WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial internal organ

  1. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  2. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. PMID:26945924

  3. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498

  4. International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity (IMAG) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts of the International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity Project. Specifically it reviews the NASA Exploration Planning Status, NASA Exploration Roadmap, Status of Planning for the Moon, Mars Planning, Reference health maintenance scenario, and The Human Research Program.

  5. Artificial Neurons with Arbitrarily Complex Internal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kohring, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neurons with arbitrarily complex internal structure are introduced. The neurons can be described in terms of a set of internal variables, a set activation functions which describe the time evolution of these variables and a set of characteristic functions which control how the neurons interact with one another. The information capacity of attractor networks composed of these generalized neurons is shown to reach the maximum allowed bound. A simple example taken from the domain of p...

  6. Neurology and international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mateen, Farrah J.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private–public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and c...

  7. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN)

    CERN Document Server

    Mladenov, Valeri; Kasabov, Nikola; Artificial Neural Networks : Methods and Applications in Bio-/Neuroinformatics

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the latest theories on artificial neural networks, with a special emphasis on bio-neuroinformatics methods. It includes twenty-three papers selected from among the best contributions on bio-neuroinformatics-related issues, which were presented at the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, held in Sofia, Bulgaria, on September 10-13, 2013 (ICANN 2013). The book covers a broad range of topics concerning the theory and applications of artificial neural networks, including recurrent neural networks, super-Turing computation and reservoir computing, double-layer vector perceptrons, nonnegative matrix factorization, bio-inspired models of cell communities, Gestalt laws, embodied theory of language understanding, saccadic gaze shifts and memory formation, and new training algorithms for Deep Boltzmann Machines, as well as dynamic neural networks and kernel machines. It also reports on new approaches to reinforcement learning, optimal control of discrete time-delay systems, new al...

  8. Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, 12th International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Malluhi, Qutaibah; Gonzalez, Sara; Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Bucciarelli, Edgardo; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Iqba, Farkhund

    2015-01-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2015 (DCAI 2015) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This symposium is organized by the Osaka Institute of Technology, Qatar University and the University of Salamanca.

  9. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  10. Artificial organic networks artificial intelligence based on carbon networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Espinosa, Hiram; Molina, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes the synthesis and use of biologically-inspired artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHNs) for approximation models associated with machine learning and a novel computational algorithm with which to exploit them. The reader is first introduced to various kinds of algorithms designed to deal with approximation problems and then, via some conventional ideas of organic chemistry, to the creation and characterization of artificial organic networks and AHNs in particular. The advantages of using organic networks are discussed with the rules to be followed to adapt the network to its objectives. Graph theory is used as the basis of the necessary formalism. Simulated and experimental examples of the use of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms with organic neural networks are presented and a number of modeling problems suitable for treatment by AHNs are described: ·        approximation; ·        inference; ·        clustering; ·        control; ·        class...

  11. REDD and international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Climate change mitigation can be achieved, according to many, by means of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the Tropics (REDD). Within the climate change policy debate we thus find discussions on how to reduce GHG emissions by designing appropriate REDD programmes and projects. In this paper I try to capture this debate by looking at the role of five major international organizations, which were chosen to represent the different aspects related to REDD. In order ...

  12. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  13. Artificial Intelligence Research and Development: Proc. of the 11th International Conference of the Catalan Association for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Alsinet, Teresa; Puyol-Gruart, Josep; Torras, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Research and Development. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the Catalan Association for Artificial Intelligence. Volume 184 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications Peer Reviewed

  14. Artificial neural network based modelling of internal combustion engine performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boruah, Dibakor; Thakur, Pintu Kumar; Baruah, Dipal

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to quantify the applicability of artificial neural network as a black-box model for internal combustion engine performance. In consequence, an artificial neural network (ANN) based model for a four cylinder, four stroke internal combustion diesel engine has been developed on the basis of specific input and output factors, which have been taken from experimental readings for different load and engine speed circumstances. The input parameters that have been used to create...

  15. Internal Control Organization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Dorin Lenghel

    2013-01-01

    Internal control represents the totality of policies and procedures adopted by management, which contribute: to the fulfilment of managerial objectives, to the prevention and detection of frauds or errors, to the accuracy and exhaustiveness of accounting entries, as well as to the preparation in due course of financial accounting information. Internal control represents a managerial instrument which assures the fulfilment of objectives of the entity, being an ongoing process in which administ...

  16. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  17. Impulse Artificial Neural Networks in Internal Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochelska-Mierzejewska Joanna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The second most important function of a warehouse, apart from the storing of goods, is internal transport with a focus on time-effectiveness. When there is a time gap between the production and export of products, the goods need to be stored until they are dispatched to the consumers. An important problem that concerns both large and small warehouses is the selection of priorities, that is handling the tasks in order of importance. Another problem is to identify the most efficient routes for forklift trucks to transport goods from a start-point to a desired destination and prevent the routes from overlapping. In automated warehouses, the transport of objects (the so called pallets of goods is performed by machines controlled by a computer instead of a human operator. Thus, it is the computer, not the man, that makes the difficult decisions regarding parallel route planning, so that the materials are transported within the warehouse in near-optimal time. This paper presents a method for enhancing this process.

  18. International organizations before national courts

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2000-01-01

    This book presents a radical, empirical investigation of how national courts "react" to disputes involving international organizations, analyzing in particular whether such organizations should be immune to national jurisdictions. Under the headings "domestic legal personality" and "immunity" of international organizations, some of the issues covered have already been treated in international legal scholarship, mostly in the form of short articles or case notes. This study, however, provides a thorough comparative analysis and the largest compilation of relevant decisions on the subject, making it indispensable for practitioners as well as academics in the field.

  19. Distributed computing and artificial intelligence : 10th International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, José; Rodriguez, Juan; Santana, Juan; Gonzalez, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2013 (DCAI 2013) is a forum in which applications of innovative techniques for solving complex problems are presented. Artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the internet, electronic commerce, environment monitoring, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing, to mention only a few, is continuously increasing, becoming an element of high added value with social and economic potential, in industry, quality of life, and research. This conference is a stimulating and productive forum where the scientific community can work towards future cooperation in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence areas. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industry se...

  20. 9th International conference on distributed computing and artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Juan; González, Sara; Molina, Jose; Bernardos, Ana; Rodríguez, Juan; DCAI 2012; International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2012 (DCAI 2012) is a stimulating and productive forum where the scientific community can work towards future cooperation in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence areas. This conference is a forum in which  applications of innovative techniques for solving complex problems will be presented. Artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the internet, electronic commerce, environment monitoring, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing, to mention only a few, is continuously increasing, becoming an element of high added value with social and economic potential, in industry, quality of life, and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and indus...

  1. Buying Votes and International Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Axel; Vreeland, James Raymond

    2011-01-01

    This study explores a basic idea in political economy: Trading money for political influence. Our focus is at the level of international institutions, where governments may exploit their influence in one organization to gain leverage over another. In particular, we consider the lending activities of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and voting behavior at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). Analyzing an original dataset on the successful and failed resolutions of the UNSC, we find...

  2. 11th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bersini, Hugues; Corchado, Juan; Rodríguez, Sara; Pawlewski, Paweł; Bucciarelli, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    The 11th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2014 (DCAI 2014) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This year’s technical program presents both high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research (Algeria, Brazil, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom), representing ...

  3. Mechanical properties of stabilized artificial organic soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the influence of organic matter on the mechanical properties of stabilized soil and the effect of XGL2005 on stabilizing organic soil,unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out.Test results indicated that the strength of stabilized soil decreased in the form of a logarithmic function as the organic matter content increased.In contrast,the strength increased in the form of a power function as the content of the stabilization agent increased.The strength of cement stabilized organic soil was reinforced greatly by adding the stabilizer XGL2005.Based on the law obtained from the test,a strength prediction model was established by regression analysis.The model included the influence of the curing time,the content of the cement,the organic matter content and the stabilization agent on the strength of stabilized soil.

  4. International organizations and crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, E.-K.; Verbeek, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In times of crisis, international organizations (IOs) are often called upon for help. Such crises may have both domestic and transnational features. In 2012 the domestic revolt in Syria, which had started the previous year, escalated and the United Nations (UN) was asked to help work towards a perma

  5. International Organizations and Organizational Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje; Moschella, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to account for varieties of organizational change. In particular, we contend that in order to explain change in international organizations (IOs) we cannot simply dichotomize between change and the lack thereof. Rather, change is best conceptualized as made up of two...... dimensions: speed and scope. The combination of the two dimensions leads to a taxonomy with four distinct types of policy change. The paper evaluates the emergence of different types of change by focusing on the relationship between IOs and their fields. Specifically, the position of the organization in the...... field helps to account for the speed of change (slow vs. rapid), whereas the openness of the organization to the inputs coming from the field helps to explain the scope of change (incremental vs. radical). We illustrate our argument by comparing the changes in the International Monetary Fund's policies...

  6. Dielectric elastomer pump for artificial organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Amy E.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Walters, Peter J.; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a bio-inspired, dielectric elastomer (DE) based tubular pumping unit, developed for eventual use as a component of an artificial digestive tract onboard a microbial fuel cell powered robot (EcoBot). The pump effects fluid displacement by direct actuation of the tube wall as opposed to excitation by an external body. The actuator consists of a DE tube moulded from silicone, held in a negative pressure chamber, which is used for prestraining the tube. The pump is coupled with custom designed polymeric check valves in order to rectify the fluid flow and assess the performance of the unit. The valves exhibited the necessary low opening pressures required for use with the actuator. The tube's actuation characteristics were measured both with and without liquid in the system. Based on these data the optimal operating conditions for the pump are discussed. The pump and valve system has achieved flowrates in excess of 40μl/s. This radially contracting/expanding actuator element is the fundamental component of a peristaltic pump. This 'soft pump' concept is suitable for biomimetic robotic systems, or for the medical or food industries where hard contact with the delivered substrate may be undesirable. Future work will look at connecting multiple tubes in series in order to achieve peristalsis.

  7. International organizations as subjects of international private law

    OpenAIRE

    Чевичалова, Ж. В.

    2016-01-01

    An integral part of the international legal functioning of international organizations is their participation in civil and economic relations. Participation of international organizations, both intergovernmental and non-governmental, in international relations of powerless character has a certain specificity and raises a number of theoretical and practical issues. An international organization in such relations is a foreign element, the presence of which qualifies relations as international p...

  8. THE CAPACITY OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO BEAR INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Emilian IVANESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of international personality is not exclusively reserved for states. In modern days, the international organizations have legal international personality and also have the capacity to be internationally responsible for their conduct. Some particularities of the legal personality of international organizations are decisive in determining their international responsibility. The study will establish the connection between the foundations of the personality and responsibility of an international organization. It will be also analysed the situation of third parties in establishing the responsibility of an international organization.

  9. 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestri, Marcello; González, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The special session Decision Economics (DECON) 2016 is a scientific forum by which to share ideas, projects, researches results, models and experiences associated with the complexity of behavioral decision processes aiming at explaining socio-economic phenomena. DECON 2016 held in the University of Seville, Spain, as part of the 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence (DCAI) 2016. In the tradition of Herbert A. Simon’s interdisciplinary legacy, this book dedicates itself to the interdisciplinary study of decision-making in the recognition that relevant decision-making takes place in a range of critical subject areas and research fields, including economics, finance, information systems, small and international business, management, operations, and production. Decision-making issues are of crucial importance in economics. Not surprisingly, the study of decision-making has received a growing empirical research efforts in the applied economic literature over the last ...

  10. News from International Maritime Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Krilić, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    This first review of the current work of International Maritime Organization (IMO) bodies covers selected decisions and outcome of discussions of the Sub-Committee on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping (STW), which met at the Organization’s London Headquarters for its 43rd session from 30 April 4 May 2012, and of the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), which held its 90th session from 16 to 25 May 2012.

  11. THE CAPACITY OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO BEAR INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu-Emilian IVANESCU

    2015-01-01

    The status of international personality is not exclusively reserved for states. In modern days, the international organizations have legal international personality and also have the capacity to be internationally responsible for their conduct. Some particularities of the legal personality of international organizations are decisive in determining their international responsibility. The study will establish the connection between the foundations of the personality and responsibility of an int...

  12. XII International Conference of the Italian Association on Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Semeraro, Giovanni; Vargiu, Eloisa; New Challenges in Distributed Information Filtering and Retrieval : DART 2011: Revised and Invited Papers

    2013-01-01

    This volume focuses on new challenges in distributed Information Filtering and Retrieval. It collects invited chapters and extended research contributions from the DART 2011 Workshop, held in Palermo (Italy), on September 2011, and co-located with the XII International Conference of the Italian Association on Artificial Intelligence. The main focus of DART was to discuss and compare suitable novel solutions based on intelligent techniques and applied to real-world applications. The chapters of this book present a comprehensive review of related works and state of the art. Authors, both practitioners and researchers, shared their results in several topics such as "Multi-Agent Systems", "Natural Language Processing", "Automatic Advertisement", "Customer Interaction Analytics", "Opinion Mining".

  13. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  14. A study of new materials for artificial organs using ion beam modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers have been widely used as the structural base materials for artificial organs, but most of polymers do not possess cell adhesion property. The authors have successfully induced cell adhesion property in polymers by ion beam irradiation. By applying this method, cell adhesion property was introduced to the internal surface of the artificial blood vessels of polymer base materials. As the base materials, the glass tubes coated with segmented polyurethane made by Kaneka Corp. of 1.5 mm inside diameter and 50 mm length, polystyrene tubes of 2 mm inside diameter and 50 mm length, and the extended polytetrafluoroethylene coated with segmented polyurethane of 3 mm inside diameter and 50 mm length were used, and ion beam was irradiated by inclining them, thus the rotary culture of blood vessel endothelium was carried out. As the result, the good formation of endothelium was observed. In this report, the evaluation of the produced hybrid type artificial blood vessels by animal experiment and others are described. Hybrid artificial organs, the experiments on the induction of cell adhesion property by ion beam, the making of hybrid type artificial blood vessels, acute and chronic substitution are reported. (K.I.)

  15. 13th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Semalat, Ali; Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Sitek, Paweł; Nielsen, Izabela; García, Julián; Bajo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The 13th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2016 (DCAI 2016) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This symposium is organized by the University of Sevilla (Spain), Osaka Institute of Technology (Japan), and the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia).

  16. Planning and organizing the International Week for international students

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Milja

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was to plan and organize an international event for students in Deggendorf Institute of Technology. The event was made for the International Office and it was implemented together with the staff of the International Office and voluntary international students. The International Week is implemented by the International Office twice a year, in winter and summer semesters. Each year the event is assumed to be a bit different and offer variable and interesting cultural ...

  17. Council of International Student Organizations hosts International Week

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Council of International Student Organizations (CISO) along with the Cranwell International Center will be hosting its annual International Week, April 8-15. This will be the 46th year of the event held to promote cultural awareness and celebrate international diversity at Virginia Tech and throughout the local community.

  18. International organizations and the Theory of Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Faíña Medín, José Andrés; García Lorenzo, Antonio; López-Rodríguez, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on international organizations, especially those regulat-ing trade and exchange. It draws on the Theory of Clubs (Buchanan, 1965) and builds a model that aims to explain governments' optimal choices when joining international organizations. The results of the model show that governmental willingness to enlarge international organizations and to increase their degree of commitment are decreasing functions of both, the size of the organization, and the country's degree of com...

  19. 14th International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence Research, Management and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence Research, Management and Applications (SERA 2016) held on June 8-10, 2016 at Towson University, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the program committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. This publication capture...

  20. The internal potential of the sustainable organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Associate Professor Vladimir-Codrin Ionescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal potential of an organization reflects its ability to integrate sustainable within the business environment and to compete successfully in a particular industry. Starting from the premise that a competitive managerial strategy can be based and adopted following a proper assessment of the internal potential of the organization, this paper intends to make an integrated and correlative analysis of the four strategic variables that define the internal potential of an organization - the complex of organizational resources, the cultural model, the competitive ability and competitive position.

  1. Simulation Techniques and Prosthetic Approach Towards Biologically Efficient Artificial Sense Organs- An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Neogi, Biswarup; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Das, Achintya; Tibarewala, D N

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the applications of control theory to prosthetic sense organs including the senses of vision, taste and odor is being presented in this paper. Simulation aspect nowadays has been the centre of research in the field of prosthesis. There have been various successful applications of prosthetic organs, in case of natural biological organs dis-functioning patients. Simulation aspects and control modeling are indispensible for knowing system performance, and to generate an original approach of artificial organs. This overview focuses mainly on control techniques, by far a theoretical overview and fusion of artificial sense organs trying to mimic the efficacies of biologically active sensory organs. Keywords: virtual reality, prosthetic vision, artificial

  2. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  3. Internal and external communication within cultural organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács RÉKA; Anca BORZA

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims at analyzing organizational communication and focuses on the aspects of internal and external communication within cultural organizations in Romania. Starting with the description of the general characteristics of internal and external communication, the article sets out to explain these phenomena in the context of cultural organizations. For this purpose, the authors seek to identify the type of communication, which is more pronounced in case of cultural entities. Conc...

  4. Applications of Artificial Life and Digital Organisms in the Study of Genetic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice HT Ling

    Full Text Available Testing evolutionary hypothesis in experimental setting is expensive, time consuming, and unlikely to recapitulate evolutionary history if evolution is repeated. Computer simulations of virtual organisms, also known as artificial life or digital organisms ...

  5. International Organization and Peacekeeping. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert E.

    The teaching guide for secondary students focuses on the structure, authority, and decision making procedures of international organizations and their ability to keep peace. Students participate in an exercise for predicting how present organizations can handle peace-threatening situations and how they can be designed to improve their peacekeeping…

  6. The suitability of internal combustion engine sounds as artificial warning sounds for electric and hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bolkovac, Ivan; Horvat, Marko; Jambrošić, Kristian; Domitrović, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the issue of adding artificial warning sounds to hybrid and fully electric vehicles, in order to increase traffic safety by making these vehicles audible at low speeds. The goal of this modification is to enable the pedestrians to perceive possible danger coming from such a vehicle in time to respond accordingly. Following the results of previous research which state that the sounds of internal combustion engines are valid candidates for artificial warning sounds to be add...

  7. 15 CFR 740.11 - Governments, international organizations, and international inspections under the Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizations, and international inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention (GOV). 740.11 Section 740.11... Governments, international organizations, and international inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention.... Government (including U.S. representatives to public international organizations), and their...

  8. International energy: Research organizations, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. (eds.) (USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science Technology'' on DIALOG and Energy'' on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  9. An artificial hormone system for self-organization of networked nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Trumler, Wolfgang; Thiemann, Tobias; Ungerer, Theo

    2006-01-01

    The rising complexity of distributed computer systems give reason to investigate self-organization mechanism to build systems that are self-managing in the sense of Autonomic and Organic Computing. In this paper we propose the Artificial Hormone System (AHS) as a general approach to build self-organizing systems based on networked nodes. The Artificial Hormone System implements a similar information exchange between networked nodes like the human hormone system does between cells. The arti...

  10. An international organization for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Edelson, Burton I.

    1991-01-01

    A recommendation is presented for the formation of a new commercially oriented international organization to acquire or develop, coordinate or manage, the space and ground segments for a global operational satellite system to furnish the basic data for remote sensing and meteorological, land, and sea resource applications. The growing numbers of remote sensing programs are examined and possible ways of reducing redundant efforts and improving the coordination and distribution of these global efforts are discussed. This proposed remote sensing organization could play an important role in international cooperation and the distribution of scientific, commercial, and public good data.

  11. Cultural competencies in market oriented international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Markiewicz, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    Market oriented companies are perceived as one of the most successful and sustainable business organizations. In recent years due to global economy changes increased interest in cross-cultural management issues has been noticed, though practitioners and academics are still working on the concept of cultural competency. The purpose of this paper is to present the possible impact of culture competence model on the market orientation of international organizations....

  12. 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2014) held on June 30 – July 2, 2014 in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 13 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.

  13. 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Studies in Computational Intelligence : Volume 492

    2013-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2013), held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA on July 1-3, 2013. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 17 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.  

  14. International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Subhransu; Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

      The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems (ICAEES 2014) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of use of artificial intelligence and evolutionary algorithms in engineering systems. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  15. Presentation by the International Criminal Police Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO-Interpol) is the only global police organization. criminal activity. With respect to the particular emphasis of this conference, Interpol has managed a series of initiatives in support of the fight against international illicit trafficking in radioactive materials. As a result, several key issues were identified as essential to making international co-operation both more efficient and more effective: the multiagency approach; standardized international co-operation; training of enforcement officers. Apart from the efforts made by police and customs officials in identifying and preventing the use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorists, the IAEA has been very successful through its actions in helping to prevent the loss of control over radioactive material. However, as the terrorist threat remains significant, we must continue our vigilance. Effective preventive measures have been undertaken and the IAEA has played an outstanding role in this connection. Whether it be through use of our 24 hour command centre, our vast criminal intelligence database, our ability to gather and disseminate focused analytical criminal data to our Member States, or our ongoing training programme, Interpol is uniquely positioned to positively contribute to law enforcement efforts in combating the threatened or actual malevolent use of radioactive materials. Interpol very much appreciates the close working relationship that has been developed over the years with the various institutions represented here today. Interpol assures of its future cooperation in this endeavour

  16. Critical Dose of Internal Organs Internal Exposure - 13471

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre (Armenia); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan State Medical University 4Tigran Mets,375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2013-07-01

    The health threat posed by radionuclides has stimulated increased efforts to developed characterization on the biological behavior of radionuclides in humans in all ages. In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age specific biokinetic models for environmentally important radioelements. Radioactive substances in the air, mainly through the respiratory system and digestive tract, is inside the body. Radioactive substances are unevenly distributed in various organs and tissues. Therefore, the degree of damage will depend not only on the dose of radiation have but also on the critical organ, which is the most accumulation of radioactive substances, which leads to the defeat of the entire human body. The main objective of radiation protection, to avoid exceeding the maximum permissible doses of external and internal exposure of a person to prevent the physical and genetic damage people. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation is called a dose of radiation a person in uniform getting her for 50 years does not cause changes in the health of the exposed individual and his progeny. The following classification of critical organs, depending on the category of exposure on their degree of sensitivity to radiation: First group: the whole body, gonads and red bone marrow; Second group: muscle, fat, liver, kidney, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and lens of the eye; The third group: bone, thyroid and skin; Fourth group: the hands, forearms, feet. MTD exposure whole body, gonads and bone marrow represent the maximum exposures (5 rem per year) experienced by people in their normal activities. The purpose of this article is intended dose received from various internal organs of the radionuclides that may enter the body by inhalation, and gastrointestinal tract. The biokinetic model describes the time dependent distribution and excretion of different

  17. Critical Dose of Internal Organs Internal Exposure - 13471

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health threat posed by radionuclides has stimulated increased efforts to developed characterization on the biological behavior of radionuclides in humans in all ages. In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age specific biokinetic models for environmentally important radioelements. Radioactive substances in the air, mainly through the respiratory system and digestive tract, is inside the body. Radioactive substances are unevenly distributed in various organs and tissues. Therefore, the degree of damage will depend not only on the dose of radiation have but also on the critical organ, which is the most accumulation of radioactive substances, which leads to the defeat of the entire human body. The main objective of radiation protection, to avoid exceeding the maximum permissible doses of external and internal exposure of a person to prevent the physical and genetic damage people. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation is called a dose of radiation a person in uniform getting her for 50 years does not cause changes in the health of the exposed individual and his progeny. The following classification of critical organs, depending on the category of exposure on their degree of sensitivity to radiation: First group: the whole body, gonads and red bone marrow; Second group: muscle, fat, liver, kidney, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and lens of the eye; The third group: bone, thyroid and skin; Fourth group: the hands, forearms, feet. MTD exposure whole body, gonads and bone marrow represent the maximum exposures (5 rem per year) experienced by people in their normal activities. The purpose of this article is intended dose received from various internal organs of the radionuclides that may enter the body by inhalation, and gastrointestinal tract. The biokinetic model describes the time dependent distribution and excretion of different

  18. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Foreign Government Officials § 41.24 International organization aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any...

  19. International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskar, M; Panigrahi, Bijaya; Das, Swagatam

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in the first International Conference on International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems (ICAIECES -2015) held at Velammal Engineering College (VEC), Chennai, India during 22 – 23 April 2015. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. Researchers from academic and industry present their original work and exchange ideas, information, techniques and applications in the field of Communication, Computing and Power Technologies.

  20. PRINCIPALS OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANT BEHAVIOR DURING ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavior of a variety of organic contaminants having low molecular weight has been observed during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. The evidence is site-specific, but is believed to have broader implications regarding the general behavior of organic contaminants in ...

  1. PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION OF UKRAINE International aviation organizations

    OpenAIRE

    О.Т. ПОЛТОРАЦЬКА

    2013-01-01

    Analyzed the classification of international aviation organizations and offered suggestions on the State Comprehensive program of aviation industry of Ukraine for the period until 2010, in accordance with the method, which is recommended by international aviation organizations.

  2. International Organizations as Producers of Development Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Daneri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available International organizations can be considered as providers of “development goods”, which contribute to the process of development of recipient countries. This phenomenon gives birth to a particular market, with its own characteristics, which is very similar to an oligopoly due to the high requirements needed for the birth of an international organization. This paper will analyze the characteristics of this particular market, where goods are financed by developed countries and consumed by emerging countries. Given these peculiar characteristics, this market is characterized by several particular features, the mainly being a suboptimal level of finance, given that only a part of the public opinion in developed countries is concerned about the economics of emerging countries. In addition to this phenomena, it must be added that several actors are involved, being them individuals, ministries, NGOs, private companies, so that everybody tend to benefit by the intermediation of the resources. It should be highlighted that, for the time being, it is very difficult to modify the characteristics of this market, which tends to have stable and self-perpetuating features.

  3. 5 CFR 352.304 - International organizations covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International organizations covered. 352... REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.304 International organizations covered. (a) An agency may detail or transfer an employee under this...

  4. 5 CFR 870.509 - Transfers to international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transfers to international organizations. An employee transferred to an international organization may... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers to international organizations. 870.509 Section 870.509 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED)...

  5. The Analysis of Artificial Retina Organization for Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hui

    2004-01-01

    Machine vision is an active branch of artificial intelligence. An important problem in this area is the trade-off among efficiency, accuracy and computation complexity. The human visual system can keep watchfulness to the perimeter of a viewing field while at the same time focus on the center of the field for fine information processing. This mechanism of appropriate assignment of computing resources can reduce the demand for huge and complex hardware structure. Therefore, the design of a computer model based on the biological visual mechanism is an effective approach to resolve problems in machine vision. In this paper, a multi-layer neural model is developed based on the features of receptive field of ganglion in retina to simulate multi-scale perceptive fields of ganglion cell. The neural model can maintain alert on the outer area of the image while capturing and processing more important information in the central part. It may provide valuable inspiration for the implementation of real-time processing and avoidance of huge computation in machine vision.

  6. Third International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Automation for Space 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Third International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Automation for Space (i-SAIRAS 94), held October 18-20, 1994, in Pasadena, California, was jointly sponsored by NASA, ESA, and Japan's National Space Development Agency, and was hosted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology. i-SAIRAS 94 featured presentations covering a variety of technical and programmatic topics, ranging from underlying basic technology to specific applications of artificial intelligence and robotics to space missions. i-SAIRAS 94 featured a special workshop on planning and scheduling and provided scientists, engineers, and managers with the opportunity to exchange theoretical ideas, practical results, and program plans in such areas as space mission control, space vehicle processing, data analysis, autonomous spacecraft, space robots and rovers, satellite servicing, and intelligent instruments.

  7. Proceedings of the International Workshop "What can FCA do for Artificial Intelligence?" (FCA4AI 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    O. Kuznetsov, Sergei; Napoli, Amedeo; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This is the third edition of the FCA4AI workshop, whose first edition was organized at ECAI 2012 Conference (Montpellier, August 2012) and second edition was organized at IJCAI 2013 Conference (Beijing, August 2013, see http://www.fca4ai.hse.ru/). Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is a mathematically well-founded theory aimed at data analysis and classification that can be used for many purposes, especially for Artificial Intelligence (AI) needs. The objective of the workshop is to investigate tw...

  8. Artificial promoter libraries for selected organisms and promoters derived from such libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    An artificial promoter library for a selected organism or group of organisms is constructed as a mixture of double stranded DNA fragments, the sense strands of which comprise at least two consensus sequences of efficient promoters from said organism or group of organisms, or parts thereof...... eukaryotes said consensus sequences should comprise a TATA box and at least one upstream activation sequence (UAS). Such artificial promoter libraries can be used i.a. for optimizing the expression of specific genes in various selected organisms....... comprising at least half of each, and surrounding or intermediate nucleotide sequences (spacers) of variable length in which at least 7 nucleotides are selected randomly among the nucleobases A, T, C and G. The sense strands of the double stranded DNA fragments may also include a regulatory DNA sequence...

  9. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  10. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  11. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-bio (BAMN2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Oh, Ilkwon

    2014-07-01

    The 7th International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio was held on the magnificent and beautiful Jeju Island in Korea on 26-30 August 2013. In June 2007, the volcanic island and lava tube cave systems were designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites for their natural beauty and unique geographical values. The aim of the congress was to offer high-level lectures, extensive discussions and communications covering the state-of-the-art on biomimetics, artificial muscles, and nano-bio technologies providing an overview of their potential applications in the industrial, biomedical, scientific and robotic fields. This conference provided a necessary platform for an ongoing dialogue between researchers from different areas (chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering, robotics, etc) within biomimetics, artificial muscle and nano-bio technologies. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers that were presented at BAMN2013. Of the 400 or so papers and over 220 posters presented at this international congress, 15 papers were finally received, reviewed and accepted for this special issue, following the regular peer review procedures of the journal. The special issue covers polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites, and their applications. In particular, electromechanical performance and other characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with various commercially available ion exchange membranes are discussed. Additionally, the control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators is elaborated on. Further, the electrode effects of a cellulose-based electroactive paper energy harvester are described. Next, a flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators is discussed. A broad coverage of bio-applications of IPMC transducers is

  12. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-bio (BAMN2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Oh, Ilkwon

    2014-07-01

    The 7th International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio was held on the magnificent and beautiful Jeju Island in Korea on 26-30 August 2013. In June 2007, the volcanic island and lava tube cave systems were designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites for their natural beauty and unique geographical values. The aim of the congress was to offer high-level lectures, extensive discussions and communications covering the state-of-the-art on biomimetics, artificial muscles, and nano-bio technologies providing an overview of their potential applications in the industrial, biomedical, scientific and robotic fields. This conference provided a necessary platform for an ongoing dialogue between researchers from different areas (chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering, robotics, etc) within biomimetics, artificial muscle and nano-bio technologies. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers that were presented at BAMN2013. Of the 400 or so papers and over 220 posters presented at this international congress, 15 papers were finally received, reviewed and accepted for this special issue, following the regular peer review procedures of the journal. The special issue covers polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites, and their applications. In particular, electromechanical performance and other characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with various commercially available ion exchange membranes are discussed. Additionally, the control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators is elaborated on. Further, the electrode effects of a cellulose-based electroactive paper energy harvester are described. Next, a flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators is discussed. A broad coverage of bio-applications of IPMC transducers is

  13. The variability of standard artificial soils: Behaviour, extractability and bioavailability of organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Artificial soils from different laboratories revealed different fates, behaviour and bioavailability of lindane and phenanthrene. • Lindane behaviour was related to organic carbon. • Phenanthrene behaviour was significantly affected by degrading microorganisms from peat. • Sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability. -- Abstract: Artificial soil is an important standard medium and reference material for soil ecotoxicity bioassays. Recent studies have documented the significant variability of their basic properties among different laboratories. Our study investigated (i) the variability of ten artificial soils from different laboratories by means of the fate, extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and lindane, and (ii) the relationships of these results to soil properties and ageing. Soils were spiked with 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-lindane, and the total residues, fractions extractable by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and the fractions of phenanthrene mineralizable by bacteria were determined after 1, 14, 28 and 56 days. Significant temporal changes in total residues and extractable and mineralizable fractions were observed for phenanthrene, resulting in large differences between soils after 56 days. Phenanthrene mineralization by indigenous peat microorganisms was suggested as the main driver of that, outweighing the effects of organic matter. Lindane total residues and extractability displayed much smaller changes over time and smaller differences between soils related to organic matter. Roughly estimated, the variability between the artificial soils was comparable to natural soils. The implications of such variability for the results of toxicity tests and risk assessment decisions should be identified. We also suggested that the sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability

  14. The variability of standard artificial soils: Behaviour, extractability and bioavailability of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Jakub, E-mail: hofman@recetox.muni.cz [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno CZ-62500 (Czech Republic); Hovorková, Ivana [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno CZ-62500 (Czech Republic); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Artificial soils from different laboratories revealed different fates, behaviour and bioavailability of lindane and phenanthrene. • Lindane behaviour was related to organic carbon. • Phenanthrene behaviour was significantly affected by degrading microorganisms from peat. • Sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability. -- Abstract: Artificial soil is an important standard medium and reference material for soil ecotoxicity bioassays. Recent studies have documented the significant variability of their basic properties among different laboratories. Our study investigated (i) the variability of ten artificial soils from different laboratories by means of the fate, extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and lindane, and (ii) the relationships of these results to soil properties and ageing. Soils were spiked with {sup 14}C-phenanthrene and {sup 14}C-lindane, and the total residues, fractions extractable by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and the fractions of phenanthrene mineralizable by bacteria were determined after 1, 14, 28 and 56 days. Significant temporal changes in total residues and extractable and mineralizable fractions were observed for phenanthrene, resulting in large differences between soils after 56 days. Phenanthrene mineralization by indigenous peat microorganisms was suggested as the main driver of that, outweighing the effects of organic matter. Lindane total residues and extractability displayed much smaller changes over time and smaller differences between soils related to organic matter. Roughly estimated, the variability between the artificial soils was comparable to natural soils. The implications of such variability for the results of toxicity tests and risk assessment decisions should be identified. We also suggested that the sterilization of artificial soils might reduce unwanted variability.

  15. The development of an artificial organic networks toolkit for LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Ponce, Pedro; Molina, Arturo

    2015-03-15

    Two of the most challenging problems that scientists and researchers face when they want to experiment with new cutting-edge algorithms are the time-consuming for encoding and the difficulties for linking them with other technologies and devices. In that sense, this article introduces the artificial organic networks toolkit for LabVIEW™ (AON-TL) from the implementation point of view. The toolkit is based on the framework provided by the artificial organic networks technique, giving it the potential to add new algorithms in the future based on this technique. Moreover, the toolkit inherits both the rapid prototyping and the easy-to-use characteristics of the LabVIEW™ software (e.g., graphical programming, transparent usage of other softwares and devices, built-in programming event-driven for user interfaces), to make it simple for the end-user. In fact, the article describes the global architecture of the toolkit, with particular emphasis in the software implementation of the so-called artificial hydrocarbon networks algorithm. Lastly, the article includes two case studies for engineering purposes (i.e., sensor characterization) and chemistry applications (i.e., blood-brain barrier partitioning data model) to show the usage of the toolkit and the potential scalability of the artificial organic networks technique. PMID:25564969

  16. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  17. Organ Protective Effect of Isoflurane Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgeries with Artificial Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldyrev А.Y.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to give full estimation of organ protective effect of isoflurane anesthesia in cardiac surgeries with artificial circulation. Materials and Methods. There were analyzed the results of clinical, functional, biochemical and morphological examinations of 424 patients operated under the conditions of artificial circulation using two variants of anesthesia: 203 patients were given isoflurane (experimental group; 221 patients — propofol (control group. There were studied clinical progression of rehabilitation period, the change of myocardial contractile function indices, myocardial ultrastructure, and biochemical blood values after the operation. Conclusion. Isoflurane anesthesia provides an additional protective effect in cardiac surgeries with artificial circulation. This effect is proved by complex clinical studies regarding the heart, liver, and kidneys. Myocardial effect of additional protection is supported by clinical, functional, morphological, and biochemical criteria.

  18. 22 CFR 140.7 - Multilateral institutions and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organizations. 140.7 Section 140.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS PROHIBITION ON ASSISTANCE TO DRUG TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.7 Multilateral institutions and international organizations. Assistance provided to or through multilateral institutions or international organizations is subject to...

  19. Reciprocity of Knowledge Flows in Internal Network Forms of Organizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.J.L. van Wijk (Raymond); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk); S.M. Heinhuis

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFundamental changes in the competitive landscape triggered many firms to leverage and build competencies by focusing on transition processes towards internal network forms of organizing. These forms ameliorate exploration through knowledge creation and transfer. Internal networks are cha

  20. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  1. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  2. A self-organized internal models architecture for coding sensory-motor schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaú eEscobar Juárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive robotics research draws inspiration from theories and models on cognition, as conceived by neuroscience or cognitive psychology, to investigate biologically plausible computational models in artificial agents. In this field, the theoretical framework of Grounded Cognition provides epistemological and methodological grounds for the computational modeling of cognition. It has been stressed in the literature that textit{simulation}, textit{prediction}, and textit{multi-modal integration} are key aspects of cognition and that computational architectures capable of putting them into play in a biologically plausible way are a necessity.Research in this direction has brought extensive empirical evidencesuggesting that textit{Internal Models} are suitable mechanisms forsensory-motor integration. However, current Internal Models architectures show several drawbacks, mainly due to the lack of a unified substrate allowing for a true sensory-motor integration space, enabling flexible and scalable ways to model cognition under the embodiment hypothesis constraints.We propose the Self-Organized Internal ModelsArchitecture (SOIMA, a computational cognitive architecture coded by means of a network of self-organized maps, implementing coupled internal models that allow modeling multi-modal sensory-motor schemes. Our approach addresses integrally the issues of current implementations of Internal Models.We discuss the design and features of the architecture, and provide empirical results on a humanoid robot that demonstrate the benefits and potentialities of the SOIMA concept for studying cognition in artificial agents.

  3. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses

  4. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R. [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 1242, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rcorrea@utem.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Medina Allende s/n Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: chesta@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Morales, J.R. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Dinator, M.I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: mdinator@uchile.cl; Requena, I. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es; Vila, I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecologia, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: limnolog@uchile.cl

    2006-08-15

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses.

  5. Effects of artificial light at night on daily and seasonal organization of European blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    OpenAIRE

    Dominoni, Davide Michelangelo

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas are growing faster than any other land cover types. Associated with increasing urbanization, artificial light at night is now recognized as a public health issue and in recent years new interest has risen around the ecological effects of light pollution. Given that light through its diel and seasonal (daylength) changes is one of most important factors regulating daily and annual cycles of virtually all organisms, I hypothesized that modifications of the environment by means of ar...

  6. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: THE LEGACY OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    PARISH MATTHEW

    2014-01-01

    The growth in international law is not just a matter of an ever-increasing number of treaties. There has also been a considerable growth in what is known as "customary international law" being the writings of scholars, principles of international law that grow out of the jurisprudence of international courts and tribunals, and the writings of international organizations themselves. Like all forms of law, international law is susceptible to interminable growth. Unlike other branches of law, it...

  7. Update on Renal Replacement Therapy: Implantable Artificial Devices and Bioengineered Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Chiara; Latancia, Marcela T; Otterbein, Leo E; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are now joining forces in the areas of organ transplantation and bioengineering to solve continued challenges for patients with end-stage renal disease. The waiting lists for those needing a transplant continue to exceed demand. Dialysis, while effective, brings different challenges, including quality of life and susceptibility to infection. Unfortunately, the majority of research outputs are far from delivering satisfactory solutions. Current efforts are focused on providing a self-standing device able to recapitulate kidney function. In this review, we focus on two remarkable innovations that may offer significant clinical impact in the field of renal replacement therapy: the implantable artificial renal assist device (RAD) and the transplantable bioengineered kidney. The artificial RAD strategy utilizes micromachining techniques to fabricate a biohybrid system able to mimic renal morphology and function. The current trend in kidney bioengineering exploits the structure of the native organ to produce a kidney that is ready to be transplanted. Although these two systems stem from different technological approaches, they are both designed to be implantable, long lasting, and free standing to allow patients with kidney failure to be autonomous. However, for both of them, there are relevant issues that must be addressed before translation into clinical use and these are discussed in this review. PMID:26905099

  8. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  9. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Li-Jen; Lin, Che-Chin; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2011-01-01

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  10. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Che-Chin [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Li-Jen [School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Yun-Peng, E-mail: cjchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw, E-mail: ypchao@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-07

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  11. Education, Social Cohesion, and the Future Role of International Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes social cohesion issues within education, concerns over how education performs this function, and implications for international organizations. The paper reviews the purposes of public education, discusses some modern challenges to these traditional functions and why it may be important for international organizations to assume a new…

  12. International organizations as a profession: Professional mobility and power distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Coicaud, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The role of international organizations grows with the acceleration of globalization and the increasing importance of global governance. However, thus far, only limited and rather narrow research has been generated on the subject. It is a state of affairs that reflects on international studies, as well as on the power realities of the world. By assessing international organizations through the career prospects that they offer to skilled professionals, this paper is an attempt to remedy this s...

  13. A comparative study of language strategies in international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Ylinen, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of language strategies in international organizations Objectives of the study The study focuses on language strategies and their existence among international organizations. The goal is to find out if organizations have a written language strategy at all and if they do, what the language strategy contains. Also, in case a language strategy does not exist, the language practices are researched. After that the strategies and practices are compared. The main research q...

  14. Organic core-sheath nanowire artificial synapses with femtojoule energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wentao; Min, Sung-Yong; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-06-01

    Emulation of biological synapses is an important step toward construction of large-scale brain-inspired electronics. Despite remarkable progress in emulating synaptic functions, current synaptic devices still consume energy that is orders of magnitude greater than do biological synapses (~10 fJ per synaptic event). Reduction of energy consumption of artificial synapses remains a difficult challenge. We report organic nanowire (ONW) synaptic transistors (STs) that emulate the important working principles of a biological synapse. The ONWs emulate the morphology of nerve fibers. With a core-sheath-structured ONW active channel and a well-confined 300-nm channel length obtained using ONW lithography, ~1.23 fJ per synaptic event for individual ONW was attained, which rivals that of biological synapses. The ONW STs provide a significant step toward realizing low-energy-consuming artificial intelligent electronics and open new approaches to assembling soft neuromorphic systems with nanometer feature size. PMID:27386556

  15. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims. PMID:26612382

  16. Leadership Communication Role within International Business Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Křetínská, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the role of leadership communication within a multinational business organization. It aims to confirm the critical importance of communication provided by leaders to their team members. The literature review will focus on the existing communication flows within organizations and the current research results and insights in the field of leadership communication, which is a new, emerging domain of study. Thanks to recent quantitative research (Men, 2014b), it has been alre...

  17. Tracing the decomposition of dissolved organic carbon in artificial groundwater recharge using carbon isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing the concentration of dissolved organic C (DOC) in water is one of the main challenges in the process of artificial groundwater recharge. At the Tuusula waterworks in southern Finland, surface water is artificially recharged into an esker by pond infiltration and an equal amount of groundwater is daily pumped from the aquifer. This groundwater study was conducted to consider the role of redox processes in the decomposition of DOC. The isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic C (δ 13CDIC) in the recharged water was used as a tracer for redox reactions. The isotopic composition of O and H in water was determined in order to calculate mixing ratios between the local groundwater and the infiltrated surface water. Three distinct processes in the reduction of the DOC content were traced using isotopic methods and concentration analyses of DIC and DOC: (1) the decomposition of DOC (2) adsorption of DOC on mineral matter, and (3) the dilution of artificially recharged water by mixing with local groundwater. The largest decrease (44%) in the DOC content occurred during the early stage of subsurface flow, within 350 m of the infiltration ponds. The reduction of DOC was accompanied by an equal increase in DIC and a significant drop in δ 13CDIC. This change is attributed to the oxidative decomposition of DOC. A further 23% decrease in DOC is attributed to adsorption and a final drop of 14% to dilution with local groundwater

  18. ASPECTS REGARDING INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY BY ANALYSING THE AGENCY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Emilian IVĂNESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the consequences for the responsibility of the organization and the relevant state of an agency relationship between an international organization acting as a principal and a state acting as its agent. It is prouved that an international organization may be responsible for damage caused by the conduct of the state. We can also sustain that the state itself may bear responsability for having established or for not having terminated the agency relationship if it commits wrongful conduct on behalf of the international organization.

  19. International Organizations as Corporate Actors: Agency and Emergence in Theories of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Remi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reduc...

  20. Tracking changes in natural organic carbon character during artificial infiltration using flourescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Lavonen, Elin; McCleaf, Philip; Hummel, Angelica; Berggren Kleja, Dan; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2016-04-01

    In many Nordic countries more than half of the drinking water is produced using surface water. Artificial infiltration allows increasing water withdrawal from groundwater but may not be sustainable during longer periods. Here we report results from a one year study on changes in dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and DOC character along the whole infiltration area starting with the stream water until the drinking water plant raw water intake. Both DOC, fluorescence spectroscopy and LC-OCD are used to understand the observed changes in the aquatic phase. Large seasonal changes close to the infiltration basin contrasts with stable conditions further away. Selective removal of terrestrial type of DOC is coherent using both analytical techniques. A simple empirical relationship between Humic like material and absorbance developed elsewhere also holds in this system (Köhler et al 2016). Fluorescence is a fast and promising tool for tracking changes in natural organic carbon character during artificial infiltration. References Stephan J. Köhler, Elin Lavonen, Alexander Keucken, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Tom Spanjer and Kenneth Persson. Upgrading coagulation with hollow-fibre nanofiltration for improved organic matter removal during surface water treatment Water research (2016) 89:232-240.

  1. The privileges and immunities of international organizations in domestic courts

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    International organizations are increasingly operating across borders and engaging in legal transactions in virtually all jurisdictions. This makes, familiarity with the applicable law and practice imperative for both international organizations and those who engage in legal relations with them. Furthermore, the issue of whether, how, and to what extent domestic courts take into account decisions of foreign and international courts and tribunals in their own decision-making has become increasingly important in recent years. This book provides a comprehensive empirical study of this transnational judicial dialogue, focusing on the law and practice of domestic jurisdictions concerning the legal personality, privileges, and immunities of international organizations. It presents a selection of detailed country-by-country studies, examining the manner of judicial dialogue across domestic jurisdictions, and between national and international courts. The approach taken in this book intersects with three highly topi...

  2. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  3. Political Christianity: Internal Organization, Preferences and Church Political Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the role of internal structure of religious organizations in influencing these organizations’ interactions with incumbent governments and ultimately determining the political activities of religious groups. This dissertation fits within a body of literature known as the political economy of religion. I expand upon this literature by examining religious groups in terms of internal organization, focusing on Christian churches in Africa, with Kenya as my primary cas...

  4. Self-Organized Characteristics of the International System

    OpenAIRE

    Piepers, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Various self-organized characteristics of the international system can be identified with the help of a complexity science perspective. The perspective discussed in this article is based on various complexity science concepts and theories, and concepts related to ecology and ecosystems. It can be argued that the Great Power war dynamics of the international system in Europe during the period 1480-1945, showed self-organized critical (SOC) characteristics, resulting in a punctuated equilibrium...

  5. Leadership In International Organizations : Reconstruction of Services Orgnization

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Harri

    2008-01-01

    This work is about leadership challenges and solutions in international organizations. Consolidation of modern businesses is leading towards more multi-national corporations and requires special capabilities from the leaders in the organizations. This study belongs into the field of international leadership. Theoretically it is based upon the strategic leadership, management and cultural awareness. This work is empirical by nature and it uses primary information from selected case...

  6. Roles of various organizations in internal medicine curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J J

    1992-06-15

    The curriculum in internal medicine for medical students and residents is being driven increasingly by the service demands of our teaching hospitals and is badly in need of fundamental reform. In reasserting the primacy of education as the driving force for the curriculum, numerous tasks must be done to achieve successful reform. These tasks are well within the scope of the several organizations that command leadership positions in the discipline of internal medicine and that represent the spectrum of activities required to discharge the specialty's public responsibility. These organizations include the Association of Professors of Medicine (APM), the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM), the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM), The Residency Review Committee for Internal Medicine (RRC-IM), the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM), the American College of Physicians (ACP), the American Society of Internal Medicine (ASIM), and the Federated Council of Internal Medicine (FCIM). The challenge posed by the need for curriculum reform is to rouse these organizations to concerted action. Each of the seven organizations must assume a specific role and a unique set of responsibilities in the epic reforms envisioned. PMID:1586129

  7. Developing Internal Communication in Fast-changing Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, Inkeri

    2011-01-01

    Developing internal communication in fast-changing organizations is a current topic, which seems to exercise the minds of corporate people in different positions. Well-functioning internal communication and business success seem to be strongly linked. It motivates people, and only people who are motivated and enthusiastic about their work are able to perform well in their jobs and to secure the success of their employers. The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of internal...

  8. International energy: Research organizations, 1988--1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. [eds.] [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the US DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear organization names recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries are also included in the ETDE Energy Database. Therefore, these organization names are cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases ``Energy Science & Technology`` on DIALOG and ``Energy`` on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 31,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1988 to 1992 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  9. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume covers the torso, internal organs and vessels. The following issues are discussed: lungs, pleura, mediastinum; heart and vascular system; upper abdomen organs; gastrointestinal tract; urogenital system.

  10. 17 CFR 200.72 - Supervision of internal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision of internal organization. 200.72 Section 200.72 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.72 Supervision...

  11. The Education Policies of International Organizations: Specific Differences and Convergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Lauwerier, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that international organizations play in orienting education reforms and changes, based on an examination of key texts these organizations produced in the 1990s. The analysis shows that some specific trends persist: UNESCO and UNICEF centre their philosophy on a humanistic and child-centered vision of education,…

  12. International cooperation between organizations conducting independent comparative product tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Szarek

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the fields and the rules of international cooperation between organizations conducting independent comparative product tests. It identifies the benefits and limitations of this cooperation. As a result, it formulates a set of recommendations regarding further integration of these organizations in the days of globalization and dissemination of the Internet.

  13. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 ± 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 ± 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 ± 189 × 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 ± 87 × 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 ± 0.9 compared with 13.0 ± 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively. PMID:26282524

  14. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  15. 19 CFR 145.39 - Articles for diplomatic officers, representatives of international organizations, and foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of international organizations, and foreign military personnel. 145.39 Section 145.39 Customs Duties..., representatives of international organizations, and foreign military personnel. Free entry of articles in mail articles addressed to diplomatic officers, representatives of certain international organizations,...

  16. Interns at an International, Humanitarian Organization: Career Pathways and Meaning Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career shaping experiences and related meaning making processes of 12 interns at The Carter Center, an international, humanitarian organization. Experiences shaping participants' careers were grouped into the following themes--academics and intellectual curiosity; travel abroad; religion; relationships--family,…

  17. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  18. E-LEARNING EXPERIENCE WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORTED SOFTWARE: An International Application on English Language Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Utku; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, artificial intelligence supported e-learning scenarios are widely employed by educational institutions in order to ensure better teaching and learning experiences along educational activities. In the context of performed scientific studies, positive results often encourage such institutions to apply their intelligent e-learning systems on different types of courses and report advantages of artificial intelligent in especially education field. It seems that the future of education w...

  19. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  20. Optimized removal of dissolved organic carbon and trace organic contaminants during combined ozonation and artificial groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, U; Miehe, U; Jekel, M

    2012-11-15

    Pilot scale experiments using an 8 g/h ozonation unit and a 1.4 m(2) slow sand filter have demonstrated that the combination of ozonation and artificial groundwater recharge is suitable for efficient reduction of bulk and trace organics. The biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the slow sand filter was enhanced from 22% without pre-treatment to 34% by pre-ozonation. In addition, realistic surface water concentrations of most investigated trace organic compounds (TrOCs) including carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, phenazone and metoprolol were reduced below the limits of quantification. Only a few TrOCs, e.g. primidone and benzotriazole, were not efficiently removed in both treatment steps and could be detected regularly in the filter effluent. For these compounds, enhanced treatment, such as advanced oxidation processes, needs to be considered. Testing for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity did not reveal any systematic adverse effects for human health. The formation of the by-product bromate from bromide was below the limit of the German drinking water directive of 10 μg/L. No removal of bromate was observed in the aerobic slow sand filter. Additional experiments with sand columns showed that operating a preceding bank filtration step to reduce DOC can reduce oxidant demand by approximately 20%. PMID:23014565

  1. Artificial neural network with self-organizing mapping for reactor stability monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In BWR stability monitoring damping ratio has been used as a stability index. A method for estimating the damping ratio by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to neutron detector signals measured with local power range monitors (LPRMs) had been developed; In this method, measured fluctuating signal is decomposed into some independent components and the signal component directly related to stability is extracted among them to determine the damping ratio. For online monitoring, it is necessary to select stability related signal component efficiently. The self-organizing map (SOM) is one of the artificial neural networks and has the characteristics such that online learning is possible without supervised learning within a relatively short time. In the present study, the SOM was applied to extract the relevant signal component more quickly and more accurately, and the availability was confirmed through the feasibility study. (author)

  2. GLOBALIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND ORGANIZED PROSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Erokhina Lioudmila Dmitrievna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the international organized prostitution in the Eastern region as a consequence of poverty, state economic policy, imperfection to international trade, and debt bondage, and the practice patriarchal cultural norms, cultivating male superiority in sexual relations. The methodological basis of general scientific principles constitute scientific research, an integrated approach to the study of the processes of human trafficking. On the basis of Russian and fo...

  3. Competing in Organizations: Firm Heterogeneity and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Dalia; Verdier, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a theory which investigates how firms’ choice of corporate organization is affecting firm performance and the nature of competition in international markets. We develop a model in which firms’ organisational choices determine heterogeneity across firms in size and productivity in the same industry. We then incorporate these organisational choices in a Krugman cum Melitz and Ottaviano model of international trade. We show that the toughness of competition in a market de...

  4. Development of Ukrainian organic products sector in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Kalinichenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analysis of international experience use specifics for organic farming efficient development in domestic agricultural practice. It was marked that significant contribution to the development of this sector was made by foreign financial donors. Technical and information support from these projects gave Ukrainian specialists the opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills, exchange experience. The review of the most interesting, according to the authors, local practices of cultivation, processing and marketing of organic products, that have been implemented through international projects or common agro business activities.

  5. Principles of the institutional law of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Amerasinghe-Chittharanjan, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Dr Amerasinghe starts with a brief history of international organizations. In fourteen substantive chapters, he then deals with subjects such as interpretation, membership and representation, the doctrine of "ultra vires", responsibility, liability of members to third parties, internal law and employment relations, privileges and immunities, dispute settlement, and, finally, dissolution and succession. There is a full and detailed examination of the problems connected with each of these subjects. The primary object of the book is to discuss principles, but Dr Amerasinghe also studies the law and practice of different organizations, using a rigourous analysis of the material alongside his functional examination of the law.

  6. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; LEOVARIDIS, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  7. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; LEOVARIDIS, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  8. Internal communication in an organization utilizing new ways of working

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliola, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The aim of this case study was to explore and describe the nature of and relationship between internal communication and new ways of working. Although information technology has been a central part of work in organizations for decades, it is only recently that work has become truly mobile and organizations have started implementing strategies and solutions that allow employees to work anywhere and anytime. The overall research problem of this thesis was: What is th...

  9. Nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC losses from an artificially drained grassland on organic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tiemeyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrogen (DON concentrations and losses were studied for three respectively two years in a small catchment dominated by a degraded peatland used as intensive grassland. Concentrations in the shallow groundwater were spatially and temporally very variable with NO3-N being the most dynamic component (7.3 ± 12.5 mg L–1. Average NO3-N concentrations of 10.3 ± 5.4 mg L–1 in the ditch draining the catchment and annual NO3-N losses of 19, 35 and 26 kg ha–1 confirmed drained peatlands as an important source of diffuse N pollution. The highest NO3-N losses occurred during the wettest year. Resulting from concentrations of 2.4 ± 0.8 mg L–1, DON added further 4.5 to 6.4 kg ha–1 to the N losses and thus formed a relevant component of the total N losses. Ditch DOC concentrations of 24.9 ± 5.9 mg L–1 resulted in DOC losses of 66 kg ha–1 in the wet year 2006/07 and 39 kg ha–1 in the dry year 2007/08. Both DOC and N concentrations were governed by hydrological conditions, but NO3-N reacted much faster and clearer on rising discharge rates than DOC which tended to be higher under dryer conditions. In the third year of the study, the superposition of a very wet summer and land use changes from grassland to arable land in a part of the catchment suggests that under re-wetting conditions with a high groundwater table in summer, NO3-N would diminish quickly, while DOC would remain on a similar level. Further intensification of the land use, on the other hand, would increase N losses to receiving water bodies.

  10. 20 CFR 404.1034 - Work for an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work for an international organization. 404.1034 Section 404.1034 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work...

  11. Power Positions: International Organizations, Social Networks, and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner-Burton, Emilie M.; Montgomery, Alexander H.

    2006-01-01

    A growing number of international relations scholars argue that intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) promote peace. Existing approaches emphasize IGO membership as an important causal attribute of individual states, much like economic development and regime type. The authors use social network analysis to show that IGO memberships also create a…

  12. World Regionalization of Higher Education: Policy Proposals for International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Prado Yepes, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    International organizations dealing with higher education should pay more attention to the rise of autonomous world regional processes and explore synergies. This article gives an overview of new macro-regional processes around the world. The European case is the most salient, but developments in America and East Asia are also noticeable. In the…

  13. Human Capital Development in the International Organization: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulvisaechana, Somboon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present empirical evidence of the nature of corporate rhetoric in developing human capital and how it becomes embedded within a large international organization operating in the Nordic region. The qualitative case study aims to examine the sensemaking of individual managers, and how human capital rhetoric…

  14. How to Brand an International Organization. NATO Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Mihaita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Branding products and companies has always been associated with private enterprises and less, if ever, with international intergovernmental organizations. International organizations now have a long history behind them, a history often marked by contradictory events. In the last decade the international organizations developed their own public relations department in an attempt to communicate promptly and transmit the general audience their version of reality. Having this in mind we will try to briefly present in the current work the main reasons why we believe that the international organizations, NATO in particular, have started to see themselves as brand and to create a so called “commercial identity” by becoming a brand. By applying the conceptual and analytical framework used in analyzing the marketing strategies of the private companies we will try to see whether NATO is about to become a brand. Our starting point will be a 2008 statement of Jean-François Bureau, deputy general secretary responsible with NATO’s public diplomacy: “We have the green light to think about a branding policy for NATO”. Nowadays global society, perceptions tend to become more important than reality itself, and thus positive perceptions tend to become crucial. NATO has suffered an image decline in the last decade, therefore some new communication measures tend to impose themselves. The distinction between soft power and propaganda must be carefully analyzed when we speak about branding NATO. Thus we hope to bring some necessary clarifications in the area of NATO branding. Is there a brand? Is a brand going to be constructed? How does it differ from a commercial society? Does NATO need its own TV channel? Raising questions and offering a new perspective is, in the end, our primary goal, as a debate on this subject is a must that offers a new perspective in the area of theory of international organizations.

  15. Artificial and enhanced humification of soil organic matter using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Chan; Kim, Han S

    2013-04-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation, a less energy-intensive irradiation technique, was employed to promote the changes in physicochemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM). MW was irradiated to forest soils for 10 min. Then, the physical and chemical properties of the SOM were analyzed with UV absorbance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Also, the SOM was fractionated into biopolymer, fulvic acid, and humic acid, and each fraction was analyzed quantitatively. These analyses revealed that the SOM became more aromatic and nonpolar, highly condensed, and macromolecular organic substances that possess a higher amount of functional groups found in highly humified substances than the original SOM as a result of the MW irradiation. The humification-like alteration of SOM property was attributable to the thermal cracking and to the radical reaction, particularly when the MW was irradiated along with activated carbon under the aerobic condition. The results of this study suggest that the artificial and enhanced property changes of SOM can be accomplished by MW irradiation on an engineering time scale, which can contribute to the successful soil and groundwater remediation practice. PMID:22895631

  16. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  17. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  18. Presence in International Organisms: A Policy for a Collective Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What does the presence of Spaniards in international organisations signify and entail? Why, for what, and how should this be promoted? In order to answer such questions, the author analyses the meaning and implications of this presence in a globalised world in which a commitment to effective multilateralism entails a commitment to the international organisms as forums for and actors in global governance, and their presence in our societies and lives. This means both the promoting of Spanish presence in the administrations inwhich the proposals are formed which embody the general interest of the international organisations, like the multilateralisation of Spanish society. For this reason, in the framework of its multilateral policy, Spain is currently developing a policy of promoting the presence of Spaniards in international organisations in the areas of information, training, promotion and incentives, the outlines and results of which are described in this article.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(16)-1 - Services in employ of international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(16)-1 Services in employ of international organization. (a) Subject to the... in the employ of an international organization as defined in section 7701(a)(18) are excepted from...) International organization. The term “international organization” means a public international...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(15)-1 - Services in employ of international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization. (a) Subject to the provisions of section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288), services performed in the employ of an international organization as defined in section... with the intent thereof— (18) International organization. The term “international organization” means...

  1. Tracing the decomposition of dissolved organic carbon in artificial recharge by carbon isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the challenges in artificial recharge for drinking water purposes is to decrease the relatively high content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters. Two processes have been suggested to have an effect on diminishing the concentrations of DOC in infiltrated water during artificial recharge: 1) Either organic matter is adsorbed on the surfaces of soil particles, or 2) DOC is oxidized and decomposed by bacterially mediated processes. Geochemical concentration and microbiological activity data have, however, proved to be insufficient for getting quantitative evidence for comparison of these models. We applied the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the recharged water as a tracer for redox processes and decomposition of DOC. The study site is an artificial groundwater plant at Janiksenlinna in southern Finland. Surface water is artificially recharged into an unconfined shallow aquifer by pond infiltration. Infiltrated surface water is derived from Lake Paijanne, a large lake in middle Finland. Water samples were collected from infiltrated surface water and groundwater at varying distances from the infiltration plant. The samples were analysed for the contents of the major dissolved components, DOC and the isotopic composition of carbon in DIC. In addition, the 18O/16O and D/H ratios of water were determined in order to calculate mixing ratios between local groundwater and infiltrated surface water. The δ18O and δD end member compositions for mixing calculations were based on a monitoring period of two years. The δ13CDIC value in recharge waters was -10.4 per mille, which differed significantly from the composition of local groundwaters, with δ13CDIC at -20.8 per mille. The recharged water recorded a considerable decrease in δ13CDIC from -10.4 per mille in the pond to -16.3 per mille in the first observation well, at a distance of 30 metres. No admixture of local groundwater was observed in this well based on oxygen and

  2. Tracing the decomposition of dissolved organic carbon in artificial recharge by carbon isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the challenges in artificial recharge for drinking water purposes is to decrease the relatively high content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters. Two processes have been suggested to have an effect on diminishing the concentrations of DOC in infiltrated water during artificial recharge: 1) Either organic matter is adsorbed on the surfaces of soil particles, or 2) DOC is oxidized and decomposed by bacterially mediated processes. Geochemical concentration and microbiological activity data have, however, proved to be insufficient for getting quantitative evidence for comparison of these models. We applied the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the recharged water as a tracer for redox processes and decomposition of DOC. The study site is an artificial groundwater plant at Janiksenlinna in southern Finland. Surface water is artificially recharged into an unconfined shallow aquifer by pond infiltration. Infiltrated surface water is derived from Lake Paijanne, a large lake in middle Finland. Water samples were collected from infiltrated surface water and groundwater at varying distances from the infiltration plant. The samples were analysed for the contents of the major dissolved components, DOC and the isotopic composition of carbon in DIC. In addition, the δ18O/16O and D/H ratios of water were determined in order to calculate mixing ratios between local groundwater and infiltrated surface water. The 18O and δD end member compositions for mixing calculations were based on a monitoring period of two years. The δ13CDIC value in recharge waters was -10.4 per mille, which differed significantly from the composition of local groundwaters, with δ13CDIC at -20.8 per mille. The recharged water recorded a considerable decrease in δ13CDIC from -10.4 per mille in the pond to -16.3 per mille in the first observation well, at a distance of 30 metres. No admixture of local groundwater was observed in this well based on oxygen and

  3. Organizations And Services In The System Of International Aviation Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Travnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author reveals the order of creation, structure, aims and objectives of national and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations, governing procedure for flight operations and providing direct air traffic control over sovereign territory and abroad. In this article, author notes that in the world there are three main organizational and legal forms of air traffic control systems to ensure coordination between civil and military air navigation services (agencies. In the Russian Federation, author notes that air navigation services on behalf of the State are made by the State Corporation for Air Traffic Management that has the legal status of the commercial organization - the Federal State Unitary Enterprise. Author analyzes the work of the Organization for the Civil Air Navigation Services (CANSO, the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers (IFATCA. During the study author also concludes that in the past decade, there is the steady trend of transferring functions of air navigation from the State to commercial organizations (joint stock companies and limited liability companies, which are financed from the funds received as payment for air traffic services. The responsibility for the improper maintenance of international air navigation, of course, is borne by the State. Author notes that regional and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations operate in respect of all aircraft (public, civil, experimental, i.e., perform general air navigation, unlike ICAO, which takes standards and recommended practices, rules and procedures for safety and air traffic services only to civil aircraft, that does not ensure the creation of a regulatory framework for the global unification of aeronautical processes.

  4. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; LIN Min; QIAO Fang-Li; HOU Yi-Jun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of-2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed.

  5. Workshop NotesInternational Workshop ``What can FCA do for Artificial Intelligence?'' (FCA4AI 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Sergei O.; Napoli, Amedeo; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This volume includes the proceedings of the fourth edition of the FCA4AI --What can FCA do for Artificial Intelligence?-- Workshop co-located with the IJCAI 2015 Conference in Buenos Aires (Argentina). Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is a mathematically well-founded theory aimed at data analysis and classification. FCA allows one to build a concept lattice and a system of dependencies (implications) which can be used for many AI needs, e.g. knowledge discovery, learning, knowledge representatio...

  6. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous...-HazMat@faa.gov . Please include your name, organization, email address, and indicate whether you...

  7. Efficiency analysis of organic Rankine cycle with internal heat exchanger using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Fatih; Selbaş, Reşat; Şahin, Arzu Şencan

    2016-02-01

    In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) has been used for efficiency analysis of the organic Rankine cycle with internal heat exchanger (IHEORC) using refrigerants R410a, R407c which do not damage to ozone layer. It is well known that the evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, subcooling temperature and superheating temperature affect the thermal efficiency of IHEORC. In this study, thermal efficiency is estimated depending on the above temperatures. The results of ANN are compared with actual results. The coefficient of determination values obtained when the test set were used to the networks were 0.99946 and 0.999943 for the R410a and R407c respectively which is very satisfactory.

  8. Cooperation between International Organizations in Complex Emergencies in Eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Schaub Jr, Gary John; LeRiche, Matthew

    coordinate have been made at various levels—between governments, between organizations, and between local actors. Some improvements in effectiveness are being observed. Since 2005, Danish development policy has tried to take these efforts into account, as do policies that are still under development. The......This report addresses the challenges of cooperation between international organizations in complex emergencies in fragile states of East Africa. An expert seminar was conducted on the basis of a paper on the subject to discuss problems, challenges, and possible solutions. Denmark and the rest of...

  9. Organizing of Virtual Enterprise for Customized Artificial Joint and Scheduling of Manufacturing Resources Based on Manufacturing Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Hong; CHEN Li; WANG Cheng-tao; DENG Qian-qi

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve efficiency of developing customized artificial joint, a virtual enterprise is organized based on the manufacturing grid. The application-oriented framework of the virtual enterprise is created for organization of the virtual enterprise. The manufacturing system of the virtual enterprise is built up based on the exterior grid and manufacturing subsystems of member enterprises are set up based on the interior grid. Furthermore, according to characteristic matching of manufacturing resources, the scheduling flow is studied in detail and the related scheduling strategies are established. The scheduling procedure is divided into distributed scheduling stage and local scheduling stage.Based on the manufacturing grid, the organization of the virtual enterprise for customized artificial joint and the corresponding scheduling strategies can be utilized to shorten developing cycle and reduce produce cost.

  10. The International Atomic Energy Agency: Structure, organs, and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a special organization of the UN system the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) bears world-wide responsibility for the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear power as well as for the control of preventing its misuse for non-peaceful purposes. Based on this fundamental objective of the IAEA a survey of structure, organs and practice of the Agency is given. Particularly, those special programmes are detailed which are of importance to the use of nuclear power for energy generation, and those contributions of the IAEA are concerned which it has to make as the international control authority to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In conclusions, the future activities of the IAEA and the cooperation of the GDR with the IAEA are dealt with. (author)

  11. Self Organizing Map of Artificial Neural Network for Defining Level of Service Criteria of Urban Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smruti Sourava Mohapatra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In India, Level of Service (LOS is not well defined for urban streets. The analysis procedure followed in India is that developed by HCM 2000. Speed ranges of LOS categories for various urban Street Classes defined by HCM are appropriate for developed countries having homogenous type of traffic flow. India being a developing country its traffic is very much heterogeneous having vehicles of different operational characteristics. Therefore, LOS criteria in Indian context should be defined correctly considering the traffic and geometric characteristics of urban streets. Defining LOS is basically a classification problem and application of cluster analysis is found to be a suitable technique to solve the problem. Self Organizing Map (SOM a type of Artificial Neural Network (ANN used to solve this classification problem. For this study, lot of speed data is required for which GPS is found to be the most suitable method of data collection and hence extensively used. Free flow speed (FFS and average travel speed during peak and off peak hours inventory of road segments are used in this study. FFS ranges for different urban Street Classes and speed ranges of LOS categories found to be lower than that mentioned in HCM-2000.

  12. Artificial neural network with self-organizing mapping for reactor stability monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In boiling water reactor (BWR) stability monitoring, damping ratio has been used as a stability index. A method for estimating the damping ratio by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to neutron detector signals measured with local power range monitors (LPRMs) had been developed; in this method, measured fluctuating signal is decomposed into some independent components and the signal components directly related to stability are extracted among them to determine the damping ratio. For online monitoring, it is necessary to select stability related signal components efficiently. The self-organizing map (SOM) is one of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and has the characteristics such that online learning is possible without supervised learning within a relatively short time. In the present study, the SOM was applied to extract the relevant signal components more quickly and more accurately, and the availability was confirmed through the feasibility study. For realizing online stability monitoring only with ANNs, another type of ANN that performs online processing of PCA was combined with SOM. And stability monitoring performance was investigated. (author)

  13. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Mauro; Manzoni, Luca; Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge. PMID:27313604

  14. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge. PMID:27313604

  15. Do international non governmental organizations have a corporate social responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Nyhuus, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The assumption that International Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs) are actors without social, economic, or political impact is becoming increasingly untenable. With an average of 270 million people affected by natural disasters every year and millions affected by war- or conflict, and with INGOs fulfilling the rights of citizens in the absence of a functioning state, the INGOs activities are affecting millions of people every year. In this thesis I explore the role and responsibility of...

  16. Self-organized internal architectures of chiral micro-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal architecture of polymeric self-assembled chiral micro-particles is studied by exploring the effect of the chirality, of the particle sizes, and of the interface/surface properties in the ordering of the helicoidal planes. The experimental investigations, performed by means of different microscopy techniques, show that the polymeric beads, resulting from light induced polymerization of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets, preserve both the spherical shape and the internal self-organized structures. The method used to create the micro-particles with controlled internal chiral architectures presents great flexibility providing several advantages connected to the acquired optical and photonics capabilities and allowing to envisage novel strategies for the development of chiral colloidal systems and materials

  17. Hydrologic control of dissolved organic matter concentration and quality in a semiarid artificially drained agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, Rebecca A.; Harrison, John A.; Needoba, Joseph A.; Brooks, Erin S.; Kent Keller, C.

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural practices have altered watershed-scale dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics, including in-stream concentration, biodegradability, and total catchment export. However, mechanisms responsible for these changes are not clear, and field-scale processes are rarely directly linked to the magnitude and quality of DOM that is transported to surface water. In a small (12 ha) agricultural catchment in eastern Washington State, we tested the hypothesis that hydrologic connectivity in a catchment is the dominant control over the concentration and quality of DOM exported to surface water via artificial subsurface drainage. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and humic-like components of DOM decreased while the Fluorescence Index and Freshness Index increased with depth through the soil profile. In drain discharge, these characteristics were significantly correlated with drain flow across seasons and years, with drain DOM resembling deep sources during low-flow and shallow sources during high flow, suggesting that DOM from shallow sources bypasses removal processes when hydrologic connectivity in the catchment is greatest. Assuming changes in streamflow projected for the Palouse River (which contains the study catchment) under the A1B climate scenario (rapid growth, dependence on fossil fuel, and renewable energy sources) apply to the study catchment, we project greater interannual variability in annual DOC export in the future, with significant increases in the driest years. This study highlights the variability in DOM inputs from agricultural soil to surface water on daily to interannual time scales, pointing to the need for a more nuanced understanding of agricultural impacts on DOM dynamics in surface water.

  18. 26 CFR 1.892-6T - Income of international organizations (temporary regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of international organizations (temporary... International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288) (the provisions of which are set forth in paragraph..., exemptions, and immunities provided in the International Organizations Immunities Act may enjoy the...

  19. J-aggregates of amphiphilic cyanine dyes: Self-organization of artificial light harvesting complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kirstein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous chemical linkage of cyanine dye chromophores with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substituents leads to a new type of amphiphilic molecules with the ability of spontaneous self-organization into highly ordered aggregates of various structures and morphologies. These aggregates carry the outstanding optical properties of J-aggregates, namely, efficient exciton coupling and fast exciton energy migration, which are essential for the build up of artificial light harvesting systems. The morphology of the aggregates depends sensitively on the molecular structure of the chemical substituents of the dye chromophore. Accordingly, lamellar ribbon-like structures, vesicles , tubes, and bundles of tubes are found depending on the dyes and the structure can further be altered by addition of surfactants, alcohols, or other additives. Altogether the tubular structure is the most noticeable structural motif of these types of J-aggregates. The optical spectra are characterized in general by a complex exciton spectrum which is composed of several electronic transitions. The spectrum is red-shifted as a total with respect to the monomer absorption and exhibits resonance fluorescence from the lowest energy transition. For the tubular structures, the optical spectra can be related to a structural model. Although the molecules itself are strictly achiral, a pronounced circular dichroism (CD is observed for the tubular aggregates and explained by unequal distribution of left- and right-handed helicity of the tubes. Photo-induced electron transfer (PET reactions from the dye aggregates to electron acceptor molecules lead to superquenching which proves the delocalization of the excitation. This property is used to synthesize metal nanoparticles on the aggregate surface by photo-induced reduction of metal ions.

  20. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller–Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics. (paper)

  1. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Gil; Shklarsh, Adi; Kalisman, Oren; Ingham, Colin; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller-Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics.

  2. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.

  3. ANIMALES TRANSGÉNICOS COMO ORGANISMOS ARTIFICIALES ANIMAIS TRANSGÊNICOS COMO ORGANISMOS ARTIFICIAIS TRANSGENIC ANIMALS AS ARTIFICIAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bota Arqué

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La modificación genética de organismos vivos ha generado interrogantes éticos de difícil solución. La búsqueda de marcos conceptuales lleva a plantear si ha habido una modificación del estatuto ontológico de los organismos alterados por la biotecnología. Este artículo realiza una aproximación al organismo biotecnológico a partir del pensamiento de los filósofos José Ortega y Gasset y Xavier Zubiri acerca del hombre y de la técnica, conceptualizando el objeto artificial biotecnológico como "organismo artificial", con la particularidad de ser el primer objeto producido por el hombre que se reproduce independientementeA modificação genética de organismos vivos gerou interrogativos éticos de difícil solução. A busca de marcos conceituais leva a questionar se ocorreu uma modificação do estatuto ontológico dos organismos modificados pela biotecnologia. Este artigo realiza uma aproximação ao organismo biotecnológico a partir do pensamento dos filósofos José Ortega y Gasset e Xavier Zubiri a respeito do homem e da técnica. Conceptualiza o objeto artificial biotecnológico como um "organismo artificial", com a particularidade de ser o primeiro objeto produzido pelo homem que se reproduz independentementeThe possibility of genetic modification of living organisms has generated ethical questions of difficult solution. The searching for conceptual frames has put into question whether the ontological status of organisms altered by biotechnology has been changed. This paper approaches the biotechnological organism following the thinking of philosophers Ortega y Gasset and Xavier Zubiri, based on their view on anthropology and technology conceptualizing the biotechnological artificial object as an "artificial organism" with the particularity that it is the first object produced by human beings which reproduces independently

  4. 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations (KMO)

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Francisco; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Juan; 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations: Service and Cloud Computing

    2013-01-01

    The seventh International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations (KMO) brings together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on knowledge management in organisations.   KMO 2012 provides an international forum for authors to present and discuss research focused on the role of knowledge management for innovative services in industries, to shed light on recent advances in cloud computing for KM as well as to identify future directions for researching the role of knowledge management in service innovation and how cloud computing can be used to address many of the issues currently facing KM in academia and industrial sectors. The conference took place at Salamanca in Spain on the 11th-13th July in 2012.

  5. International language management and diversity climate in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related to...... internationalization is how to develop and support an environment that is tolerant of the diversity which exists in multicultural organizations. Based on questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic multicultural departments, we examined the relation between the management of a common language and a positive...... association with openness to value and informational diversity. Since there is no similar study on international language management with so many respondents, the findings may be of considerable theoretical and practical importance. Implications of these findings are discussed in detail....

  6. International Conference Migration Management and International Organizations in the 20th Century, Athens, April 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Parsanoglou, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    The conference was organized as part of the research project Migration Management and International Organizations: A history of the Establishment of the International Organization for Migration (http://mimio.uop.gr/site/?q=en). The rationale of the conference was built upon two main axes: on the one hand, it aimed at problematizing the concept of “migration management”; on the other hand, it called for an integration of “migration management” into the general history of International Organiza...

  7. 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    SNPD 2016

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2016) which was held on May 30 - June 1, 2016 in Shanghai, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  8. 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 16th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2015) which was held on June 1 – 3, 2015 in Takamatsu, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  9. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen. PMID:27357046

  10. Estimation of equivalent internal-resistance of PEM fuel cell using artificial neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A practical method of estimation for the internal-resistance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack was adopted based on radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. In the training process, k-means clustering algorithm was applied to select the network centers of the input training data. Furthermore, an equivalent electrical-circuit model with this internal-resistance was developed for investigation on the stack. Finally using the neural networks model of the equivalent resistance in the PEMFC stack, the simulation results of the estimation of equivalent internal-resistance of PEMFC were presented. The results show that this electrical PEMFC model is effective and is suitable for the study of control scheme, fault detection and the engineering analysis of electrical circuits.

  11. Changes in dissolved organic carbon during artificial recharge of groundwater in a forested esker in Southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Kitunen, Veikko; Derome, John; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2002-12-01

    Sprinkling infiltration in a forested esker leading to artificial recharge of groundwater was studied in Southern Finland. Changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the molecular size distribution and chemical properties of the organic carbon were investigated during the infiltration process. Artificial groundwater was produced using sprinkling infiltration directly onto the forest floor. One result of lake water infiltration through the organic horizon and I m thick mineral soil layer was a slight net increase in the DOC concentrations from 9.4 mg/L in the infiltration water to 13.2 mg/ L in percolation water. This indicates that the forest soil represents a potential input of organic matter into infiltration water. However, the DOC concentrations decreased by 27-38% as the infiltration water percolated down through the unsaturated soil layer into the groundwater zone. At a distance of 1450 m from the infiltration area, the mean DOC concentration in the groundwater was below the recommended value for drinking water in Finland of 2.0 mg/L. There was a strong reduction in the concentrations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids, but only a slight decrease in hydrophilic neutral organic compounds during the infiltration process. The DOC in the production well consisted of low molecular size fractions. Larger molecular size fractions were removed effectively from the water during the infiltration process. PMID:12448542

  12. The Role Of Soft Law Acts In The Mechanism Of Functioning Of International Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Olga N. Shpakovych; Sergey D. Belockiy

    2014-01-01

    Present article focuses on the norms of soft law in the framework of international organizations. Today majority of scientists become an interesting phenomenon decision of international organizations which are increasingly sound as a category of "soft law" and its influence on the development of international law in general. International organizations cease to be the "second" subject of international law, and if you have not won the first place, it is only a matter of time. In the article th...

  13. INTERNAL CONTROL ORGANIZATION: PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTIONS ACCORDING TO THE FOREIGN PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bespalova, D.; Tatarovskaya, T.

    2013-01-01

    Importance of internal control implementation is proved by western enterprises experi- ences and modern researches. In the article the main approaches to internal control organization are repre- sented. Problems of internal control effectiveness estimation and its limitations are considered

  14. 48 CFR 1445.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 1445.302 Section 1445.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Government Property 1445.302 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. The HCA... governments or international organizations request use of Government production and research property...

  15. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... international organizations. 560.539 Section 560.539 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... activities of certain international organizations. (a) General license. Except as provided in paragraph (b... accounts of the international organizations covered in this paragraph, provided that funds transfers to...

  16. 48 CFR 245.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 245.302 Section 245.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... international organizations. (1) General. (i) Approval. A contractor may use Government property on work for foreign governments and international organizations only when approved in writing by the...

  17. 48 CFR 3445.405 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 3445.405 Section 3445.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Rental of Government Property 3445.405 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. Requests by, or for the benefit of, foreign governments or international organizations to use ED...

  18. 29 CFR 452.27 - National, international organizations, and intermediate bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National, international organizations, and intermediate..., international organizations, and intermediate bodies. The officers of a national or international labor organization or of an intermediate body must be elected either directly by secret ballot among the members...

  19. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... regard to Annex 6 6.5: Coordination with international organizations (e.g. UPU) Agenda Item 7: Other... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO)...

  20. 48 CFR 45.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 45.302 Section 45.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Government Property 45.302 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. Requests by, or for the benefit of, foreign Governments or international organizations to use Government...

  1. 19 CFR 148.89 - Property of public international organizations and foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property of public international organizations and... Personnel of Foreign Governments and International Organizations and Special Treatment for Returning Individuals § 148.89 Property of public international organizations and foreign governments. (a)...

  2. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  3. A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic field-effect transistors for artificial skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Takao; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Iba, Shingo; Kato, Yusaku; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2004-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that skin sensitivity will be very important for future robots used by humans in daily life for housekeeping and entertainment purposes. Despite this fact, relatively little progress has been made in the field of pressure recognition compared to the areas of sight and voice recognition, mainly because good artificial "electronic skin" with a large area and mechanical flexibility is not yet available. The fabrication of a sensitive skin consisting of thousands of pressure sensors would require a flexible switching matrix that cannot be realized with present silicon-based electronics. Organic field-effect transistors can substitute for such conventional electronics because organic circuits are inherently flexible and potentially ultralow in cost even for a large area. Thus, integration of organic transistors and rubber pressure sensors, both of which can be produced by low-cost processing technology such as large-area printing technology, will provide an ideal solution to realize a practical artificial skin, whose feasibility has been demonstrated in this paper. Pressure images have been taken by flexible active matrix drivers with organic transistors whose mobility reaches as high as 1.4 cm2/V·s. The device is electrically functional even when it is wrapped around a cylindrical bar with a 2-mm radius.

  4. The legal status of NGOs in international governance and its relevance for the legitimacy of international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kissling, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This working paper introduces the concept of legal personality of non-state actors as an indicator of the democratic legitimacy of international organizations (IOs). Globalization has led to changes in statehood which are reflected in new democratic forms of participation and new expectations and attitudes towards political institutions. This also affects international politics in that international organizations are questioned with regard to their own legitimacy. In this context, normatively...

  5. Fate of selected pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds during artificial aquifer recharge using surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Rosell, Mònica; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-05-01

    The artificial recharge of aquifers has become a valuable tool to increase water resources for drinking water production in many countries. In this work a total of 41 organic pollutants belonging to the classes of pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been monitored in the water from two artificial recharge plants located in Sweden and Denmark. The results from two sampling campaigns performed in each plant indicate good chemical status of the source water, as the contaminants detected were present at very low levels, far from those established in the legislation as maximum admissible concentrations (when existing) and far from those considered as a risk. Thus, of the 17 pesticides investigated, BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide), desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, metolachlor, and diazinon were the only compounds detected, and total pesticides levels were below 25ng L(-1), respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate was the only estrogen detected, at concentrations lower than 0.5ng L(-1). Progestogens were not found in any sample. Detected VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were below 0.04microg L(-1). The efficiency of elimination of these organic contaminants was poor as no significant decrease in their concentrations was observed through the recharge process. PMID:20226495

  6. Internal mixing of the organic aerosol by gas phase diffusion of semivolatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that most of the so far identified constituents of the tropospheric organic particulate matter belong to a semivolatile fraction for which gas phase diffusion in the lower troposphere is sufficiently fast to establish thermodynamic equilibrium between aerosol particles. For the first time analytical expressions for this process are derived. Inspection of vapor pressure data of a series of organic substances allows a rough estimate for which substances this mixing process must be considered. As general benchmarks we conclude that for typical aerosol radii between 0.1 and 1 µm this mixing process is efficient at 25°C for polar species with molecular weights up to 200 and for non-polar species up to 320. At −10°C, these values are shifted to 150 for polar and to 270 for non-polar substances. The extent of mixing of this semivolatile fraction is governed by equilibrium thermodynamics, leading to a selectively, though not completely, internally mixed aerosol. The internal mixing leads to a systematic depression of melting and deliquescence points of organic and mixed organic/inorganic aerosols, thus leading to an aerosol population in the lower troposphere which is predominantly liquid.

  7. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-01-01

    In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negat...

  8. How the symbol grounding of living organisms can be realized in artificial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hateren, J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    A system with artificial intelligence usually relies on symbol manipulation, at least partly and implicitly. However, the interpretation of the symbols - what they represent and what they are about - is ultimately left to humans, as designers and users of the system. How symbols can acquire meaning for the system itself, independent of external interpretation, is an unsolved problem. Some grounding of symbols can be obtained by embodiment, that is, by causally connecting symbols (or sub-symbo...

  9. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  10. [Comparative study of the lymphoid organs of rats aboard a space flight under weightless and artificial gravity conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnova, G N

    1978-11-01

    A comparative histological investigation of the thymus, spleen and inguinal lymph nodes has been performed in the rats flown for 18.5 days on board the biosatellite "Cosmos-936" under the conditions of weightlessness and artificial gravitation (acceleration 1 g) imitating terrestrial magnetism. It has been stated that in the animals that were under the conditions of weightless ness during the flight and were sacrificed 4.5--13 h after they have landed the Earth, accidental involution of lymphoid organs is noted with morphological signs in them of an acute stress in the form of massive degeneration of the thymus lymphocytes and neutrophilic infiltration of the spleen. In rats that during the flight were subjected to the effect of artificial gravitation there was noted neither involution of the lymphoid organs nor morphological signs of acute stress in them. One of the main cause of acute stress in the rats subjected to weightlessness during the space flight is supposed to be transition to the terrestrial gravitation. PMID:736799

  11. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfanner, Florian [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany and Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Maier, Joscha [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Kachelrieß, Marc [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany and Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements

  12. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  13. Approximate Matching as a Key Technique in Organization of Natural and Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon

    2000-01-01

    The basic property of an intelligent system, natural or artificial, is "understanding". We consider the following formalization of the idea of "understanding" among information systems. When system I issues a request to system 2, it expects a certain kind of desirable reaction. If such a reaction occurs, system I assumes that its request was "understood". In application to simple, "push-button" systems the situation is trivial because in a small system the required relationship between input requests and desired outputs could be specified exactly. As systems grow, the situation becomes more complex and matching between requests and actions becomes approximate.

  14. Development of an artificial cell, from self-organization to computation and self-reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Noireaux, Vincent; Maeda, Yusuke T.; Libchaber, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the state and the development of an artificial cell project. We discuss the experimental constraints to synthesize the most elementary cell-sized compartment that can self-reproduce using synthetic genetic information. The original idea was to program a phospholipid vesicle with DNA. Based on this idea, it was shown that in vitro gene expression could be carried out inside cell-sized synthetic vesicles. It was also shown that a couple of genes could be expressed for a f...

  15. Removal of Organic Pollutants in Municipal Wastewater for Artificial Groundwater Recharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to construct a demonstration artificial groundwater recharge system for wastewater reuse in China, three years of laboratory work has been conducted on advanced treatment technologies in combination with soil aquifer treatment of secondary effluent from sewage treatment plants. An effective and inexpensive process was selected, which uses DGB adsorption, PAC coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozone disinfection, and soil aquifer treatment. The effluent meets the recommended water quality criteria for groundwater recharge. Ozonation is effective for disinfection as well as for water quality improvement. Results showed that the total N in the SAT system remained constant thus the secondary effluent must have a low NH3-N concentration for groundwater recharge.

  16. A Pelvic Phantom for Modeling Internal Organ Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pelvic phantom was developed for use in testing image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and adaptive applications in radiation therapy (ART) with simulating the anterior-posterior internal organ motions during prostate radiotherapy. Measurements could be done with an ionization chamber (IC) in the simulated prostate. The rectum was simulated by air-equivalent material (AEM). The volume superior to the IC placement was considered as the bladder. The extension of AEM volume could be varied. The vertical position of the IC placement could be shifted by ±1 cm to simulate the prostate motion parallel to the changes in bladder volume. The reality of the simulation was inspected. Three-millimeter-slice-increment computed tomography (CT) scans were taken for irradiation planning. The structure set was adapted to the phantom from a treated patient. Planning target volume was delineated according to the RTOG 0126 study. IMRT and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) plans were made. Prostate motion and rectum volume changes were simulated in the phantom. IC displacement was corrected by phantom shifting. The delivered dose was measured with IC in 7 cases using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3D-CRT fractions, and single square-shaped beams: anteroposterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), and lateral (LAT). Variations from the calculated doses were slightly below 1% at IMRT and around 1% at 3D-CRT; below 4.5% at square AP beam; up to 9% at square PA beam; and around 0.5% at square LAT beam. Other authors have already shown that by using planning systems and ultrasonic and cone beam CT guidance, correction of organ motions in a real patient during prostate cancer IGRT does not have a significant dosimetric effect. The inspection of our phantom-as described here-ended with similar results. Our team suggested that our model is sufficiently realistic and can be used for IGRT and ART testing.

  17. Distribution of Artificial Radioisotopes in Granulometric and Organic Fractions of Alluvial Soils Downstream the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of some artificial radionuclides discharged by the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) in different granulometric and organic fractions of alluvial soils was performed in the near and remote impact zones of the enterprise. Radionuclides were shown to concentrate in fine fractions enriched in hydro-mica and smectites. However in natural conditions the dominating size fraction associated with radionuclide accumulation at the study sites appeared to be made up of silt (0.010 mm) to clay (0.001 mm) sizes. Therefore due to radionuclide sorption and natural aggregation the peaks of a relatively high radionuclide mass accumulation were associated with three granulometric fractions: 60Co known for organic complexation were present in considerable relative amounts in the fraction of the most mobile low-molecular fulvic acids. (authors)

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  20. 28 CFR 5.303 - Exemption available to persons accredited to international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to international organizations. 5.303 Section 5.303 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... to persons accredited to international organizations. Persons designated by foreign governments as... Organizations Immunities Act, if they have been duly notified to and accepted by the Secretary of State as...

  1. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bottoming with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Three different working fluids are considered to represent the main classes of fluids, with reference to the shape of the vapour lines in the T-s diagram: overhanging, nearly isoentropic and bell shaped. First a parametric analysis is conducted in order to determine optimal evaporating pressures for each fluid. After which three different cycles setups are considered: a simple cycle with the use of only engine exhaust gases as a thermal source, a simple cycle with the use of exhaust gases and engine cooling water and a regenerated cycle. A second law analysis of the cycles is performed, with reference to the available heat sources. This is done in order to determine the best fluid and cycle configuration to be employed, the main parameters of the thermodynamic cycles and the overall efficiency of the combined power system. The analysis demonstrates that a 12% increase in the overall efficiency can be achieved with respect to the engine with no bottoming; nevertheless it has been observed that the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) can recover only a small fraction of the heat released by the engine through the cooling water.

  2. Internal Evaluation in a Developing Organization: Impediments to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegahn, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the United States Agency for International Development on the Lesotho Distance Teaching Center's (South Africa) attempt at internal evaluation is discussed. Internal evaluation is especially important as the Lesotho Center attempts to educate people to overcome some of the effects of poverty. (TJH)

  3. Meta-Strategies of the Internal Control Development within the Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Voronko

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the influence of external and internal environment of the organization on the structure of the internal control system. A critical analysis is made on existing scientific researches and practice of setting internal control within the organizations. Determined the cause-and-effect relationship between the stages of development of the industry and business, on the one hand, and the development of the internal control structure on the other hand. It made it p...

  4. Outside and inside competition for international organizations — from analysis to innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the competitive environment – monopoly, oligopoly or many competitors –in which international organizations act, has been neglected in scholarly research. Both this external and the internal type of competition in international organizations are rather weak and performance is far from ideal. To strengthen both types of competition, several tentative proposals are advanced. They range from the introduction of an international competition agency, the use of prediction mark...

  5. Development Of International Non-Governmental Organizations And Legal Traditions Of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the role of international non-governmental organizations in the maintenance and creation of a positive attitude to national legal traditions. The basic stages of development of international non-governmental organizations. Analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. Considered as the legal traditions of the Russian society are reflected in the activities of legal entities and individuals - members of international non-governmental organizations.

  6. ISSUES OF APPLICATION OF LAW OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL - RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Sergei Al.

    2015-01-01

    Globalization processes and common challenges for the entire planet have resulted in existence of international organizations. Nowadays, these organizations are established regarding every sphere of life, such as trade, world security, environment etc. Most importantly, some international organizations may found their own system of law and adopt obligatory decisions for its members, which concern a broad range of issues in a fi eld of international relations. Furthermore, these decisions may ...

  7. The role of international organizations in the spread of genetically modified food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić-Brankov Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international organizations on the direct or indirect way influence the diffusion of genetically modified (GM food. Particularly important role in this process play a World Bank (WB, World Trade Organization (WTO, Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR, the Organization for Food and Agriculture United Nations (FAO UN, various international foundations, universities and other scientific institutions. The paper concludes that taking in consideration, inequality of diffusion recognizing GM plant culture, ignoring the interests of poor farmers and countries, restrictions on technology transfer and general domination of the private sector, certain international organizations are trying to reconcile interest of multinational companies and the needs of the poor.

  8. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(5)-1 - Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government or international organization. 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL....3401(a)(5)-1 Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization. (a... are immaterial for purposes of the exception. (b) Services for international organization. (1)...

  9. Some approaches to the organization of internal audits at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety operation of NPPs substantially depends on efficiency of the operator's management system. It has become important to ensure greater effectiveness of internal audits as an integral part or the continuous improvement process. Several approaches have been suggested for planning of internal audits and preserving the experience of personnel at South Ukraine NPP

  10. Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Barbieri, Manuela; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Huerta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Artificial recharge improves several water quality parameters, but has only minor effects on recalcitrant pollutants. To improve the removal of these pollutants, we added a reactive barrier at the bottom of an infiltration basin. This barrier contained aquifer sand, vegetable compost, and clay and was covered with iron oxide dust. The goal of the compost was to sorb neutral compounds and release dissolved organic carbon. The release of dissolved organic carbon should generate a broad range of redox conditions to promote the transformation of emerging trace organic contaminants (EOCs). Iron oxides and clay increase the range of sorption site types. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of this barrier by analyzing the fate of nine EOCs. Water quality was monitored before and after constructing the reactive barrier. Installation of the reactive barrier led to nitrate-, iron-, and manganese-reducing conditions in the unsaturated zone below the basin and within the first few meters of the saturated zone. Thus, the behavior of most EOCs changed after installing the reactive barrier. The reactive barrier enhanced the removal of some EOCs, either markedly (sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, benzoylecgonine) or slightly (trimethoprim) and decreased the removal rates of compounds that are easily degradable under aerobic conditions (ibuprofen, paracetamol). The barrier had no remarkable effect on 1H-benzotriazole and tolyltriazole. PMID:24793065

  11. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ∞) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment (μ) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 γSolute∞ for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R2) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  12. 48 CFR 1845.405 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. 1845.405 Section 1845.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Rental of Government Property 1845.405 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations....

  13. 31 CFR 585.213 - Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations. 585.213 Section 585.213 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... related to certain international organizations. Any activities related to the United Nations...

  14. 76 FR 71416 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on October 28, 2011, the International...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The ISE...

  15. 77 FR 3308 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on January 5, 2012, the International...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The ISE...

  16. 75 FR 54925 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 23, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the...). I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule...

  17. 76 FR 77275 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of... on November 29, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE...(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of...

  18. 75 FR 77931 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on November 30, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC... self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments on...

  19. 78 FR 1901 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 21, 2012, the International... by the self- regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments...

  20. 77 FR 74252 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on November 29, 2012, the International Securities Exchange, LLC...- regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments on the proposed...

  1. 76 FR 21934 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on April 8, 2011, the International... by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments...

  2. 77 FR 3307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on January 3, 2012, the International...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The ISE...

  3. 75 FR 14236 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 9, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of...

  4. 75 FR 67152 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... is hereby given that on October 19, 2010, International Securities Exchange, LLC (``ISE'' or....C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms...

  5. 78 FR 37870 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 5, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of...

  6. 75 FR 4128 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on January 8, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the...-regulatory organization. The Exchange has designated this proposal as one establishing or changing a due,...

  7. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  8. Natural Variability in Dissolved Organic Carbon and Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Transport in Artificially Drained Landscapes of the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, P. E.; Vidon, P.

    2009-05-01

    Nutrient inputs into coastal ecosystems have become a major issue with serious consequences for water quality; nonetheless, few studies focus on N and C transport during storms in Midwestern tile-drained fields in spite of the known importance of N and C export from artificially drained landscapes of the U.S. Midwest on the development of the "Dead Zone" in the Gulf of Mexico in the summer. Monitoring tile-drain flow at a high temporal resolution during storms is difficult and expensive and little information is therefore available on natural spatial and temporal variability in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and carbon (DOC) concentration dynamics in tile drains during storms. This lack of information on DON and DOC export patterns from tile drains hinders our ability to accurately and precisely estimate total nutrient loads and hydrological processes regulating the movement of these nutrients from the watershed to streams via tile flow. The objective of this research is therefore to characterize natural variability in DOC and DON export in two seemingly identical tile drains (length, contributing area) in Leary Weber Ditch; a small (7.6 km2) artificially drained agricultural watershed near Indianapolis, IN. Four storms with various characteristics (intensity-duration) were sampled in May and June 2008. The two studied tile-drains showed different flow and discharge patterns but similar spatial and temporal patterns of DOC and DON concentrations. Large inter-storm variability in DOC and DON concentration patterns were attributed to different storm intensities and soil pre-event moisture conditions. Multiple other storms are currently being monitored to further characterize natural variability in nitrogen and carbon exports in the studied tile drains and identify primary hydrological controls (season, vegetation development stage, antecedent moisture conditions) regulating N and C export in tile drains over a 12-month period. This work will inform model

  9. Monitoring of natural and artificial radionuclides in Thrace Region by using bio indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss and lichen have been used commonly as bio indicators of fall-out radionuclides such as 137Cs and naturally occurring radionuclides such as 7Be, 232Th, 238U. Moss and lichens have crucial advantages for determining atmospheric fall-out radionuclides with regard to vascular plants because of great surface/volume ratio, lack of cuticle and well developed root systems. 137Cs considered as one of the most hazardous artificial radionuclides in the environment because of its similar physicochemical properties to potassium and long physical half-life (30.14 years). 137Cs accumulation studies in moss and lichen are useful because of the reflect atmospheric deposition. In addition to 137Cs, the behavior of natural radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystems has been the centre of attraction for radioecology studies in view of their toxic influences on the human by entering food chains. It is noted in the literature that, recently, concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides have been increased in biota as a result of fossil fuel combustion. In the current study, 137Cs, 40K, 232Th and 238U radioactivity concentrations of moss, lichen and pine bark samples which were collected from Thrace Region were measured by using gamma spectrometry equipped with high-purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 232Th and 238U in the moss samples found in the range of 0.36-8.13, 85.4-162.9, 1.62-6.17, 1.69-6.73 Bq kg-1, respectively.

  10. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Plan is to describe the inter-agency framework for preparedness for and response to a radiation5 incident or emergency irrespective of its cause. In particular, its objectives are: 1. To provide a common understanding of the emergency preparedness and response roles and responsibilities, objectives, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any relevant inter-agency arrangements; 2. To provide an overall concept of operations between the international organizations based on the emergency response objectives, responsibilities, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any existing inter-agency arrangements, in order to facilitate a timely, effective and co-ordinated response; 3. To facilitate development of agreements among the participating international organizations on practical issues, if appropriate; 4. To provide a common understanding of the process for improving and changing the inter-agency response arrangements; 5. To provide a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of the participating international organizations with respect to: international standards, supporting national capabilities through provision of guidance and training, relevant research, emergency exercises and other preparedness considerations; 6. To guide the managers in each participating organization who need to ensure that all appropriate arrangements are given the necessary support within their organization; 7. To facilitate the well founded development, maintenance and training of plans and procedures for each organization; 8. To draw the attention of personnel in States and international organizations6 to these arrangements and to facilitate the development of compatible arrangements, if appropriate. The Joint Plan describes the arrangements of the participating international organizations7 for responding to a radiation incident or emergency

  11. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE – AN ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of international organizations and their role in the global economy remains in the midst of global economic governance approach, although it seemed utopian at first and regarded as too ambitious in redefining the international system. This paper aims to underline and reassess the role of international organizations in the new paradigm of global economic governance. The approach is a more theoretical one, with emphasis on results and future research. The key results are related t...

  12. National/International Perceptions of Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    A number of international organisations such as WHO, FAO, OECD and EEC have worked on the potential consequences of new techniques. The code of conduct for the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment aims to set forth the minimum acceptable components necessary for international co-operation. Since newly introduced organisms have the potential for transfrontier impacts, there is a need to develop an international code of conductipractice and establish a general f...

  13. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated biomimicry for optimal cell-material interactions for artificial organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mel, Achala; Ramesh, Bala; Scurr, David J; Alexander, Morgan R; Hamilton, George; Birchall, Martin; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-03-01

    Replacement of irreversibly damaged organs due to chronic disease, with suitable tissue engineered implants is now a familiar area of interest to clinicians and multidisciplinary scientists. Ideal tissue engineering approaches require scaffolds to be tailor made to mimic physiological environments of interest with specific surface topographical and biological properties for optimal cell-material interactions. This study demonstrates a single-step procedure for inducing biomimicry in a novel nanocomposite base material scaffold, to re-create the extracellular matrix, which is required for stem cell integration and differentiation to mature cells. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated procedure of scaffold functionalization, can be potentially adapted with multiple bioactive molecules to induce cellular biomimicry, in the development human organs. The proposed nanocomposite materials already in patients for number of implants, including world first synthetic trachea, tear ducts and vascular bypass graft. PMID:24243739

  14. Aggregation of montmorillonite and organic matter in aqueous media containing artificial seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Jinwook; Watkins Janet L; Furukawa Yoko; Curry Kenneth J; Bennett Richard H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The dispersion-aggregation behaviors of suspended colloids in rivers and estuaries are affected by the compositions of suspended materials (i.e., clay minerals vs. organic macromolecules) and salinity. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the dispersion and aggregation mechanisms of suspended particles under simulated river and estuarine conditions. The average hydrodynamic diameters of suspended particles (representing degree of aggregation) and zeta poten...

  15. Social Organization of a Colony of Bats Carollia brevicauda in Artificial Shelter, Bochalema, Norte de Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Omar Gallardo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the social organization of a colony of the fruit bat Carollia brevicauda  in artificial shelter Bochalema, Northen of Santander, Colombia. Using a new type of marking and by focal sampling, one colony was observed from September 2007 to September 2008. It was determined that the social structure in the colony is integrated by four groups, which did not vary in structure over time. It was established that females were more faithful to the shelter than males. We assessed time budget day and there was that individuals have a 73.9 % time without any activity, followed by grooming with a 26.6 %, and females had higher activity than males, especially in dry season. We found that C. brevicauda  has differences with records of C. perspicillata such as the fidelity of females and non-influence of lunar light over the hour of emergence from the refuge. ORGANIZACIÓN SOCIAL DE UNA COLONIA DEL MURCIÉLAGO EN UN REFUGIO ARTIFICIAL, BOCHALEMA, NORTE DE SANTANDER, COLOMBIASe estudió la organización social de una colonia del murciélago frugívoro Carollia brevicauda en un refugio artificial en Bochalema, Norte de Santander, Colombia. Empleando un nuevo tipo de marcaje que consiste en decoloración capilar y mediante muestreos focales se observó la colonia desde septiembre de 2007 a septiembre de 2008. Se determinó que esta es definida por cuatro grupos los cuales no variaron en su conformación a lo largo del tiempo. Se estableció que las hembras fueron más fieles al refugio que los machos. Se evaluó el presupuesto de tiempo diurno y se registró que los individuos tienen un 73,9 % de tiempo en reposo, seguido del acicalamiento con un 26,6 % y las hembras presentaron mayor actividad que los machos sobre todo en época seca. Se determinaron diferencias en registros entre C. brevicauda y C. perspicillata , como por ejemplo la fidelidad de las hembras al refugio.

  16. Discussion on Strategies of Internal Leadership in Chinese Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li

    2011-01-01

    As a new type of organization, non-profit organizations have proposed new requirements on leadership practice and development of theory. There are three inadaptations existing in the traditional organization and leadership pattern to the internal leadership of non-profit organization, namely, inadaptation to changes of relationship between leaders and followers, inadaptation to uncertainty of decision-making foundation and inadaptation to innovative development of the organizations. This arti...

  17. Through Internal Control System, Jatirogo Organic Coconut Sugar Farmers Gained Access to the Export Market

    OpenAIRE

    Setyowati, Theresia Eko

    2014-01-01

    By founding Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS, 1,554 farmer members now have stronger bargaining power in marketing organic coconut sugar. Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS has succeeded to export its organic gula semut. By obtaining international certifications (EU Regulation, NOP-USDA, and JAS), KSU Jatirogo sends organic gula semut to various countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European and Asian countries, by collaborating with KSU Jatirogo and exporting companies. ...

  18. The Relationship between Audit Experience and Internal Audit Effectiveness in the Public Sector Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mu’azu Saidu Badara; Siti Zabedah Saidin

    2013-01-01

    Experience on organizational operations plays an important role in ensuring objective achievement of such organizations, likewise internal audit experience within an organizations contribute toward objective achievement of such organization. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between audit experience and internal audit effectiveness in the public sector organiza- tions. The paper is a literature review paper and the paper concluded that audit experience ca...

  19. Organic micropollutant removal from wastewater effluent-impacted drinking water sources during bank filtration and artificial recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2010-07-01

    Natural treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (via an infiltration basin) are a robust barrier for many organic micropollutants (OMPs) and may represent a low-cost alternative compared to advanced drinking water treatment systems. This study analyzes a comprehensive database of OMPs at BF and artificial recharge (AR) sites located near Lake Tegel in Berlin (Germany). The focus of the study was on the derivation of correlations between the removal efficiencies of OMPs and key factors influencing the performance of BF and AR. At the BF site, shallow monitoring wells located close to the Lake Tegel source exhibited oxic conditions followed by prolonged anoxic conditions in deep monitoring wells and a production well. At the AR site, oxic conditions prevailed from the recharge pond along monitoring wells to the production well. Long residence times of up to 4.5 months at the BF site reduced the temperature variation during soil passage between summer and winter. The temperature variations were greater at the AR site as a consequence of shorter residence times. Deep monitoring wells and the production well located at the BF site were under the influence of ambient groundwater and old bank filtrate (up to several years of age). Thus, it is important to account for mixing with native groundwater and other sources (e.g., old bank filtrate) when estimating the performance of BF with respect to removal of OMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate correlations between OMP removals and hydrogeochemical conditions with spatial and temporal parameters (e.g., well distance, residence time and depth) from both sites. Principal component-1 (PC1) embodied redox conditions (oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen), and principal component-2 (PC2) embodied degradation potential (e.g., total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon) with the calcium carbonate dissolution potential (Ca2+ and HCO3 -) for the BF site

  20. Organic micropollutant removal from wastewater effluent-impacted drinking water sources during bank filtration and artificial recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Ameda, Emmanuel; Sharma, Saroj K; Grützmacher, Gesche; Amy, Gary L

    2010-07-01

    Natural treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (via an infiltration basin) are a robust barrier for many organic micropollutants (OMPs) and may represent a low-cost alternative compared to advanced drinking water treatment systems. This study analyzes a comprehensive database of OMPs at BF and artificial recharge (AR) sites located near Lake Tegel in Berlin (Germany). The focus of the study was on the derivation of correlations between the removal efficiencies of OMPs and key factors influencing the performance of BF and AR. At the BF site, shallow monitoring wells located close to the Lake Tegel source exhibited oxic conditions followed by prolonged anoxic conditions in deep monitoring wells and a production well. At the AR site, oxic conditions prevailed from the recharge pond along monitoring wells to the production well. Long residence times of up to 4.5 months at the BF site reduced the temperature variation during soil passage between summer and winter. The temperature variations were greater at the AR site as a consequence of shorter residence times. Deep monitoring wells and the production well located at the BF site were under the influence of ambient groundwater and old bank filtrate (up to several years of age). Thus, it is important to account for mixing with native groundwater and other sources (e.g., old bank filtrate) when estimating the performance of BF with respect to removal of OMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate correlations between OMP removals and hydrogeochemical conditions with spatial and temporal parameters (e.g., well distance, residence time and depth) from both sites. Principal component-1 (PC1) embodied redox conditions (oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen), and principal component-2 (PC2) embodied degradation potential (e.g., total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon) with the calcium carbonate dissolution potential (Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-)) for the BF

  1. Applications of artificial intelligence for organic chemistry: analysis of C-13 spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, N.A.B.

    1984-01-01

    An expert system has been developed to aid in the analysis of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 13/C NMR) spectra of complex organic molecules. This system uses a knowledge base of rules relating substructural and spectral features: these rules are derived automatically from data for known structures. Such rules have a number of current, practical applications relating to spectrum prediction. They also constitute the basis of a method for the structural interpretation of /sup 13/C spectral data of unknown compounds. This method, which is basically a constraint refinement search, provides for a much more complete analysis of such data than any approach currently utilized. 29 references.

  2. Organization model for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks inspired in Artificial Bee Colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to find a self-organizing model for MWSN based on bee colonies in order to reduce the number of messages transmitted among nodes, and thus reduce the overall consumption energy while maintaining the efficiency of message delivery. The results obtained in this article are originated from simulations carried out with SINALGO software, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The BeeAODV (Bee Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector) proposed in this paper allows to considerably reduce message exchanges whether compared to AODV (Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector)

  3. Toxicity Testing of Silver Nanoparticles in Artificial and Natural Sediments Using the Benthic Organism Lumbriculus variegatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajala, Juho Elias; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka;

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in industrial and consumer products worldwide has resulted in their release to aquatic environments. Previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of AgNP on pelagic species, whereas few studies have assessed the risks to benthic invertebrates...... despite the fact that the sediments act as a large potential sink for NPs. In this study, the toxicity of sediment-associated AgNP was evaluated using the standard sediment toxicity test for chemicals provided by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development. The freshwater benthic oligochaete...

  4. Internal Quality Management in Service Organizations: a theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Service industry or service economy is now taking a big part of the whole economy. Service sector is still a fast growing market over the world, especially in the developing countries. The adoption of Total Quality Management (TQM), which focuses on customer satisfaction, was widely accepted by most service organization. However, very few organizations and researchers have paid attention to employees’ satisfaction. Especially in some developing countries, like China, government owned companie...

  5. From Subsidiary to Branch Organization of International Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Lawrence; Sweeney, Richard J.; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    intention to reap economies of scale and scope by providing services in an integrated organization. Nordea has so far operated under a legal structure with subsidiaries in the host countries. When the new branch organization is implemented, EU directives specify that the home country is responsible for...... institutional foundations for substantial market discipline in banking. In particular, distress resolution and insolvency procedures for banks must be made rule based and credible for host country authorities to accept home country control....

  6. A conceptual model for assessing the internal environment of a healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asubonteng, P

    1997-01-01

    By understanding the opportunities and threats in the external environment and relating them to the organization's internal strengths and weaknesses, strategic managers can determine the distinctive competence of the organization. Distinctive competence refers to the strengths that will give an organization a competitive advantage. PMID:10175094

  7. Artificially MoO3 graded ITO anodes for acidic buffer layer free organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-02-01

    We report characteristics of MoO3 graded ITO anodes prepared by a RF/DC graded sputtering for acidic poly(3,4-ethylene dioxylene thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)-free organic solar cells (OSCs). Graded sputtering of the MoO3 buffer layer on top of the ITO layer produced MoO3 graded ITO anodes with a sheet resistance of 12.67 Ω/square, a resistivity of 2.54 × 10-4 Ω cm, and an optical transmittance of 86.78%, all of which were comparable to a conventional ITO anode. In addition, the MoO3 graded ITO electrode showed a greater work function of 4.92 eV than that (4.6 eV) of an ITO anode, which is beneficial for hole extraction from an organic active layer. Due to the high work function of MoO3 graded ITO electrodes, the acidic PEDOT:PSS-free OSCs fabricated on the MoO3 graded ITO electrode exhibited a power conversion efficiency 3.60% greater than that of a PEDOT:PSS-free OSC on the conventional ITO anode. The successful operation of PEDOT:PSS-free OSCs indicates simpler fabrication steps for cost-effective OSCs and elimination of interfacial reactions caused by the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer for reliable OSCs.

  8. 8 CFR 319.5 - Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public international organizations in which... UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.5 Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute. Organizations designated by the President as international organizations pursuant...

  9. The Inauguration of the International Organization for Cooperation in Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    Building an international evaluation community has the potential to strengthen the presence, practice, policies, and theories of evaluation and its contribution to improving the effectiveness of programs, policies, and services by making evaluation more rigorous, visible, and responsive to stakeholders. Following 7 years of work by evaluation…

  10. Distribution of Artificial Radioisotopes in Granulometric and Organic Fractions of Alluvial Soils Downstream the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, Elena M.; Linnik, Vitaly G. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, 117991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brown, Justin E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    A study of some artificial radionuclides discharged by the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) in different granulometric and organic fractions of alluvial soils was performed in the near and remote impact zones of the enterprise. Radionuclides were shown to concentrate in fine fractions enriched in hydro-mica and smectites. However in natural conditions the dominating size fraction associated with radionuclide accumulation at the study sites appeared to be made up of silt (0.010 mm) to clay (0.001 mm) sizes. Therefore due to radionuclide sorption and natural aggregation the peaks of a relatively high radionuclide mass accumulation were associated with three granulometric fractions: <0.001 mm, 0.063-0.010 mm and 0.25-0.125 mm. Soil granulometry was shown to reflect specificity of sedimentation at different landscape positions downstream from the KMCC. At the Balchug site a coarser fraction was accumulated close to the channel while finer fractions are deposited at a higher level. The portion of the clay fraction corresponded to the elevation level increasing from the river bank to the terrace. At the Mikhin Island the tendency was different. A coarser fraction was deposited on higher levels while the portion of clay fraction was at a minimum compared to the lower levels. To study the relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and organic matter content, selected soil samples were subjected to extraction of the humic and fulvic acid fractions with a subsequent determination of radionuclides in the separated phases and the residue component. The air-dry sample was saturated with 0.1 M NaOH, humic acid was precipitated by 1 M HCl at pH=1. The separation resulted in three fractions of the fulvic acids, humic acids, and the residue containing the denuded mineral phase and the refractory organic residue. Radionuclides measured in the first fraction were believed to be the most mobile, those in the second fraction - subjected to the complexation

  11. Natural organic matter (NOM) removal and structural changes in the bacterial community during artificial groundwater recharge with humic lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Reija E; Langwaldt, Jörg H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and structural changes in the microbial community during infiltration of humic lake water at three artificial groundwater recharge (AGR) sites in Finland. The three sites were at waterworks in Hämeenlinna, Jyväskylä and Tuusula, sites A, B and C, respectively. Site A used groundwater recharge by both basin and sprinkling infiltration, site B used only sprinkling infiltration, and site C used only basin infiltration. Reductions of total organic carbon at sites A, B and C were 91%, 84% and 74%, respectively, in the winter, and 88%, 77% and 73%, respectively, in the summer. The Finnish national recommended value of 2 mg/l for TOC was achieved at all sites and the TOC of natural groundwater at site C was much lower, at 0.6 mg/l. Large molecular fractions of NOM were removed more efficiently than the smaller ones. Total amount of DAPI-stained cells decreased during infiltration at sites A, B and C in winter by 94%, 94% and 75% and in summer by 96%, 97% and 94%, respectively. Bacterial communities in raw waters and extracted groundwaters were diverse with changes occurring during infiltration, which was shown by DNA extraction followed by PCR of 16S rRNA genes and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting. While the natural groundwater microbial community was diverse, it was different from that of the extracted groundwater in the AGR area. Simultaneous organic carbon removal and the decrease of bacterial counts during infiltration indicated biodegradation. In addition, the changing DGGE profiles during the process of infiltration, demonstrated that changing environmental conditions were reflected by changes in bacterial community composition. PMID:17434565

  12. International indicators of donation and solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Protto, S; Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    The main goal of any organ procurement organization (OPO) is to offer the greatest number of organs achievable with the goal of reducing mortality and the waiting list time of patients. Evaluation of OPO activity is mandatory to identify causes of missed potential donors seeking to implement changes in steps susceptible of improvement. In this review, we have presented the classical indicators of brain death along with new indicators. We observed that when the donor generation capacity is adjusted to the deaths, the indicator is more reliable for comparisons of countries with different mortality rates. We concluded that the indicators are complementary, because they measure different aspects of the process. To have a better understanding of the situation, country, institution, or hospital, one should simultaneously use all of the indicators. PMID:19857771

  13. The Role of International Organizations in Global Human Security Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Filofteia Repez

    2013-01-01

    Human security is a paradigm for humanity's global threats and vulnerabilities, which designate the individual as the main subject of the security efforts. Therefore, human security can be analyzed as a matter of security studies and international relations or sociology, political science or economics. Starting from the fact that man is a social being that develops himself between group membership and aspirations landmarks or reference group objectives, we try in this approach a scientific a...

  14. The Quality of Internal communication in a Selected Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkasová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the diploma thesis is “The Internal Communication in a Specific Organization” and it focuses on communication. The theoretical part of the thesis presents a summary of what is currently known about communication, communication networks, conflicts, negotiations, differences between men and women in speech as a communication activity, about management, its importance, and the functions and roles of a manager. The theoretical part also focuses on the ethical values of fairness and e...

  15. Comparative Definition of Energy under Public International Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Özge Varýþ

    2013-01-01

    Energy’s significance is accepted by everyone. However, its definition is different for every academic discipline. For scientists, energy is an indirectly observed quantity which is sustained for physical activity. In social sciences, energy has various definitions. Political science energy can be discussed under political authority and power, from the international relations point of view energy is a serious issue for security and nations. Within a legal framework, energy has different defin...

  16. Self Organization of Edge and Internal Pedestals in a Sandpile

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Hnat, B.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature profiles of magnetically confined plasmas can display distinctive longlived pedestals at the edge and internally. Here we show that such structures can arise naturally through avalanching transport in a sandpile model. A single control parameter that is constant across the sandpile determines the occurrence and regularity of these effects, as well as the entrainment of global confinement to edge pedestal dynamics. The system dynamics indicate that the pedestals are a consequen...

  17. Central Spindle Self-Organization and Cytokinesis in Artificially Activated Sea Urchin Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, John H; Buckley, Mary W; Yeterian, Mesrob; Weeks, Richard M; Simerly, Calvin R; Shuster, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microtubules of the mitotic apparatus to control the positioning and initiation of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis was first established from studies on early echinoderm embryos. However, the identity of the microtubule population that imparts cytokinetic signaling is unclear. The two main--and not necessarily mutually exclusive--candidates are the central spindle and the astral rays. In the present study, we examined cytokinesis in ammonia-activated sea urchin eggs, which lack paternally derived centrosomes and undergo mitosis mediated by unusual anastral, bipolar mini-spindles. Live cell imaging and immunolabeling for microtubules and the centralspindlin constituent and kinesin-related protein, MKLP1, demonstrated that furrowing in ammonia-activated eggs was associated with aligned arrays of centralspindlin-linked, opposed bundles of antiparallel microtubules. These autonomous, zipper-like arrays were not associated with a mitotic apparatus, but did possess characteristics similar to the central spindle region of control, fertilized embryos. Our results highlight the self-organizing nature of the central spindle region and its ability to induce cytokinesis-like furrowing, even in the absence of a complete mitotic apparatus. PMID:27132131

  18. 78 FR 72475 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles, 76 FR 69334 (Nov. 8, 2011). These regulations... Market Utilities as Systemically Important, 76 FR 44763, 44774 (July 27, 2011) (final rule). In... deems appropriate. \\11\\ 76 FR 44766. \\12\\ See Press Release, Financial Stability Oversight...

  19. Application of Internal Control Systems in Organic Export Companies: Two Case Studies from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Reckling, Moritz; Preißel, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The organic agricultural sector of Uganda is considered the most developed in Africa with a total of 296,203 ha organic certified land and the most certified organic producers worldwide (206,800), 90% of whom are small scale farmers. They are certified organic under contract production by export and processing companies, using an Internal Control System (ICS) as a group certification scheme defined by IFOAM (2004). The ICS is a viable and well accepted tool to certify small scale producers in...

  20. Construction of an Artificial Ferrimagnetic Lattice by Lithium Ion Insertion into a Neutral Donor/Acceptor Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kouji; Narushima, Keisuke; Mahin, Julien; Kosaka, Wataru; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2016-04-18

    Construction of a molecular system in which the magnetic lattice exhibits long-range order is one of the fundamental goals in materials science. In this study, we demonstrate the artificial construction of a ferrimagnetic lattice by doping electrons into acceptor sites of a neutral donor/acceptor metal-organic framework (D/A-MOF). This doping was achieved by the insertion of Li-ions into the D/A-MOF, which was used as the cathode of a Li-ion battery cell. The neutral D/A-MOF is a layered system composed of a carboxylate-bridged paddlewheel-type diruthenium(II,II) complex as the donor and a TCNQ derivative as the acceptor. The ground state of the neutral form was a magnetically disordered paramagnetic state. Upon discharge of the cell, spontaneous magnetization was induced; the transition temperature was variable. The stability of the magnetically ordered lattice depended on the equilibrium electric potential of the D/A-MOF cathode, which reflected the electron-filling level. PMID:26990927

  1. Characterization of Gene Expression Patterns among Artificially Developed Cancer Stem Cells Using Spherical Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Akimasa; Kasai, Tomonari; Ikeda, Masashi; Vaidyanath, Arun; Masuda, Junko; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Seno, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We performed gene expression microarray analysis coupled with spherical self-organizing map (sSOM) for artificially developed cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSCs were developed from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with the conditioned media of cancer cell lines, whereas the CSCs were induced from primary cell culture of human cancer tissues with defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4). These cells commonly expressed human embryonic stem cell (hESC)/hiPSC-specific genes (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, and SALL4) at a level equivalent to those of control hiPSC 201B7. The sSOM with unsupervised method demonstrated that the CSCs could be divided into three groups based on their culture conditions and original cancer tissues. Furthermore, with supervised method, sSOM nominated TMED9, RNASE1, NGFR, ST3GAL1, TNS4, BTG2, SLC16A3, CD177, CES1, GDF15, STMN2, FAM20A, NPPB, CD99, MYL7, PRSS23, AHNAK, and LOC152573 genes commonly upregulating among the CSCs compared to hiPSC, suggesting the gene signature of the CSCs.

  2. Characterization of Gene Expression Patterns among Artificially Developed Cancer Stem Cells Using Spherical Self-Organizing Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Akimasa; Kasai, Tomonari; Ikeda, Masashi; Vaidyanath, Arun; Masuda, Junko; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Seno, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We performed gene expression microarray analysis coupled with spherical self-organizing map (sSOM) for artificially developed cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSCs were developed from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with the conditioned media of cancer cell lines, whereas the CSCs were induced from primary cell culture of human cancer tissues with defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4). These cells commonly expressed human embryonic stem cell (hESC)/hiPSC-specific genes (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, and SALL4) at a level equivalent to those of control hiPSC 201B7. The sSOM with unsupervised method demonstrated that the CSCs could be divided into three groups based on their culture conditions and original cancer tissues. Furthermore, with supervised method, sSOM nominated TMED9, RNASE1, NGFR, ST3GAL1, TNS4, BTG2, SLC16A3, CD177, CES1, GDF15, STMN2, FAM20A, NPPB, CD99, MYL7, PRSS23, AHNAK, and LOC152573 genes commonly upregulating among the CSCs compared to hiPSC, suggesting the gene signature of the CSCs. PMID:27559294

  3. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  4. Thinking Globally, Framing Locally: International Discourses and Labor Organizing in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Beers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the final decade of the New Order regime, Indonesian labor activists turned to international organizations as a key ally in the dangerous work of challenging the state-controlled labor regime. Asthe political context has become more open, international organizations have continued to play an important role in the labor movement. This paper examines the changing role of transnational labor activism in democratic Indonesia. First, the paper describes the emergence of the discourse of global labor rights in response to the challenges of globalization. It then sketches the historical relationship between the Indonesian state, the labor movement, and international activists. Finally, the paper examines an internationally supported union organizing campaign. Drawing upon the literature on discursive framing, the case suggests that while internationally circulating, rights-based discourses remain an important resource for domestic activists, such discourses must be translated and modified for the local political context.

  5. The politics of inter-regionalism: Relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional grou

  6. International Sports Events Organization and Execution as an Object of Legal Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vyacheslav A. Tutinas

    2012-01-01

    The contribution is focused on the international sports events organization and execution as an object of legal regulation, studies its structure and the degree of impact on the parameters of legal regulation.

  7. Utilization of internal evaluation results by community mental health organizations: Credibility in different forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Hynie, Michaela; Mitchell, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Internal evaluations are numerous but the literature is largely focused on external evaluations. There have been few explorations of the factors affecting the use of findings from internal evaluations that are carried out by program staff in community organizations. This study examined the instrumental use of internal evaluation findings within 19 community mental health organizations in Ontario, Canada. All but one respondent reported instrumental use in their organization, using the evaluation findings to make program-related decisions. For these non-controversial programs, qualities such as the ability of internal evaluators to identify relevant information, their role/expertise within the organization and the consistency of evaluation findings with current understanding appeared to influence use more strongly than evaluator objectivity. PMID:26476859

  8. International Labor Organizations, 1864-1997: The Weight of History and the Challenges of the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Stevis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepening neoliberal integration, the end of the Cold War, and the decline or compromise of communist and socialist parties, offer a window of opportunity for international labor politics. Why is it, then, that the comprehensive network of global and regional labor organizations continues to play a marginal role, even though they are clearly conscious of these developments, and have sought to respond to them? The answer to this question has important practical and theoretical implications. My general goal, therefore, is to situate the contemporary predicament of international labor organizations within its historical context. Activists would like to know whether labor organizations are basically sound but need to be reformed or fundamentally unsuitable for a vital international labor politics. Theoretically, international labor organizations provide us with a rich record through which to investigate cross-border relations at the level of society and state-society relations.

  9. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS ON GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES AND EFFICIENCY OF USING CREDIT RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhko, O.; R. Rak

    2008-01-01

    The problems of international financial organizations functioning in global process of economic relations are considered. The factors of influence on the effectiveness of using its loan resources in Ukraine are defined.

  10. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dandoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8 to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes. The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin, substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  11. Eye lens surveillance. What is the reaction of international organizations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRP has lowered its recommendation for the limit of the dose to the lens of the eye for occupationally exposed persons down to 20 mSv per year on average (mean value of 5 years with 50 mSv per year at maximum); both the European Commission and the IAEA have adopted this reduction in their respective basic safety standards. Even before this (and still more since then) several international activities were started (among others): The ICRP adopted a stylised model of the eye lens for the calculation of dose conversion coefficients for their report ICRP 116. The European Commission funded the ORAMED project dealing with radiation protection in medicine. The IEC fixed requirements for Hp(3) eye dosemeters in their standard IEC 62387 on passive dosimetry systems. The ISO and the IAEA give a variety of practical advice in the standard ISO 15382 and in a technical document TecDoc (both still drafts) for both radiation protection as well as dosimetry. The ICRU recommends both phantoms, the slab and the cylinder, for most cases. In short: Most national procedures can orientate themselves by referring to international ones; however, some questions remain open. (orig.)

  12. Integrating International Engineering Organizations For Successful ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Elizabeth; Duggan, Matt; Patten, L.; Pieterek, Hhtrud

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a multinational orbiting space laboratory that is built in cooperation with 16 nations. The design and sustaining engineering expertise is spread worldwide. As the number of Partners with orbiting elements on the ISS grows, the challenge NASA is facing as the ISS integrator is to ensure that engineering expertise and data are accessible in a timely fashion to ensure ongoing operations and mission success. Integrating international engineering teams requires definition and agreement on common processes and responsibilities, joint training and the emergence of a unique engineering team culture. ISS engineers face daunting logistical and political challenges regarding data sharing requirements. To assure systematic information sharing and anomaly resolution of integrated anomalies, the ISS Partners are developing multi-lateral engineering interface procedures. Data sharing and individual responsibility are key aspects of this plan. This paper describes several examples of successful multilateral anomaly resolution. These successes were used to form the framework of the Partner to Partner engineering interface procedures, and this paper describes those currently documented multilateral engineering processes. Furthermore, it addresses the challenges experienced to date, and the forward work expected in establishing a successful working relationship with Partners as their hardware is launched.

  13. Сombat training of employees of organs of internal affairs of Ukraine: problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zakorko I.P.

    2010-01-01

    A level of the combat training of employees and subsections of organs of internal affairs is the basic index of their possibility effectively to execute the tasks put before them. The analysis of practical work of organs of internal affairs of Ukraine shows that the modern system of the combat training needs considerable changes and korektiv, especially in the sections of studies of employees from the special physical and fire preparation. An author is outline the concrete ways of perfection ...

  14. 'Doyle's Model of Firm in Practice? ' Qualitative Research of an International Retail Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Drličková

    2009-01-01

    The article describes Doyle's behavioral model of a firm and demonstrates on the example of an international retail organization its possible application. The article analyses firm's division of competences, values and vision of the organization and the steering wheel consisting of operational objectives of the firm. It presents first results of the qualitative research on the international retail chain. In the results it focuses especially on the perceiving of organizational values by the li...

  15. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTED WHEY ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND INTERNAL ORGANS PERCENTAGES OF BROILER CHICKENS

    OpenAIRE

    Huwaida E.E. MALIK; Khalid M. ELAMIN; Siham A. ABDALLA; Bakheit M. Dousa

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with hundred and sixty, one day old unsexed broilers to investigate the effects of whey protein on growth performance and internal organs percentage. Four dietary treatments, each consisting of 4 replicates. Diets were control with 0% whey protein (diet A) and whey protein was added at 2, 4 and 6% (B, C and D respectively). Traits studied were feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, internal organs percentage and dressing percentage. Results revealed ...

  16. Regional Organizations and International Peace and Security in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Haddadi

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Charter and the actual practice of states in the past years have stressed on the importance of the role of regional organizations in maintaining international peace and security. On the other hand, The United Nations and the Security Council alone cannot deal with international crises. Thus, the cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations could solve regional and even global crises. Middle East is of strategic importance because of the historical and c...

  17. The Role of Internal Standards and their Interaction with Soils Impact Accuracy of Volatile Organics Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods 8260C/5035 and 8261A include mixing soil with water and addition of internal standards prior to analyses but the equilibration of internal standards with the soil is not required. With increasing total organic carbon (...

  18. 76 FR 72367 - Income of Foreign Governments and International Organizations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... International Organizations; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to... published on November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68119), the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-146537-06) contains... Accordingly, the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-146537-06) that was the subject of FR Doc. 2011-28531...

  19. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  20. 78 FR 25777 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval of...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69085 (March 8, 2013), 78 FR 16338 (``Notice''). II. Description of the.... Introduction On February 26, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the...

  1. 78 FR 77178 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that, on December 2, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the... described in Items I, II, and III below, which items have been prepared by the self- regulatory...

  2. 75 FR 33867 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and.... 60559 (August 21, 2009), 74 FR 44425 (August 28, 2009). All of the Participant Exchanges have now...\\ notice is hereby given that, on May 21, 2010, International Securities Exchange, LLC (``ISE'' or...

  3. 75 FR 32526 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and.... 62050 (May 6, 2010), 75 FR 27029 (May 13, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-37). The changes discussed in this filing... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 28, 2010, the International...

  4. 76 FR 59472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, Inc., Order Granting Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, Inc., Order Granting Approval of... Exchange Act Release No. 34-65011 (August 2, 2011), 76 FR 48187. II. Description of Proposal ISE Rules 717... International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and...

  5. 75 FR 17980 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... No. 60442 (August 5, 2009), 74 FR 40249 (August 11, 2009) (SR-ISE-2009-57). First, because the... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 24, 2010, the International...

  6. 75 FR 13193 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... account(s). \\4\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 60861 (October 22, 2009), 74 FR 55872 (October 29, 2009). 2... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 1, 2010, the International...

  7. 75 FR 39070 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62271 (June 10, 2010), 75 FR 34493 (June 17, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-58...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 30, 2010, International Securities Exchange, LLC...

  8. 75 FR 14233 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and.... 58164 (July 15, 2008), 73 FR 42638 (July 22, 2008); 58216 (July 23, 2008), 73 FR 44302 (July 30, 2008... is hereby given that on March 1, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the...

  9. 75 FR 67153 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Act Release No. 63104 (October 14, 2010), 75 FR 64773 (October 20, 2010) (Approving SR-ISE-2010-91... International Securities Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and...

  10. 75 FR 66410 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on October 14, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC... interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory...

  11. 77 FR 14847 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on February 22, 2012, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the... interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory...

  12. 75 FR 77032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and.... \\3\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 60865 (October 22, 2009), 74 FR 55880 (October 29, 2009). The... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 2, 2010, the International Securities Exchange,...

  13. 78 FR 49311 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69782 (June 18, 2013), 78 FR 37870 (June 24, 2013) (SR-ISE-2013-38) (the... On June 5, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'')...

  14. 78 FR 11715 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on February 4, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the... interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory...

  15. 77 FR 38869 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ See supra note 1. See also Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63692 (January 11, 2011), 76 FR 2940...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 14, 2012, the International Securities Exchange, LLC...

  16. 78 FR 62899 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69396 (April 18, 2013) 78 FR 24273 (April 24, 2013) (SR-ISE-2013-18). 2...\\ notice is hereby given that, on September 30, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC...

  17. 77 FR 33535 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 25, 2012, the International Securities Exchange... from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory...

  18. 78 FR 17462 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... markets.\\4\\ \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67091 (May 31, 2012), 77 FR 33498 (June 6, 2012) (File... is hereby given that on March 4, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (``ISE''...

  19. 75 FR 39313 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 30, 2010, the International Securities... and EDGX Exchange fee schedules. As a result of the phased migration of symbols from DECN to EDGA...

  20. 75 FR 39311 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Order... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 30, 2010, the International Securities... migration of symbols from DECN to EDGA and EDGX Exchanges. \\6\\ EDGA and EDGX Exchanges expect to...

  1. The International Plant Protection Convention, living modified organisms and pest risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As technology improves, the types of organisms that are being transformed using the techniques of modern biotechnology are steadily increasing. Concurrently, the movement of these organisms across borders in trade or for other purposes has also increased. Many countries, in particular developing countries, require guidance on how to assess the potential risks that may be associated with transgenic organisms, and how these organisms can or should be regulated. The International Plant Protection Convention produces international standards for phytosanitary measures that can provide countries with guidance on how to conduct pest risk analysis, and how to implement measures to protect plant life or health within their territories. This paper will provide an overview of: - the International Plant Protection Convention and other international instruments relevant to the transboundary movement of transgenic organisms; - the legal basis for risk analysis for transgenic organisms in international instruments; - procedures for pest risk analysis under the IPPC; - the application of international standards for phytosanitary measures (including the pest risk analysis standards) for assessing and managing plant pest risks of LMOs; and - future activities of the IPPC with regard to LMOs. (author)

  2. Organization of international market introduction: Can cooperation between central units and local product management influence success

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Antje; Herstatt, Cornelius; Fantapié Altobelli, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    When organizing international market introductions multinational companies face coordination problems between the leading central organizational unit and local product management. Based on the assumption that international market introductions are initiated and managed by a central unit we examine the impact of cooperation between the central unit and local product management on success. Our survey of 51 international market introductions reveals that the quality of the cooperation with local...

  3. International comparative study on market organization in network sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title study concerns an analysis of the organization of the market, market behavior and performance in ten network sectors in different countries: water in the United Kingdom (UK), France and the USA; railway and bus transport in UK, Sweden and France, waste and telecom and cable in UK, Sweden and USA; postal services in Sweden, New Zealand and Germany; electricity in UK, Germany and Sweden; natural gas and airports in UK, Germany and USA. The purpose of the study is to learn from foreign countries

  4. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a radiation emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which the the European Commission, through the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are full Parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States and international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature are documented in the IAEA's Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). In addition to the IEComm arrangements and pursuant to the obligations placed on the IAEA by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), whose purpose is to coordinate the arrangements of the relevant international organizations for preparing for and responding to radiation incidents or emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments (including, for example, the WHO International Health Regulations 2005) - functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response in this context. Moreover, some regional organizations/bodies (e.g. the

  5. Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of internal organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-02-01

    A deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging system was developed and demonstrated to possess a maximum imaging depth up to 38 mm in chicken breast tissue. Using this system, structures in the thoracic cavity and vasculature in cervical area of rats were clearly imaged. Particularly, part of the heart was imaged. In the thoracic cavity, the right atrium imaged, which is one of deepest, was situated ~7 mm deep. In the cervical area, common carotid artery and jugular vein were imaged, which are appropriate for the study of oxygenation between artery and vein. In the abdominal cavity, the embedded structures of a kidney, spinal cord, and vena cava inferior were also clearly imaged in situ and in vivo. The depth of the vena cava inferior was as deep as ~15 mm in vivo. This study shows the depth capability of the system in animals. This imaging modality can be a useful tool to diagnose the disease of organs by assessing the morphological and functional changes in the blood vessels and the organs.

  6. 76 FR 13495 - Extending Provisions of the International Organizations Immunities Act to the Office of the High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Provisions of the International Organizations Immunities Act to the Office of the High Representative in... International Organizations Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669, 22 U.S.C. 288), and the Extending Immunities to the..., exemptions, and immunities provided by the International Organizations Act be extended to the Office of...

  7. Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez V., Reina A.

    2007-10-01

    The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called "isodoses" as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named "cloud") that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae.

  8. Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called 'isodoses' as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named 'cloud') that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae

  9. 76 FR 77806 - International Affairs; U.S. Fish Quotas in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA868 International Affairs; U.S. Fish Quotas in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Regulatory Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Northwest Atlantic Fisheries ] Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area. This action is necessary to make...

  10. 76 FR 72907 - International Affairs; U.S. Fishing Opportunity in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA845 International Affairs; U.S. Fishing Opportunity in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Regulatory Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... flounder in Division 3LNO of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area...

  11. 76 FR 7884 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed... registration by an organization. See Notice, p. 13; 75 FR 80091, at 80094. \\6\\ See ISE Rule 602. \\7\\ See ISE.... \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63554 (December 15, 2010), 75 FR 80091 (``Notice'')....

  12. Laboratory Calibration Studies in Support of ORGANICS on the International Space Station: Evolution of Organic Matter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiterkamp, R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Halasinski, T.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Schmidt, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scientific overview and current status of ORGANICS an exposure experiment performed on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the evolution of organic matter in space (PI: P. Ehrenfreund), with supporting laboratory experiments performed at NASA Ames. ORGANICS investigates the chemical evolution of samples submitted to long-duration exposure to space environment in near-Earth orbit. This experiment will provide information on the nature, evolution, and survival of carbon species in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in solar system targets.

  13. Dioxin 2004: 24. international symposium on halogenated environmental organic pollutants and POPs. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    On behalf of the Local Organizing and National Scientific Committee Members in concert with the International Advisory Board, I would like to welcome you to Berlin for the 24th International Symposium on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) ''DIOXIN 2004''. Over the last ten years, scientists and others working in this field have expanded their areas of interest from dioxins to persistent halogenated organic pollutants, such as coplanar PCBs, flame retardants, pesticides, chloroparaffins, the toxicologically relevant endocrine disrupters and other POPs. Therefore the symposium has broadened its focus to become a discussion forum for the whole range of persistent organic pollutants. Representatives from various branches of industry, associations, engineering consultants, analytical laboratories, government organizations, research institutes and universities will be participating in the symposium. More than 680 short papers were received from presenters representing 40 countries. In a peer review process 270 were assigned for oral and 400 for poster presentation. (orig.)

  14. Paired organs--Should they be treated jointly or separately in internal dosimetry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parach, Ali-Asghar; Rajabi, Hossein; Askari, Mohammad-Ali [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absorbed fraction of organs in considering paired organs jointly like single organs or as two separate organs. Methods: Zubal phantom and GATE Monte Carlo package were used to calculate the SAF for the self-absorption and cross-irradiation of the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands (paired organs), liver, spleen, stomach, and pancreas (single organs). The activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the organs, and simulation was performed for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 keV and mono-energetic electrons of 350, 500, 690, 935, 1200 keV. Results: The results demonstrated that self-absorption of left and right counterpart organs may be different depending upon the differences in their masses. The cross-irradiations between left-to-right and right-to-left counterpart organs are always equal irrespective of difference in their masses. Cross-irradiation from the left and right counterpart organs to other organs are different (4-24 times in Zubal phantom) depending on the photon energy and organs. The irradiation from a single source organ to the left and right counterpart paired organs is always different irrespective of activity concentration. Conclusions: Left and right counterpart organs always receive different absorbed doses from target organs and deliver different absorbed doses to target organs. Therefore, in application of radiopharmaceuticals in which the dose to the organs plays a role, counterpart organs should be treated separately as two separate organs.

  15. Internal emergency organization in the Beznau nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful mastering of every emergency situation is based on the strict adherence to frequently reviewed emergency instruction and practice on simulators. This is the primary duty of all plant employees. In addition, executive bodies are necessary. The highest authority in the emergency organization is the emergency staff. Under the leadership of the plant manager, this staff consists of all department heads and several specialists. Outside normal working hours, it can be expected of the emergency staff that it is fully functional within, at most, one hour. Until the emergency staff can take over, the on-duty engineer leads emergency procedures. Several other different teams are responsible to the emergency staff. There are five emergency teams: off-duty plant employees; fire fighters; radiation defence; first-aid; plant guards. Then there is the technical support center (TSC). The responsibilities of the TSC are: giving technical advise to the emergency staff; working out different options for fighting the emergency; checking up on special methods; communication with the reactor manufacturer for additional support. 1 fig

  16. How is organ transplantation depicted in internal medicine and transplantation journals

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Céline; Duplantie, Andrée; Chabot, Yves; Doucet, Hubert; Fortin, Marie-Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Background In their book Spare Parts, published in 1992, Fox and Swazey criticized various aspects of organ transplantation, including the routinization of the procedure, ignorance regarding its inherent uncertainties, and the ethos of transplant professionals. Using this work as a frame of reference, we analyzed articles on organ transplantation published in internal medicine and transplantation journals between 1995 and 2008 to see whether Fox and Swazey’s critiques of organ transplantation...

  17. Actomyosin-based Self-organization of cell internalization during C. elegans gastrulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohl Christian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrulation is a key transition in embryogenesis; it requires self-organized cellular coordination, which has to be both robust to allow efficient development and plastic to provide adaptability. Despite the conservation of gastrulation as a key event in Metazoan embryogenesis, the morphogenetic mechanisms of self-organization (how global order or coordination can arise from local interactions are poorly understood. Results We report a modular structure of cell internalization in Caenorhabditis elegans gastrulation that reveals mechanisms of self-organization. Cells that internalize during gastrulation show apical contractile flows, which are correlated with centripetal extensions from surrounding cells. These extensions converge to seal over the internalizing cells in the form of rosettes. This process represents a distinct mode of monolayer remodeling, with gradual extrusion of the internalizing cells and simultaneous tissue closure without an actin purse-string. We further report that this self-organizing module can adapt to severe topological alterations, providing evidence of scalability and plasticity of actomyosin-based patterning. Finally, we show that globally, the surface cell layer undergoes coplanar division to thin out and spread over the internalizing mass, which resembles epiboly. Conclusions The combination of coplanar division-based spreading and recurrent local modules for piecemeal internalization constitutes a system-level solution of gradual volume rearrangement under spatial constraint. Our results suggest that the mode of C. elegans gastrulation can be unified with the general notions of monolayer remodeling and with distinct cellular mechanisms of actomyosin-based morphogenesis.

  18. THE HUMAN RIGHTS APPROACH TO MARKETS IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, UNITED NATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Fisseha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the shadow of World War II’s end, unprecedented discourse regarding international human rights was birthed from knowledge regarding the gross abuses that took place and subsequent shock that the civilized world had no international legislation in place to counter similar, future atrocities. In 1948, the International Labour Organization (ILO adopted the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention while, in the same year, the United Nations (UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [Swepston 1998, p.169]. The comparatively younger World Trade Organization (WTO has been both condemned and heralded for its handling, and lack thereof, of human rights violations. In the formidable wake of globalisation, all three organizations have had to bind their human rights policies to economics, thereby enhancing the interconnectivity of the entities and, by extension, international policy. The following, critical comment explores the history and current state of UN, ILO, and WTO human rights’ approaches to market policy, affording particular attention to recommendations for amending the policies in order to foster greater cohesion and address one of the most pressing human rights issues of the twenty-first century.

  19. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue. PMID:22159721

  20. International Organizations, Changing Governance and China's Policy Making in Higher Education: An Analysis of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalization, the importance of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations as influencers and shapers of the global environment is becoming prominent. Participation in international organizations leads to active incorporation of nation-states with worldwide connotations. In higher…

  1. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  2. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  3. Overview of international organic market development and potential export markets for organic products of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Monika; Richter, Toralf; Spahn, Christoph; Portmann, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    From the Summar of the Report Production At worldwide level in year 2003 66% of the world’s organic land (total 24 mio ha) are concentrated in two continents: Australia and Latin America. In these regions extensive grazing land is widespread beside the whole game of plant production, from cereals to coffee, tea and other tropical products. In Northern America the organic farmland achieves 1,5 mio ha. Europe has 23 % of the worldwide organic land (5,5 mio ha), these 5,5 mio ha correspo...

  4. Artificial intelligence in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Artificial Intelligence in Nuclear Power Plants was arranged in Helsink/Vantaa, Finland, on October 10-12, 1989, under auspices of the International Working Group of Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA/IWG NPPCI). Technical Research Centre of Finland together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy answered for the practical arrangements of the meeting. 105 participants from 17 countries and 2 international organizations took part in the meeting and 58 papers were submitted for presentation. These papers gave a comprehensive picture of the recent status and further trends in applying the rapidly developing techniques of artificial intelligence and expert systems to improve the quality and safety in designing and using of nuclear power worldwide

  5. 11 CFR 100.134 - Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the communication(s) shall be reported on the filing dates specified in 11 CFR 104.6, and shall... reported to the Commission on FEC Form 7 in accordance with 11 CFR 104.6. (b) Definition of labor... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal communications by corporations,...

  6. Exploring the likelihood of the formation of Organization of Rice Exporting Countries in international rice market

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyadul, Supaluck

    2008-01-01

    The situation in international rice trade can be considered as in crisis because of two main factors; an increase in rice prices and shortage of rice supply. The rice crisis has impacts on rice producers, traders, consumers in terms of life quality, especially those in Asia where rice is considered a basic staple and necessary commodity. To alleviate negative consequences from the crisis, an idea to stabilize international rice market is to form a rice cartel called Organization of Rice Expor...

  7. E-Business Assimilation in China's International Trade Firms: The Technology-Organization-Environment Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Dahui Li; Fujun Lai; Jian Wang

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of international trade firms in China’s economic development, there is only limited empirical evidence about how these firms assimilate Internet-based e-business in global supply chain operations. Using the Technology-Organization-Environment framework, this study investigates technological, organizational, and environmental factors which determine e-business assimilation in these firms. Based on survey data collected from 307 international trade firms in the Beijing ...

  8. Enabling, advising, supporting, executing: a theoretical framework for internal communication consulting within organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Zerfass, Ansgar; Franke, Neele

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the consulting and enabling function within the role set of communication managers and provides an initial theoretical framework for internal communication consulting in organizations. The idea of communication professionals as consultants and enablers of communication has already been introduced by a number of researchers. Nevertheless, the necessity of this task as well as the specific dimensions and practices of internal communication consulting and its various object...

  9. Foreign aid and voting in international organizations: Evidence from the IWC

    OpenAIRE

    Dippel, C

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. I use a unique dispute between major aid donors in the International Whaling Commission (IWC) to investigate whether donor nations change their aid giving in response to changes in aid recipients' voting behavior inside international organizations (IOs). This relationship is difficult to pin down in most IOs because agenda items constantly change and donor coalitions fluctuate with them. I exploit the fact that the IWC has, on the one hand, seen two fixed aid donor blocs ...

  10. Influence of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on mass of internal organs in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeman, T.; Dočekal, Bohumil; Mikuška, Pavel; Buchtová, Marcela; Míšek, Ivan; Šerý, Omar; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    Ostrava: TANGER, 2014, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-80-87294-55-0. [NANOCON 2014. International Conference /6./. Brno (CZ), 05.11.2014-07.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : inhaled nanoparticles * manganese oxides nanoparticles * changes in internal organ mass of mice * long-term inhalation experiment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  11. Influence of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on mass of internal organs in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeman, T.; Dočekal, Bohumil; Mikuška, Pavel; Buchtová, Marcela; Míšek, Ivan; Šerý, Omar; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2014, s. 686-691. ISBN 978-80-87294-53-6. [NANOCON International Conference /6./. Brno (CZ), 05.11.2014-07.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : inhaled nanoparticles * manganese oxides nanoparticles * changes in internal organ mass of mice * long-term inhalation experiment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. Attitude to the traditional knowledge of international governmental organizations and suggested strategies of China

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Cheng; Cheng Wang; Dayuan Xue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important issue for international governmental organizations (IGOs). A number of international conferences have been held to discuss this topic, and a number of relevant reports and resolutions have been produced. These resolutions reflect different interests at stake and express a different understanding and position towards traditional knowledge. IGOs led by the Convention on Biological Diversity focus more on environment and biodiversity, whereas IGOs including ...

  13. Influence of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on mass of internal organs in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeman, T.; Dočekal, Bohumil; Mikuška, Pavel; Buchtová, Marcela; Míšek, Ivan; Šerý, Omar; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    Ostrava : TANGER, 2014, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-80-87294-55-0. [NANOCON 2014. International Conference /6./. Brno (CZ), 05.11.2014-07.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : inhaled nanoparticles * manganese oxides nanoparticles * changes in internal organ mass of mice * long-term inhalation experiment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  14. 31 CFR 500.577 - Authorization of bank transactions with respect to Vietnam by certain international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with respect to Vietnam by certain international organizations. 500.577 Section 500.577 Money and... international organizations. All transactions by banking institutions subject to U.S. jurisdiction incidental to the processing of transactions of the international institutions identified in appendix A...

  15. 31 CFR 537.509 - Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Government and certain international organizations. 537.509 Section 537.509 Money and Finance: Treasury....509 Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations. All... of the United States Government, the United Nations, the World Bank, or the International...

  16. Evaluation of the International Monitoring System and International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation and quality assurance activities of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are reviewed with special emphasis on radionuclide technologies. The CTBTO carries out detailed evaluation in all fields of technical verification of the Treaty. The goal is to provide States Signatories with confidence in the quality of data from the International Monitoring System and data products of the International Data Centre. The largest technical evaluation effort has been the quality assessment of the operational software. About 1.3 million lines of source code and scripts were checked. Software characteristics, such as maintainability, were assessed using automated tool-based techniques and improvements were suggested. Specific to radionuclide technologies, several methods have been developed to cope with the large amounts of spectra produced each day by 80 radionuclide monitoring stations around the world. Some of the key evaluation results, such as the peak detection capability of the operational software are presented in detail. (orig.)

  17. Second Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations held at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Representatives from the twenty organizations that attended the staff associations conference. The second Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations (CSAIO2) just took place here at CERN on Thursday and Friday, the 25th-26th of October. Associations and Unions of twenty two organizations of greatly varying sizes were present, from the gargantuan European Commission to the smaller Commonwealth Secretariat. But size mattered not at all once the conference got under way and everyone started sharing ideas and experiences regarding the promotion and defense of staff interests. In fact, differences in size, mission and history made the Conference all the more interesting. Specific topics which the conference covered were internal appeal and grievance procedures, working time, and advancement & promotion systems. 'The information exchanged was of very high value' said Jean-Pol Matheys, President of the CERN Staff Association, which organized this event, 'I think participants left very...

  18. FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE ORGANIZING OF AN INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Serafim BROTEA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the use of social relationships in the organizing of a business network in the case of an international joint venture (IJV developing over time. The organizing process and the multicultural setting of the international joint venture emphasize the actions of and interactions between individuals from various organizations. The IJV-managers' use of their social relationships in business organizing is explored through analysis of narratives of IJVmanagers in a longitudinal single case to provide empirically grounded theory. From the in-depth interviews with IJV-managers the business relationships are identified as characterized by four possible levels of interpersonal relationships whose type influences the functions of the relationships and visa versa. One business relationship may contain only one or many of these interpersonal levels and an effective business relationship contains the appropriate interpersonal level for the business issue at hand.

  19. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment. PMID:27262365

  20. Evaluation of Statistical Machine Translation Engines in the Context of International Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Lubrina, Paula

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations and Machine Translation (MT) share a long history together; however, there is still some resistance to the introduction of MT tools into the institutional translation process. Additionally, organizations might not be able to select the tools that suit them better. Currently, a number of customizable statistical systems are being offered as additional tools for language support. This study describes the design and execution of a comparative context-oriented evaluati...

  1. E-learning in One international project-based organization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Li; Huvanandana, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Globally, the fast-changing business environment requires a period for people to learn and accept new information and knowledge which comes more quickly than ever before. E-learning systems, as by-products of information technology are popular today especially in those international organizations with subsidiaries in many countries around the world. As typical project-based organizations, some market research companies in China have also adopted e-learning systems already for some years to me...

  2. INTERDEPARTAMENTAL INTERACTION ISSUES INTERFERE WITH RUSSIA’S PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Koval

    2014-01-01

    The issues of interaction between state departments in Russia weaken the effi ciency of Russia’s participation in international economic organizations such as the WTO, OECD, BRICS, APEC, etc.). By introducing a well-defi ned delineation of powers of ministries and departments in charge of Russia’s cooperation with these organizations and embedding respective measures into the state programs and performance plans of government bodies, Russia will be able to strengthen its external economic pos...

  3. Assessing the Nature of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) System in Public Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Orajaka Ugochukwu; Ezeliora Mmaduabuchi Martin

    2015-01-01

    The study assessing the Nature of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) system in Public organizations in Anambra state, Nigeria. The data was collected through questionnaires and secondary sources of data. It was analyzed using correlations and goodness of fit tests. The results show that it has high significance value thereby accepting the testing hypotheses. However, the results were recommended for wider use and applicability in public organizations, specifically in anambra s...

  4. Artificial intelligence model for sustain ability measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)

  5. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  6. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negative effects of globalization and the production of global financial crisis is considered. The necessity to change the economic course of our country was proved because of the crisis and sanctions, as well as the need to find new ways of structuring the international financial and economic space, including the basis of the new inter-state unions and a new reserve currency. It is shown that the Russian domestic law should be the barrier against the destabilizing influence of transnational corporations. Legal acts of the Russian Federation defining the terms and scope of cooperation with international economic and financial organizations were analyzed. It is noted, that in accordance with applicable Russian legislation, international financial institutions have the right to invest in Russian companies, including and strategic. It is proved that the situation in the modern world and its negative manifestations determine the need for a number of effective measures and require changes in legislation. It is necessary to make changes in the current Russian legislation, first of all, investment, banking, trade, etc., to develop effective legal mechanisms for the protection of domestic producers and the national market from the expansion of multinational corporations.

  7. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT OF ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE AND ACCOUNTS PAYABLE IN TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Makarenko S. A.; Safonova M. F.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the internal audit improvement of accounts receivable and accounts payable of wholesale and retail organizations. There is an interpretation of internal audit from two perspectives

  8. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT OF ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE AND ACCOUNTS PAYABLE IN TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko S. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the internal audit improvement of accounts receivable and accounts payable of wholesale and retail organizations. There is an interpretation of internal audit from two perspectives

  9. Prediction of 3D internal organ position from skin surface motion: results from electromagnetic tracking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Tang, Jonathan; Zhang, Hui J.; Varghese, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.

  10. The use of CT density changes at internal tissue interfaces to correlate internal organ motion with an external surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-invasive method to monitor the motion of internal organs affected by respiration without using external markers or spirometry, to test the correlation with external markers, and to calculate any time shift between the datasets. Ten lung cancer patients were CT scanned with a GE LightSpeed Plus 4-Slice CT scanner operating in a cine mode. We retrospectively reconstructed the raw CT data to obtain consecutive 0.5 s reconstructions at 0.1 s intervals to increase image sampling. We defined regions of interest containing tissue interfaces, including tumour/lung interfaces that move due to breathing on multiple axial slices and measured the mean CT number versus respiratory phase. Tumour motion was directly correlated with external marker motion, acquired simultaneously, using the sample coefficient of determination, r2. Only three of the ten patients showed correlation higher than r2 = 0.80 between tumour motion and external marker position. However, after taking into account time shifts (ranging between 0 s and 0.4 s) between the two data sets, all ten patients showed correlation better than r2 = 0.8. This non-invasive method for monitoring the motion of internal organs is an effective tool that can assess the use of external markers for 4D-CT imaging and respiratory-gated radiotherapy on a patient-specific basis.

  11. The use of CT density changes at internal tissue interfaces to correlate internal organ motion with an external surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaede, Stewart; Yu, Edward; Van Dyk, Jake; Battista, Jerry [Radiation Oncology Program, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Carnes, Gregory; Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-01-21

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-invasive method to monitor the motion of internal organs affected by respiration without using external markers or spirometry, to test the correlation with external markers, and to calculate any time shift between the datasets. Ten lung cancer patients were CT scanned with a GE LightSpeed Plus 4-Slice CT scanner operating in a cine mode. We retrospectively reconstructed the raw CT data to obtain consecutive 0.5 s reconstructions at 0.1 s intervals to increase image sampling. We defined regions of interest containing tissue interfaces, including tumour/lung interfaces that move due to breathing on multiple axial slices and measured the mean CT number versus respiratory phase. Tumour motion was directly correlated with external marker motion, acquired simultaneously, using the sample coefficient of determination, r{sup 2}. Only three of the ten patients showed correlation higher than r{sup 2} = 0.80 between tumour motion and external marker position. However, after taking into account time shifts (ranging between 0 s and 0.4 s) between the two data sets, all ten patients showed correlation better than r{sup 2} = 0.8. This non-invasive method for monitoring the motion of internal organs is an effective tool that can assess the use of external markers for 4D-CT imaging and respiratory-gated radiotherapy on a patient-specific basis.

  12. Acquaintance with international and Iranian organizations responsible to replacement of the destroying materials of ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaintance with international and Iranian organizations responsible to replacement of the depletion materials of ozone layer is discussed. Vienna Convection for depletion is briefly reviewed and then Montreal Protocol is described. Finally,Islamic Republic of Iran programs in this respect are represented

  13. 26 CFR 1.1441-8 - Exemption from withholding for payments to foreign governments, international organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in connection with, the conduct of a commercial banking function or other commercial activity. (2... banking function or other commercial activity by such bank. See § 1.895-1. Absent actual knowledge or... name of the payee is one that is designated as an international organization by executive...

  14. 78 FR 9973 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... with the requirements of the Act and the rules and regulations thereunder applicable to a national... Commission believes that it is consistent with the Act for the Exchange to reduce the response times in the... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a...

  15. 77 FR 76336 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    .... \\6\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58224 (July 25, 2008), 73 FR 44303 (July 30, 2008) (Order... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Reduce the Response Times in the Block Mechanism, Facilitation Mechanism,...

  16. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy of the internal cellular organization of fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, W.H.; Aelst, van A.C.; Humbel, B.M.; Krift, van der T.P.; Boekhout, T.

    2000-01-01

    Internal viewing of the cellular organization of hyphae by scanning electron microscopy is an alternative to observing sectioned fungal material with a transmission electron microscope. To study cytoplasmic organelles in the hyphal cells of fungi by SEM, colonies were chemically fixed with glutarald

  17. Between the Local and the Global: Organized Research Units and International Collaborations in the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Organized research units--also known as centers, institutes, and laboratories--are increasingly prominent in the university. This paper examines how ORUs emerge to promote global agendas and international collaborations in an academic health center in North America. The roles these units play in helping researchers work across institutional and…

  18. Fuzzy Logic: A New Tool for the Analysis and Organization of International Business Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondak, Norman E.; Sondak, Eileen M.

    Classical western logic, built on a foundation of true/false, yes/no, right/wrong statements, leads to many difficulties and inconsistencies in the logical analysis and organization of international business communications. This paper presents the basic principles of classical logic and of fuzzy logic, a type of logic developed to allow for…

  19. Analysis of international and ukrainian experience in organization of successful operation of knowledge-based enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Chernova, Liudmyla S.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of experience of organization of science enterprises operation on the basis of the international and local practice is carried out. Conceptual structures of such enterprises are made taking into consideration the turbulent development of economic relations of Ukraine. The main structural schemes of the project-managed enterprises are regarded.

  20. 19 CFR 148.87 - Officers and employees of, and representatives to public international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 148.87, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... public international organizations. 148.87 Section 148.87 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Returning Individuals § 148.87 Officers and employees of, and representatives to public...

  1. 76 FR 64980 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed....19b-4. \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64853 (July 11, 2011), 76 FR 41850 (``Notice''). \\4.... Quotes are not processed more quickly than orders. See Notice at footnote 5. \\8\\ See Notice, 76 FR...

  2. 77 FR 61036 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... intermarket linkage rules.\\8\\ \\6\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 57812 (May 12, 2008), 73 FR 28846 (May 19, 2008) (SR-ISE-2008-50); 58038 (June 26, 2008), 73 FR 38261 (June July 3, 2008)...

  3. 77 FR 33543 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 52012 (July 12, 2005), 70 FR 41246 (July 18, 2005) (SR-ISE-2005-17). The... (July 2, 2010), 75 FR 39595 (July 9, 2010) (SR- ISE-2010-72). \\4\\ The related non-STOS option will...

  4. 77 FR 40121 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Release No. 65968 (December 15, 2011), 76 FR 79723 (December 22, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-83). 2. Statutory... Release No. 61061 (November 24, 2009), 74 FR 62857 (December 1, 2009) (SR-NYSEArca-2009-44). See...

  5. 75 FR 61795 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... 12, 2008), 73 FR 14521 (March 18, 2008) (SR-NASDAQ-2007-004) (Order approving, among other things, a...) and 3(a)(5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Securities Exchange Act Release No. 47364, 68...

  6. 76 FR 60574 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed.... (``CBOE'').\\3\\ \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65031 (August 4, 2011) 76 FR 48935 (August 9... Act Release No. 48033 (June 16, 2003) 68 FR 37036 (June 20, 2003) (SR-ISE-2003-17). The...

  7. 75 FR 5826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and..., 2009), 74 FR 5694 (Jan. 30, 2009). Currently, the primary distinction between the two types of...''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on January 14, 2010, the...

  8. 77 FR 26590 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66582 (March 13, 2012), 77 FR 16106 (``Notice''). II. Description of the... market for execution. \\5\\ See Notice, 77 FR at 16107. ISE is not able to execute the stock leg(s) of...

  9. 78 FR 60991 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and.... 68822 (Feb. 4, 2013), 78 FR 9440 (Feb. 8, 2013) (SR-ISE-2013-12). On September 10, 2010, the Commission... Plan. \\4\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62886 (Sept. 10, 2010), 75 FR 56613 (Sept. 16, 2010)...

  10. 75 FR 33874 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...), 74 FR 32026 (July 6, 2009). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 60559 (August 21, 2009), 74 FR 44425 (August 28, 2009). 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange believes the proposed rule change...

  11. 77 FR 17102 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... 19, 2009), 74 FR 13279 (March 26, 2009) (SR-NYSEArca-2009-21) (Notice of immediate effectiveness of the Liquidity Adding Order) and 49942 (June 29, 2004), 69 FR 41005 (July 7, 2004)...

  12. 77 FR 74898 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...), 76 FR 71413 (November 17, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-72); 66597 (March 14, 2012), 77 FR 16295 (March 20, 2012) (SR-ISE-2012-17); 66961 (May 10, 2012), 77 FR 28914 (May 16, 2012) (SR-ISE-2012-38); and 67628...

  13. 77 FR 10016 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66084 (January 3, 2012), 77 FR 1103 (January 9, 2012) (SR-ISE-2011-84... Fees. \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65548 (October 13, 2011), 76 FR 64980 (October...

  14. 76 FR 20431 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and..., YUK and SFC. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 55575 (April 3, 2007), 72 FR 17963 (April 10, 2007) (SR-ISE-2006-59). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 60536 (August 19, 2009), 74...

  15. 77 FR 35727 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... on the Exchange's Schedule of Fees. \\4\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 65724 (November 10, 2011), 76 FR...), 77 FR 1103 (January 9, 2012) (SR-ISE-2011-84); 66392 (February 14, 2012), 77 FR 10016 (February...

  16. 75 FR 13175 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... makers. \\5\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 43833 (January 10, 2001), 66 FR 7822 (January 25, 2001). \\6\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 53127 (January 13, 2006), 71 FR 3582 (January 23, 2006). The Exchange...

  17. 77 FR 72426 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...), 70 FR 41246 (July 19, 2005) (SR-ISE-2005-17). The STOS Program was made permanent on July 1, 2010. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62444 (July 2, 2010), 75 FR 39595 (July 9, 2010)...

  18. 77 FR 74895 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Make Available a New Market Data Offering November...

  19. 75 FR 3950 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61024 (November 18, 2009), 74 FR 61395... trading FX options on April 17, 2007. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 55575 (April 3, 2007), 72...

  20. 77 FR 63391 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Schedule of Fees, Preface. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 67201 (June 14, 2012), 77 FR 37082 (June 20, 2012) (SR-ISE-2012-49); and 67627 (August 9, 2012), 77 FR 49046 (August 15, 2012...

  1. 77 FR 40136 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and.... 65548 (October 13, 2011), 76 FR 64980 (October 19, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-39). \\11\\ The Complex Quoting.... 65958 (December 15, 2011), 76 FR 79236 (December 21, 2011) (SR-ISE- 2011-81); and 66406 (February...

  2. 78 FR 65400 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... initial charge. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 70286 (Aug. 29, 2013) 78 FR 54710 (Sept. 5, 2013... with an installation fee of $1,500. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66429 (Feb. 21, 2012) 77...

  3. 78 FR 78435 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... outweigh the increase in quote traffic. \\3\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 69828 (June 21, 2013), 78 FR 38745... Release No. 61061 (November 24, 2009), 74 FR 62857 (December 1, 2009) (SR-NYSEArca-2009-44). See...

  4. 77 FR 4852 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65900 (December 6, 2011), 76 FR 77275...). \\10\\ See Notice, 76 FR at 77276. The proposal limits the circumstances under which a legging order...

  5. 77 FR 35729 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Pilot Symbols'').\\6\\ \\3\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 61869 (April 7, 2010), 75 FR 19449 (April 14, 2010... Schedule of Fees. \\5\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 65724 (November 10, 2011), 76 FR 71413 (November...

  6. 78 FR 3952 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Exchange's Schedule of Fees. \\4\\ See Exchange Act Release Nos. 65724 (November 10, 2011), 76 FR 71413 (November 17, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-72); 66597 (March 14, 2012), 77 FR 16295 (March 20, 2012)...

  7. 77 FR 1757 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Release No. 55575 (April 3, 2007), 72 FR 17963 (April 10, 2007) (SR-ISE-2006-59). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 60536 (August 19, 2009), 74 FR 43204 (August 26, 2009) (SR-ISE-2009-59). \\5\\...

  8. 78 FR 24271 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... rebate.\\8\\ \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 62507 (July 15, 2010), 75 FR 42802 (July 22, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-68); and 67039 (May 22, 2012), 77 FR 31680 (May 29, 2013) (SR-ISE-2012-39). The...

  9. 76 FR 22425 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Exchange's Schedule of Fees. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 61869 (April 7, 2010), 75 FR 19449 (April 14, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-25), 62048 (May 6, 2010), 75 FR 26830 (May 12, 2010)...

  10. 78 FR 62901 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68760 (Jan. 29, 2013), 78 FR 7844 (Feb. 4, 2013) (SR-ISE-2013... (June 14, 2013), 78 FR 37250 (June 20, 2013) (SR-Phlx-2013-61). The Exchange is also proposing to...

  11. 77 FR 35723 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... and proposes to eliminate it. \\3\\ See Exchange Act Release Nos. 34-54751 (November 14, 2006), 71 FR 67667 (November 22, 2006) (SR-ISE-2006-56); 55247 (February 6, 2007), 72 FR 7099 (February 14, 2007)...

  12. 78 FR 7844 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... (November 10, 2011), 76 FR 71413 (November 17, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-72); and 66961 (May 10, 2012), 77 FR 28914 (May 16, 2012) (SR-ISE-2012-38). \\5\\ See Exchange Act Release Nos. 66084 (January 3, 2012), 77 FR...

  13. 78 FR 11921 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67948 (September 28, 2012), 77 FR 60735 (October 4, 2012) (Approving SR..., began on January 26, 2007. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 55161 (January 24, 2007), 72 FR...

  14. 76 FR 50513 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... (June 10, 2010), 75 FR 34186 (June 16, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-48). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63506 (December 9, 2010), 75 FR 78301 (December 15, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-117). \\5\\ See...

  15. 78 FR 39390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Exchange Act Release Nos. 50819 (December 8, 2004), 69 FR 75093 (December 15, 2004) (SR-ISE-2003-06) (Approving the PIM pilot (the ``Approval Order'')); 52027 (July 13, 2005), 70 FR 41804 (July 20, 2005)...

  16. 75 FR 28314 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Release Nos. 60822 (October 14, 2009), 74 FR 54114 (October 21, 2009) (SR-NYSEArca-2009-77); 60823 (October 14, 2009), 74 FR 54112 (October 21, 2009) (SR-NYSEAmex- 2009-59); and 60857 (October 21, 2009),...

  17. 77 FR 63390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... FR 52521 (October 13, 2009) (SR-ISE-2009-74). \\6\\ See Securities and Exchange Act Release No. 66746 (April 5, 2012), 77 FR 21833 (April 11, 2012) (SR-ISE-2012-28). With the costs associated with...

  18. 77 FR 3295 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Nos. 65087 (August 10, 2011), 76 FR 50783 (August 16, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-47); 65583 (October 18, 2011), 76 FR 65555 (October 21, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-68); 65705 (November 8, 2011), 76 FR 70789 (November...

  19. 78 FR 77519 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Commission Release Nos. 51717 (May 19, 2005), 70 FR 30160 (May 25, 2005) (SR-CBOE-2004-59); 51926 (June 27, 2005), 70 FR 38232 (July 1, 2005) (SR-PHLX-2004-65). Since the trading of ISE exclusively...

  20. 78 FR 17988 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... other options exchanges. \\3\\ Exchange Act Release No. 67410 (July 11, 2012), 77 FR 42040 (July 17, 2012... Section 19(b)(3)(A) of the Act. \\4\\ Exchange Act Release No. 67722 (August 23, 2012), 77 FR 52375...

  1. 75 FR 5824 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... standard execution algorithm: \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 59287 (January 23, 2009), 74 FR 5694... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 60253 (July 7, 2009), 74 FR 34063 (July 14, 2009). While only...

  2. 75 FR 2915 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...), 74 FR 64783 (``Notice''). II. Description of Proposal The Exchange proposes to amend its Schedule of... No. 56254 (August 15, 2007), 72 FR 47104 (August 22, 2007) (approving SR-ISE-2007-70). \\5\\...

  3. 76 FR 50805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Fees. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 61869 (April 7, 2010), 75 FR 19449 (April 14, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-25), 62048 (May 6, 2010), 75 FR 26830 (May 12, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-43), 62282 (June 11,...

  4. 76 FR 50503 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and..., 2010), 75 FR 56613 (September 16, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-62) (Extending the pilot period to December 10, 2010); 63481 (December 9, 2010), 75 FR 78275 (December 15, 2010) (Extending the pilot period to...

  5. 77 FR 10579 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... FR 1103 (January 9, 2012) (SR-ISE-2011-84). Further, pursuant to Securities and Exchange Commission... Release No. 65548 (October 13, 2011), 76 FR 64980 (October 19, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-39). \\9\\ See...

  6. 75 FR 34493 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...., Exchange Act Release No. 34-62126 (May 19, 2010), 75 FR 28831 (May 24, 2010) (Notice for SR-NYSE-2010-39); Exchange Act Release No. 34-62129 (May 19, 2010), 75 FR 28839 (May 24, 2010) (Notice for...

  7. 77 FR 11614 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 52012 (July 12, 2005), 70 FR 41246 (July 18, 2005) (SR-ISE-2005-17). The... (July 2, 2010), 75 FR 39595 (July 9, 2010) (SR- ISE-2010-72). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act...

  8. 78 FR 3934 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... (November 10, 2011), 76 FR 71413 (November 17, 2011) (SR-ISE-2011-72); and 66961 (May 10, 2012), 77 FR 28914 (May 16, 2012) (SR-ISE-2012-38). \\5\\ See Exchange Act Release Nos. 66084 (January 3, 2012), 77 FR...

  9. 76 FR 20062 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62252 (June 10, 2010), 75 FR 34186 (June 16, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-48). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63506 (December 9, 2010), 75 FR 78301 (December 15, 2010)...

  10. 76 FR 41850 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of... (October 15, 2010), 75 FR 65042 (October 21, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-101). \\5\\ Quotes and orders are processed... Exchange Act Release No. 51818 (June 10, 2005), 70 FR 35146 (June 16, 2005) (Order Approving...

  11. 76 FR 31385 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64538; File No. SR-ISE-2011-30) Self-Regulatory Organizations; International... Exchange Act Release No. 63117 (October 15, 2010), 75 FR 65042 (October 21, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-101); and Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64275 (April 8, 2011), 76 FR 21087 (April 14, 2011) (File No....

  12. 76 FR 79236 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and... Complex Order Book. \\7\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65548 (October 13, 2011), 76 FR 64980... Mechanism and Solicited Order Mechanism. \\10\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 61869 (April 7, 2010), 75...

  13. 77 FR 36589 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and.... 50819 (December 8, 2004), 69 FR 75093 (December 15, 2004) (Approving the PIM pilot (the ``Approval Order'')); 52027 (July 13, 2005), 70 FR 41804 (July 20, 2005) Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

  14. 76 FR 40758 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed..., 2011); 76 FR 31385 (``Notice''). II. Description The ISE proposes to amend ISE Rule 723, ``Price... Act Release No. 63117 (October 15, 2010), 75 FR 65042 (October 21, 2010) (notice of filing...

  15. 78 FR 36625 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68341 (December 3, 2012) 77 FR 73089 (December 7, 2012) (File No. 10-207... Release No. 69007 (February 28, 2013) 78 FR 14617 (March 6, 2013) (SR-MIAX-2013-05). \\6\\ See C2 Rule 6.10... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing...

  16. Lymph Region in the Female Internal Reproductive Organs during the Early Postpartum Period after Normal Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, T I; Borodin, Yu I; Gorchakov, V N; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    The structural and functional changes in the lymph region of the female internal reproductive organs in rats were studied during the early postpartum period after normal pregnancy. The results indicated that the main role of the lymph region in pregnancy consisted in supporting sufficient lymph production and drainage in the hypertrophic uterus. PMID:26601833

  17. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

  18. 75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine Engines To Comply with Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 AGENCY: Coast... meeting on the International Maritime Organization guidelines for exhaust gas cleaning systems for marine...-543 policy letter 09-01 that provide guidance for exhaust gas cleaning systems under MARPOL Annex...

  19. Uncovering the Images and Meanings of International Organizations (IOs) in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Madden, Meggan

    2015-01-01

    Employing Stuart Hall's concept of representation, we examine how international organizations (IOs) are presented in the higher education literature. This paper examines how IOs, such as the World Bank, OECD, and UNESCO, are conceptualized and represented by higher education researchers. We focus on three main representations of IOs in the higher…

  20. 75 FR 69726 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... trade options on leveraged (multiple or inverse) ETNs and implement the amended definition of ``Futures... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To List and Trade Options on Leveraged Exchange-Traded...

  1. On the Attribution to an International Organization of the Activity of Private Companies that Operate on its Account

    OpenAIRE

    MAGI, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The increasing outsourcing of the activities of international organizations to private companies, especially in security and military fields, raises the question whether the conduct of private companies can be attributed to the delegating organization. The paper seeks to explore this new topic in the light of the criteria of attribution provided by the International Law Commission in the Draft Articles of responsibility of international organizations adopted on first reading in...

  2. Re-organization Impact on the Telekom Malaysia’s International Division Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available International Divisions’ productivity was perceived to incline towards a downward trend which was contravened in 1996 re-organization objective of Telekom Malaysia. This study aims to analyze the root causes of this setback and recommend the solutions to improve the company’s productivity. The method to diagnose the root cause was done through surveys and interviews. The data collection was carried out through questionnaire consisting of 85 questions. Total of 171 respondents from the international employees whom their offices are located throughout Malaysia are responded to the questionnaires. This paper presents a detailed study and analysis on the organization impact on international divisions’ productivity of Telekom Malaysia after the re-organization. Theoretical and empirical data are presented about the re-organization and its challenges, independent variables of the strategic organizational change for organization and external environments, the productivity indicators, a model that explains the relationship between organizational factors and productivity, and lastly the re-organization impact on productivity. The respondents that have significant relationship with company’s productivity perceived ten independent variables. The three most dominant variables are required immediate strategic actions namely; Quality, External Factors and the Leadership Style to reposition back the company’s competitiveness, quality and productivity. The recommended strategic actions to improve the company’s productivity these are, all international divisions to acquire professional quality certification near future. To improve and maintain a very good relationship with government authorities need to adoption of transformational leadership style.

  3. Artificial ecosystem selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R

    2000-08-01

    Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915

  4. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  5. A Condition Analysis for Advancing Exalted Level of Nuclear International Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. H

    2008-02-15

    This paper aimed at developing the strategy for facilitating the Korean participation as a higher staff in the nuclear related international organizations. - For that purpose, this Study focused on the following three subjects ; (1) to analyze the job situation of international organizations, (2) to analyze the background information and the procedure of appointment, (3) to suggest a facilitating strategy. - There are over 40 higher staff members including Director-General, six Deputy Director-General and 36 Directors in IAEA. Analysis shows that there are three main factors which influence the appointment of those higher position; geographical distribution, members' contributions towards the regular budget and a nation's influencing power to the international community. We can categorize into two case in aspect of the agency's appointment procedure. A director's position is generally decided through the open competition. In the case of Deputy Director-General or higher position, however, it is a practice that the Agency appoints the candidates through a unofficial procedure considering political situation. - There are twelve higher staffs in NEA. Influencing power and members' contributions towards the regular budget are the major criteria of higher staff's appointment. - It is expected that this study will contribute to the facilitation of Korean participation as a higher staff in the international organization by supplying the basic strategy.

  6. High-internal-phase emulsions stabilized by metal-organic frameworks and derivation of ultralight metal-organic aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Chengcheng; Peng, Li; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Ma, Xue; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Yang, Guanying

    2016-02-01

    To design high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) systems is of great interest from the viewpoints of both fundamental researches and practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utilization of metal-organic framework (MOF) for HIPE formation. By stirring the mixture of water, oil and MOF at room temperature, the HIPE stabilized by the assembly of MOF nanocrystals at oil-water interface could be formed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE provides a novel route to produce highly porous metal-organic aerogel (MOA) monolith. After removing the liquids from the MOF-stabilized HIPE, the ultralight MOA with density as low as 0.01 g·cm-3 was obtained. The HIPE approach for MOA formation has unique advantages and is versatile in producing different kinds of ultralight MOAs with tunable porosities and structures.

  7. High-internal-phase emulsions stabilized by metal-organic frameworks and derivation of ultralight metal-organic aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Chengcheng; Peng, Li; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Ma, Xue; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Yang, Guanying

    2016-01-01

    To design high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) systems is of great interest from the viewpoints of both fundamental researches and practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utilization of metal-organic framework (MOF) for HIPE formation. By stirring the mixture of water, oil and MOF at room temperature, the HIPE stabilized by the assembly of MOF nanocrystals at oil-water interface could be formed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE provides a novel route to produce highly porous metal-organic aerogel (MOA) monolith. After removing the liquids from the MOF-stabilized HIPE, the ultralight MOA with density as low as 0.01 g·cm−3 was obtained. The HIPE approach for MOA formation has unique advantages and is versatile in producing different kinds of ultralight MOAs with tunable porosities and structures. PMID:26892258

  8. High-internal-phase emulsions stabilized by metal-organic frameworks and derivation of ultralight metal-organic aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Chengcheng; Peng, Li; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Ma, Xue; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Yang, Guanying

    2016-01-01

    To design high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) systems is of great interest from the viewpoints of both fundamental researches and practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utilization of metal-organic framework (MOF) for HIPE formation. By stirring the mixture of water, oil and MOF at room temperature, the HIPE stabilized by the assembly of MOF nanocrystals at oil-water interface could be formed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE provides a novel route to produce highly porous metal-organic aerogel (MOA) monolith. After removing the liquids from the MOF-stabilized HIPE, the ultralight MOA with density as low as 0.01 g·cm(-3) was obtained. The HIPE approach for MOA formation has unique advantages and is versatile in producing different kinds of ultralight MOAs with tunable porosities and structures. PMID:26892258

  9. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  10. How External Environment and Internal Organization contribute in Commitment to Change? (Study at organizational change in state owned organizations in Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Wustari Mangundjaya; Budi Soetjipto

    2014-01-01

    The success of organizational change was influenced by many factors, and some of them are the conditions of external environments and internal organization. This study is trying to identify the role and contribution of employee’s perception about external environment and internal organization in relations with commitment to change. The study was conducted at financial state owned organizations with 539 respondents, using Organizational Trust and Organizational Task Environment as data collect...

  11. Smallholder group certification in Uganda – Analysis of internal control systems in two organic export companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Reckling

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic agricultural sector of Uganda is among the most developed in Africa in terms of its professional institutional network and high growth rates of number of certified farmers and land area. Smallholder farmers are certified organic through contract production for export companies using a group certification scheme (internal control system - ICS. The ICS is a viable and well-accepted tool to certify small-scale producers in developing countries all over the world. Difficulties in certification are still stated to be among the main constraints for Uganda’s organic sector development. Therefore, this paper reports a qualitative case study comprising 34 expert interviews in two organic fresh-produce export companies in central Uganda, aiming to explore the challenges which underlie organic certification with ICS. The study shows that farmers cannot be labelled as ‘organic by default’ but deliberately engage in organic production as a marketing strategy. The small quantities purchased by the organic companies lead to a difficult marketing situation for the farmers, causing production and infiltration risks on the farm level. These risks require increased control that challenges the companies organizationally. The risks and control needs are a reason to involve farmers in ICS procedures and innovatively adapt the ICS by means of a bypass around formal perspective restrictions. The paper discusses different perspectives on risks, risk control and certification.

  12. Self-organization in Complex Systems The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pelster, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains talks and poster presentations from the International Symposium "Self-Organization in Complex Systems: The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics", which took place at Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg, an Institute of Advanced Studies, in Delmenhorst, Germany, during the period November 13 - 16, 2012. The Symposium was organized in honour of Hermann Haken, who celebrated his 85th birthday in 2012. With his fundamental theory of Synergetics he had laid the mathematical-physical basis for describing and analyzing self-organization processes in a diversity of fields of research. The quest for common and universal principles of self-organization in complex systems was clearly covered by the wide range of interdisciplinary topics reported during the Symposium. These extended from complexity in classical systems and quantum systems over self-organisation in neuroscience even to the physics of finance. Moreover, by combining a historical view with a present status report the Symposium con...

  13. Application of chemometric analysis and self Organizing Map-Artificial Neural Network as source receptor modeling for metal speciation in river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study deals with the river Ganga water quality and its impact on metal speciation in its sediments. Concentration of physico-chemical parameters was highest in summer season followed by winter and lowest in rainy season. Metal speciation study in river sediments revealed that exchangeable, reducible and oxidizable fractions were dominant in all the studied metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) except Mn and Fe. High pollution load index (1.64–3.89) recommends urgent need of mitigation measures. Self-organizing Map-Artificial Neural Network (SOM-ANN) was applied to the data set for the prediction of major point sources of pollution in the river Ganga. - Highlights: • Impact of river water quality on metal speciation in its sediments. • Sequential Extraction Process was opted for metal speciation study. • Total Acid Digestion was opted for total metal concentration assessment. • Chemometric and Self-Organizing Map-Artificial Neural Network were applied. - Metal speciation study helps to assess the risk caused by metals in river sediments. ANN-SOM along with other chemometric tools can act as an effective source apportionment model

  14. Optimization of the microwave-assisted saponification and extraction of organic pollutants from marine biota using experimental design and artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Borges, J.; Rodriques-Delgado, M.A.; Garcia-Montelongo, F.J. [Laguna Univ., Tenerife (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science

    2006-02-15

    Several improvements in sample pretreatment for the determination of organic pollutants (i.e. n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in marine biota (mussels) are presented. The use of liquid nitrogen and homogenization of the samples are shown to be an alternative to the time consuming liophilization step required for the analysis of biota samples. Microwave-assisted hydrolysis and extraction are combined to isolate organic pollutants (19 n-alkanes and 27 PAHs) from biota matrices. Experimental design (ES) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to optimize the experimental conditions. NIST-CRM 2978 was used to test the validity of the developed method which shows a good agreement with certified values. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of effects of posture on organ doses by internal photon emitters using voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the effects of posture on absorbed doses in organs due to internal exposures, specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for monoenergetic photons from 0.01 to 4 MeV were calculated using two Japanese adult male phantoms, JM2 (upright) and JM (supine), whose designs were based on CT images of two postures obtained from the same person. Differences in the SAFs of JM2 and JM are within a factor of 2 in most cases although significant differences in SAFs exist in several combinations of source and target organs for low energy photons. Organ doses due to photons from the intake of unit activity of eight radionuclides (126Ba, 128Ba, 133Ba, 130Cs, 131Cs, 178W, 179W and 190W) with different biokinetics and decay characteristics were calculated from the SAFs of JM2 and JM. It was found that the organ doses in the testes, bone marrow, lower large intestine wall, lungs and stomach wall, which are important for calculating effective dose, in the two postures roughly agree, the maximum difference being 14%. These results indicate that the impact of posture on the organ doses and effective doses from internal photon emitters is not significant

  16. 50 CFR Appendix A to Chapter I - Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (Established by the International Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (Established by the International Organization for Standardization) A Appendix A to Chapter I... the International Organization for Standardization) Country 2-Letter code Afghanistan AF. Albania...

  17. Сombat training of employees of organs of internal affairs of Ukraine: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakorko I.P.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A level of the combat training of employees and subsections of organs of internal affairs is the basic index of their possibility effectively to execute the tasks put before them. The analysis of practical work of organs of internal affairs of Ukraine shows that the modern system of the combat training needs considerable changes and korektiv, especially in the sections of studies of employees from the special physical and fire preparation. An author is outline the concrete ways of perfection of these work assignments which consist in concrete certain aims and tasks of the combat training depending on work of specialists, bringing the study-metodical and material providing over assignments to the modern requirements.

  18. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  19. History of the Internal Control System at the Association of Organic Cacao Farmers (APKO) in Pidie

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Plenty of Activities, but Limited Funding and Reliable Resources. Another big problem faced by ICS is weeds and diseases that attack cacao trees. The farmers are not used to the organic farming practice of mechanical or manual weeding, instead of using herbicides. The farmers are also eager to apply chemicals to control cacao plant diseases. It requires constant monitoring of ICS staff, who must continually inform the cooperative of internal problems, verbally or in writing, in every meeting.

  20. Effects of Ovarian Hormones on Internal Circadian Organization in Rats1

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Zachary C.; Pezuk, Pinar; Menaker, Michael; Sellix, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the central pacemaker driving rhythms in endocrine physiology. Gonadal steroid hormones affect behavioral rhythms and clock gene expression. However, the impact of fluctuating ovarian steroid levels during the estrous cycle on internal circadian organization remains to be determined. Further, it is not known if steroid hormone depletion, as in menopause, affects the timing system. To determine the influence of est...

  1. The essential impact of eu and other international organizations on the democratization process for Albania

    OpenAIRE

    DOBI (PESHKEPIA) IRNA

    2015-01-01

    Number of international organizations (IO) like NATO, OSCE, COUNCIL OF EUROPE, and EU play directly an essential role on Western Balkans democratization process. However, the requirements in the Balkan are not in the same level and seem that the EU doesn’t require the same standards from Albania. On this point of view the question consist on the effects of conditionality on democratization. The objective is to analyze the main actors’ interests and the relationship between Europeanization and...

  2. Legitimating New Forms of Organizing and New International Activities in the Eyes of Multiple Stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    by its multiple stakeholders; and (2) what legitimation strategies it developed and adopted to legitimate itself in the eyes of its multiple stakeholders. Theoretically, the paper is grounded within legitimation theory. The empirical context is defined by a new, international NGO entering an established...... - as at the time of entry there were no precedents for the kind of forms of organizing and activities this venture was aiming to introduce to the market....

  3. Internal Communication in Organization of Network Appliances Department in Digital China

    OpenAIRE

    Xinbo Sun

    2009-01-01

    Jack Welch thought that management was communicating, communicating, and communicating again. Matsushita Könosuke also pointed “The management of an enterprise was communicating, is communicating, will be communicating.” Good communication establishes the relationships among people, and makes organizations obtain agglomeration power overstep their authorities. Therefore, company will pay more and more attention to managing communication. Through analyzing the internal communication of the com...

  4. International Literature Review on WHODAS II (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II)

    OpenAIRE

    Federici, Stefano; Meloni, Fabio; Lo Presti, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    This review is a critical analysis regarding the study and utilization of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature.The WHODAS II is an instrument developed by the World Health Organisation in order to assess behavioural limitations and restrictions related to an individual’s participation, independent from a medical diagnosis. This instrument was develop...

  5. Membership has its privileges: The effect of membership in international organizations on FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Axel; Mikosch, Heiner; Voigt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We argue that membership in International Organizations (IOs) is an important determinant of FDI inflows. To the extent that membership restricts a country from pursuing policies that are harmful to investors, it can signal low political risk. Using data over the 1971-2005 period, we find that membership in IOs does indeed increase inflows of FDI. Controlling for the endogeneity of membership, we find this effect to be substantively important and robust to the method of estimation.

  6. Nepotism, beyond good or bad. Exploring recruitment policies in international aid organizations in Kyrgyzstan.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldanova, Aldara

    2014-01-01

    While nepotism has been a pervasive social phenomenon in every culture, prevailing in family businesses - the topic has majorly been a taboo for academic research. It has been labeled as a discriminative practice in modern bureaucratic organizations. The development and international aid worldwide represent a large framework of bureaucracies and planning. Local cultures often represent a challenge if not an obstacle to the development practices and need a flexible approach. Kyrgyz society...

  7. RESHAPING ORGANIZATIONS – MANAGING PEOPLE THROUGH HR STRATEGIES AND INTERNAL MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cioclov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims at presenting key concepts in regard to the interconnectivity between two similar and frequently confused practices – Human Resource Management and Internal Marketing. Therefore, it is intend to present both fields distinctively, in order to emphasise in the end the added value of the two working together. Given the fact that, in the specialised literature, there are different approaches on this subject and many questions raised regarding the separation of the instruments and particular objectives of the two practices, the paper presents a simplified approach on the HRM Cycle in comparison with the IM Cycle. Therefore, the paper is structured as follows: (1 HRM’s impact on the general activity of an organization – whether it is a manufacturing company or a service provider; (2 IM’s impact on the internal and external environment of the organization; (3 Analysis on the connection and in-/inter-/dependency of the two concepts and their meaning. Although HRM seems to bring numerous advantages to the organization, the current paper states that HR cannot be done at the same efficiency level in the absence of good Internal Marketing practices that allow the word - of - mouth to spread between the present and possible future employees. It is about a good branding that has to exceed the company’s geographical boundaries and to create the need, not only in terms of product consumer’s behavior, but also in regard to employees that want to be part of the brand.

  8. Attitude to the traditional knowledge of international governmental organizations and suggested strategies of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge is an important issue for international governmental organizations (IGOs. A number of international conferences have been held to discuss this topic, and a number of relevant reports and resolutions have been produced. These resolutions reflect different interests at stake and express a different understanding and position towards traditional knowledge. IGOs led by the Convention on Biological Diversity focus more on environment and biodiversity, whereas IGOs including the World Intellectual Property Organization and World Trade Organization focus on economic development and international trade. Other IGOs such as the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples focus on society and human rights. In consideration of China’s commitment to IGOs and rich history, China should attach moreimportance to the protection of traditional knowledge, and consider the initiation of legislation that provides the benefits of information sharing as described in the Nagoya Protocol. This will establish a benefit sharing system to protect traditional knowledge as a way to ensure harmonious development among the environment, economy, and society.

  9. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  10. Natural or Artificial Intelligence?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plzeň (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. Effect of redox conditions on the fate of emergin organic micropollutants during artificial recharge of groundwater: batch experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    La recarrega artificial de les aigües subterrànies consisteix en infiltrar aigua als aqüífers per mitjà de les instal·lacions dissenyades per a tal fi i representa una eina important en la gestió dels recursos. A més de l’augment dels recursos d'aigües subterrànies, la recàrrega pot suposar una millora natural de la seva qualitat durant el seu pas pel subsòl. Els processos que tenen lloc en el sistema sòl-aqüífer (filtració, adsorció, reaccions de mescla , redox, biodegradació, et...

  12. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  13. The First World War and the Discussions on Establishing the Universal International Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodnev Aleksandr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, historians begin the League of Nations’ history with the postwar settlement and the creation of the Versailles system. However, the continuity exists between the First World War and the emergence of international organization. There was no steady institution of multilateral diplomacy for the international arbitration before the War. The Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907 were not able to create strong international institutions. The ways out of the Great War and the mechanisms of preventing its repetition had to be looked for in the bloody conflict. The situation in the USA and in the UK differed significantly. The censorship rules that did not allow publishing essays about peace or any negotiations with the enemy were introduced. In the US they could freely discuss these issues. In the US the university academicians, businessmen, and representatives of various faiths, and prominent politicians were involved in the discussions. In the UK, the League of Nations theme was discussed by the pressure groups such as Fabian Society and selected intellectuals such as Leonard Woolf. During 1916–1917 the views of the governments and various social organizations about the League of Nations significantly differed. The public opinion and social groups demanded the creation of the international organization immediately, or as part of the post-war settlement structure. The UK government recognized the need for the creation of the League of Nations only as a part of the United States involving into the war and the strengthening of the British Empire. As a result of the League of Nations carried out signs of hybridity in a dangerous form.

  14. Removal of dissolved organic matter in municipal effluent with ozonation, slow sand filtration and nanofiltration as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In the paper the combination process of ozonation, slow sand filtration (SSF) and nanofiltration (NF) was investigated with respect to dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge. With the help of ozonation leading to breakdown of the large organic molecules, SSF preferentially removes soluble microbial by-product-like substances and DOM with molecular weight (MW) less than 1.0 kDa. NF, however, removes aromatic, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances efficiently and specially removes DOM with MW above 1.0 kDa. The residual DOM of the membrane permeate is dominated by small organics with MW 500 Da, which can be further reduced by the aquifer treatment, despite of the very low concentration. Consequently, the O(3)/SSF/NF system offers a complementary process in DOM removal. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) can be reduced from 6.5±1.1 to 0.7±0.3 mg L(-1) and from 267±24 to 52±6 μg L(-1), respectively. The very low DOC concentration of 0.6±0.2 mg L(-1) and THMFP of 44±4 μg L(-1) can be reached after the aquifer treatment. PMID:21382634

  15. Alternative Organizations by which Russia is Trying to Impose on the International Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Security or insecurity dominates the current context of international relations. It is a situation generated by the collapse of the Eastern European communist bloc and the USSR in the late 80s and early 90s, or the resistance impact to the New World Order fueled by the negative phenomena of globalization. One of the concerns of any policymakers is to know well the power relations at global and regional levels, as from their substance they will know which are the margins of action, towards one direction or another. Therefore, it will always seek to find out who is stronger and who could take domination on the scenes of international politics. Therefore, we will briefly review the factors that make the countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa unable to defeat the global dominance of the US and its major allies, only to budge it a little. Vladimir Putin has created two organizations competing to G7 and NATO. Two summits were held in Ufa, Russian Federation: the Summit of the Organization of Shanghai Cooperation (comprised of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and the group BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. At the summit the organization was invited Belarus president, Alexander Lukashenko, as the leader of a country member in the Eurasian Economic Union countries. The Kremlin is trying to play the leading role in these organizations, but according to the International experts, such attempts did not succeed because Moscow cannot go beyond the shadow of Beijing's de facto leader of both structures.

  16. INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS WITH ATTRIBUTES AND PREOCCUPATIONS IN PREVENTING AND FIGHTING AGAINST CYBERCRIME AND THEIR MAIN ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe-Iulian Ioniţă; Ștefania-Diana Ioniţă-Burda

    2011-01-01

    At global level, there are various organizations which are constantly concerned with the analysis of the latest manifestations and evolution of cybercrime, setting up work groups to develop strategies for the prevention and fight of cybercrimes. Besides these international organizations which act globally, several other organizations focus on certain regions, dealing with issues related to cybercrime.

  17. Profile of the biodiesel B100 commercialized in the region of Londrina: application of artificial neural networks of the type self organizing maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Machado de Campos Filho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 97 samples were grouped according to the year of analysis. For each year, letters from A to D were attributed, between 2010 and 2013; A (33 B (25 C (24 and D (15. The parameters of compliance previously analyzed are those established by the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP, through resolution ANP 07/2008. The parameters analyzed were density, flash point, peroxide and acid value. The observed values were presented to Artificial Neural Network (ANN Self Organizing MAP (SOM in order to classify, by physical-chemical properties, each sample from year of production. The ANN was trained on different days and randomly divided samples into two groups, training and test set. It was found that SOM network differentiated samples by the year and the compliance parameters, allowing to identify that the density and the flash point were the most significant compliance parameters, so good for the distinction and classification of these samples.

  18. The balance of the information and communication technologies in the agenda of international organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Miquilena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it has been done a balance of the importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the agenda of international agencies, such as the Organization of the United Nations (UN, the United Nations for Education,Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO, the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC and some institutions such as the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS and the Ministry of People's Power for Science and Technology (MCT of Venezuela, among others, with the aim of understanding their impact and contribution to solve problems of the Southern countries. The qualitative study found that ICT have become really essential for accomplishing any process of economic, political, social and cultural development, which aspires to succeed in programs for the third world countries that will lead them to symmetrical and balanced paths in economies involved in sustainable development with together articulate with equallity conditions aspects like ICT and educational processes, integrating socio-cultural networks that facilitate the appropriation of great benefit information, communications and knowledge to be gained from them, adapting them to their specific local, regional and national needs.Key words: Information and Communication Technologies, Agenda, International Organizations

  19. Role of international organizations in promoting nuclear medicine in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, because of the diversity of its applications - radiation and radionuclides for medical and biological purposes are used in more countries and in more laboratories than any other application of atomic energy. International organizations, mainly the IAEA and the WHO, have played a significant role in the spread of this nuclear technology in developing countries. There are altogether 112 member states of the Agency, about 71 of them can be classified as developing countries. Out of them, nearly 56 have some kind of nuclear medicine. By that I mean there is some medical use of radioisotopes, be it imaging, radioimmunoassay or the old thyroid uptake. In most of these countries, the personnel working in nuclear medicine has been trained abroad. Training can be as short as few weeks abroad in the form of attendance at one of the four or six week training courses offered by an international organization. Occasionally it is through a fellowship offered by the same organizations. In terms of technology and training, Nuclear Medicine, in its present form, can thus be considered a high technology imported medicine in many of these countries

  20. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  1. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  2. Optimal dimension of a reservir for temporary storage of heat surpluses from combined heat and power in artificial lighted greenhouses Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Artificial Lighting in Horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    1997-01-01

    Producing electricity with on-site combined heat and power, to feed artificial lighting implies the production of large amounts of waste heat. Quite often the heat production exceeds the actual heat demand of the greenhouse. Thus combined heat and power induces heat surpluses. However, in a large sp

  3. Performance analysis of an organic Rankine cycle with internal heat exchanger having zeotropic working fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranis Deethayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performance of a 50 kW organic Rankine cycle (ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHE having R245fa/R152a zeotropic refrigerant with various compositions was investigated. The IHE could reduce heat rate at the ORC evaporator and better cycle efficiency could be obtained. The zeotropic mixture could reduce the irreversibilities during the heat exchanges at the ORC evaporator and the ORC condenser due to its gliding temperature; thus the cycle working temperatures came closer to the temperatures of the heat source and the heat sink. In this paper, effects of evaporating temperature, mass fraction of R152a and effectiveness of internal heat exchanger on the ORC performances for the first law and the second law of thermodynamics were considered. The simulated results showed that reduction of R245fa composition could reduce the irreversibilities at the evaporator and the condenser. The suitable composition of R245fa was around 80% mass fraction and below this the irreversibilities were nearly steady. Higher evaporating temperature and higher internal heat exchanger effectiveness also increased the first law and second law efficiencies. A set of correlations to estimate the first and the second law efficiencies with the mass fraction of R245fa, the internal heat exchanger effectiveness and the evaporating temperature were also developed.

  4. Impact of Air Oxidation on Dissolved Organic Matter from Boom Clay: Comparison Between Natural and Artificial Oxidation Series and In Situ Piezometers Water From Hades Galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Boom Clay is considered by the Belgian radioactive waste management agency Ondraf/Niras as a possible host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The drilling of galleries and corings in the Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium) leads to perturbations of the initial physical and chemical conditions. In piezometers, the DOC may show considerable and irregular variations through time, with values ranging from 80 to 425 mg/L. The origin and bio-physico-chemical controls of such variations are yet unknown but oxidation and biodegradation were considered as most likely. Three categories of samples were collected with the aim of determining and quantifying different molecular markers representative for the oxidation process: - Fresh as well as air-oxidized Boom Clay samples were collected in the Underground Research Facility HADES of EURIDICE (Mol, Belgium): they represent a natural series of oxidation; - A fresh Boom Clay sample was submitted to laboratory air oxidation (artificial series). In these experiments, powdered clay was heated at 80 deg. C under air flow during 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 months; - Four water samples were collected during January 2010 from different horizons in the Boom Clay by means of piezometers located in the Underground Research Facility. The DOM (dissolved organic matter) of Boom Clay samples (artificial and natural series) was isolated by Soxhlet using pure water as well as by leaching experiments. The quantitative analysis shows an increasing in DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) content with oxidation. Qualitative characterizations including spectroscopic (3D-fluorescence) as well as molecular analyses (flash pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (PyGC-MS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC)) show an evolution of the DOM chemistry with oxidation: - An enrichment in oxygen bearing molecules (acidic poly functional groups); - A decrease in

  5. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  6. Norwegian gas sale in an international perspective - future-directed organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with future organization of the Norwegian gas sale. The author gives at first a brief review of the Norwegian gas sale, and then a discussion on which type of criteria being based on by evaluation of models for the Norwegian gas sale. A comparison on which type of criteria used in other gas supplying countries is discussed. The author discusses tendencies of development in the international market including Europe, and is questioning if the existing system of gas sale is prepared to meet future challenges. Several types of proposals are presented to solve these challenges. 5 figs

  7. An international comparison of regulatory organizations and licensing procedures for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers measures needed to license new nuclear power plants efficiently. We base our analysis on international standards and a comparison of the national regulatory and licensing framework in seven countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the USA). We split the review into the organization of regulatory responsibilities and the licensing process. We propose a set of considerations that should be incorporated into national solutions. While conscious of the different cultural fundamentals of each region, we hope this paper will help fuel an emerging debate on this highly topical issue

  8. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    OpenAIRE

    Костиленко, Юрий Петрович; Боягина, Ольга Дмитриевна

    2016-01-01

    Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex) at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the ...

  9. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  10. Changing the internal health and safety organization through organizational learning and change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    of I I companies was to search for a solution to this problem. The health and safety managers and safety representatives played the role of "change agents" for local projects aiming to develop the health and safety organization. The study showed that 3 of the 11 companies proved to be able to implement......Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organization is marginalized in most companies, and it is difficult for the professionals to secure a proper role in health and safety on the companies' present agenda. The goal of a Danish project involving a network...... successful changes; 5 were partially successful; 3 were nonperformers. The more successful outcomes seem to depend on the abilities of change agents to handle a complex and unpredictable project. Based on these case studies, it has been possible to deduce some strategies change agents must follow to fulfill...

  11. Anthropological characteristics, internal organs measurements, and food consumption of Indonesian people, 1989-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been conducted to obtain, assess and interpret data on morphological, anatomical, chemical and metabolic characteristics of Indonesian population of all ages for establishing an Indonesian Reference Man. The paper presents age and sex specific data on physical anthropometric measurements, and on weights and dimensions of internal organs of normal and healthy Indonesian people. In addition, the content of selected elements in main organs and foodstuff, and the data of daily food consumption of well nourished individuals in three different regions of Indonesia are also presented. Approximately 804 people of all ages were measured to obtain the physical/anthropometric data. The people chosen were from 3 Indonesian regions representing the middle class socioeconomic population. The average body weight and total body height of the age group 20-39 years were found to be 53.5 kg (range: 40-70 kg) and 160.4 cm (range: 147.3-179.8 cm) for males and 48.9 kg (range: 32.7-79.5 kg) and 150.9 cm (range: 141.8-167.3 cm) for females. The weights and dimensions of internal organs data were collected in Jakarta from about 155 sudden death victims. The weight of most male organs was generally about 1% to 19% larger than those of females. However, the female thyroid was 5.6% larger dm the males. The age specific food consumption were obtained in three regions of Indonesia. The content of elements in the selected foodstuffs are also included in this report. The results show that rice is consumed three times a day by most subjects. Milk and eggs are widely consumed and the intake tends to be higher in the younger age groups. Among the meat group, beef is the most popular and consumed with the highest frequency, followed by chicken both in popularity and quantity consumed. Vegetables, particularly the colored vegetables, are used daily in high amounts. (author)

  12. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF THE REGIONALISATION OF THE PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio MANRIQUE DE LUNA BARRIOS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase and complexity of conflicts with internal and international caracter the United Nations had to realize that their capacity to protect peace and international security have been surpassed by the caracteristics and dynamics of the conflicts that the international society has been confronted with. In this context the regional organizations had to assume a number of tasks on their own or in cooperation with the United Nations with the objective to contribute to maintaining international peace and security.

  13. Crime organizado, estado e segurança internacional Organized crime, the state and international security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cepik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre o crime organizado internacional, buscando debater seus atributos conceituais e avaliá-lo do ponto de vista da segurança internacional. O problema norteador do trabalho é compreender o fundamento e as consequências da interação entre autoridade política e crime organizado, analisando, de um lado, as implicações da criminalidade organizada para a soberania e, de outro, as ações governamentais e internacionais para controlar essas organizações. Nesse sentido, argumentamos que as capacidades de poder acumuladas pelo crime, na medida em que o próprio processo de consolidação do Estado impede que as organizações criminosas possam almejar substituírem o Estado, são funcionais ao seu objetivo primário de enriquecimento ilícito. O desenvolvimento do crime organizado não é exógeno à vida em sociedade ou patológico, e sim parte constituinte da estrutura social, mantendo uma relação parasitária com a ordem estabelecida. Como o crime organizado tem implicações negativas sobre a capacidade de o Estado prover segurança e bem-estar para a sociedade, debatemos as ações policiais, judiciárias e de inteligência a que recorrem os governos como meio para controlar as organizações criminosas. No âmbito internacional, verifica-se que há cooperação multilateral e bilateral na matéria, mas que essa agenda não configura um ambiente de cooperação irrestrita, visto que, assim como internamente, há interesses divergentes e assimetria na distribuição dos custos e dos benefícios da ação conjunta.The present article analyzes international organized crime as an international security problem. Its main purpose is to comprehend the rationale and the consequences of the interaction between political authority and organized crime, analyzing the implications of organized crime for sovereignty as well as domestic and international measures to control such organizations. The central argument is that

  14. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on Na

  15. ORGANIZATION OF ACCOUNTING AND INTERNAL CHECK CASH FLOW AND PAYMENT ON BASE BUSINESS OF AUTOMOBILE MAINTENANCE SERVICING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashchenko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted topical questions of organization of accounting and internal check cash flow and payment on base business of automobile maintenance servicing. Defined the problem of accounting and control cash flows are formulated proposals to address them.

  16. Replenishment of the Reference Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter (NOM): Final Report on a Proposal to International Humic Substances Society

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on International Humic Substances Society findings of natural organic matter content along the Suwannee River sill in Southeastern Georgia.

  17. EMPLOYEE OF ORGANS OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS AS SPECIAL SUBJECT OF CORRUPTION CRIMES (SOME CRIMINAL-LEGAL AND CRIMINOLOGY ASPECTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebenyova, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In this signs and descriptions of corruption crimes are examined which are committed by employees of organs of internal affairs of Russia. Distinguishing features of individual criminal behavior of the special subject of this type of crimes are marked.

  18. Attenuation of internal organ damages by exogenously administered epidermal growth factor (EGF) in burned rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Jorge; Lodos, Jorge; López-Saura, Pedro

    2002-08-01

    Major burns are associated with multiple internal organ damages, including necrosis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Failure of the intestinal barrier is a serious complication in burned patients. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair and affords protection to the gastric mucosa. We examined whether a single systemic intervention with EGF prevents organ systems damages, following full-thickness scalds (25-30%) in rodents. Animals were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of EGF (30 microg/kg in mice, 10 microg/kg in rats) or saline solution, 30 min prior thermal injury in mice or after the cutaneous injury in rats. General clinical condition and mortality during 24h were recorded. Animals were autopsied and histopathological and histomorphometric studies were conducted. Mice treated with EGF exhibited a milder clinical evolution and acute lethality was significantly reduced as compared to saline counterparts (P<0.01). Histopathological and morphometric analysis showed that EGF significantly reduced intestinal necrosis and contributed to preserve jejunoileal architecture in mice (P<0.05) and rats (P<0.01). The onset of renal hemorrhagic foci was significantly reduced in EGF-treated groups (P<0.01). Lung damages appeared attenuated in EGF-treated animals. These data indicate the salutary effects of EGF by attenuating internal complications associated to thermal injuries. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the usefulness of this therapy. PMID:12163282

  19. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Atmospheric Turbulence, Internal Gravity Waves and Sporadic-E Layers by Resonant Scattering of Radio Waves on Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the

  20. Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Soot particles are major aerosol constituents that result from emissions of burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Because they both absorb sunlight and contribute to cloud formation, they are an influence on climate on local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore important to evaluate their optical and hygroscopic properties and those effects on the radiation budget. Those properties commonly change through reaction with other particles or gases, resulting in complex internal mixtures. Using transmission electron microscopy, we measured ~8000 particles (25 samples) with aerodynamic diameters from 0.05 to 0.3 μm that were collected in March 2006 from aircraft over Mexico City (MC) and adjacent areas. More than 50% of the particles consist of internally mixed soot, organic matter, and sulfate. Imaging combined with chemical analysis of individual particles show that many are coated, consist of aggregates, or both. Coatings on soot particles can amplify their light absorption, and coagulation with sulfates changes their hygroscopic properties, resulting in shorter lifetime. Our results suggest that a mixture of materials from multiple sources such as vehicles, power plants, and biomass burning occurs in individual particles, thereby increasing their complexity. Through changes in their optical and hygroscopic properties, internally mixed soot particles have a greater effect on the regional climate than uncoated soot particles. Moreover, soot occurs in more than 60% of all particles in the MC plumes, suggesting its important role in the formation of secondary aerosol particles.

  1. Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Adachi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles are major aerosol constituents that result from emissions of burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Because they both absorb sunlight and contribute to cloud formation, they are an influence on climate on local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore important to evaluate their optical and hygroscopic properties and those effects on the radiation budget. Those properties commonly change through reaction with other particles or gases, resulting in complex internal mixtures. Using transmission electron microscopy, we measured ~8000 particles (25 samples with aerodynamic diameters from 0.05 to 0.3 μm that were collected in March 2006 from aircraft over Mexico City (MC and adjacent areas. More than 50% of the particles consist of internally mixed soot, organic matter, and sulfate. Imaging combined with chemical analysis of individual particles show that many are coated, consist of aggregates, or both. Coatings on soot particles can amplify their light absorption, and coagulation with sulfates changes their hygroscopic properties, resulting in shorter lifetime. Our results suggest that a mixture of materials from multiple sources such as vehicles, power plants, and biomass burning occurs in individual particles, thereby increasing their complexity. Through changes in their optical and hygroscopic properties, internally mixed soot particles have a greater effect on the regional climate than uncoated soot particles. Moreover, soot occurs in more than 60% of all particles in the MC plumes, suggesting its important role in the formation of secondary aerosol particles.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of iron species using a combination of artificial neural networks and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Combination of DLLME-SFO/fiber optic-linear array detection/chemometric methods. ► Simultaneous determination of complexes with overlapping spectra. ► A novel DLLME-SFO method is proposed for extraction of iron species. ► The extracted iron species are simultaneous determined using PC-ANNs. ► The enhancement factor of 162 and 125 are achieved for Fe3+ and Fe2+, respectively. - Abstract: A dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) and artificial neural networks method was developed for the simultaneous separation/preconcentration and speciation of iron in water samples. In this method, an appropriate mixture of ethanol (as the disperser solvent) and 1-undecanol (as the extracting solvent) containing appropriate amount of 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) (as the complexing agent) was injected rapidly into the water sample containing iron (II) and iron (III) species. At this step, the iron species interacted with the TTA and extracted into the 1-undecanol. After the phase separation, the absorbance of the extracted irons was measured in the wavelength region of 450–600 nm. The artificial neural networks were then applied for simultaneous determination of individual iron species. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 95–1070 μg L−1 and 31–350 μg L−1 with detection limits of 25 and 8 μg L 1 for iron (II) and iron (III), respectively. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D., n = 6) were lower than 4.2%. The enhancement factor of 162 and 125 were obtained for Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions, respectively. The procedure was applied to power plant drum water and several potable water samples; and accuracy was assessed through the recovery experiments and independent analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  3. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  4. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  5. An Evaluation of Technology to Remove Problematic Organic Compounds from the International Space Station Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John; Michalek, William; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gazda, Daniel; Carter, Layne

    2014-01-01

    Since activation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) in November of 2008, there have been three events in which the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) in the product water has increased to approximately 3 mg/L and has subsequently recovered. Analysis of the product water in 2010 identified the primary component of the TOC as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). An investigation into the fate of DMSD in the WPA ultimately determined that replacement of both Multifiltration (MF) Beds is the solution to recovering product water quality. The MF Beds were designed to ensure that ionic breakthrough occurs before organic breakthrough. However, DMSD saturated both MF Beds in the series, requiring removal and replacement of both MF Beds with significant life remaining. Analysis of the MF Beds determined that the adsorbent was not effectively removing DMSD, trimethylsilanol, various polydimethylsiloxanes, or dimethylsulfone. Coupled with the fact that the current adsorbent is now obsolete, the authors evaluated various media to identify a replacement adsorbent as well as media with greater capacity for these problematic organic contaminants. This paper provides the results and recommendations of this collaborative study.

  6. Artificial noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

  7. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice

    OpenAIRE

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; LACOUR, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, like the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally-active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of bo...

  8. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  9. Biodegradation of natural organic matter in long-term, continuous-flow experiments simulating artificial ground water recharge for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Reija E; Kortelainen, Nina M; Langwaldt, Jörg H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2009-01-01

    The role of biodegradation in the attenuation of natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated in long-term experiments that simulate artificial ground water recharge (AGR) for drinking water production. Lake water containing 5.8 mg L(-1) total organic carbon (TOC) was continuously fed into an 18.5-m-long sand column. During the 941 d of operation, on average 76 and 81% of TOC was removed within the first 0.6 m and the entire column length, respectively. Large molecular size fractions (approximately 1800-2200 Da) of NOM were removed more efficiently than smaller ones (approximately 250-1400 Da). The biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within the first 0.6 m, measured by the stable inorganic carbon isotope (delta13C) method, depended on temperature and hydraulic load: The extent of mineralization was 32% at 6 degrees C (Day 442) and 38% at 23 degrees C (Day 708) with a 0.3 m3 (m2d)(-1) hydraulic load and 52% at 5.5 degrees C (Day 883) with a 3.1 m3 (m2d) (-1) hydraulic load. The rest of the DOC removal was likely due to entrapment or sorption onto the sand particles. Decreases in DOC and the total cell counts in the water along the column were positively correlated (r = 0.99; P = 0.001). The accumulation of biomass was minor, with the highest concentration amounting to 7.2 mg g(-1) dw of sand. In summary, this study demonstrated that biodegradation has a key role in NOM removal in AGR and is dependent on temperature. PMID:19141794

  10. Public health agenda setting in a global context: the International Labor Organization's decent work agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    We drew on two agenda-setting theories usually applied at the state or national level to assess their utility at the global level: Kingdon's multiple streams theory and Baumgartner and Jones's punctuated equilibrium theory. We illustrate our analysis with findings from a qualitative study of the International Labor Organization's Decent Work Agenda. We found that both theories help explain the agenda-setting mechanisms that operate in the global context, including how windows of opportunity open and what role institutions play as policy entrepreneurs. Future application of these theories could help characterize power struggles between global actors, whose voices are heard or silenced, and their impact on global policy agenda setting. PMID:25713966

  11. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  12. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  13. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  14. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the international organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a number of States, the European Union (EURATOM), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM)1. The manual is intended for use primarily by contact points as identified in the Conventions. Pursuant to the obligations placed on it by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (IACRNA)2, whose purpose is to co-ordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for preparing for and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments - general functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response. Moreover, some regional organizations (e.g. the European Union) are party to legally

  15. Estimating dose rates to organs as a function of age following internal exposure to radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AGEDOS methodology allows estimates of dose rates, as a function of age, to radiosensitive organs and tissues in the human body at arbitrary times during or after internal exposure to radioactive material. Presently there are few, if any, radionuclides for which sufficient metabolic information is available to allow full use of all features of the methodology. The intention has been to construct the methodology so that optimal information can be gained from a mixture of the limited amount of age-dependent, nuclide-specific data and the generally plentiful age-dependent physiological data now available. Moreover, an effort has been made to design the methodology so that constantly accumulating metabolic information can be incorporated with minimal alterations in the AGEDOS computer code. Some preliminary analyses performed by the authors, using the AGEDOS code in conjunction with age-dependent risk factors developed from the A-bomb survivor data and other studies, has indicated that the doses and subsequent risks of eventually experiencing radiogenic cancers may vary substantially with age for some exposure scenarios and may be relatively invariant with age for other scenarios. We believe that the AGEDOS methodology provides a convenient and efficient means for performing the internal dosimetry

  16. Analysis of international intercomparisons results organized by Japan for integrating 222Rn-220Rn detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To guarantee the quality of measurements with the radon-thoron discriminative detectors of our laboratory. Methods: LD-P radon-thoron discriminative detector participated in the international intercomparison for integrating radon/thoron detectors organized by National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS, Japan). Detectors were sent to NIRS for exposure. Radon intercomparison was conducted with radon chamber providing three levels of exposure: low, medium and high levels. Thoron intercomparison was carried out at thoron chamber, which also provided three levels of exposure: low, medium and high levels. Detectors were posted back to our laboratory for etching and analysis after exposure. Then the measured values were submitted to NIRS. Finally the reference values were informed of us. Results: The relative percent difference (RPD) between the measured value and the reference value for radon was -13.8%, -14.4% and -17.1% at low, medium and high levels respectively, and that of thoron were -14.4%, 8.9% and -3.2% at three levels respectively. Conclusions: Both radon and thoron measurement of our detectors rank as 'Category Ⅰ' in the 4th international intercomparisons for integrating radon/thoron detectors with the NIRS radon/thoron chambers. (authors)

  17. Organization of the lamin scaffold in the internal nuclear matrix of normal and transformed hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear lamins are among the more abundant proteins making up the internal nuclear matrix, but very little is known about their structure in the nucleoplasm. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrate the organization of lamins in the nuclear matrix isolated from rat hepatocytes for the first time. Lamin epitopes are arrayed both in locally ordered clusters and in quasi-regular rows. Fourier filtering of the images demonstrates that the epitopes are placed at the nodes and halfway between the nodes of square or rhombic lattices that are about 50 nm on each side, as well as along rows at regular ∼25-nm intervals. In addition, we have compared this structure with that of the internal nuclear matrix isolated from persistent hepatocyte nodules. In transformed hepatocytes, the islands of lamin lattice are lost, and only a partial regularity in the rows of gold particles remains. We suggest that orthogonal lattice assembly might be an intrinsic property of lamin molecules, and that the disassembly may be triggered by simple molecular events such as phosphorylation.

  18. Development of artificial diet to rear internal-feeding insects to accelerate research on new biological control agents of yellow starthistle and other alien weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrated that an artificial diet that was previously developed to rear the purple loosestrife root weevil, Hylobius transversovittatus, can be effective for completing the development of larvae that are dissected out of plants. We used this diet to rear to adult stage larvae and pupae of the...

  19. Development of the Second Generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Anna L.; Stinson, Richard G.; VanWie, Michael; Warren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The second generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer s (TOCA) function is to monitor concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in ISS water samples. TOC is one measurement that provides a general indication of overall water quality by indicating the potential presence of hazardous chemicals. The data generated from the TOCA is used as a hazard control to assess the quality of the reclaimed and stored water supplies on-orbit and their suitability for crew consumption. This paper details the unique ISS Program requirements, the design of the ISS TOCA, and a brief description of the on-orbit concept-of-operations. The TOCA schematic will be discussed in detail along with specific information regarding key components. The ISS TOCA was designed as a non-toxic TOC analyzer that could be deployed in a flight ready package. This basic concept was developed through laboratory component level testing, two moderate fidelity integrated system breadboard prototypes, a flight-like full scale prototype, as well as lessons learned from the inadequacies of the first unit. The result: a new TOCA unit that is robust in design and includes special considerations to microgravity and the on-orbit ISS environment. TOCA meets the accuracy needs of the ISS Program with a 1,000 to 25,000 g/L range, accurate to within +/-25%.

  20. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalating fuel prices and future carbon dioxide emission limits are creating a renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of engines beyond the limit of in-cylinder techniques. One promising mechanism that accomplishes both objectives is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. This paper reviews the history of internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery focusing on Organic Rankine Cycles since this thermodynamic cycle works well with the medium-grade energy of the exhaust. Selection of the cycle expander and working fluid are the primary focus of the review, since they are regarded as having the largest impact on system performance. Results demonstrate a potential fuel economy improvement around 10% with modern refrigerants and advancements in expander technology. -- Highlights: ► This review article focuses on engine exhaust waste heat recovery works. ► The organic Rankine cycle is superior for low to medium exergy heat sources. ► Working fluid and expander selection strongly influence efficiency. ► Several authors demonstrate viable systems for vehicle installation