of 452 living kidney transplant patients were...

  19. Targeted Screening and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease: Lessons Learned from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Vassalotti, Joseph A.; Leslie Gracz-Weinstein; Monica R. Gannon; Wendy Weinstock Brown

    2006-01-01

    The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is a public service program that addresses the gaps in chronic kidney disease (CKD) awareness and care. This free, voluntary, community-based program is designed to screen people at risk of CKD and promote CKD awareness among primary healthcare providers and the public. The primary objective of KEEP is to identify individuals at risk of CKD at a time when appropriate intervention has the potential to markedly slow a...

  20. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 μg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 μg/g for mercury, and 0.08 μg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 μg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 μg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 μg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  1. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  2. Role of Carbon Monoxide in Kidney Function: Is a little Carbon Monoxide Good for the Kidney?

    OpenAIRE

    Csongrádi Éva (1969-) (szakorvos); Juncos, Luis A.; Drummond, Heather A.; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies us...

  3. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  4. Lupus and Kidney Disease (Lupus Nephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Lupus and Kidney Disease (Lupus Nephritis) Lupus is a short name for a ... affects only your skin. A Personal Look at Lupus Nephritis What causes lupus? No one knows what ...

  5. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  6. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back on protein, especially animal products such as meat. Damaged kidneys may fail to remove protein waste ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  7. Overview of Kidney Diseases in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  8. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  9. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  10. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  11. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  12. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back on the waiting list for another kidney. Side Effects of Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants can weaken your immune system, ... patients, over long periods of time, this diminished immunity can increase the risk of developing cancer. Some ...

  13. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairam, Krish; Scoffone, Cesare M; Alken, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    glomerular filtration rate, including chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II-greater than 60, stage III-30 to 59 and stages IV/V-less than 30 ml/minute/1.73 m(2). Patient characteristics, operative characteristics, outcomes and morbidity were assessed. RESULTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate data were...... available on 5,644 patients, including 4,436 with chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II, 994 with stage III and 214 with stages IV/V. A clinically significant minority of patients with nephrolithiasis presented with severe chronic kidney disease. A greater number of patients with stages IV/V previously...... underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy or nephrostomy and had positive urine cultures than less severely affected patients, consistent with the higher incidence of staghorn stones in these patients. Patients with chronic kidney disease stages IV/V had statistically significantly worse...

  14. Travel Tips: A Guide for Kidney Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities without becoming overtired. Also, be sure to watch your diet and fluid intake. Before you begin ... 05/2016 - 10:00am Philadelphia, PA Kidney Camp Sun, 07/17/2016 - 6:00pm Ingleside, IL Register ...

  15. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm ) in a large blood vessel called the aorta or in blood vessels at the base of ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Educational Resources (8 ...

  17. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  18. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  19. Nutrition in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cereals Bran cereals Egg whites Egg yolks Sorbet Ice cream Source: Phosphorous: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  20. Acute kidney injury secondary to lymphomatous infiltration and the roleof kidney biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 47-year-old male patient who developed acute kidney injuryrequiring hemodialysis, associated with massive enlargement of both kidneys.A part from intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy, there was no other organ orlymph node involvement. A kidney biopsy established the diagnosis ofnon-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient received chemotherapy with good response.This case demonstrates that the kidney could be the primary organ involved inthe non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In addition, we have shown that renal biopsy isadequate to make a diagnosis of lymphoma without the need to do more invasivetesting. (author)

  1. The kidneys in the Bible: what happened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The kidneys, always used in the plural (kelayot), are mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible. In the Pentateuch, the kidneys are cited 11 times in the detailed instructions given for the sacrificial offering of animals at the altar. Whereas those instructions were for purification ceremonies at the Temple, sacrificial offerings were made subsequently in seeking divine intervention for the relief of medical problems. In the books of the Bible that follow the Pentateuch, mostly in Jeremiah and Psalms, the human kidneys are cited figuratively as the site of temperament, emotions, prudence, vigor, and wisdom. In five instances, they are mentioned as the organs examined by God to judge an individual. They are cited either before or after but always in conjunction with the heart as mirrors of the psyche of the person examined. There is also reference to the kidneys as the site of divine punishment for misdemeanors, committed or perceived, particularly in the book of Job, whose suffering and ailments are legendary. In the first vernacular versions of the Bible in English, the translators elected to use the term "reins" instead of kidneys in differentiating the metaphoric uses of human kidneys from that of their mention as anatomic organs of sacrificial animals burned at the altar. This initial effort at linguistic purity or gentility has progressed further in recent versions of the Bible, in which the reins are now replaced by the soul or the mind. The erosion may have begun in the centuries that followed the writing of the Bible, when recognition of the kidneys as excretory organs deprived them of the ancient aura of mysterious organs hidden deep in the body but accessible to the look of God. At approximately the same time, Greek analytical philosophy argued that the brain, which is never mentioned in the Bible, was the most divine and sacred part of the body. This argument gained ground in the past century, when the functions of the brain were elucidated, and

  2. Fecundación Artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa. Fidel

    1939-10-01

    Full Text Available Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculos alegres, que un servicio de un caballo puede servir, diluido, por lo menos para cuatro yeguas, según los autores americanos, y para 10 a 15, según otros autores. El toro y el carnero pueden dar esperma suficiente en un servicio para fecundar de 10 a 12 hembras, según,los americanos, y según otros autores, hasta para 40. Los investigadores rusos han podido fecundar hasta 60 vacas con un solo servicio y han logrado con reproductores valiosos, fecundar 10.263 vacas por toro, a pesar de que éstos sólo han servido, durante un periodo de monta de sólo dos meses. Estos mismos han logrado fecundar artificialmente 2.733 ovejas con un solo carnero, y 1.403 con otro Los investigadores americanos han contado 22 servicios a un carnero vigoroso en un periodo de ocho horas, y durante este tiempo produjo esperma suficiente para haber fecundado 200 ovejas artificialmente. La fecundación artificial sirve para evitar la trasmisión de enfermedades que se contagian por el coito, tales como la durina, enfermedad ésta producida por un tripanosoma que por fortuna no existe entre nosotros. A las estaciones de monta llevan con frecuencia hembras afectadas de enfermedades como la vaginitis granulosa de la vaca, que se contagia al toro y de éste a otras hembras. Como el control sanitario de toda hembra llevada al servicio de un reproductor de estas estaciones de monta no siempre puede efectuarse por dificultades de distinta índole, mediante la fecundación artificial

  3. Development of artificial articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M; Ushio, K; Kumar, P; Ikeuchi, K; Hyon, S H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, H

    2000-01-01

    Attempts have been made to develop an artificial articular cartilage on the basis of a new viewpoint of joint biomechanics in which the lubrication and load-bearing mechanisms of natural and artificial joints are compared. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H), 'a rubber-like gel', was investigated as an artificial articular cartilage and the mechanical properties of this gel were improved through a new synthetic process. In this article the biocompatibility and various mechanical properties of the new improved PVA-H is reported from the perspective of its usefulness as an artificial articular cartilage. As regards lubrication, the changes in thickness and fluid pressure of the gap formed between a glass plate and the specimen under loading were measured and it was found that PVA-H had a thicker fluid film under higher pressures than polyethylene (PE) did. The momentary stress transmitted through the specimen revealed that PVA-H had a lower peak stress and a longer duration of sustained stress than PE, suggesting a better damping effect. The wear factor of PVA-H was approximately five times that of PE. Histological studies of the articular cartilage and synovial membranes around PVA-H implanted for 8-52 weeks showed neither inflammation nor degenerative changes. The artificial articular cartilage made from PVA-H could be attached to the underlying bone using a composite osteochondral device made from titanium fibre mesh. In the second phase of this work, the damage to the tibial articular surface after replacement of the femoral surface in dogs was studied. Pairs of implants made of alumina, titanium or PVA-H on titanium fibre mesh were inserted into the femoral condyles. The two hard materials caused marked pathological changes in the articular cartilage and menisci, but the hydrogel composite replacement caused minimal damage. The composite osteochondral device became rapidly attached to host bone by ingrowth into the supporting mesh. The clinical implications of

  4. Soft tissue sarcomas of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Köhle; Dominik Abt; Christian Rothermundt; Christian Öhlschlegel; Christiane Brugnolaro; Hans-Peter Schmid

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors. Amongst others, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the kidney and synovial sarcoma of the kidney belong to the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Synovial sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body, most frequently, however, in the lower (62%) or upper extremities (21%). Metastases occur in 50-70% of cases, and thus the prognosis is poor. PNETs are rare, highly aggressive neoplastic lesions which mainly occur in the torso or axial skel...

  5. Improvements to the kidney dialysis machine

    OpenAIRE

    Hundley, Robert Wynne

    1992-01-01

    Five changes were suggested to improve the kidney dialysis machine, including a conductivity control feedback system, a positive pressure deaeration system, a balancing system for dialysate flow control, a diaphragm-type blood pump, and an ultrafiltration control system using blood pressure measurement. A kidney dialysis machine was constructed to test the changes for possible use in future dialysis machine designs. Tests were made on each of the five system improvements....

  6. A case of schwannoma in kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Zhu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor derived from the Schwann cell of the peripheral nerve sheath and frequently occurs in the head, neck, or extremities. Schwannoma is extremely rare in the kidney, which has nonspecific symptoms and limited radiologic features, and is often diagnosed histologically after surgery. In this study, we report a case of a left renal schwannoma which was misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma and confirmed after the surgical removal of the affected kidney.

  7. Dermatoglyphics in kidney diseases: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Wijerathne, Buddhika T. B.; Meier, Robert J.; Salgado, Sujatha S.; Agampodi, Suneth B.

    2016-01-01

    Kidney diseases are becoming a major cause of global burden with high mortality and morbidity. The origins of most kidney diseases are known, but for some the exact aetiology is not yet understood. Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridge patterns and it has been used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to detect or predict different medical conditions that have foetal origin. However, there have been a limited number of studies that have evaluated a dermatoglyphic relationshi...

  8. Obesity in kidney disease: A heavyweight opponent

    OpenAIRE

    Felizardo, Raphael Jose Ferreira; da Silva, Marina Burgos; Aguiar, Cristhiane Favero; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide challenge that must be faced in most developed and developing countries because of unhealthy nutritional habits. The consequences of obesity and being overweight are observed in different organs, but the kidney is one of the most affected. Excess adipose tissue causes hemodynamic alterations in the kidney that can result in renal disease. However, obesity is also commonly associated with other comorbidities such as chronic inflammation, hypertension and diabe...

  9. Application of Regenerative Medicine for Kidney Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoo, Takashi; Fukui, Akira; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    Following recent advancements of stem cell research, the potential for organ regeneration using somatic stem cells as an ultimate therapy for organ failure has increased. However, anatomically complicated organs such as the kidney and liver have proven more refractory to stem cell-based regenerative techniques. At present, kidney regeneration is considered to require one of two approaches depending on the type of renal failure, namely acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF).

  10. Cake kidney drained by single ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. Calado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, with a few more than 20 cases described in the literature. It can be diagnosed at any age range. Normally, drainage is achieved by 2 ureters, and there are only 5 reports in the literature of cake kidney drained by a single ureter. The authors describe one more case of this rare malformation of the urinary tract.

  11. Liver and Kidney Disease in Ciliopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Gunay-Aygun, Meral

    2009-01-01

    Hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases (HRFCDs) are among the most common inherited human disorders. The discovery that proteins defective in the autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD and ARPKD) localize to the primary cilia and the recognition of the role these organelles play in the pathogenesis of HRFCDs led to the term “ciliopathies.” While ADPKD and ARPKD are the most common ciliopathies associated with both liver and kidney disease, variable degrees of renal and/o...

  12. Kidney metastases of the lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal metastases of the lung tumours are most frequently clinically silent, and their diagnosis is confirmed by postmortem examination. This study presents a patient with diagnosed metastasis of squamous cell lung carcinoma to the kidney. Fifteen months after a tumour of the left lung was removed, ultrasonography and computer tomography revealed the presence of a tumour of the left kidney. Left-sided nephrectomy was performed and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. (authors)

  13. Recurrence of Lupus Nephritis after Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Gabriel; Mattiazzi, Adela; Guerra, Giselle; Ortega, Luis M.; Tozman, Elaine C.; Li, Hua; Tamariz, Leonardo; Carvalho, Cristiane; Kupin, Warren; Ladino, Marco; Leclercq, Baudouin; Jaraba, Isabel; Carvalho, Decio; Carles, Efrain; Roth, David

    2010-01-01

    The frequency and outcome of recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN) among recipients of a kidney allograft vary among single-center reports. From the United Network for Organ Sharing files, we estimated the period prevalence and predictors of RLN in recipients who received a transplant between 1987 and 2006 and assessed the effects of RLN on allograft failure and recipients' survival. Among 6850 recipients of a kidney allograft with systemic lupus erythematosus, 167 recipients had RLN, 1770 experien...

  14. Intrinsic carnosine metabolism in the human kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Verena; Klessens, Celine Q. F.; Baelde, Hans J.; Singler, Benjamin; Veraar, Kimberley A. M.; Zutinic, Ana; Drozak, Jakub; Zschocke, Johannes; Schmitt, Claus P.; Heer, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Histidine-containing dipeptides like carnosine and anserine have protective functions in both health and disease. Animal studies suggest that carnosine can be metabolized within the kidney. The goal of this study was to obtain evidence of carnosine metabolism in the human kidney and to provide insight with regards to diabetic nephropathy. Expression, distribution, and localization of carnosinase-1 (CNDP1), carnosine synthase (CARNS), and taurine transporters (TauT) were measured in human kidn...

  15. [Nitric oxide and the kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzúrik, R; Spustová, V

    2001-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NO) is one of the crucial modulators of the vascular tonus. Apart from its effect on the cardiovascular system it exerts an effect also on other types of cells and ensures their functions.Specially comprehensive is its synthesis and action in the kidneys: NO is formed in the endothelial cells due to the activity of constitutional endothelial synthase (eNOS), in mesangial cells of inductive synthase (iNOS), in smooth muscle cells (vsmNOS), in tubular cells neuronal NOS (nNOS) and iNOS and in the macula densa nNOS. By modulation of the v.afferens it influences the blood flow through the glomeruli and filtration pressure in the glomeruli. It participates in the tubuloglomerular feedback: the cells of the macula densa produce NO via nNOS, the genetic transcription and translation of which as well as the kationic translation system ensure the transport of the L-arginine precursor and regulate very sensitively NO formation. The latter diffuses via the extraglomerular mesangium into the iuxtaglomerular apparatus where renin is forned.NO reduces proteinuria and renal proliferation. During renal insufficiency NO production is inhibited and in diabetes NO production is increased. Diabetic hyperfiltration and hypertrophy are ascribed to produced NO. Experimental studies contributed substantially to the knowledge of renal effects of NO. At present intensive clinical research has been started which, no doubt, will influence medical practice. PMID:15635855

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals in evaluation of kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidney may be thought of as a system which first filters low and medium molecular weight water-soluble materials from the blood and then either pumps or allows diffusion of such materials from the filtrate back into the blood after their passage through a chromatographic-like column contained within the renal tubules. Additionally, water-soluble materials in the blood may diffuse or be pumped in the opposite direction through the chromatographic column in the tubules to reach the filtrate. Materials whose renal handling is limited to filtration processes can be employed to measure glomerular filtration (e.g., radioinulin and possibly radiocations chelated by EDTA or DTPA). Materials whose renal handling is by a combination of filtration and quantitative pumping or diffusion from the blood to the filtrate, and for which retention in the chromatographic-like system of the tubules is negligible, can be employed for measuring renal plasma flow (e.g., radioiodohippurate). Materials which have prolonged retention times in the renal tubular chromatographic system can be used to evaluate renal anatomy and to infer aspects of renal physiology

  17. Oncologic imaging: kidney and ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant cancers of the kidney and ureter account for only 2 to 3% of all neoplasms in man. However, early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This article seeks to amalgamate a large body of information related to the pathology of primary renal tumors and metastatic disease with current imaging strategies to assist the clinician and enhance his understanding of the wide variety of modern imaging techniques available. Current tumor staging classifications are presented and the various imaging strategies are keyed to detection, definition and treatment options for tumors of the renal parenchyma and ureter. The strengths and limitations of all available imaging modalities are reviewed. An optimal approach to the imaging workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology and most importantly, cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step by step approach that will be both flexible and utilitarian for the clinician faced with daily oncologic management choices

  18. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomseok Sohn

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  19. The Global Role of Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Garcia Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day on March 8 th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  20. HORSESHOE KIDNEY: A MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Horseshoe kidney is the most common renal fusion anomaly with a reported prevalence of 1 in 400 persons with a male to female ratio of 2:1. In many cases its presence may go unnoticed and undiagnosed because the patient may remain asymptomatic throughout life. The objective of our study is to report radiological and anatomical features of horseshoe kidney detected incidentally during retrospective evaluation of multidetector computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: Contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography scans of 682 patients, 355 males and 327 females, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Seven cases of horseshoe kidney were detected incidentally, six males and one female, with an incidence of 1.02 %. In all cases, malrotation of the kidneys were observed with the hilum facing anteriorly or anterolaterally. The isthmus was made up of parenchymal tissue in all the cases and the fusion was midline in four cases and lateral in three cases. Horseshoe kidney in all cases was supplied by multiple renal arteries, varying from 3 to 6. In three cases symmetrical arterial supply and in the rest asymmetrical supply was observed. Nephrolithiasis and hydronephrosis were noted in two patients. No other associated congenital anomaly was observed in all seven patients. Conclusion: Contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography evaluation of patients with horseshoe kidney provide excellent information about its vascularity, collecting system and other associated conditions.

  1. Black markets, transplant kidneys and interpersonal coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J S

    2006-01-01

    One of the most common arguments against legalising markets in human kidneys is that this would result in the widespread misuse that is present in the black market becoming more prevalent. In particular, it is argued that if such markets were to be legalised, this would lead to an increase in the number of people being coerced into selling their kidneys. Moreover, such coercion would occur even if markets in kidneys were regulated, for those subject to such coercion would not be able to avail themselves of the legal protections that regulation would afford them. Despite the initial plausibility of this argument, there are three reasons to reject it. Firstly, the advantages of legalising markets in human kidneys would probably outweigh its possible disadvantages. Secondly, if it is believed that no such coercion can ever be tolerated, markets in only those human kidneys that fail to do away with coercion should be condemned. Finally, if coercion is genuinely opposed, then legalising kidney markets should be supported rather than opposed, for more people would be coerced (ie, into not selling) were such markets to be prohibited. PMID:17145908

  2. Dual kidney transplantation with organs from extended criteria cadaveric donors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Arcy, Frank T

    2009-10-01

    The critical shortage of kidneys available for transplantation has led to alternate strategies to expand the pool. Transplantation of the 2 kidneys into a single recipient using organs suboptimal for single kidney transplantation was suggested. We assessed results in 24 grafts allocated for dual kidney transplantation vs those in a control group of 44 designated for single kidney transplantation. Each group underwent pretransplant biopsy and recipients were age matched.

  3. A rare case: Congenital thoracic ectopic kidney with diaphragmatic eventration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harun; Aydogan, Cengiz; Orcen, Cihan; GonIllu, Edip

    2016-03-01

    Thoracic ectopic kidney is a rare developmental anomaly that is the least frequent one among all forms of ectopic kidneys. The condition is generally asymptomatic. If a kidney image is missing on one side in renalor pelvic region in sonographic examination, the possibility of thoracic ectopic kidney should be taken into consideration. For final diagnosis, chest radiography and thorax computerised tomography should be obtained. We herein report a rare case of intra-thoracic kidney accompanied by diaphragm eventration. PMID:26968290

  4. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwit Rahmawati; Heru Muryawan; Farah Prabowo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were in...

  5. Kidney disease: new technologies translate mechanisms to cure

    OpenAIRE

    O’Toole, John F.; Sedor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney disease is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions and is a frequent complication of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Recent advances in biomedical research and novel technologies have created opportunities to study kidney disease in a variety of platforms, applied to human populations. The Reviews in this series discuss the kidney in hypertension, diabetes, and monogenic forms of kidney disease, as well as the cellular and molecular mediators of acute kidney injury ...

  6. Chronic kidney disease, severe arterial and arteriolar sclerosis and kidney neoplasia: on the spectrum of kidney involvement in MELAS syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccoli Giorgina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MELAS syndrome (MIM ID#540000, an acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes, is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with protean manifestations and occasional kidney involvement. Interest in the latter is rising due to the identification of cases with predominant kidney involvement and to the hypothesis of a link between mitochondrial DNA and kidney neoplasia. Case presentation We report the case of a 41-year-old male with full blown MELAS syndrome, with lactic acidosis and neurological impairment, affected by the "classic" 3243A > G mutation of mitochondrial DNA, with kidney cancer. After unilateral nephrectomy, he rapidly developed severe kidney functional impairment, with nephrotic proteinuria. Analysis of the kidney tissue at a distance from the two tumor lesions, sampled at the time of nephrectomy was performed in the context of normal blood pressure, recent onset of diabetes and before the appearance of proteinuria. The morphological examination revealed a widespread interstitial fibrosis with dense inflammatory infiltrate and tubular atrophy, mostly with thyroidization pattern. Vascular lesions were prominent: large vessels displayed marked intimal fibrosis and arterioles had hyaline deposits typical of hyaline arteriolosclerosis. These severe vascular lesions explained the different glomerular alterations including ischemic and obsolescent glomeruli, as is commonly observed in the so-called "benign" arteriolonephrosclerosis. Some rare glomeruli showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; as the patient subsequently developed nephrotic syndrome, these lesions suggest that silent ischemic changes may result in the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis secondary to nephron loss. Conclusions Nephron loss may trigger glomerular sclerosis, at least in some cases of MELAS-related nephropathy. Thus the incidence of kidney disease in the "survivors" of MELAS

  7. FREQUENCY OF KIDNEY REJECTION IN DIABETIC PATIENTS UNDERGOING SIMULTANEOUS KIDNEY AND PANCREATIC ISLET CELL TRANSPLANTATION1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, P B; Ricordi, C.; Shapiro, R.; Rilo, H.R.; Fontes, P.; Scantlebury, V.; Irish, W.; Tzakis, A.G.; Starzl, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    An increased frequency of kidney rejection has been reported in diabetic patients who have simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation compared with patients who have a kidney transplant alone. Kidney graft outcome is similar in the two groups. The mechanism for increased kidney graft rejection with a simultaneous pancreas graft is not clear. It is ascribed to the immunogenicity of the exocrine pancreas that initiates migration of activated cells from the peripheral blood that are entrap...

  8. Artificial organic networks artificial intelligence based on carbon networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Espinosa, Hiram; Molina, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes the synthesis and use of biologically-inspired artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHNs) for approximation models associated with machine learning and a novel computational algorithm with which to exploit them. The reader is first introduced to various kinds of algorithms designed to deal with approximation problems and then, via some conventional ideas of organic chemistry, to the creation and characterization of artificial organic networks and AHNs in particular. The advantages of using organic networks are discussed with the rules to be followed to adapt the network to its objectives. Graph theory is used as the basis of the necessary formalism. Simulated and experimental examples of the use of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms with organic neural networks are presented and a number of modeling problems suitable for treatment by AHNs are described: ·        approximation; ·        inference; ·        clustering; ·        control; ·        class...

  9. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC50). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  10. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data. PMID:25403541

  11. Artificial intelligence methods for diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist in diagnosis of its nuclear power plants, the Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has been developing skills in Artificial Intelligence for about a decade. Different diagnostic expert systems have been designed. Among them, SILEX for control rods cabinet troubleshooting, DIVA for turbine generator diagnosis, DIAPO for reactor coolant pump diagnosis. This know how in expert knowledge modeling and acquisition is direct result of experience gained during developments and of a more general reflection on knowledge based system development. We have been able to reuse this results for other developments such as a guide for auxiliary rotating machines diagnosis. (authors)

  12. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  13. Logical Foundations Of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The procedures of searching solutions to problems, in Artificial Intelligence, can be brought about, in many occasions, without knowledge of the Domain, and in other situations, with knowledge of it. This last procedure is usually called Heuristic Search. In such methods the matrix techniques reveal themselves as essential. Their introduction can give us an easy and precise way in the search of solution. Our paper explains how the matrix theory appears and fruitfully participates in A I, with feasible applications to Game Theory.

  14. Artificial intelligence a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whitby, Blay

    2012-01-01

    Tomorrow begins right here as we embark on an enthralling and jargon-free journey into the world of computers and the inner recesses of the human mind. Readers encounter everything from the nanotechnology used to make insect-like robots, to computers that perform surgery, in addition to discovering the biggest controversies to dog the field of AI. Blay Whitby is a Lecturer on Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex UK. He is the author of two books and numerous papers.

  15. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  16. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  17. Artificial Neural Networks An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Priddy, Kevin L

    2005-01-01

    This tutorial text provides the reader with an understanding of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and their application, beginning with the biological systems which inspired them, through the learning methods that have been developed and the data collection processes, to the many ways ANNs are being used today. The material is presented with a minimum of math (although the mathematical details are included in the appendices for interested readers), and with a maximum of hands-on experience. All specialized terms are included in a glossary. The result is a highly readable text that will teach t

  18. Diagnostic value of kidney length and volume in sonography for determining kidney scar among infants with urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Jalili

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of kidney scar could prevent vesico urethral reflax and its complications such as hypertension and renal failure. This study was conducted to determine average kidney length and volume in infants by sonography to accurate diagnosis of scars.Methods: This study was conducted on infants with the history of UTI who referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah Iran, for DMSA scan. They underwent kidney sonography before DMSA scan. Difference in kidney length and volume were calculated and data was recorded and were analyzed using statistical tests.Results: Right kidney length was less than left in 60% of right kidney scars this rate was 77.8% in nonscar patients (P=0.657. Left kidney length was less than right in 50% of left kidney scar and that was 22% in nonscar patients (P=0.241. Kidney volume was smaller than other side in 55.6% of right kidney scar and 62.5% of left kidney scar. Higher length detected in 100% and 47% of right and left kidney inflammation respectively. Higher volume detected in 40% and 76.5% of right and left kidney inflammation.Conclusion: In comparison with other studies suggesting kidney length as a valuble predictor for diagnosis of scar we did not find any relationship between scar and kidney length or volume.

  19. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development

  20. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of vasopre