Sample records for artificial immune systems

  1. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe


    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  2. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe


    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  3. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe


    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  4. Artificial immune system applications in computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ying


    This book provides state-of-the-art information on the use, design, and development of the Artificial Immune System (AIS) and AIS-based solutions to computer security issues. Artificial Immune System: Applications in Computer Security focuses on the technologies and applications of AIS in malware detection proposed in recent years by the Computational Intelligence Laboratory of Peking University (CIL@PKU). It offers a theoretical perspective as well as practical solutions for readers interested in AIS, machine learning, pattern recognition and computer security. The book begins by introducing the basic concepts, typical algorithms, important features, and some applications of AIS. The second chapter introduces malware and its detection methods, especially for immune-based malware detection approaches. Successive chapters present a variety of advanced detection approaches for malware, including Virus Detection System, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), RBF networ s, and Support Vector Machines (SVM), Danger theory, ...

  5. Multithreshold Segmentation Based on Artificial Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas


    Full Text Available Bio-inspired computing has lately demonstrated its usefulness with remarkable contributions to shape detection, optimization, and classification in pattern recognition. Similarly, multithreshold selection has become a critical step for image analysis and computer vision sparking considerable efforts to design an optimal multi-threshold estimator. This paper presents an algorithm for multi-threshold segmentation which is based on the artificial immune systems(AIS technique, also known as theclonal selection algorithm (CSA. It follows the clonal selection principle (CSP from the human immune system which basically generates a response according to the relationship between antigens (Ag, that is, patterns to be recognized and antibodies (Ab, that is, possible solutions. In our approach, the 1D histogram of one image is approximated through a Gaussian mixture model whose parameters are calculated through CSA. Each Gaussian function represents a pixel class and therefore a thresholding point. Unlike the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, the CSA-based method shows a fast convergence and a low sensitivity to initial conditions. Remarkably, it also improves complex time-consuming computations commonly required by gradient-based methods. Experimental evidence demonstrates a successful automatic multi-threshold selection based on CSA, comparing its performance to the aforementioned well-known algorithms.

  6. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry


    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  7. Optimizing Mining Association Rules for Artificial Immune System based Classification

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    Full Text Available The primary function of a biological immune system is to protect the body from foreign molecules known as antigens. It has great pattern recognition capability that may be used to distinguish between foreigncells entering the body (non-self or antigen and the body cells (self. Immune systems have many characteristics such as uniqueness, autonomous, recognition of foreigners, distributed detection, and noise tolerance . Inspired by biological immune systems, Artificial Immune Systems have emerged during the last decade. They are incited by many researchers to design and build immune-based models for a variety of application domains. Artificial immune systems can be defined as a computational paradigm that is inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms. Association rule mining is one of the most important and well researched techniques of data mining. The goal of association rules is to extract interesting correlations, frequent patterns, associations or casual structures among sets of items in thetransaction databases or other data repositories. Association rules are widely used in various areas such as inventory control, telecommunication networks, intelligent decision making, market analysis and risk management etc. Apriori is the most widely used algorithm for mining the association rules. Other popular association rule mining algorithms are frequent pattern (FP growth, Eclat, dynamic itemset counting (DIC etc. Associative classification uses association rule mining in the rule discovery process to predict the class labels of the data. This technique has shown great promise over many other classification techniques. Associative classification also integrates the process of rule discovery and classification to build the classifier for the purpose of prediction. The main problem with the associative classification approach is the discovery of highquality association rules in a very large space of

  8. Optimal approximation of linear systems by artificial immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper puts forward a novel artificial immune response algorithm for optimal approximation of linear systems. A quaternion model of artificial immune response is proposed for engineering computing. The model abstracts four elements, namely, antigen, antibody, reaction rules among antibodies, and driving algorithm describing how the rules are applied to antibodies, to simulate the process of immune response. Some reaction rules including clonal selection rules, immunological memory rules and immune regulation rules are introduced. Using the theorem of Markov chain, it is proofed that the new model is convergent. The experimental study on the optimal approximation of a stable linear system and an unstable one show that the approximate models searched by the new model have better performance indices than those obtained by some existing algorithms including the differential evolution algorithm and the multi-agent genetic algorithm.

  9. SANA - Security Analysis in Internet Traffic through Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilker, Michael


    The Attacks done by Viruses, Worms, Hackers, etc. are a Network Security-Problem in many Organisations. Current Intrusion Detection Systems have significant Disadvantages, e.g. the need of plenty of Computational Power or the Local Installation. Therefore, we introduce a novel Framework for Network Security which is called SANA. SANA contains an artificial Immune System with artificial Cells which perform certain Tasks in order to to support existing systems to better secure the Network against Intrusions. The Advantages of SANA are that it is efficient, adaptive, autonomous, and massively-distributed. In this Article, we describe the Architecture of the artificial Immune System and the Functionality of the Components. We explain briefly the Implementation and discuss Results.

  10. A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cayzer, Steve


    The immune system is a complex biological system with a highly distributed, adaptive and self-organising nature. This paper presents an Artificial Immune System (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film recommendation by Collaborative Filtering (CF). Natural evolution and in particular the immune system have not been designed for classical optimisation. However, for this problem, we are not interested in finding a single optimum. Rather we intend to identify a sub-set of good matches on which recommendations can be based. It is our hypothesis that an AIS built on two central aspects of the biological immune system will be an ideal candidate to achieve this: Antigen-antibody interaction for matching and idiotypic antibody-antibody interaction for diversity. Computational results are presented in support of this conjecture and compared to those found by other CF techniques.

  11. Detecting Anomalous Process Behaviour using Second Generation Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie; Whitbrook, Amanda


    Artificial Immune Systems have been successfully applied to a number of problem domains including fault tolerance and data mining, but have been shown to scale poorly when applied to computer intrusion detec- tion despite the fact that the biological immune system is a very effective anomaly detector. This may be because AIS algorithms have previously been based on the adaptive immune system and biologically-naive mod- els. This paper focuses on describing and testing a more complex and biologically-authentic AIS model, inspired by the interactions between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Its performance on a realistic process anomaly detection problem is shown to be better than standard AIS methods (negative-selection), policy-based anomaly detection methods (systrace), and an alternative innate AIS approach (the DCA). In addition, it is shown that runtime information can be used in combination with system call information to enhance detection capability.

  12. Application of Artificial Immune System Approach in MRI Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia-Hao Chang


    Full Text Available Numerous scholars have submitted the theory and research of artificial immune systems (AISs in recent years. Although AIS has been used in various fields, applying the AIS to medical images is very rare. The purpose of this study is using the clonal selection algorithm (CSA of artificial immune systems for classifying the brain MRI, and displaying a single organism image which can finally offer faster organism reference information to a doctor; hence reducing the time to ascertain large number of images, so that the doctor can diagnose the nidus more efficiently and accurately. In order to verify the feasibility and efficiency of this method, we adopt statistical theory for manifold assessment and compare with the perceptron network of double layers, FCM method. The result proves that the method of this study is both feasible and useful.

  13. Hybrid Heuristic-Based Artificial Immune System for Task Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    sanei, Masoomeh


    Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. In this paper, we propose a hybrid heuristic-based Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for solving the scheduling problem. In this regard, AIS with some heuristics and Single Neighbourhood Search (SNS) technique are hybridized. Clonning and immune-remove operators of AIS provide diversity, while heuristics and SNS provide convergence of algorithm into good solutions, that is balancing between exploration and exploitation. We have compared our method with some state-of-the art algorithms. The results of the experiments...

  14. AISMOTIF-An Artificial Immune System for DNA Motif Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Seeja, K R


    Discovery of transcription factor binding sites is a much explored and still exploring area of research in functional genomics. Many computational tools have been developed for finding motifs and each of them has their own advantages as well as disadvantages. Most of these algorithms need prior knowledge about the data to construct background models. However there is not a single technique that can be considered as best for finding regulatory motifs. This paper proposes an artificial immune system based algorithm for finding the transcription factor binding sites or motifs and two new weighted scores for motif evaluation. The algorithm is enumerative, but sufficient pruning of the pattern search space has been incorporated using immune system concepts. The performance of AISMOTIF has been evaluated by comparing it with eight state of art composite motif discovery algorithms and found that AISMOTIF predicts known motifs as well as new motifs from the benchmark dataset without any prior knowledge about the data...

  15. Multicriteria vehicle routing problem solved by artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Vehicles route planning in large transportation companies, where drivers are workers, usually takes place on the basis of experience or intuition of the employees. Because of the cost and environmental protection, it is important to save fuel, thus planning routes in an optimal way. In this article an example of the problem is presented solving delivery vans route planning taking into account the distance and travel time within the constraints of vehicle capacities, restrictions on working time of drivers and having varying degrees of movement. An artificial immune system was used for the calculations.

  16. Obesity Heuristic, New Way on Artificial Immune Systems

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    M. A. El-Dosuky


    Full Text Available There is a need for new metaphors from immunology to flourish the application areas of ArtificialImmune Systems. A metaheuristic called Obesity Heuristic derived from advances in obesity treatment isproposed. The main forces of the algorithm are the generation omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Thealgorithm works with Just-In-Time philosophy; by starting only when desired. A case study of datacleaning is provided. With experiments conducted on standard tables, results show that Obesity Heuristicoutperforms other algorithms, with 100% recall. This is a great improvement over other algorithms

  17. Surname Inherited Algorithm Research Based on Artificial Immune System

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    Jing Xie


    Full Text Available To keep the diversity of antibodies in artificial immune system evolution process, this paper puts forward a kind of increase simulation surname inheritance algorithm based on the clonal selection algorithm, and identification and forecast the Vibration Data about CA6140 horizontal  lathe machining slender shaft workpiece prone . The results show that the algorithm has the characteristics of flexible application, strong adaptability, an effective approach to improve efficiency of the algorithm, a good performance of global searching and broad application prospect.

  18. Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS) (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.


    self/not self model. The review will end with certain perspectives on artificial immune systems new on the scene and the product of computational immunologists. The tentative view is to question if the immune systems of invertebrates might be amenable to such an analysis? This would offer more credence to the innate system, often pushed aside thus favoring the adaptive responses.

  19. Next Challenges in Bringing Artificial Immune Systems to Production in Network Security


    Hilker, Michael


    The human immune system protects the human body against various pathogens like e.g. biological viruses and bacteria. Artificial immune systems reuse the architecture, organization, and workflows of the human immune system for various problems in computer science. In the network security, the artificial immune system is used to secure a network and its nodes against intrusions like viruses, worms, and trojans. However, these approaches are far away from production where they are academic proof...

  20. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

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    Hua Yang


    Full Text Available In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS. The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs. This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  1. Next Challenges in Bringing Artificial Immune Systems to Production in Network Security

    CERN Document Server

    Hilker, Michael


    The human immune system protects the human body against various pathogens like e.g. biological viruses and bacteria. Artificial immune systems reuse the architecture, organization, and workflows of the human immune system for various problems in computer science. In the network security, the artificial immune system is used to secure a network and its nodes against intrusions like viruses, worms, and trojans. However, these approaches are far away from production where they are academic proof-of-concept implementations or use only a small part to protect against a certain intrusion. This article discusses the required steps to bring artificial immune systems into production in the network security domain. It furthermore figures out the challenges and provides the description and results of the prototype of an artificial immune system, which is SANA called.

  2. SMS Spam Filtering Technique Based on Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M Mahmoud


    Full Text Available The Short Message Service (SMS have an important economic impact for end users and service providers. Spam is a serious universal problem that causes problems for almost all users. Several studies have been presented, including implementations of spam filters that prevent spam from reaching their destination. Nave Bayesian algorithm is one of the most effective approaches used in filtering techniques. The computational power of smart phones are increasing, making increasingly possible to perform spam filtering at these devices as a mobile agent application, leading to better personalization and effectiveness. The challenge of filtering SMS spam is that the short messages often consist of few words composed of abbreviations and idioms. In this paper, we propose an anti-spam technique based on Artificial Immune System (AIS for filtering SMS spam messages. The proposed technique utilizes a set of some features that can be used as inputs to spam detection model. The idea is to classify message using trained dataset that contains Phone Numbers, Spam Words, and Detectors. Our proposed technique utilizes a double collection of bulk SMS messages Spam and Ham in the training process. We state a set of stages that help us to build dataset such as tokenizer, stop word filter, and training process. Experimental results presented in this paper are based on iPhone Operating System (iOS. The results applied to the testing messages show that the proposed system can classify the SMS spam and ham with accurate compared with Nave Bayesian algorithm.

  3. A Hybrid Approach Towards Intrusion Detection Based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Sugata


    A number of works in the field of intrusion detection have been based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing. Artificial Immune System based approaches attempt to leverage the adaptability, error tolerance, self- monitoring and distributed nature of Human Immune Systems. Whereas Soft Computing based approaches are instrumental in developing fuzzy rule based systems for detecting intrusions. They are computationally intensive and apply machine learning (both supervised and unsupervised) techniques to detect intrusions in a given system. A combination of these two approaches could provide significant advantages for intrusion detection. In this paper we attempt to leverage the adaptability of Artificial Immune System and the computation intensive nature of Soft Computing to develop a system that can effectively detect intrusions in a given network.

  4. Multi-objective Scheduling Using an Artificial Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 李蓓智


    Production scheduling is one of the most important problems to be considered in the effective performance of the automatic manufacturing system.It is the typical kind of NP-complete problem. The methods commonly used are not suitable to solve complicated problems because the calculating time rises exponentially with the increase of the problem size. In this paper, a new algorithm - immune based scheduling algorithm (IBSA) is proposed. After the description of the mathematics model and the calculating procedure of immune based scheduling,some examples are tested in the software system called HM IM& C that is developed usingVC+ +6.0. The testing results show that IBSA has high efficiency to solve scheduling problem.

  5. A novel algorithm of artificial immune system for high-dimensional function numerical optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Haifeng; GONG Maoguo; JIAO Licheng; LIU Ruochen


    Based on the clonal selection theory and immune memory theory, a novel artificial immune system algorithm, immune memory clonal programming algorithm (IMCPA), is put forward. Using the theorem of Markov chain, it is proved that IMCPA is convergent. Compared with some other evolutionary programming algorithms (like Breeder genetic algorithm), IMCPA is shown to be an evolutionary strategy capable of solving complex machine learning tasks, like high-dimensional function optimization, which maintains the diversity of the population and avoids prematurity to some extent, and has a higher convergence speed.

  6. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

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    Mehmet Karakose


    Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  7. An Artificial Immune System Model for Multi Agents Resource Sharing in Distributed Environments

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    Tejbanta Singh Chingtham


    Full Text Available Natural Immune system plays a vital role in the survival of the all living being. It provides a mechanism to defend itself from external predates making it consistent systems, capable of adapting itself for survival incase of changes. The human immune system has motivated scientists and engineers for finding powerful information processing algorithms that has solved complex engineering tasks. This paper explores one of the various possibilities for solving problem in a Multiagent scenario wherein multiple robots are deployed to achieve agoal collectively. The final goal is dependent on the performance of individual robot and its survival without having to lose its energy beyond a predetermined threshold value by deploying an evolutionary computational technique otherwise called the artificial immune system that imitates the biological immune system.

  8. An Artificial Immune System Model for Multi-Agents Resource Sharing in Distributed Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Chingtham, Tejbanta Singh; Ghose, M K


    Natural Immune system plays a vital role in the survival of the all living being. It provides a mechanism to defend itself from external predates making it consistent systems, capable of adapting itself for survival incase of changes. The human immune system has motivated scientists and engineers for finding powerful information processing algorithms that has solved complex engineering tasks. This paper explores one of the various possibilities for solving problem in a Multiagent scenario wherein multiple robots are deployed to achieve a goal collectively. The final goal is dependent on the performance of individual robot and its survival without having to lose its energy beyond a predetermined threshold value by deploying an evolutionary computational technique otherwise called the artificial immune system that imitates the biological immune system.

  9. Distance Concentration-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; WANG Yao-cai; WANG Zhi-jie; MENG Jiang


    The diversity, adaptation and memory of biological immune system attract much attention of researchers. Several optimal algorithms based on immune system have also been proposed up to now. The distance concentration-based artificial immune algorithm (DCAIA) is proposed to overcome defects of the classical artificial immune algorithm (CAIA) in this paper. Compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and CAIA, DCAIA is good for solving the problem of precocity,holding the diversity of antibody, and enhancing convergence rate.

  10. Artificial Immune Systems Metaphor for Agent Based Modeling of Crisis Response Operations


    Khalil, Khaled M.; Abdel-Aziz, M.; Nazmy, Taymour T.; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.


    Crisis response requires information intensive efforts utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. This paper presents an Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) metaphor for agent based modeling of crisis response operations. The presented model proposes integration of hybrid set of aspects (multi-agent systems, built-in defensive model of AIS, situation management, a...

  11. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System

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    Litian Duan


    Full Text Available In the multiple-reader environment (MRE of radio frequency identification (RFID system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.

  12. Artificial Immune System for Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection (United States)


    with an external computer on which an aircraft model can run within the Matlab / Simulink environment driving the entire simulator system. Figure...subsystem ACDIE scheme was implemented and tested with Matlab / Simulink 2010a (32-bit). Figure 8.1 shows the top level Simulink model using the SNSA...the installer)  MATLAB ®/ SIMULINK ® R2010a or later (32-bit only) 4 2 Installing “AIS Aircraft FDIE” Installing the “AIS Aircraft FDIE




    Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. I...

  14. A New Method Based on Multi Agent System and Artificial Immune System for Systematic Maintenance

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    Adel Abdelhadi


    Full Text Available This study propose a novel method for the integration of systematic preventive maintenance policies in hybrid flow shop scheduling. The proposed approach is inspired by the behavior of the human body. We have implemented a problem-solving approach for optimizing the processing time, methods based on Métaheuristiques. This hybridization is between a Multi agent system and inspirations of the human body, especially artificial immune system. The effectiveness of our approach has been demonstrated repeatedly in this study. The proposed approach is applied to three preventive maintenance policies. These policies are intended to maximize the availability or to maintain a minimum level of reliability during the production chain. The results show that our algorithm outperforms existing algorithms. We assumed that the machines might be unavailable periodically during the production scheduling.

  15. A Hybrid Course Recommendation System by Integrating Collaborative Filtering and Artificial Immune Systems

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    Pei-Chann Chang


    Full Text Available This research proposes a two-stage user-based collaborative filtering process using an artificial immune system for the prediction of student grades, along with a filter for professor ratings in the course recommendation for college students. We test for cosine similarity and Karl Pearson (KP correlation in affinity calculations for clustering and prediction. This research uses student information and professor information datasets of Yuan Ze University from the years 2005–2009 for the purpose of testing and training. The mean average error and confusion matrix analysis form the testing parameters. A minimum professor rating was tested to check the results, and observed that the recommendation systems herein provide highly accurate results for students with higher mean grades.

  16. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering (United States)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)


    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  17. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) - A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin


    Over the last few years, more and more heuristic decision making techniques have been inspired by nature, e.g. evolutionary algorithms, ant colony optimisation and simulated annealing. More recently, a novel computational intelligence technique inspired by immunology has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). This immune system inspired technique has already been useful in solving some computational problems. In this keynote, we will very briefly describe the immune system metaphors that are relevant to AIS. We will then give some illustrative real-world problems suitable for AIS use and show a step-by-step algorithm walkthrough. A comparison of AIS to other well-known algorithms and areas for future work will round this keynote off. It should be noted that as AIS is still a young and evolving field, there is not yet a fixed algorithm template and hence actual implementations might differ somewhat from the examples given here.

  18. Two-step image registration by artificial immune system and chamfer matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Famao Ye; Shaoping Xu; Yuhong Xiong


    Image registration is the precondition and foundation in the fusion of multi-source image data. A two-step approach based on artificial immune system and chamfer matching to register images from different types of sensors is presented. In the first step, it extracts the large edges and takes chamfer distance between the input image and the reference image as similarity measure and uses artificial immune network algorithm to speed up the searching of the initial transformation parameters. In the second step, an area-based method is utilized to refine the initial transformation and enhance the registration accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is a promising method for registration of multi-sensor images.

  19. Artificial immune system via Euclidean Distance Minimization for anomaly detection in bearings (United States)

    Montechiesi, L.; Cocconcelli, M.; Rubini, R.


    In recent years new diagnostics methodologies have emerged, with particular interest into machinery operating in non-stationary conditions. In fact continuous speed changes and variable loads make non-trivial the spectrum analysis. A variable speed means a variable characteristic fault frequency related to the damage that is no more recognizable in the spectrum. To overcome this problem the scientific community proposed different approaches listed in two main categories: model-based approaches and expert systems. In this context the paper aims to present a simple expert system derived from the mechanisms of the immune system called Euclidean Distance Minimization, and its application in a real case of bearing faults recognition. The proposed method is a simplification of the original process, adapted by the class of Artificial Immune Systems, which proved to be useful and promising in different application fields. Comparative results are provided, with a complete explanation of the algorithm and its functioning aspects.

  20. Artificial Immune Systems Metaphor for Agent Based Modeling of Crisis Response Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M


    Crisis response requires information intensive efforts utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. This paper presents an Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) metaphor for agent based modeling of crisis response operations. The presented model proposes integration of hybrid set of aspects (multi-agent systems, built-in defensive model of AIS, situation management, and intensity-based learning) for crisis response operations. In addition, the proposed response model is applied on the spread of pandemic influenza in Egypt as a case study.

  1. Discrimination-based Artificial Immune System: Modeling the Learning Mechanism of Self and Non-self Discrimination for Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushi Igawa


    Full Text Available This study presents a new artificial immune system for classification. It was named discrimination-based artificial immune system (DAIS and was based on the principle of self and non-self discrimination by T cells in the human immune system. Ability of a natural immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules was applicable for classification in a way that one class was distinguished from others. We model this and the mechanism of the education in a thymus for classification. Especially, we introduce the method to decide the recognition distance threshold of the artificial lymphocyte, as the negative selection algorithm. We apply DAIS to real world datasets and show its performance to be comparable to that of other classifier systems. We conclude that this modeling was appropriate and DAIS was a useful classifier.

  2. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study (United States)

    Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond


    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  3. Optimal Solution for an Engineering Applications Using Modified Artificial Immune System (United States)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ganesan, S.; patan, Mahamed Naveed Khan; Navakanth, Polina


    An Engineering optimization leads a essential role in several engineering application areas like process design, product design, re-engineering and new product development, etc. In engineering, an awfully best answer is achieved by comparison to some completely different solutions by utilization previous downside information. An optimization algorithms provide systematic associate degreed economical ways that within which of constructing and comparison new design solutions so on understand at best vogue, thus on best solution efficiency and acquire the foremost wonderful design impact. In this paper, a new evolutionary based Modified Artificial Immune System (MAIS) algorithm used to optimize an engineering application of gear drive design. The results are compared with existing design.

  4. Dynamic route guidance algorithm based algorithm based on artificial immune system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To improve the performance of the K-shortest paths search in intelligent traffic guidance systems,this paper proposes an optimal search algorithm based on the intelligent optimization search theory and the memphor mechanism of vertebrate immune systems.This algorithm,applied to the urban traffic network model established by the node-expanding method,can expediently realize K-shortest paths search in the urban traffic guidance systems.Because of the immune memory and global parallel search ability from artificial immune systems,K shortest paths can be found without any repeat,which indicates evidently the superiority of the algorithm to the conventional ones.Not only does it perform a better parallelism,the algorithm also prevents premature phenomenon that often occurs in genetic algorithms.Thus,it is especially suitable for real-time requirement of the traffic guidance system and other engineering optimal applications.A case study verifies the efficiency and the practicability of the algorithm aforementioned.

  5. Review of Artificial Immune System to Enhance Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Dalal


    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS. There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.

  6. Magnetic-Field Immunity Examination and Evaluation of Transcutaneous Energy-Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET is the most promising noninvasive method for supplying driving energy to a totally implantable artificial heart. Induction-heating (IH cookers generate a magnetic flux, and if a cooker is operated near a transcutaneous transformer, the magnetic flux generated will link with its external and internal coils. This will affect the performance of the TET and the artificial heart system. In this paper, we present the design and development of a coil to be used for a magnetic immunity test, and we detail the investigation of the magnetic immunity of a transcutaneous transformer. The experimental coil, with five turns like a solenoid, was able to generate a uniform magnetic field in the necessary bandwidth. A magnetic-field immunity examination of the TET system was performed using this coil, and the system was confirmed to have sufficient immunity to the magnetic field generated as a result of the conventional operation of induction-heating cooker.

  7. A Hybrid Model For Phrase Chunking Employing Artificial Immunity System And Rule Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Natural language Understanding (NLU, an important field of Artificial Intelligence (AI is concerned with the speech and language understanding between human and computer. Understanding language means knowing what concept a word or phrase stands for and how to link them to form meaningful sentence. Identification of phrases or phrase chunking is an important step in natural language understanding (NLU. Chunker identifies and divides sentences into syntactically correlated word groups. Question Answering (QA systems, another important application of Artificial Intelligence (AImostly requires retrieval of nouns or noun phrases as answers to the questions raised by the users. Also Chunking is an important preprocessing step in full parsing. Due to high ambiguity of natural language, exact parsing of text may become very complex. This ambiguity may be partially resolved by using chunking as an intermediate step. To the best of our knowledge no known work or tag set is available for phrase chunking in Malayalam. To separate the chunks in a document it must be labeled with parts-ofspeech (POS tags. POS Tagging is a difficult task in Malayalam as it is a complex and compounding language. In this paper we describe the application of artificial immunity system (AIS for chunking which is implemented and obtained an accurate output with 96% precision and 93% recall. This system istested on corpuses collected from reputed news papers and magazines. These corpuses contained documents from five different domains such as sports, health, agriculture, science and politics and each document contained sentences –simple, compound, complex-of various levels of complexity. POS tag set with 52 tags is developed for preparing the tagged corpus for Malayalam. The phrase tag set contains 20 phrase tags.

  8. New Artificial Immune System Approach Based on Monoclonal Principle for Job Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaha Al-Otaibi


    Full Text Available Finding the best solution for an optimization problem is a tedious task, specifically in the presence of enormously represented features. When we handle a problem such as job recommendations that have a diversity of their features, we should rely to metaheuristics. For example, the Artificial Immune System which is a novel computational intelligence paradigm achieving diversification and exploration of the search space as well as exploitation of the good solutions were reached in reasonable time. Unfortunately, in problems with diversity nature such job recommendation, it produces a huge number of antibodies that causes a large number of matching processes affect the system efficiency. To leverage this issue, we present a new intelligence algorithm inspired by immunology based on monoclonal antibodies production principle that, up to our knowledge, has never applied in science and engineering problems. The proposed algorithm recommends ranked list of best applicants for a certain job. We discussed the design issues, as well as the immune system processes that should be applied to the problem. Finally, the experiments are conducted that shown an excellence of our approach.

  9. A Robust Damage Detection Method Developed for Offshore Jacket Platforms Using Modified Artificial Immune System Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtahedi,A.; Lotfollahi Yaghin,M.A.; Hassanzadeh,Y.; Abbasidoust,F.; Ettefagh,M.M.; Aminfar,M.H.


    Steel jacket-type platforms are the common kind of the offshore structures and health monitoring is an important issue in their safety assessment.In the present study,a new damage detection method is adopted for this kind of structures and inspected experimentally by use of a laboratory model.The method is investigated for developing the robust damage detection technique which is less sensitive to both measurement and analytical model uncertainties.For this purpose,incorporation of the artificial immune system with weighted attributes (AISWA) method into finite element (FE) model updating is proposed and compared with other methods for exploring its effectiveness in damage identification.Based on mimicking immune recognition,noise simulation and attributes weighting,the method offers important advantages and has high success rates.Therefore,it is proposed as a suitable method for the detection of the failures in the large civil engineering structures with complicated structural geometry,such as the considered case study.

  10. AIDEN: A Density Conscious Artificial Immune System for Automatic Discovery of Arbitrary Shape Clusters in Spatial Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwambhar Pathak


    Full Text Available Recent efforts in modeling of dynamics of the natural immune cells leading to artificial immune systems (AIS have ignited contemporary research interest in finding out its analogies to real world problems. The AIS models have been vastly exploited to develop dependable robust
    solutions to clustering. Most of the traditional clustering methods bear limitations in their capability to detect clusters of arbitrary shapes in a fully unsupervised manner. In this paper the recognition and communication dynamics of T Cell Receptors, the recognizing elements in innate immune
    system, has been modeled with a kernel density estimation method. The model has been shown to successfully discover non spherical clusters in spatial patterns. Modeling the cohesion of the antibodies and pathogens with ‘local influence’ measure inducts comprehensive extension of the
    antibody representation ball (ARB, which in turn corresponds to controlled expansion of clusters and prevents overfitting.

  11. Web-based e-learning and virtual lab of human-artificial immune system. (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Ding, Yongsheng; Xiong, Qin


    Human immune system is as important in keeping the body healthy as the brain in supporting the intelligence. However, the traditional models of the human immune system are built on the mathematics equations, which are not easy for students to understand. To help the students to understand the immune systems, a web-based e-learning approach with virtual lab is designed for the intelligent system control course by using new intelligent educational technology. Comparing the traditional graduate educational model within the classroom, the web-based e-learning with the virtual lab shows the higher inspiration in guiding the graduate students to think independently and innovatively, as the students said. It has been found that this web-based immune e-learning system with the online virtual lab is useful for teaching the graduate students to understand the immune systems in an easier way and design their simulations more creatively and cooperatively. The teaching practice shows that the optimum web-based e-learning system can be used to increase the learning effectiveness of the students.

  12. The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays. (United States)

    Rahiman, F; Pool, E J


    This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat.

  13. Artificial immune system based on adaptive clonal selection for feature selection and parameters optimisation of support vector machines (United States)

    Sadat Hashemipour, Maryam; Soleimani, Seyed Ali


    Artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm based on clonal selection method can be defined as a soft computing method inspired by theoretical immune system in order to solve science and engineering problems. Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular pattern classification method with many diverse applications. Kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure along with the feature selection significantly impacts on the classification accuracy rate. In this study, AIS based on Adaptive Clonal Selection (AISACS) algorithm has been used to optimise the SVM parameters and feature subset selection without degrading the SVM classification accuracy. Several public datasets of University of California Irvine machine learning (UCI) repository are employed to calculate the classification accuracy rate in order to evaluate the AISACS approach then it was compared with grid search algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental results show that the feature reduction rate and running time of the AISACS approach are better than the GA approach.

  14. Improvement in magnetic field immunity of externally-coupled transcutaneous energy transmission system for a totally implantable artificial heart. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki


    Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) that uses electromagnetic induction between the external and internal coils of a transformer is the most promising method to supply driving energy to a totally implantable artificial heart without invasion. Induction-heating (IH) cookers generate magnetic flux, and if a cooker is operated near a transcutaneous transformer, the magnetic flux generated will link with the external and internal coils of the transcutaneous transformer. This will affect the performance of the TET and the artificial heart system. Hence, it is necessary to improve the magnetic field immunity of the TET system. During operation of the system, if the transcutaneous transformer is in close proximity to an IH cooker, the electric power generated by the cooker and coupled to the transformer can drive the artificial heart system. To prevent this coupling, the external coil was shielded with a conductive shield that had a slit in it. This reduces the coupling between the transformer and the magnetic field generated by the induction cooker. However, the temperature of the shield increased due to heating by eddy currents. The temperature of the shield can be reduced by separating the IH cooker and the shield.

  15. A Network Protection Framework through Artificial Immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Hilker, Michael


    Current network protection systems use a collection of intelligent components - e.g. classifiers or rule-based firewall systems to detect intrusions and anomalies and to secure a network against viruses, worms, or trojans. However, these network systems rely on individuality and support an architecture with less collaborative work of the protection components. They give less administration support for maintenance, but offer a large number of individual single points of failures - an ideal situation for network attacks to succeed. In this work, we discuss the required features, the performance, and the problems of a distributed protection system called {\\it SANA}. It consists of a cooperative architecture, it is motivated by the human immune system, where the components correspond to artificial immune cells that are connected for their collaborative work. SANA promises a better protection against intruders than common known protection systems through an adaptive self-management while keeping the resources effi...

  16. SANA - Network Protection through artificial Immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Hilker, Michael


    Current network protection systems use a collection of intelligent components - e.g. classifiers or rule-based firewall systems to detect intrusions and anomalies and to secure a network against viruses, worms, or trojans. However, these network systems rely on individuality and support an architecture with less collaborative work of the protection components. They give less administration support for maintenance, but offer a large number of individual single points of failures - an ideal situation for network attacks to succeed. In this work, we discuss the required features, the performance, and the problems of a distributed protection system called SANA. It consists of a cooperative architecture, it is motivated by the human immune system, where the components correspond to artificial immune cells that are connected for their collaborative work. SANA promises a better protection against intruders than common known protection systems through an adaptive self-management while keeping the resources efficientl...

  17. Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Ruehl-Fehlert, C.; Elmore, S.A.; Parker, G.A.


    Cells of the immune system are found in every organ, from the classic lymphoid organs to tissues such as liver, mucosae, and omental adipose tissue. Toxicity to the immune system may be from a direct or indirect injury to lymphoid organs. The morphological responses range from lymphocyte depletion t

  18. Immune System (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  19. 基于人工免疫机制的木马检测系统%Application of Artificial Immune Mechanisms in the Trojan Horse Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    将生物体免疫系统的原理、规则和机制运用到计算机木马检测系统中.利用人工免疫系统的分布性、自适应性、记忆性和高效性,降低检测系统的误报率和提高自适应性问题.%The organism immune system principles, rules and mechanism is applied in computer Trojan detection system. The advantage of the artificial immune system distribution, adaptive, memory and efficiency, reduce the false alarm rate and improve the detection system of adaptive.

  20. International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems (1st) ICARIS 2002, held on 9, 10, and 11 September 2002 (United States)


    and M. WalPort. Immuno Biology. The Immune System in Health and Disease. 4th Ed. Current Biology Publications. London, New York. 1999. G. Jerne resembles the models of hypercycles or autocatalytic sets considered in the context of prebiotic chemical evolution – cf. (Bagley and...such as the absence of some normal ‘ health ’ signals. Once the danger signal has been transmitted, the immune system can then react to those antigens

  1. Semantic Question Generation Using Artificial Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim E. Fattoh


    Full Text Available This research proposes an automatic question generation model for evaluating the understanding of semantic attributes in a sentence. The Semantic Role Labeling and Named Entity Recognition are used as a preprocessing step to convert the input sentence into a semantic pattern. The Artificial Immune System is used to build a classifier that will be able to classify the patterns according to the question type in the training phase. The question types considered here are the set of WH-questions like who, when, where, why, and how. A pattern matching phase is applied for selecting the best matching question pattern for the test sentence. The proposed model is tested against a set of sentences obtained from many sources such as the TREC 2007 dataset for question answering, Wikipedia articles, and English book of grade II preparatory. The experimental results of the proposed model are promising in determining the question type with classification accuracy reaching 95%, and 87% in generating the new question patterns.

  2. Artificial Immune Privileged Sites as an Enhancement to Immuno-Computing Paradigm


    Chingtham, Tejbanta Singh; Sahoo, G.; Ghose, M. K.


    The immune system is a highly parallel and distributed intelligent system which has learning, memory, and associative capabilities. Artificial Immune System is an evolutionary paradigm inspired by the biological aspects of the immune system of mammals. The immune system can inspire to form new algorithms learning from its course of action. The human immune system has motivated scientists and engineers for finding powerful information processing algorithms that has solved complex engineering p...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To find out more extrema simultaneously including global optimum and multiple local optima existed in multi-modal functions. Methods Germinal center is the generator and selector of high-affinity B cells, a multicellular group's artificial immune algorithm was proposed based on the germinal center reaction mechanism of natural immune systems. Main steps of the algorithm were given, including hyper-mutation, selection, memory, similarity suppression and recruitment of B cells and the convergence of it was proved. Results The algorithm has been tested to optimize various multi-modal functions, and the simulation results show that the artificial immune algorithm proposed here can find multiple extremum of these functions with lower computational cost. Conclusion The algorithm is valid and can converge on the satisfactory solution set D with probability 1 and approach to global solution and many local optimal solutions existed.

  4. Building an Artificial Idiotopic Immune Model Based on Artificial Neural Network Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Meshref


    Full Text Available In the literature, there were many research efforts that utilized the artificial immune networks to model their designed applications, but they were considerably complicated, and restricted to a few areas that such as computer security applications. The objective of this research is to introduce a new model for artificial immune networks that adopts features from other biological successful models to overcome its complexity such as the artificial neural networks. Common concepts between the two systems were investigated to design a simple, yet a robust, model of artificial immune networks. Three artificial neural networks learning models were available to choose from in the research design: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning models. However, it was found that the reinforcement model is the most suitable model. Research results examined network parameters, and appropriate relations between concentration ranges and their dependent parameters as well as the expected reward during network learning. In conclusion, it is recommended the use of the designed model by other researchers in different applications such as controlling robots in hazardous environment to save human lives as well as using it on image retrieval in general to help the police department identify suspects.

  5. An Improved Artificial Immune Algorithm with a Dynamic Threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiao; Xu Xu; Liang Yan-chun


    An improved artificial immune algorithm with a dynamic threshold is presented. The calculation for the affinity function in the real-valued coding artificial immune algorithm is modified through considering the antibody's fitness and setting the dynamic threshold value. Numerical experiments show that compared with the genetic algorithm and the originally real-valued coding artificial immune algorithm, the improved algorithm possesses high speed of convergence and good performance for preventing premature convergence.

  6. An Artificial Immune System-Inspired Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm with Application to the Detection of Distributed Computer Network Intrusions (United States)


    Janeway Jr, C. A. and Travers, P., Immunobiology : The Immune System in Health and Disease, Artes Médicas (Portuguese), 2d edition, 1997. [Java04...traffic. The topology chosen, whether host-, network-based or a hybrid thereof, is driven by the network size and partition( s ). Host-based IDS Host...and Oster [PO79] introduced the concept of shape-space ( S ), as represented in Figure 12. They conjecture a complete repertoire is achieved within the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Jayanthi


    Full Text Available Search engines are the doorsteps for retrieving required information from the web. Web spam is a bad method for improving the ranking and visibility of the web pages in search engine results. This paper addresses the problem of the link spam classification through the features of the web sites. Link related features retrieved from the website are used to discriminate the spam and non-spam sites. AIS inspired algorithms are applied for the dataset and results are evaluated. Artificial immune systems are machine learning systems inspired by the principles of the natural immunology. It comprises of supervised learning schemes which can be adapted for the wide range of the classification problems.UK- WEBSPAM-2007 Dataset [8] is used for the experiments. WEKA [9] is used to simulate the classifiers. Artificial Immune Recognition algorithm seems to perform well than the other classes. Best classification accuracy attained is 98.89 by AIRS1 Algorithm. This seems to be good when comparing with the other classifiers accuracy available on the existing literature.

  8. A New Unsupervised Pre-processing Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System for ERP Assessment in a P300-based GKT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shojaeilangari


    Full Text Available In recent years, an increasing number of researches have been focused on bio-inspired algorithms to solve the elaborate engineering problems. Artificial Immune System (AIS is an artificial intelligence technique which has potential of solving problems in various fields. The immune system, due to self-regulating nature, has been an inspiration source of unsupervised learning methods for pattern recognition task. The purpose of this study is to apply the AIS to pre-process the lie-detection dataset to promote the recognition of guilty and innocent subjects. A new Unsupervised AIS (UAIS was proposed in this study as a pre-processing method before classification. Then, we applied three different classifiers on pre-processed data for Event Related Potential (ERP assessment in a P300-based Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT. Experiment results showed that UAIS is a successful pre-processing method which is able to improve the classification rate. In our experiments, we observed that the classification accuracies for three different classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbourhood (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA were increased after applying UAIS pre-processing. Using of scattering criterion to assessment the features before and after pre-processing proved that our proposed method was able to perform data mapping from a primary feature space to a new area where the data separability was improved significantly.

  9. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (United States)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling


    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  10. RAIRS2 a new expert system for diagnosing tuberculosis with real-world tournament selection mechanism inside artificial immune recognition system. (United States)

    Saybani, Mahmoud Reza; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Golzari, Shahram; Wah, Teh Ying; Saeed, Aghabozorgi; Mat Kiah, Miss Laiha; Balas, Valentina Emilia


    Tuberculosis is a major global health problem that has been ranked as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide, after the human immunodeficiency virus. Diagnosis based on cultured specimens is the reference standard; however, results take weeks to obtain. Slow and insensitive diagnostic methods hampered the global control of tuberculosis, and scientists are looking for early detection strategies, which remain the foundation of tuberculosis control. Consequently, there is a need to develop an expert system that helps medical professionals to accurately diagnose the disease. The objective of this study is to diagnose tuberculosis using a machine learning method. Artificial immune recognition system (AIRS) has been used successfully for diagnosing various diseases. However, little effort has been undertaken to improve its classification accuracy. In order to increase the classification accuracy, this study introduces a new hybrid system that incorporates real tournament selection mechanism into the AIRS. This mechanism is used to control the population size of the model and to overcome the existing selection pressure. Patient epacris reports obtained from the Pasteur laboratory in northern Iran were used as the benchmark data set. The sample consisted of 175 records, from which 114 (65 %) were positive for TB, and the remaining 61 (35 %) were negative. The classification performance was measured through tenfold cross-validation, root-mean-square error, sensitivity, and specificity. With an accuracy of 100 %, RMSE of 0, sensitivity of 100 %, and specificity of 100 %, the proposed method was able to successfully classify tuberculosis cases. In addition, the proposed method is comparable with top classifiers used in this research.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Artificial Immune Algorithms for Primary Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Çelik


    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of immune system algorithms with the aim of classifying the primary types of headache that are not related to any organic etiology. They are divided into four types: migraine, tension, cluster, and other primary headaches. After we took this main objective into consideration, three different neurologists were required to fill in the medical records of 850 patients into our web-based expert system hosted on our project web site. In the evaluation process, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS were used as the classification algorithms. The AIS are classification algorithms that are inspired by the biological immune system mechanism that involves significant and distinct capabilities. These algorithms simulate the specialties of the immune system such as discrimination, learning, and the memorizing process in order to be used for classification, optimization, or pattern recognition. According to the results, the accuracy level of the classifier used in this study reached a success continuum ranging from 95% to 99%, except for the inconvenient one that yielded 71% accuracy.

  12. Null steering of adaptive beamforming using linear constraint minimum variance assisted by particle swarm optimization, dynamic mutated artificial immune system, and gravitational search algorithm. (United States)

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem


    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program.

  13. Immune System (United States)

    ... and mature there to become B cells or leave for the thymus gland, where they mature to become T cells. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have separate jobs to do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses to ...

  14. Immune System and Disorders (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  15. The experimental effect of artificial air ionizer on some nonspecific resistance parameters and immune system atWistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri


    Full Text Available A large number of subsequent research have confirmed the link between this electrical paramater of air and a large biological effects manifested at various stages in world living organization, from cellular level to the body. These influences are possible because living organisms manifests itself a very large number of phenomena such as electricity, with essential biological role (e.g, biochemical reactions, transmembrane transport of the substance, the nervous impulse propagation and others. However, based on these findings, it was concluded that under the artificially ionized atmosphere by controlled exposure, can provide relatively easy conditions for recovery of these environmental factors by induction a favorable therapeutic treatment on body . The ions influence start mainly from alveloi and in a lesser extent from skin. The excess of negative electric charges carried by ions interact with both sensory nerveendings in the alveoli, and a series of blood components (RBC, some colloids, changing directly their electrical properties and stability and indirectly affecting other properties of various organi

  16. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy


    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  17. The Immune System Game (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.


    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  18. Human immune system variation. (United States)

    Brodin, Petter; Davis, Mark M


    The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. The range of variation and some specific influences that shape an individual's immune system is now becoming clearer. Human immune systems vary as a consequence of heritable and non-heritable influences, but symbiotic and pathogenic microbes and other non-heritable influences explain most of this variation. Understanding when and how such influences shape the human immune system is key for defining metrics of immunological health and understanding the risk of immune-mediated and infectious diseases.

  19. Artificial Immune Privileged Sites as an Enhancement to Immuno-Computing Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Chingtham, Tejbanta Singh; Ghose, M K


    The immune system is a highly parallel and distributed intelligent system which has learning, memory, and associative capabilities. Artificial Immune System is an evolutionary paradigm inspired by the biological aspects of the immune system of mammals. The immune system can inspire to form new algorithms learning from its course of action. The human immune system has motivated scientists and engineers for finding powerful information processing algorithms that has solved complex engineering problems. This work is the result of an attempt to explore a different perspective of the immune system namely the Immune Privileged Site (IPS) which has the ability to make an exception to different parts of the body by not triggering immune response to some of the foreign agent in these parts of the body. While the complete system is secured by an Immune System at certain times it may be required that the system allows certain activities which may be harmful to other system which is useful to it and learns over a period ...

  20. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System (United States)


    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  1. Artificial immunity-based induction motor bearing fault diagnosis


    Hakan ÇALIŞ; ÇAKIR, Abdülkadir; Emre DANDIL


    In this study, the artificial immunity of the negative selection algorithm is used for bearing fault detection. It is implemented in MATLAB-based graphical user interface software. The developed software uses amplitudes of the vibration signal in the time and frequency domains. Outer, inner, and ball defects in the bearings of the induction motor are detected by anomaly monitoring. The time instants of the fault occurrence and fault level are determined according to the number of a...

  2. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo


    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno......-informatics methods to allow the simulation of the cardinal events of the antigenic recognition, going from single peptides to whole proteomes. The recognition process accounts for B cell-epitopes prediction through Parker-scale affinity estimation, class I and II HLA peptide prediction and binding through position...

  3. The immune system, adaptation, and machine learning (United States)

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Packard, Norman H.; Perelson, Alan S.


    The immune system is capable of learning, memory, and pattern recognition. By employing genetic operators on a time scale fast enough to observe experimentally, the immune system is able to recognize novel shapes without preprogramming. Here we describe a dynamical model for the immune system that is based on the network hypothesis of Jerne, and is simple enough to simulate on a computer. This model has a strong similarity to an approach to learning and artificial intelligence introduced by Holland, called the classifier system. We demonstrate that simple versions of the classifier system can be cast as a nonlinear dynamical system, and explore the analogy between the immune and classifier systems in detail. Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks, and to suggest new approaches that might be of value in learning systems.

  4. The immune system. (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsay B


    All organisms are connected in a complex web of relationships. Although many of these are benign, not all are, and everything alive devotes significant resources to identifying and neutralizing threats from other species. From bacteria through to primates, the presence of some kind of effective immune system has gone hand in hand with evolutionary success. This article focuses on mammalian immunity, the challenges that it faces, the mechanisms by which these are addressed, and the consequences that arise when it malfunctions.

  5. Immune System Inspired Strategies for Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Soumya


    Many components of the IS are constructed as modular units which do not need to communicate with each other such that the number of components increases but the size remains constant. However, a sub-modular IS architecture in which lymph node number and size both increase sublinearly with body size is shown to efficiently balance the requirements of communication and migration, consistent with experimental data. We hypothesize that the IS architecture optimizes the tradeoff between local search for pathogens and global response using antibodies. Similar to natural immune systems, physical space and resource are also important constraints on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), especially distributed systems applications used to connect low-powered sensors using short-range wireless communication. AIS problems like distributed robot control will also require a sub-modular architecture to efficiently balance the tradeoff between local search for a solution and global response or proliferation of the solution betwee...

  6. Artificial immune kernel clustering network for unsupervised image segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlong Huang; Licheng Jiao


    An immune kernel clustering network (IKCN) is proposed based on the combination of the artificial immune network and the support vector domain description (SVDD) for the unsupervised image segmentation. In the network, a new antibody neighborhood and an adaptive learning coefficient, which is inspired by the long-term memory in cerebral cortices are presented. Starting from IKCN algorithm, we divide the image feature sets into subsets by the antibodies, and then map each subset into a high dimensional feature space by a mercer kernel, where each antibody neighborhood is represented as a support vector hypersphere. The clustering results of the local support vector hyperspheres are combined to yield a global clustering solution by the minimal spanning tree (MST), where a predefined number of clustering is not needed. We compare the proposed methods with two common clustering algorithms for the artificial synthetic data set and several image data sets, including the synthetic texture images and the SAR images, and encouraging experimental results are obtained.

  7. A new artificial immune algorithm and its application for optimization problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-gang; SONG Shen-min; DUAN Guan-ren


    A new artificial immune algorithm (AIA) simulating the biological immune network system with selfadjustment function is proposed in this paper. AIA is based on the modified immune network model in which two methods of affinity measure evaluated are used, controlling the antibody diversity and the speed of convergence separately. The model proposed focuses on a systemic view of the immune system and takes into account cell-cell interactions denoted by antibody affinity. The antibody concentration defined in the immune network model is responsible directly for its activity in the immune system. The model introduces not only a term describing the network dynamics, but also proposes an independent term to simulate the dynamics of the antigen population. The antibodies' evolutionary processes are controlled in the algorithms by utilizing the basic properties of the immune network. Computational amount and effect is a pair of contradictions. In terms of this problem,the AIA regulating the parameters easily attains a compromise between them. At the same time, AIA can prevent premature convergence at the cost of a heavy computational amount ( the iterative times). Simulation illustrates that AIA is adapted to solve optimization problems, emphasizing multimodal optimization.

  8. Immune System (For Parents) (United States)

    ... infections, but the condition is usually not severe. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is also known as the "bubble boy disease" after a Texas boy with SCID who lived in a germ-free plastic bubble. SCID is a serious immune system disorder that occurs because of a lack of both ...

  9. Information Fusion in the Immune System

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie


    Biologically-inspired methods such as evolutionary algorithms and neural networks are proving useful in the field of information fusion. Artificial Immune Systems (AISs) are a biologically-inspired approach which take inspiration from the biological immune system. Interestingly, recent research has show how AISs which use multi-level information sources as input data can be used to build effective algorithms for real time computer intrusion detection. This research is based on biological information fusion mechanisms used by the human immune system and as such might be of interest to the information fusion community. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of some of the biological information fusion mechanisms seen in the human immune system, and of how these mechanisms have been implemented as AISs

  10. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems (United States)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  11. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua D.


    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.

  12. An artificial immune approach for optical image based vision inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng(郑宏); Nanfeng Xiao(肖南风); Jinhui Lan(蓝金辉)


    This paper presents a novel approach of visual inspection for texture surface defects. The approach usesartificial immune theory in learning the detection of texture defects. In this paper, texture defects areregards as non-self, and normal textures are regarded as self. Defect filters and segmentation thresholdsused for defect detection are regarded as antibodies. The clonal selection algorithm stemmed from thenatural immune system is employed to learn antibodies. Experimental results on textile image inspectionare presented to illustrate the merit and feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Ubiquitin in the immune system


    Julia Zinngrebe; Antonella Montinaro; Nieves Peltzer; Henning Walczak


    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process that has been implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. There is increasing evidence that both ubiquitination and its reversal, deubiquitination, play crucial roles not only during the development of the immune system but also in the orchestration of an immune response by ensuring the proper functioning of the different cell types that constitute the immune system. Here, we provide an overview of the lates...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongguang


    In this paper the author shows some artificial living systems, whose basic life characteristics are explored, especially the differentiation in evolution from single cellular to multi-cellular organism. In addition, the author discusses diversity and evolvability also.The author gives a modified entropy function to measure the diversity. Finally, the author drops an open problem about the structure of "gene" of artificial living systems, so that we can measure the evolutionary order between the artificial living systems.

  15. An Associate Rules Mining Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune Network for SAR Image Segmentation


    Mengling Zhao; Hongwei Liu


    As a computational intelligence method, artificial immune network (AIN) algorithm has been widely applied to pattern recognition and data classification. In the existing artificial immune network algorithms, the calculating affinity for classifying is based on calculating a certain distance, which may lead to some unsatisfactory results in dealing with data with nominal attributes. To overcome the shortcoming, the association rules are introduced into AIN algorithm, and we propose a new class...

  16. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.


    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  17. Smartphone Malware Detection Model Based on Artificial Immune System in Cloud Computing%云计算下手机人工免疫恶意代码检测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武斌; 林幸; 李卫东; 芦天亮; 张冬梅


    提出一种适用于云计算环境的基于人工免疫的手机恶意代码检测模型。提出扩展阴性选择算法,提取恶意代码的特征编码生成抗原,增加针对高亲和度检测器的克隆和变异算子,提高成熟检测器的生成效率,在特征检测和检测器生成阶段引入MapReduce并行处理机制,提高计算效率。仿真结果表明,检测模型对未知手机恶意代码具有较高的检测率和计算效率。%A smartphone malware detection model based artificial immune system( AIS) on the cloud was proposed. In this model, the extended negative selection algorithm is put forward and the antigens are generated by encoding the malwarecharacteristics. With addition of cloning with higher affinity detector and hyper-mutation, the detectors are generated efficiently. The computing rate is then improved signifi-cantly by parallel computing mechanism MapReduce during the feature coding and detector generation. Experiment shows that the detection modelhas a high detection rate and computing rate for unknown smar-tphone malware.

  18. Artificial intelligence in power system optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ongsakul, Weerakorn


    With the considerable increase of AI applications, AI is being increasingly used to solve optimization problems in engineering. In the past two decades, the applications of artificial intelligence in power systems have attracted much research. This book covers the current level of applications of artificial intelligence to the optimization problems in power systems. This book serves as a textbook for graduate students in electric power system management and is also be useful for those who are interested in using artificial intelligence in power system optimization.

  19. Featured Immune System Research (United States)

    ... AMCase, an enzyme present in humans and other mammals, plays a key role in initiating protective immune ... Facilities Biosafety Laboratory Sites Rutgers University University of Alabama George Mason University Tufts University Tulane University Regional ...

  20. An Associate Rules Mining Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune Network for SAR Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Zhao


    Full Text Available As a computational intelligence method, artificial immune network (AIN algorithm has been widely applied to pattern recognition and data classification. In the existing artificial immune network algorithms, the calculating affinity for classifying is based on calculating a certain distance, which may lead to some unsatisfactory results in dealing with data with nominal attributes. To overcome the shortcoming, the association rules are introduced into AIN algorithm, and we propose a new classification algorithm an associate rules mining algorithm based on artificial immune network (ARM-AIN. The new method uses the association rules to represent immune cells and mine the best association rules rather than searching optimal clustering centers. The proposed algorithm has been extensively compared with artificial immune network classification (AINC algorithm, artificial immune network classification algorithm based on self-adaptive PSO (SPSO-AINC, and PSO-AINC over several large-scale data sets, target recognition of remote sensing image, and segmentation of three different SAR images. The result of experiment indicates the superiority of ARM-AIN in classification accuracy and running time.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per


    A majority of the research performed today explore artificial intelligence in smart homes by using a centralized approach where a smart home server performs the necessary calculations. This approach has some disadvantages that can be overcome by shifting focus to a distributed approach where...... the artificial intelligence system is implemented as distributed as agents running parts of the artificial intelligence system. This paper presents a distributed smart home architecture that distributes artificial intelligence in smart homes and discusses the pros and cons of such a concept. The presented...... distributed model is a layered model. Each layer offers a different complexity level of the embedded distributed artificial intelligence. At the lowest layer smart objects exists, they are small cheap embedded microcontroller based smart devices that are powered by batteries. The next layer contains a more...

  2. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  3. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron


    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  4. A novel artificial immune algorithm for spatial clustering with obstacle constraint and its applications. (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Luo, Yonglong; Ding, Xintao; Zhang, Ji


    An important component of a spatial clustering algorithm is the distance measure between sample points in object space. In this paper, the traditional Euclidean distance measure is replaced with innovative obstacle distance measure for spatial clustering under obstacle constraints. Firstly, we present a path searching algorithm to approximate the obstacle distance between two points for dealing with obstacles and facilitators. Taking obstacle distance as similarity metric, we subsequently propose the artificial immune clustering with obstacle entity (AICOE) algorithm for clustering spatial point data in the presence of obstacles and facilitators. Finally, the paper presents a comparative analysis of AICOE algorithm and the classical clustering algorithms. Our clustering model based on artificial immune system is also applied to the case of public facility location problem in order to establish the practical applicability of our approach. By using the clone selection principle and updating the cluster centers based on the elite antibodies, the AICOE algorithm is able to achieve the global optimum and better clustering effect.

  5. A Novel Artificial Immune Algorithm for Spatial Clustering with Obstacle Constraint and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Sun


    Full Text Available An important component of a spatial clustering algorithm is the distance measure between sample points in object space. In this paper, the traditional Euclidean distance measure is replaced with innovative obstacle distance measure for spatial clustering under obstacle constraints. Firstly, we present a path searching algorithm to approximate the obstacle distance between two points for dealing with obstacles and facilitators. Taking obstacle distance as similarity metric, we subsequently propose the artificial immune clustering with obstacle entity (AICOE algorithm for clustering spatial point data in the presence of obstacles and facilitators. Finally, the paper presents a comparative analysis of AICOE algorithm and the classical clustering algorithms. Our clustering model based on artificial immune system is also applied to the case of public facility location problem in order to establish the practical applicability of our approach. By using the clone selection principle and updating the cluster centers based on the elite antibodies, the AICOE algorithm is able to achieve the global optimum and better clustering effect.

  6. Diversity in the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de


    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity that fo

  7. Intrusion Detection Systems Based on Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks



    Intrusion detection system (IDS) is regarded as the second line of defense against network anomalies and threats. IDS plays an important role in network security. There are many techniques which are used to design IDSs for specific scenario and applications. Artificial intelligence techniques are widely used for threats detection. This paper presents a critical study on genetic algorithm, artificial immune, and artificial neural network (ANN) based IDSs techniques used in wireless sensor netw...

  8. Energetics and the immune system (United States)

    Reiches, Meredith W.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Ellison, Peter T.


    Abstract Background and objectives: The human immune system is an ever-changing composition of innumerable cells and proteins, continually ready to respond to pathogens or insults. The cost of maintaining this state of immunological readiness is rarely considered. In this paper we aim to discern a cost to non-acute immune function by investigating how low levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) relate to other energetic demands and resources in adolescent Gambian girls. Methodology: Data from a longitudinal study of 66 adolescent girls was used to test hypotheses around investment in immune function. Non-acute (under 2 mg/L) CRP was used as an index of immune function. Predictor variables include linear height velocity, adiposity, leptin, and measures of energy balance. Results: Non-acute log CRP was positively associated with adiposity (β = 0.16, P resources and demands. We also find support for an adaptive association between the immune system and adipose tissue. PMID:28003312

  9. Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saitta, Lorenza


    Abstraction is a fundamental mechanism underlying both human and artificial perception, representation of knowledge, reasoning and learning. This mechanism plays a crucial role in many disciplines, notably Computer Programming, Natural and Artificial Vision, Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Art, and Cognitive Sciences. This book first provides the reader with an overview of the notions of abstraction proposed in various disciplines by comparing both commonalities and differences.  After discussing the characterizing properties of abstraction, a formal model, the K

  10. The immune system and hypertension. (United States)

    Singh, Madhu V; Chapleau, Mark W; Harwani, Sailesh C; Abboud, Francois M


    A powerful interaction between the autonomic and the immune systems plays a prominent role in the initiation and maintenance of hypertension and significantly contributes to cardiovascular pathology, end-organ damage and mortality. Studies have shown consistent association between hypertension, proinflammatory cytokines and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The sympathetic nervous system, a major determinant of hypertension, innervates the bone marrow, spleen and peripheral lymphatic system and is proinflammatory, whereas the parasympathetic nerve activity dampens the inflammatory response through α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The neuro-immune synapse is bidirectional as cytokines may enhance the sympathetic activity through their central nervous system action that in turn increases the mobilization, migration and infiltration of immune cells in the end organs. Kidneys may be infiltrated by immune cells and mesangial cells that may originate in the bone marrow and release inflammatory cytokines that cause renal damage. Hypertension is also accompanied by infiltration of the adventitia and perivascular adipose tissue by inflammatory immune cells including macrophages. Increased cytokine production induces myogenic and structural changes in the resistance vessels, causing elevated blood pressure. Cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension may result from the mechanical afterload and the inflammatory response to resident or migratory immune cells. Toll-like receptors on innate immune cells function as sterile injury detectors and initiate the inflammatory pathway. Finally, abnormalities of innate immune cells and the molecular determinants of their activation that include toll-like receptor, adrenergic, cholinergic and AT1 receptors can define the severity of inflammation in hypertension. These receptors are putative therapeutic targets.

  11. Cystatins in immune system. (United States)

    Magister, Spela; Kos, Janko


    Cystatins comprise a large superfamily of related proteins with diverse biological activities. They were initially characterised as inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases, however, in recent years some alternative functions for cystatins have been proposed. Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins), family II (cystatins) and family III (kininogens). Stefin A is often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium while another family I cystatin, stefin B is supposed to have a specific role in neuredegenerative diseases. Cystatin C, a typical type II cystatin, is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells. On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor, selectively expressed in immune cells, suggesting its role in processes related to immune response. Our recent work points on its role in regulation of dendritic cell maturation and in natural killer cells functional inactivation that may enhance tumor survival. Cystatin E/M expression is mainly restricted to the epithelia of the skin which emphasizes its prominent role in cutaneous biology. Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B) and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M) in pathologies, with particular emphasis on their suppressive vs. promotional function in the tumorigenesis and metastasis. We proposed that an imbalance between cathepsins and cystatins may attenuate immune cell functions and facilitate tumor cell invasion.

  12. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero


    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  13. Detecting Resource Consumption Attack over MANET using an Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Israf


    Full Text Available The Human Immune System (HIS is considered as a bank of models, functions, and concepts from where Artificial Immune algorithms are inspired. These algorithms are used to secure both host-based and network-based systems. However, it is not only important to utilize the HIS in producing AIS-based algorithms as much as it is important to introduce an algorithm with high performance. Therefore, creating a balance between utilizing HIS on one side and introducing the required AIS-based intrusion detection algorithm on the other side is a crucial issue which would be valuable to investigate. Securing the mobile ad hoc network (MANET which is a collection of mobile, decentralized, and self organized nodes is another problem, which adds more challenges to the research. This is because MANET properties make it harder to be secured than the other types of static networks. We claim that AISs’ properties such as being self-healing, self-defensive and self-organizing can meet the challenges of securing the MANET environment. This paper’s objective is to utilize the biological model used in the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA to introduce a Dendritic Cell Inspired Intrusion Detection Algorithm (DCIIDA. DCIIDA is introduced to detect the Resource Consumption Attack (RCA over MANET. Furthermore, this paper proposes a DCIIDA architecture which should be applied by each node in MANET.

  14. The Immune System in Hypertension (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.


    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  15. miRNA-124 in Immune System and Immune Disorders



    In recent years, miR-124 has emerged as a critical modulator of immunity and inflammation. Here, we summarize studies on the function and mechanism of miR-124 in the immune system and immunity-related diseases. They indicated that miR-124 exerts a crucial role in the development of immune system, regulation of immune responses, and inflammatory disorders. It is evident that miR-124 may serve as an informative diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the future.

  16. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi


    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging.

  17. 旅行商问题的人工免疫算法%An Artificial Immune Algorithm for Travelling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂军; 舒宜; 童调生


    This paper presents an Artificial Immune Algorithm (AIA)simulating the biological immune systems, andoffers its basic principle and approach. Comparing AIA with Genetic Algorithm (GAs)simulating the biological evolu-tion process, the paper points out that the method producing new antibodies in AIA is more versatile than the oneproducing new individuals in GAs. AIA reflects mechanism of natural selection better than GAs does, as AIA selectseffective antibodies from all antibodies by the appetency between an antibody and an antigen and by the repulsion be-tween an antibody and another, while GAs selects new individuals of next colony by the proportion of individual fit-ness. For Travel Salesman Problem (TSP), this paper brings forward how to describe antibodies artificially, how toproduce original antibodies, how to compute the appetency between an antibody and an antigen and the repulsion be-tween an antibody and another, and works out several artificial immune operators producing new antibod-ies. Simulating examples show that AIA is a very effective method for TSP.

  18. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity. (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F


    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  19. The AIS-HSL Optimization:An Artificial Immune System with Heuristic Social Learning#%一种带有启发式社会学习机制的人工免疫系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中华; 贺春辉


    This paper proposes an artificial immune system with heuristic social learning (AIS-HSL) for optimization. In the AIS-HSL optimization, the candidate antibodies is separated into two swarms, i.e., the elitist swarm (ES) and the common swarm (CS). Different swarms experience different mutation processes, i.e. , a self-learning strategy is used for the ES while a heuristic social-learning (HSL) mechanism is applied to the CS. In the HSL mechanism, each antibody in CS learns from an selected antibody in ES based on the probability determined by the affinity to avoid falling into the local optima. Some comparative numerical simulations are arranged to evaluate the performance of the proposed AIS-HSL. The results demonstrate that the proposed AIS-HSL outperforms the canonical opt-aiNet, the IA-AIS and the AAIS-2S in convergence speed and solution accuracy.%本文提出一种带有启发式社会学习机制的人工免疫系统优化算法(AIS-HSL)。在AIS-HSL中,候选抗体被分成两个群,即精英群(ES)和普通群(CS)。不同的群执行不同的变异机制,即精英群采用自学习机制,普通群采用启发式社会学习(HSL)机制。在HSL机制中,CS中的每个抗体根据亲和力依概率选择ES中的抗体进行学习,以避免陷入局部最优。通过一些比较性实验,来评估 AIS-HSL 算法的性能。实验结果表明,与传统的opt-aiNet算法和IA-AIS算法相比,本文提出的AIS-HSL算法有着更高的收敛精度和收敛速度。

  20. A Recommender System based on the Immune Network

    CERN Document Server

    Steve, Cayzer


    The immune system is a complex biological system with a highly distributed, adaptive and self-organising nature. This paper presents an artificial immune system (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film recommendation by collaborative filtering (CF). Natural evolution and in particular the immune system have not been designed for classical optimisation. However, for this problem, we are not interested in finding a single optimum. Rather we intend to identify a sub-set of good matches on which recommendations can be based. It is our hypothesis that an AIS built on two central aspects of the biological immune system will be an ideal candidate to achieve this: Antigen - antibody interaction for matching and antibody - antibody interaction for diversity. Computational results are presented in support of this conjecture and compared to those found by other CF techniques.

  1. Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions. (United States)

    Kenney, M J; Ganta, C K


    The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsivity of discharges in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating diverse targets. Multiple levels of the neuraxis contribute to cytokine-induced changes in efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve outflows, leading to modulation of peripheral immune responses. The functionality of local sympathoimmune interactions depends on the microenvironment created by diverse signaling mechanisms involving integration between sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; specific adrenergic receptors; and the presence or absence of immune cells, cytokines, and bacteria. Functional mechanisms contributing to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway likely involve novel cholinergic-adrenergic interactions at peripheral sites, including autonomic ganglion and lymphoid targets. Immune cells express adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Neurotransmitters released by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings bind to their respective receptors located on the surface of immune cells and initiate immune-modulatory responses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system are instrumental in orchestrating neuroimmune processes, although additional studies are required to understand dynamic and complex adrenergic-cholinergic interactions. Further understanding of regulatory mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous, and immune systems is critical for understanding relationships between chronic disease

  2. Digital systems for artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, L.E. (Interactive Systems Design Lab., Univ. of Washington, WA (US)); Suzuki, Y. (NTT Human Interface Labs. (US))


    A tremendous flurry of research activity has developed around artificial neural systems. These systems have also been tested in many applications, often with positive results. Most of this work has taken place as digital simulations on general-purpose serial or parallel digital computers. Specialized neural network emulation systems have also been developed for more efficient learning and use. The authors discussed how dedicated digital VLSI integrated circuits offer the highest near-term future potential for this technology.

  3. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system. (United States)

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali


    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  4. Induction of mucosal immunity through systemic immunization: Phantom or reality? (United States)

    Su, Fei; Patel, Girishchandra B; Hu, Songhua; Chen, Wangxue


    Generation of protective immunity at mucosal surfaces can greatly assist the host defense against pathogens which either cause disease at the mucosal epithelial barriers or enter the host through these surfaces. Although mucosal routes of immunization, such as intranasal and oral, are being intensely explored and appear promising for eliciting protective mucosal immunity in mammals, their application in clinical practice has been limited due to technical and safety related challenges. Most of the currently approved human vaccines are administered via systemic (such as intramuscular and subcutaneous) routes. Whereas these routes are acknowledged as being capable to elicit antigen-specific systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, they are generally perceived as incapable of generating IgA responses or protective mucosal immunity. Nevertheless, currently licensed systemic vaccines do provide effective protection against mucosal pathogens such as influenza viruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, whether systemic immunization induces protective mucosal immunity remains a controversial topic. Here we reviewed the current literature and discussed the potential of systemic routes of immunization for the induction of mucosal immunity.

  5. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems (United States)

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H.; Evers, Jörg


    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This “reverse engineering” of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.

  6. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems. (United States)

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H; Evers, Jörg


    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This "reverse engineering" of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.

  7. Immunity Based Worm Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Zheng; WU Li-fa; WANG Yuan-yuan


    Current worm detection methods are unable to detect multi-vector polymorphic worms effectively.Based on negative selection mechanism of the immune system,a local network worm detection system that detects worms was proposed.Normal network service requests were represented by self-strings,and the detection system used self-strings to monitor the network for anomaly.According to the properties of worm propagation,a control center correlated the anomalies detected in the form of binary trees to ensure the accuracy of worm detection.Experiments show the system to be effective in detecting the traditional as well as multi-vector polymorphic worms.

  8. [Obesity and the immune system]. (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Mazure, R A; Culebras, J M


    With an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. Morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. There is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. All these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. Immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. Changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. It is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. Immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. Properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article.

  9. Synthetic immunology: modulating the human immune system. (United States)

    Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin


    Humans have manipulated the immune system to dampen or boost the immune response for thousands of years. As our understanding of fundamental immunology and biotechnological methodology accumulates, we can capitalize on this combined knowledge to engineer biological devices with the aim of rationally manipulating the immune response. We address therapeutic approaches based on the principles of synthetic immunology that either ameliorate disorders of the immune system by interfering with the immune response, or improve diverse pathogenic conditions by exploiting immune cell effector functions. We specifically highlight synthetic proteins investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, summarize studies that have used engineered immune cells, and finish with a discussion of possible future therapeutic concepts.

  10. A Multi-agent Artificial Immune Network Algorithm for the Tray Efficiency Estimation of Distillation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史旭华; 钱锋


    Based on the immune mechanics and multi-agent technology, a multi-agent artificial immune network (Maopt-aiNet) algorithm is introduced. Maopt-aiNet makes use of the agent ability of sensing and acting to overcome premature problem, and combines the global and local search in the searching process. The performance of the proposed method is examined with 6 benchmark problems and compared with other well-known intelligent algorithms. The experiments show that Maopt-aiNet outperforms the other algorithms in these benchmark functions. Furthermore, Maopt-aiNet is applied to determine the Murphree efficiency of distillation column and satisfactory results are obtained.

  11. Agency in natural and artificial systems. (United States)

    Moreno, Alvaro; Etxeberria, Arantza


    We analyze the conditions for agency in natural and artificial systems. In the case of basic (natural) autonomous systems, self-construction and activity in the environment are two aspects of the same organization, the distinction between which is entirely conceptual: their sensorimotor activities are metabolic, realized according to the same principles and through the same material transformations as those typical of internal processes (such as energy transduction). The two aspects begin to be distinguishable in a particular evolutionary trend, related to the size increase of some groups of organisms whose adaptive abilities depend on motility. Here a specialized system develops, which, in the sensorimotor aspect, is decoupled from the metabolic basis, although it remains dependent on it in the self-constructive aspect. This decoupling reveals a complexification of the organization. In the last section of the article this approach to natural agency is used to analyze artificial systems by posing two problems: whether it is possible to artificially build an organization similar to the natural, and whether this notion of agency can be grounded on different organizing principles.

  12. A Dynamic Health Assessment Approach for Shearer Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbin Wang


    Full Text Available In order to accurately identify the dynamic health of shearer, reducing operating trouble and production accident of shearer and improving coal production efficiency further, a dynamic health assessment approach for shearer based on artificial immune algorithm was proposed. The key technologies such as system framework, selecting the indicators for shearer dynamic health assessment, and health assessment model were provided, and the flowchart of the proposed approach was designed. A simulation example, with an accuracy of 96%, based on the collected data from industrial production scene was provided. Furthermore, the comparison demonstrated that the proposed method exhibited higher classification accuracy than the classifiers based on back propagation-neural network (BP-NN and support vector machine (SVM methods. Finally, the proposed approach was applied in an engineering problem of shearer dynamic health assessment. The industrial application results showed that the paper research achievements could be used combining with shearer automation control system in fully mechanized coal face. The simulation and the application results indicated that the proposed method was feasible and outperforming others.

  13. Immune System Approaches to Intrusion Detection - A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Aickelin, Uwe; Greensmith, Julie; Tedesco, Gianni; Twycross, Jamie


    The use of artificial immune systems in intrusion detection is an appealing concept for two reasons. Firstly, the human immune system provides the human body with a high level of protection from invading pathogens, in a robust, self-organised and distributed manner. Secondly, current techniques used in computer security are not able to cope with the dynamic and increasingly complex nature of computer systems and their security. It is hoped that biologically inspired approaches in this area, including the use of immune-based systems will be able to meet this challenge. Here we review the algorithms used, the development of the systems and the outcome of their implementation. We provide an introduction and analysis of the key developments within this field, in addition to making suggestions for future research.

  14. Multiple Limit Cycles in an Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng Huang; Le-min Zhu; Minaya Villasana


    The nonlinear oscillatory phenomenon has been observed in the system of immune response, which corresponds to the limit cycles in the mathematical models. We prove that the system simulating an immune response studied by Huang has at least three limit cycles in the system. The conditions for the multiple limit cycles are useful in analyzing the nonlinear oscillation in immune response.

  15. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification (United States)

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  16. Visual computing model for immune system and medical system. (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Cao, Xinxue; Xiong, Qin


    Natural immune system is an intelligent self-organizing and adaptive system, which has a variety of immune cells with different types of immune mechanisms. The mutual cooperation between the immune cells shows the intelligence of this immune system, and modeling this immune system has an important significance in medical science and engineering. In order to build a comprehensible model of this immune system for better understanding with the visualization method than the traditional mathematic model, a visual computing model of this immune system was proposed and also used to design a medical system with the immune system, in this paper. Some visual simulations of the immune system were made to test the visual effect. The experimental results of the simulations show that the visual modeling approach can provide a more effective way for analyzing this immune system than only the traditional mathematic equations.

  17. Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems. (United States)

    Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, J Douglas


    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

  18. Genomics and the immune system. (United States)

    Pipkin, Matthew E; Monticelli, Silvia


    While the hereditary information encoded in the Watson-Crick base pairing of genomes is largely static within a given individual, access to this information is controlled by dynamic mechanisms. The human genome is pervasively transcribed, but the roles played by the majority of the non-protein-coding genome sequences are still largely unknown. In this review we focus on insights to gene transcriptional regulation by placing special emphasis on genome-wide approaches, and on how non-coding RNAs, which derive from global transcription of the genome, in turn control gene expression. We review recent progress in the field with highlights on the immune system.

  19. Development of artificial bionic baroreflex system. (United States)

    Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru


    The baroreflex system is the fastest mechanism in the body to regulate arterial pressure. Because the neural system (i.e., autonomic nervous system) mediates the baroreflex and the system operates under the closed-loop condition, the quantitative dynamic characteristics of the baroreflex system remained unknown until recently despite the fact that a countless number of observational and qualitative studies had been conducted. In order to develop the artificial baroreflex system, i.e., the bionic baroreflex system, we first anatomically isolated the carotid sinuses to open the baroreflex loop and identified the open-loop transfer function of the baroreflex system using white noise pressure perturbations. We found that the baroreflex system is basically a lowpass filter and remarkably linear. As an actuator to implement the bionic baroreflex system, we then stimulated the sympathetic efferent nerves at various parts of the baroreflex loop and identified the transfer functions from the stimulation sites to systemic arterial pressure. We found that the actuator responses can be described remarkably well with linear transfer functions. Since transfer functions of the native baroreflex and of the actuator were identified, the controller that is required to reproduce the native baroreflex transfer function can be easily derived from those transfer functions. To examine the performance of bionic baroreflex system, we implemented it animal models of baroreflex failure. The bionic baroreflex system restored normal arterial pressure regulation against orthostatic stresses that is indistinguishable from the native baroreflex system.

  20. Natural selection drives Drosophila immune system evolution. (United States)

    Schlenke, Todd A; Begun, David J


    Evidence from disparate sources suggests that natural selection may often play a role in the evolution of host immune system proteins. However, there have been few attempts to make general population genetic inferences on the basis of analysis of several immune-system-related genes from a single species. Here we present DNA polymorphism and divergence data from 34 genes thought to function in the innate immune system of Drosophila simulans and compare these data to those from 28 nonimmunity genes sequenced from the same lines. Several statistics, including average K(A)/K(S) ratio, average silent heterozygosity, and average haplotype diversity, significantly differ between the immunity and nonimmunity genes, suggesting an important role for directional selection in immune system protein evolution. In contrast to data from mammalian immunoglobulins and other proteins, we find no strong evidence for the selective maintenance of protein diversity in Drosophila immune system proteins. This may be a consequence of Drosophila's generalized innate immune response.

  1. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young


    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  2. Immune system modifications and feto-maternal immune tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Dan; Shi Yichao


    Objective This review aimed at understanding pregnancy-induced changes in the maternal immune response and mechanisms for the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.Data sources Articles cited in this review were obtained from PubMed in English from 2000 to 2014,and the search string included keywords such as feto-maternal tolerance,dendritic cells,macrophage,T regulatory cells,natural killer cells,cytokines and hormone.Study selection Articles regarding altered maternal immune response,including the proliferation and differentiation of the altered cells,and the production of cytokines and regulation of hormones in the feto-maternal interface were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results The changes in immune cells and cytokines in the local uterine microenvironment and peripheral blood are correlated with the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.The endocrine system regulates the maternal immune system,promoting modifications during pregnancy.In these regulatory networks,every factor is indispensible for others.Conclusions The integration and balance of these immune factors during pregnancy give rise to an environment that enables the fetus to escape rejection by the maternal immune system.This progress is complicated,and needs more comprehensive exploration and explanation.

  3. Female postmating immune responses, immune system evolution and immunogenic males. (United States)

    Morrow, Edward H; Innocenti, Paolo


    Females in many taxa experience postmating activation of their immune system, independently of any genital trauma or pathogenic attack arising from male-female genital contact. This response has always been interpreted as a product of natural selection as it either prepares the female immune system for antigens arising from an implanted embryo (in the case of placental mammals), or is a "pre-emptive strike" against infection or injury acquired during mating. While the first hypothesis has empirical support, the second is not entirely satisfactory. Recently, studies that have experimentally dissected the postmating responses of Drosophila melanogaster females point to a different explanation: male reproductive peptides/proteins that have evolved in response to postmating male-male competition are directly responsible for activating particular elements of the female immune system. Thus, in a broad sense, males may be said to be immunogenic to females. Here, we discuss a possible direct role of sexual selection/sexual conflict in immune system evolution, in contrast to indirect trade-offs with other life-history traits, presenting the available evidence from a range of taxa and proposing ways in which the competing hypotheses could be tested. The major implication of this review is that immune system evolution is not only a product of natural selection but also that sexual selection and potentially sexual conflict enforces a direct selective pressure. This is a significant shift, and will compel researchers studying immune system evolution and ecological immunity to look beyond the forces generated by parasites and pathogens to those generated by the male ejaculate.

  4. Towards a Conceptual Framework for Innate Immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie


    Innate immunity now occupies a central role in immunology. However, artificial immune system models have largely been inspired by adaptive not innate immunity. This paper reviews the biological principles and properties of innate immunity and, adopting a conceptual framework, asks how these can be incorporated into artificial models. The aim is to outline a meta-framework for models of innate immunity.

  5. Learning and Memory... and the Immune System (United States)

    Marin, Ioana; Kipnis, Jonathan


    The nervous system and the immune system are two main regulators of homeostasis in the body. Communication between them ensures normal functioning of the organism. Immune cells and molecules are required for sculpting the circuitry and determining the activity of the nervous system. Within the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS),…

  6. Inside the mucosal immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R McGhee

    Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

  7. Artificial immune algorithm implementation for optimized multi-axis sculptured surface CNC machining (United States)

    Fountas, N. A.; Kechagias, J. D.; Vaxevanidis, N. M.


    This paper presents the results obtained by the implementation of an artificial immune algorithm to optimize standard multi-axis tool-paths applied to machine free-form surfaces. The investigation for its applicability was based on a full factorial experimental design addressing the two additional axes for tool inclination as independent variables whilst a multi-objective response was formulated by taking into consideration surface deviation and tool path time; objectives assessed directly from computer-aided manufacturing environment A standard sculptured part was developed by scratch considering its benchmark specifications and a cutting-edge surface machining tool-path was applied to study the effects of the pattern formulated when dynamically inclining a toroidal end-mill and guiding it towards the feed direction under fixed lead and tilt inclination angles. The results obtained form the series of the experiments were used for the fitness function creation the algorithm was about to sequentially evaluate. It was found that the artificial immune algorithm employed has the ability of attaining optimal values for inclination angles facilitating thus the complexity of such manufacturing process and ensuring full potentials in multi-axis machining modelling operations for producing enhanced CNC manufacturing programs. Results suggested that the proposed algorithm implementation may reduce the mean experimental objective value to 51.5%

  8. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system (United States)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Nizar Hamidon, Mohd; Abdolzadeh, Vida


    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible.

  9. The Microbiome, Systemic Immune Function, and Allotransplantation. (United States)

    Nellore, Anoma; Fishman, Jay A


    Diverse effects of the microbiome on solid organ transplantation are beginning to be recognized. In allograft recipients, microbial networks are disrupted by immunosuppression, nosocomial and community-based infectious exposures, antimicrobial therapies, surgery, and immune processes. Shifting microbial patterns, including acute infectious exposures, have dynamic and reciprocal interactions with local and systemic immune systems. Both individual microbial species and microbial networks have central roles in the induction and control of innate and adaptive immune responses, in graft rejection, and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Understanding the diverse interactions between the microbiome and the immune system of allograft recipients may facilitate clinical management in the future.

  10. An Artificial Neural Network Control System for Spacecraft Attitude Stabilization (United States)


    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ’-DTIC 0 ELECT f NMARO 5 191 N S, U, THESIS B . AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL SYSTEM FOR...NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE STABILIZATION...obsolete a U.S. G v pi.. iim n P.. oiice! toog-eo.5s43 i Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL

  11. Feeding Our Immune System: Impact on Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Wolowczuk


    Full Text Available Endogenous intestinal microflora and environmental factors, such as diet, play a central role in immune homeostasis and reactivity. In addition, microflora and diet both influence body weight and insulin-resistance, notably through an action on adipose cells. Moreover, it is known since a long time that any disturbance in metabolism, like obesity, is associated with immune alteration, for example, inflammation. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on how nutrients-derived factors (mostly focusing on fatty acids and glucose impact the innate and acquired immune systems, including the gut immune system and its associated bacterial flora. We will try to show the reader how the highly energy-demanding immune cells use glucose as a main source of fuel in a way similar to that of insulin-responsive adipose tissue and how Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune system, which are found on immune cells, intestinal cells, and adipocytes, are presently viewed as essential actors in the complex balance ensuring bodily immune and metabolic health. Understanding more about these links will surely help to study and understand in a more fundamental way the common observation that eating healthy will keep you and your immune system healthy.

  12. Artificial and bioartificial support systems for liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Gluud, L L; Als-Nielsen, B;


    Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems may 'bridge' patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure to liver transplantation or recovery.......Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems may 'bridge' patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure to liver transplantation or recovery....

  13. [Olive oil, immune system and infection]. (United States)

    Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio


    Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent.

  14. Interactions between the immune system and bone



    The relationship between the immune system, estrogen deficiency and bone loss is an intriguing and, as yet, unexplained challenge of the past two decades. Here we summarize the evidence that links immune cells, inflammation, cytokine production and osteoclast formation and activity with particular regard to humans.

  15. Inflammation and immune system interactions in atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Legein, Bart; Temmerman, Lieve; Biessen, Erik A L; Lutgens, Esther


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 16.7 million deaths each year. The underlying cause of the majority of CVD is atherosclerosis. In the past, atherosclerosis was considered to be the result of passive lipid accumulation in the vessel wall. Today's picture is far more complex. Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease that results in the formation of plaques in large and mid-sized arteries. Both cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. By transforming immune cells into pro- and anti-inflammatory chemokine- and cytokine-producing units, and by guiding the interactions between the different immune cells, the immune system decisively influences the propensity of a given plaque to rupture and cause clinical symptoms like myocardial infarction and stroke. In this review, we give an overview on the newest insights in the role of different immune cells and subtypes in atherosclerosis.

  16. A brief journey through the immune system. (United States)

    Yatim, Karim M; Lakkis, Fadi G


    This review serves as an introduction to an Immunology Series for the Nephrologist published in CJASN. It provides a brief overview of the immune system, how it works, and why it matters to kidneys. This review describes in broad terms the main divisions of the immune system (innate and adaptive), their cellular and tissue components, and the ways by which they function and are regulated. The story is told through the prism of evolution in order to relay to the reader why the immune system does what it does and why imperfections in the system can lead to renal disease. Detailed descriptions of cell types, molecules, and other immunologic curiosities are avoided as much as possible in an effort to not detract from the importance of the broader concepts that define the immune system and its relationship to the kidney.

  17. Artificial and bioartificial support systems for liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Kjaergard, Lise Lotte; Als-Nielsen, Bodil;


    Liver support systems may bridge patients to liver transplantation or recovery from liver failure. This review is to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of artificial and bioartificial support systems for acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure.......Liver support systems may bridge patients to liver transplantation or recovery from liver failure. This review is to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of artificial and bioartificial support systems for acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure....

  18. Inflammation and immune system alterations in frailty. (United States)

    Yao, Xu; Li, Huifen; Leng, Sean X


    Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by multisystem dysregulation. Substantial evidence suggests heightened inflammatory state and significant immune system alterations in frailty. A heightened inflammatory state is marked by increases in levels of inflammatory molecules (interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein) and counts of white blood cell and its subpopulations, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of frailty, directly or through its detrimental influence on other physiologic systems. Alterations in the innate immune system include decreased proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and upregulated monocytic expression of specific stress-responsive inflammatory pathway genes. In the adaptive immune system, although little information is available about potential B-cell changes, significant alterations have been identified in the T-cell compartment, including increased counts of CD8+, CD8+CD28-, CCR5+T cells, above and beyond age-related senescent immune remodeling.

  19. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination (United States)

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  20. [Immune system evolution. (From cells to humans)]. (United States)

    Belek, A S


    The great variety of cells and molecules observed in the mammalian immune system can be explained by stepwise acquisition of them during phylogeny. Self/nonself discrimination and cell-mediated immunity have been present since the early stages of evolution. Although some inducible antimicrobial molecules have been demonstrated in invertebrates, immunoglobulins appear in vertebrates. T and B cell diversity, development of the lymphoid organs, MHC molecules, complement and cytokines are the characteristics that appear through the evolution of vertebrates. Further knowledge that will be obtained from phylogenetic studies will improve our understanding of the immune system of human.

  1. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston


    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  2. The immune system vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas


    revealed both innate as well as adaptive immune responses to biofilms. On the other hand, measures launched by biofilm bacteria to achieve protection against the various immune responses have also been demonstrated. Whether particular immune responses to biofilm infections exist remains to be firmly...... established. However, because biofilm infections are often persistent (or chronic), an odd situation appears with the simultaneous activation of both arms of the host immune response, neither of which can eliminate the biofilm pathogen, but instead, in synergy, causes collateral tissue damage. Although...... the present review on the immune system vs. biofilm bacteria is focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mainly because this is the most thoroughly studied), many of the same mechanisms are also seen with biofilm infections generated by other microorganisms....

  3. Building Artificial Vision Systems with Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCun, Yann [New York University


    Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?

  4. Indoor Positioning System Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mehmood


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Location knowledge in indoor environment using Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS has become very useful and popular in recent years. A number of Location Based Services (LBS have been developed, which are based on IPS, these LBS include asset tracking, inventory management and security based applications. Many next-generation LBS applications such as social networking, local search, advertising and geo-tagging are expected to be used in urban and indoor environments where GNSS either underperforms in terms of fix times or accuracy, or fails altogether. To develop an IPS based on Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength (RSS using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, which should use already available Wi-Fi infrastructure in a heterogeneous environment. Approach: This study discussed the use of ANN for IPS using RSS in an indoor wireless facility which has varying human activity, material of walls and type of Wireless Access Points (WAP, hence simulating a heterogeneous environment. The proposed system used backpropogation method with 4 input neurons, 2 output neurons and 4 hidden layers. The model was trained with three different types of training data. The accuracy assessment for each training data was performed by computing the distance error and average distance error. Results: The results of the experiments showed that using ANN with the proposed method of collecting training data, maximum accuracy of 0.7 m can be achieved, with 30% of the distance error less than 1 m and 60% of the distance error within the range of 1-2 m. Whereas maximum accuracy of 1.01 can be achieved with the commonly used method of collecting training data. The proposed model also showed 67% more accuracy as compared to a probabilistic model. Conclusion: The results indicated that ANN based IPS can provide accuracy and precision which is quite adequate for the development of indoor LBS while using the already available Wi-Fi infrastructure, also the proposed method

  5. RBF network designing based on artificial immune%基于人工免疫系统的RBF网络设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    由于传统的RBF网络学习方法存在诸多的不足,本文提出基于免疫机制的三级RBF网络学习方法:在第一级得到网络隐层节点数作为疫苗,不仅可自行构建网络,还降低了第二级搜索空间的复杂度;第二级利用人工免疫算法对解空间进行多点搜索,得到全局最优的隐层非线性参数;第三级采用最小二乘法确定网络输出层线性参数,极大地降低了第二级结构的维数,提高了算法效率。经典型Hermit多项式逼近实验验证了该方法训练得到的RBF网络性能优越。%In order to improve the traditional RBF learning strategy, a three-level RBF network learning algorithm based on immune system is proposed, which can calculates the number of the hidden-layer neurons in the first level as immune vaccine, the network can be established and adjusted by itself, and the complexity of search space in the second level can be reduced. The global optimum hidden-layer nonlinear parameters are searched for in the second level by parallel searching with artificial immune algorithm. The output-layer linear parameters are estimated in the third level with least square method, which makes the design dimension of the second level decreased and the algorithm efficiency improved. The experiment of Hermit polynomial approximation shows that the performance of the RBF network trained by the algorithm is superior.

  6. [Biotherapy targeting the immune system]. (United States)

    Frenzel, Laurent


    The use of monoclonal antibody targeted therapy has changed the management of several diseases, including in hematology and immunology. The panel of the present available biotherapies allows a specific action at various stages of the immune response. Indeed, some of these molecules can target the naive T cell at the immunological synapse or the way of TH1, TH17 and regulatory T cell. Others may be more specific for the B cell and immunoglobulin. Some will even be active on both B and T cells.

  7. Obesity leptin and the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padiotis. K.


    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of obesity in developed and developing countries raises a major health concern due to the fact that obesity and nutrition are associated with impaired immune responses. Overconsumption of nutrients alters several functions of the immune defence mechanisms leading to severe infection and chronic diseases. The hormone leptin, known to regulate energy balance has been proved to activate several components of signalling pathways having thus immunoregulatory activity. The aim of this paper is to present the connections between obesity, immune system mechanisms and the role of the adipocyte hormone leptin

  8. Coevolutionary immune system dynamics driving pathogen speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J Schlesinger

    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a within-host dynamical model of the coevolution between rapidly mutating pathogens and the adaptive immune response. Pathogen mutation and a homeostatic constraint on lymphocytes both play a role in allowing the development of chronic infection, rather than quick pathogen clearance. The dynamics of these chronic infections display emergent structure, including branching patterns corresponding to asexual pathogen speciation, which is fundamentally driven by the coevolutionary interaction. Over time, continued branching creates an increasingly fragile immune system, and leads to the eventual catastrophic loss of immune control.

  9. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms. (United States)

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P


    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine.

  10. Circadian Clocks in the Immune System. (United States)

    Labrecque, Nathalie; Cermakian, Nicolas


    The immune system is a complex set of physiological mechanisms whose general aim is to defend the organism against non-self-bodies, such as pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), as well as cancer cells. Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24-h variations found in virtually all physiological processes. These circadian rhythms are generated by circadian clocks, located in most cell types, including cells of the immune system. This review presents an overview of the clocks in the immune system and of the circadian regulation of the function of immune cells. Most immune cells express circadian clock genes and present a wide array of genes expressed with a 24-h rhythm. This has profound impacts on cellular functions, including a daily rhythm in the synthesis and release of cytokines, chemokines and cytolytic factors, the daily gating of the response occurring through pattern recognition receptors, circadian rhythms of cellular functions such as phagocytosis, migration to inflamed or infected tissue, cytolytic activity, and proliferative response to antigens. Consequently, alterations of circadian rhythms (e.g., clock gene mutation in mice or environmental disruption similar to shift work) lead to disturbed immune responses. We discuss the implications of these data for human health and the areas that future research should aim to address.

  11. Immune regulation in gut and cord : opportunities for directing the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roock, S.


    The gut is an important organ for the immune system. Microbes and immune cells interact directly or via epithelial cells. Both TH17 and Treg cells mature in this environment. The composition of the microbiota has an important influence on the immune homeostasis. Influencing the immune system via the

  12. Influenza, immune system, and pregnancy. (United States)

    Raj, Renju S; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Phillippe, Mark


    Influenza is a major health problem worldwide. Both seasonal influenza and pandemics take a major toll on the health and economy of our country. The present review focuses on the virology and complex immunology of this RNA virus in general and in relation to pregnancy. The goal is to attempt to explain the increased morbidity and mortality seen in infection during pregnancy. We discuss elements of innate and adaptive immunity as well as placental cellular responses to infection. In addition, we delineate findings in animal models as well as human disease. Increased knowledge of maternal and fetal immunologic responses to influenza is needed. However, enhanced understanding of nonimmune, pregnancy-specific factors influencing direct interaction of the virus with host cells is also important for the development of more effective prevention and treatment options in the future.

  13. A Characterization of the Utility of Using Artificial Intelligence to Test Two Artificial Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub


    Full Text Available An artificial intelligence system, designed for operations in a real-world environment faces a nearly infinite set of possible performance scenarios. Designers and developers, thus, face the challenge of validating proper performance across both foreseen and unforeseen conditions, particularly when the artificial intelligence is controlling a robot that will be operating in close proximity, or may represent a danger, to humans. While the manual creation of test cases allows limited testing (perhaps ensuring that a set of foreseeable conditions trigger an appropriate response, this may be insufficient to fully characterize and validate safe system performance. An approach to validating the performance of an artificial intelligence system using a simple artificial intelligence test case producer (AITCP is presented. The AITCP allows the creation and simulation of prospective operating scenarios at a rate far exceeding that possible by human testers. Four scenarios for testing an autonomous navigation control system are presented: single actor in two-dimensional space, multiple actors in two-dimensional space, single actor in three-dimensional space, and multiple actors in three-dimensional space. The utility of using the AITCP is compared to that of human testers in each of these scenarios.

  14. The Immune System: the ultimate fractionated cyber-physical system


    Carolyn Talcott


    In this little vision paper we analyze the human immune system from a computer science point of view with the aim of understanding the architecture and features that allow robust, effective behavior to emerge from local sensing and actions. We then recall the notion of fractionated cyber-physical systems, and compare and contrast this to the immune system. We conclude with some challenges.

  15. Artificial Pheromone System Using RFID for Navigation of Autonomous Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herianto; Toshiki Sakakibara; Daisuke Kurabayashi


    Navigation system based on the animal behavior has received a growing attention in the past few years. The navigation systems using artificial pheromone are still few so far. For this reason, this paper presents our research that aim to implement autonomous navigation with artificial pheromone system. By introducing artificial pheromone system composed of data carriers and autonomous robots, the robotic system creates a potential field to navigate their group. We have developed a pheromone density model to realize the function of pheromones with the help of data carriers. We intend to show the effectiveness of the proposed system by performing simulations and realization using modified mobile robot. The pheromone potential field system can be used for navigation of autonomous robots.

  16. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems. (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang


    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis.

  17. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdelhaq

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  18. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm. (United States)

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat


    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  19. Neural Control of the Immune System (United States)

    Sundman, Eva; Olofsson, Peder S.


    Neural reflexes support homeostasis by modulating the function of organ systems. Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed that neural reflexes also regulate the immune system. Activation of the vagus nerve modulates leukocyte cytokine production and alleviates experimental shock and autoimmune disease, and recent data have…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki


    Full Text Available The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to prepare investment strategies on the stock exchange market.

  1. Promiscuity and the primate immune system. (United States)

    Nunn, C L; Gittleman, J L; Antonovics, J


    The behavioral and ecological factors involved in immune system evolution remain poorly explored. We present a phylogenetic analysis of white blood cell counts in primates to test three hypotheses related to disease risk: increases in risk are expected with group size or population density, exposure to soil-borne pathogens, and mating promiscuity. White blood cell counts were significantly greater in species where females have more mating partners, indicating that the risk of sexually transmitted disease is likely to be a major factor leading to systematic differences in the primate immune system.

  2. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development. (United States)

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun


    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases.

  3. The immune system in the aging human. (United States)

    Rymkiewicz, Paulina Dominika; Heng, Yi Xiong; Vasudev, Anusha; Larbi, Anis


    With the improvement of medical care and hygienic conditions, there has been a tremendous increment in human lifespan. However, many of the elderly (>65 years) display chronic illnesses, and a majority requires frequent and longer hospitalization. The robustness of the immune system to eliminate or control infections is often eroded with advancing age. Nevertheless, some elderly individuals do cope better than others. The origin of these inter-individual differences may come from genetic, lifestyle conditions (nutrition, socio-economic parameters), as well as the type, number and recurrence of pathogens encountered during life. The theory we are supporting is that chronic infections, through life, will induce profound changes in the immune system probably due to unbalanced inflammatory profiles. Persistent viruses such a cytomegalovirus are not eliminated and are a driven force to immune exhaustion. Because of their age, elderly individuals may have seen more of these chronic stimulators and have experienced more reactivation episodes ultimately leading to shrinkage of their repertoire and overall immune robustness. This review integrates updates on immunity with advancing age and its impact on associated clinical conditions.

  4. Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems. (United States)

    Fu, Yulan; Tippets, Cary A; Donev, Eugenii U; Lopez, Rene


    Structural coloration has attracted great interest from scientists and engineers in recent years, owing to fascination with various brilliant examples displayed in nature as well as to promising applications of bio-inspired functional photonic structures and materials. Much research has been done to reveal and emulate the physical mechanisms that underlie the structural colors found in nature. In this article, we review the fundamental physics of many natural structural colors displayed by living organisms as well as their bio-inspired artificial counterparts, with emphasis on their connections, tunability strategies, and proposed applications, which aim to maximize the technological benefits one could derive from these photonic nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:758-775. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1396 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. Advanced solutions in power systems HVDC, facts, and artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chen-Ching; Edris, Abdel-Aty


    Provides insight on both classical means and new trends in the application of power electronic and artificial intelligence techniques in power system operation and control This book presents advanced solutions for power system controllability improvement, transmission capability enhancement and operation planning. The book is organized into three parts. The first part describes the CSC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC technologies, the second part presents the FACTS devices, and the third part refers to the artificial intelligence techniques. All technologies and tools approached in this book are essential for power system development to comply with the smart grid requirements.

  6. Obesity, inflammation and the immune system. (United States)

    de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión


    Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.

  7. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales es una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebra-dos mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposasas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos alternativos de inmunidad adaptativa, sugiere que en el transcurso de la evolución distintos grupos animales han encontrado soluciones alternativas al problema del reconocimiento inmunológico.The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests that during

  8. Optimization of thread partitioning parameters in speculative multithreading based on artificial immune algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xiang LI; Yin-liang ZHAO‡; Bin LIU; Shuo JI


    Thread partition plays an important role in speculative multithreading (SpMT) for automatic parallelization of ir-regular programs. Using unified values of partition parameters to partition different applications leads to the fact that every ap-plication cannot own its optimal partition scheme. In this paper, five parameters affecting thread partition are extracted from heuristic rules. They are the dependence threshold (DT), lower limit of thread size (TSL), upper limit of thread size (TSU), lower limit of spawning distance (SDL), and upper limit of spawning distance (SDU). Their ranges are determined in accordance with heuristic rules, and their step-sizes are set empirically. Under the condition of setting speedup as an objective function, all com-binations of five threshold values form the solution space, and our aim is to search for the best combination to obtain the best thread granularity, thread dependence, and spawning distance, so that every application has its best partition scheme. The issue can be attributed to a single objective optimization problem. We use the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to search for the optimal solution. On Prophet, which is a generic SpMT processor to evaluate the performance of multithreaded programs, Olden bench-marks are used to implement the process. Experiments show that we can obtain the optimal parameter values for every benchmark, and Olden benchmarks partitioned with the optimized parameter values deliver a performance improvement of 3.00%on a 4-core platform compared with a machine learning based approach, and 8.92%compared with a heuristics-based approach.

  9. [The liver and the immune system]. (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos


    The liver is known to be the metabolic centre of the organism and is under the control of the central nervous system. It has a peculiar tissue structure and its anatomic localisation defines it as part of the immune system having an individual role in the defence of the organism. The determinant of its particular tissue build-up is the sinusoid system. In addition to hepatocytes, one cell row "endothelium", stellate cells close to the external surface, Kupffer cells tightly to its inner surface, as well as dendritic cells and other cell types (T and B lymphocytes, natural killer and natural killer T-cells, mast cells, granulocytes) are present. The multitudes and variety of cells make it possible to carry out the tasks according to the assignment of the organism. The liver is a member of the immune system having immune cells largely in an activated state. Its principal tasks are the assurance of the peripheral immune tolerance of the organism with the help of the haemopoetic cells and transforming growth factor-β. The liver takes part in the determination of the manner of the non-specific immune response of the organism. In addition to acute phase reaction of the organism, the liver has a role in the adaptive/specific immune response. These functions include retardation of the T and B lymphocytes and the defence against harmful pathogens. With the collaboration of transforming growth factor-β, immunoglobulins and their subclasses are inhibited just as the response of the T lymphocytes. The only exception is the undisturbed immunoglobulin A production. Particularly important is the intensive participation of the liver in the acute phase reaction of the organism, which is organised and guided by the coordinated functions of the cortico-hypothalamo-hypophysis-adrenal axis. Beside cellular elements, hormones, adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokines are also involved in the cooperation with the organs. Acute phase reactants play a central role in these processes

  10. Design of Immune-Algorithm-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Controllers for Active Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to integrate the artificial immune systems and adaptive fuzzy control for the automobile suspension system, which is regarded as a multiobjective optimization problem. Moreover, the fuzzy control rules and membership controls are then introduced for identification and memorization. It leads fast convergence in the search process. Afterwards, by using the diversity of the antibody group, trapping into local optimum can be avoided, and the system possesses a global search capacity and a faster local search for finding a global optimal solution. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system with the recognition and memory functions allows the system to rapidly converge and search for the global optimal approximate solutions.

  11. Imitation of Life: Advanced system for native Artificial Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sperl, Thomas


    A model for artificial evolution in native x86 Windows systems has been developed at the end of 2010. In this text, further improvements and additional analogies to natural microbiologic processes are presented. Several experiments indicate the capability of the system - and raise the question of possible countermeasures.

  12. From network-to-antibody robustness in a bio-inspired immune system. (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Acosta, Gerardo G; Mayosky, Miguel A


    Behavioural robustness at antibody and immune network level is discussed. The robustness of the immune response that drives an autonomous mobile robot is examined with two computational experiments in the autonomous mobile robots trajectory generation context in unknown environments. The immune response is met based on the immune network metaphor for different low-level behaviours coordination. These behaviours are activated when a robot sense the appropriate conditions in the environment in relation to the network current state. Results are obtained over a case study in computer simulation as well as in laboratory experiments with a Khepera II microrobot. In this work, we develop a set of tests where such an immune response is externally perturbed at network or low-level behavioural modules to analyse the robust capacity of the system to unexpected perturbations. Emergence of robust behaviour and high-level immune response relates to the coupling between behavioural modules that are selectively engaged with the environment based on immune response. Experimental evidence leads discussions on a dynamical systems perspective of behavioural robustness in artificial immune systems that goes beyond the isolated immune network response.

  13. [Is the immune system our sixth sense? Relation between the immune and neuroendocrine systems]. (United States)

    Ferencík, M; Stvrtinová, V


    There is an overwhelming evidence that cytokines, peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as their receptors, are present in the brain, endocrine and immune systems. The structure and pattern of synthesis of these peptides by leukocytes appear similar to those synthesized in the neuroendocrine system, although some differences exist. Once secreted, these peptide hormones may function as endogenous regulators inside of the each system and also in bidirectional communication between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Such communication suggest an immunoregulatory role for the brain and a sensory function for the immune system which may sense stimuli that are not recognized by the central and peripheral nervous systems (noncognitive stimuli). The plasma hormone concentrations contributed by lymphocytes usually do not reach the levels required when the pituitary gland is the source, but because immune cells are mobile, they have the potential to deposit the hormone locally at the target site. Several immunoregulatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-gama and TNF are produced not only in the immune system but in the neuroendocrine system as well. They have profound effects on neuroendocrine functions especially on hypothalamic pituitary axes. Neuroendocrine influences that modulate the immune function mainly include mental and physical stress. It can reduce the resistance of organism to infectious diseases and malignancies by compromising the immune system directly or indirectly. The brain is not an immunologically privileged site and therefore may become the target of immunologic attacks resulting in neuroimmunological diseases with an autoimmune component. The impact of psychological and psychosocial factors on the immune system is studied by psychoneuroimmunology whereas neuroendocrine immunology is generally interested in the interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems under physiological and pathological conditions. The

  14. The immune system and skin cancer. (United States)

    Yu, Sherry H; Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Baron, Elma D


    Carcinogenesis involves multiple mechanisms that disturb genomic integrity and encourage abnormal proliferation. The immune system plays an integral role in maintaining homeostasis and these mechanisms may arrest or enhance dysplasia. There exists a large body of evidence from organ transplantation literature supporting the significance of the immune suppression in the development of skin cancer. Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most frequent neoplasms after organ transplantation, with organ transplant recipients having a 65-fold increase in squamous cell carcinoma incidence and 10-fold increase in basal cell carcinoma incidence. Similarly, UV-radiation (UVR) induced immunosuppression is correlated with the development of cutaneous malignancies in a dose-dependent manner. This was first shown several decades ago by Margaret Kripke, when transplanted tumors were rejected in mice with competent immune systems, but grew unchecked in immunosuppressed specimens. After UV exposure, chromophores initiate a cascade that leads to immunosuppression via derangement of Langerhans cells' antigen-presenting capacity. UV-irradiated Langerhans cells present antigens to Th2 cells, but fail to stimulate Th1 cells. A subset of T regulatory cells, specific for the antigen encountered after UVR, is also stimulated to proliferate. In general UV irradiation leads to a greater number of T regulatory cells and fewer effector T cells in the skin, shiftingthe balance from T-cell-mediated immunity to immunosuppression. These regulatory cells have the phenotype CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+, CTLA-4+. These and many other changes in local immunity lead to a suppressed immune state, which allow for skin cancer development.

  15. Malicious Code Execution Detection and Response Immune System inspired by the Danger Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Twycross, Jamie; Aickelin, Uwe


    The analysis of system calls is one method employed by anomaly detection systems to recognise malicious code execution. Similarities can be drawn between this process and the behaviour of certain cells belonging to the human immune system, and can be applied to construct an artificial immune system. A recently developed hypothesis in immunology, the Danger Theory, states that our immune system responds to the presence of intruders through sensing molecules belonging to those invaders, plus signals generated by the host indicating danger and damage. We propose the incorporation of this concept into a responsive intrusion detection system, where behavioural information of the system and running processes is combined with information regarding individual system calls.

  16. The immune system as the sixth sense. (United States)

    Blalock, J E


    One of the truly remarkable discoveries in modern biology is the finding that the nervous system and immune system use a common chemical language for intra- and inter-system communication. This review will discuss some of the pivotal results that deciphered this chemical language. Specifically the nervous and immune systems produce a common set of peptide and nonpeptide neurotransmitters and cytokines that act on a common repertoire of receptors in the two systems. The paper will also review more recent studies that have delineated hardwired and humoral pathways for such bidirectional communication. This is discussed in the context of the idea that the sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense that notifies the nervous system of the presence of entities, such as viruses and bacteria, that are imperceptible to the classic senses. Lastly, this review will suggest ways to apply the newfound knowledge of the sixth sense to understand a placebo effect and to treat human disease.

  17. Solving Systems of Equations with Techniques from Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Maria Terfaloaga


    Full Text Available A frequent problem in numerical analysis is solving the systems of equations. That problem has generated in time a great interest among mathematicians and computer scientists, as evidenced by the large number of numerical methods developed. Besides the classical numerical methods, in the last years were proposed methods inspired by techniques from artificial intelligence. Hybrid methods have been also proposed along the time [15, 19]. The goal of this study is to make a survey of methods inspired from artificial intelligence for solving systems of equations

  18. The Immune System: the ultimate fractionated cyber-physical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Talcott


    Full Text Available In this little vision paper we analyze the human immune system from a computer science point of view with the aim of understanding the architecture and features that allow robust, effective behavior to emerge from local sensing and actions. We then recall the notion of fractionated cyber-physical systems, and compare and contrast this to the immune system. We conclude with some challenges.

  19. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W


    cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation......Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...

  20. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System (United States)

    Karr, Charles L.


    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.

  1. Archaeal CRISPR-based immune systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, Roger A; Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Shah, Shiraz Ali


    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based immune systems are essentially modular with three primary functions: the excision and integration of new spacers, the processing of CRISPR transcripts to yield mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), and the targeting and cleavage...... of foreign nucleic acid. The primary target appears to be the DNA of foreign genetic elements, but the CRISPR/Cmr system that is widespread amongst archaea also specifically targets and cleaves RNA in vitro. The archaeal CRISPR systems tend to be both diverse and complex. Here we examine evidence...... of CRISPR loci and the evidence for intergenomic exchange of CRISPR systems....

  2. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System. (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau


    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system.

  3. An Artificial Intelligence-Based Distance Education System: Artimat (United States)

    Nabiyev, Vasif; Karal, Hasan; Arslan, Selahattin; Erumit, Ali Kursat; Cebi, Ayca


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed…

  4. Integrated Photobioelectrochemical Systems: A Paradigm Shift in Artificial Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Majumdar, Pavel; Pant, Deepak; Patra, Snehangshu


    Recent breakthroughs have reinvigorated the century-old research domain of artificial photosynthesis. Here, we highlight CO2-reducing and O2-liberating integrated photobioelectrochemical systems that contain novel enzymatic cathodes and photoanodes. These devices, which are completely self-driven by solar energy with unprecedented efficiency and stability, have important implications for biotechnological research communities.

  5. Pegylated polystyrene particles as a model system for artificial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Gessner, Andrea; Müller, Reiner H.; Feijen, Jan


    Pegylated polystyrene particles (PS-PEG) were prepared as a model system for artificial cells, by modification of carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) with homo- and hetero-bifunctional polyethylene glycols (PEG, MW 1500, 3400, and 5000) containing an amino end group for immobilization and an am

  6. Qualitative reasoning about physical systems: an artificial intelligence perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, J.L.; Akkermans, J.M.; Breedveld, P.C.


    Some interdisciplinary issues concerning artificial intelligence (AI) are explored in relation to modelling in physics and engineering. A short survey is given of automated qualitative reasoning about physical systems, which in recent years has become an active research area in AI, and has been part

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems. (United States)

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H


    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles.

  8. Grammatical Immune System Evolution for reverse engineering nonlinear dynamic Bayesian models. (United States)

    McKinney, B A; Tian, D


    An artificial immune system algorithm is introduced in which nonlinear dynamic models are evolved to fit time series of interacting biomolecules. This grammar-based machine learning method learns the structure and parameters of the underlying dynamic model. In silico immunogenetic mechanisms for the generation of model-structure diversity are implemented with the aid of a grammar, which also enforces semantic constraints of the evolved models. The grammar acts as a DNA repair polymerase that can identify recombination and hypermutation signals in the antibody (model) genome. These signals contain information interpretable by the grammar to maintain model context. Grammatical Immune System Evolution (GISE) is applied to a nonlinear system identification problem in which a generalized (nonlinear) dynamic Bayesian model is evolved to fit biologically motivated artificial time-series data. From experimental data, we use GISE to infer an improved kinetic model for the oxidative metabolism of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), the parent hormone of the estrogen metabolism pathway.

  9. A Native Intelligence Metric for Artificial Systems (United States)


    models of intelligence that will readily yield a NIM. Why not use linear systems theory as a model for a NIM? The successes of traditional linear...intelligence would be easily perceived by all. 1.5 The nature of a NIM Perhaps the solution is not in an analogy to linear systems theory , as has

  10. Artificial Intelligence Theory and Reconfigurable Control Systems. (United States)


    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol...AC-iS, No. 1, Feb 1970. 5. Sklansky, J., "Learning Systems for Automatic Control", IEEE = Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol...34A Gerfcale itellihoode Raio ,-. ~Aproc tohemesecio and Ca Suis nwEtimat eeion" (: Jump in-Linea & -,"Ŗ. Systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control ,

  11. Emergent Properties in Natural and Artificial Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz-Alaoui, M.A


    An important part of the science of complexity is the study of emergent properties arising through dynamical processes in various types of natural and artificial systems. This is the aim of this book, which is the outcome of a discussion meeting within the first European conference on complex systems. It presents multidisciplinary approaches for getting representations of complex systems and using different methods to extract emergent structures. This carefully edited book studies emergent features such as self organization, synchronization, opening on stability and robustness properties. Invariant techniques are presented which can express global emergent properties in dynamical and in temporal evolution systems. This book demonstrates how artificial systems such as a distributed platform can be used for simulation used to search emergent placement during simulation execution.

  12. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS - Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid Gutierrez Luis Fernando


    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales es una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebrados mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposasas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos alternativos de inmunidad adaptativa, sugiere que en el transcurso de la evolución distintos grupos animales han encontrado soluciones alternativas al problema del reconocimiento inmunológico. Palabras claves: Sistema inmune, evolución, VLR, Dscam, Alorreconocimiento ABSTRACT The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless

  13. Experimenting with Innate Immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie


    In a previous paper the authors argued the case for incorporating ideas from innate immunity into artificial immune systems (AISs) and presented an outline for a conceptual framework for such systems. A number of key general properties observed in the biological innate and adaptive immune systems were highlighted, and how such properties might be instantiated in artificial systems was discussed in detail. The next logical step is to take these ideas and build a software system with which AISs with these properties can be implemented and experimentally evaluated. This paper reports on the results of that step - the libtissue system.

  14. Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System (United States)

    Marques, Rafael Elias; Marques, Pedro Elias; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro Martins


    Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection. PMID:27065209

  15. Detector Design Considerations in High-Dimensional Artificial Immune Systems (United States)


    Sodemann and Lt Col Brett Borghetti, for their insightful support, teaching , and mentorship throughout the course of this research. Their experience and...The first half of Equation 3.34 is found by inserting 2 as the value of n in Equation 3.33. The second half of equation 3.34 is derived by using the KDD99 intrusion detection dataset by feature selection using a hybrid approach”. Telecommunications ( ICT ), 2010 IEEE 17th International

  16. Educational Game Systems in Artificial Intelligence Course (United States)

    Chubarkova, Elena V.; Sadchikov, Ilya A.; Suslova, Irina A.; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrey ?.; Milova, Larisa N.


    Article actuality based on fact that existing knowledge system aimed at future professional life of students: a skillful use game activity in educational process will teach students to look for alternative ways solving of real problems. The purpose of article lies in theoretical substantiation, development and testing of criteria, which must be…

  17. Control system for an artificial heart (United States)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.


    Inexpensive industrial pneumatic components are combined to produce control system to drive sac-type heart-assistance blood pump with controlled pulsatile pressure that makes pump rate of flow sensitive to venous /atrial/ pressure, while stroke is centered about set operating point and pump is synchronized with natural heart.

  18. Creativity and constraint in artificial systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijnen, S.


    Since the advent of computers and internet in everyday life, we are more than ever surrounded by systems that exhibit intelligent behavior. However, intelligent behavior doesn’t necessarily imply creativity: computers are often programmed to achieve specific results. When the results are not explici

  19. An Immune Inspired Approach to Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie


    The immune system provides a rich metaphor for computer security: anomaly detection that works in nature should work for machines. However, early artificial immune system approaches for computer security had only limited success. Arguably, this was due to these artificial systems being based on too simplistic a view of the immune system. We present here a second generation artificial immune system for process anomaly detection. It improves on earlier systems by having different artificial cell types that process information. Following detailed information about how to build such second generation systems, we find that communication between cells types is key to performance. Through realistic testing and validation we show that second generation artificial immune systems are capable of anomaly detection beyond generic system policies. The paper concludes with a discussion and outline of the next steps in this exciting area of computer security.

  20. Complement system part II: role in immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas S. Merle


    Full Text Available The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic system, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing a direct killing by C5b-9 membrane attack complex by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a and helps the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T- and B- lymphocytes. But it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Also examples will be discussed, where inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, C3 glomerulopathies (C3G and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Age related macular degeneration (AMD and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of diseases, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen


    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  2. Modelling Immune System: Principles, Models,Analysis and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-hua Li; Zheng-xuan Wang; Tian-yang Lu; Xiang-jiu Che


    The biological immune system is a complex adaptive system. There are lots of benefits for building the model of the immune system. For biological researchers, they can test some hypotheses about the infection process or simulate the responses of some drugs. For computer researchers, they can build distributed, robust and fault tolerant networks inspired by the functions of the immune system. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the literatures on modelling the immune system. From the methodology perspective, the paper compares and analyzes the existing approaches and models, and also demonstrates the focusing research effort on the future immune models in the next few years.

  3. Complement System Part II: Role in Immunity (United States)

    Merle, Nicolas S.; Noe, Remi; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.


    The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic cascade, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays, this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation, and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis) of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing opsonization and a direct killing by C5b–9 membrane attack complex and by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Opsonization plays also a major role in the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T-, and B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target. PMID:26074922

  4. Artificial and bioartificial support systems for acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Liu, Jianping; Als-Nielsen, Bodil;


    Artificial and bioartificial support systems may provide a "bridge" for patients with severe liver disease to recovery or transplantation.......Artificial and bioartificial support systems may provide a "bridge" for patients with severe liver disease to recovery or transplantation....

  5. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.


    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected


    It is well established that human diseases associated with abnormal immune function, including some common infectious diseases and asthma, are considerably more prevalent at younger ages. The immune system continues to mature after birth, and functional immaturity accounts for m...

  7. The Research on Artificial Olfaction System-Electronic Nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C W [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao (China); Wang, G D [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao (China)


    This paper has presented an artificial olfactory system, based on the structure and mechanism of biological olfactory system. The main goal of our study was to expound the principle of olfaction system of human body. It has complex structure model and of which structure and mechanism still under exploration. We built the model of sensory system mechanism, depicted the olfactory mechanism of the olfactory, and compared the different methods of pattern recognition. The result will show that the SOM method of pattern recognition accord by and large with human mode, and is better than the BP neural network.

  8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System. (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W


    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  9. Measuring the immune system: a comprehensive approach for the analysis of immune functions in humans. (United States)

    Claus, Maren; Dychus, Nicole; Ebel, Melanie; Damaschke, Jürgen; Maydych, Viktoriya; Wolf, Oliver T; Kleinsorge, Thomas; Watzl, Carsten


    The immune system is essential to provide protection from infections and cancer. Disturbances in immune function can therefore directly affect the health of the affected individual. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as exposure to chemicals, stress, nutrition and age have been reported to influence the immune system. These influences can affect various components of the immune system, and we are just beginning to understand the causalities of these changes. To investigate such disturbances, it is therefore essential to analyze the different components of the immune system in a comprehensive fashion. Here, we demonstrate such an approach which provides information about total number of leukocytes, detailed quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of lymphocyte subsets, cytokine levels in serum and functional properties of T cells, NK cells and monocytes. Using samples from a cohort of 24 healthy volunteers, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to detect changes in immune functions.

  10. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.


    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  11. Artificial intelligence and dynamic systems for geophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gvishiani, Alexei


    The book presents new clustering schemes, dynamical systems and pattern recognition algorithms in geophysical, geodynamical and natural hazard applications. The original mathematical technique is based on both classical and fuzzy sets models. Geophysical and natural hazard applications are mostly original. However, the artificial intelligence technique described in the book can be applied far beyond the limits of Earth science applications. The book is intended for research scientists, tutors, graduate students, scientists in geophysics and engineers

  12. Interactional Motivation in Artificial Systems: Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation


    Georgeon, Olivier; Marshall, James; Gay, Simon


    International audience; This paper introduces Interactional Motivation (IM) as a way to implement self-motivation in artificial systems. An interactionally motivated agent selects behaviors for the sake of enacting the behavior itself rather than for the value of the behavior’s outcome. IM contrasts with extrinsic motivation by the fact that it defines the agent’s motivation independently from the environment’s state. Because IM does not refer to the environment’s states, we argue that IM is ...

  13. Write 'systemic small RNAs': read 'systemic immunity'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifi Abdolabad, A.R.


    About 50 years ago, it was reported that pathogen-infected plants are less susceptible to a broad spectrum of the subsequent pathogen attacks. This form of induced resistance, which resembles the immunisation in mammalian cells, is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the last 10 years, pla

  14. Solving Complex Logistics Problems with Multi-Artificial Intelligent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Tse


    Full Text Available The economy, which has become more information intensive, more global and more technologically dependent, is undergoing dramatic changes. The role of logistics is also becoming more and more important. In logistics, the objective of service providers is to fulfill all customers? demands while adapting to the dynamic changes of logistics networks so as to achieve a higher degree of customer satisfaction and therefore a higher return on investment. In order to provide high quality service, knowledge and information sharing among departments becomes a must in this fast changing market environment. In particular, artificial intelligence (AI technologies have achieved significant attention for enhancing the agility of supply chain management, as well as logistics operations. In this research, a multi-artificial intelligence system, named Integrated Intelligent Logistics System (IILS is proposed. The objective of IILS is to provide quality logistics solutions to achieve high levels of service performance in the logistics industry. The new feature of this agile intelligence system is characterized by the incorporation of intelligence modules through the capabilities of the case-based reasoning, multi-agent, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, achieving the optimization of the performance of organizations.

  15. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena


    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  16. Theory and applications of artificial endocrine system-an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei; QIANG Sheng; GAO X Z


    Inspired by the biological endocrine system, the Artificial Endocrine System (AES) has been proposed and investigated during the past decade. As a novel branch of computational intelligence methods, it has its unique and distinguishing features. This paper intends to give an overview of the current research work in the AES. The preliminary theory of the AES, which is based on the simplified mathematic models of natural endocrine system, is first introduced here. Some typical AES algorithms and their applications are also briefly discussed. Finally, a few remarks and conclusions are made.

  17. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system. (United States)

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu


    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  18. The Immune System in Cancer Prevention, Development and Therapy. (United States)

    Candeias, Serge M; Gaipl, Udo S


    The immune system plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the integrity of an organism. Besides the protection against pathogens, it is strongly involved in cancer prevention, development and defense. This review focuses on how the immune system protects against infections and trauma and on its role in cancer development and disease. Focus is set on the interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system and tumors. The role of IFN-γ as a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a very important role at the interface of innate and adaptive immune systems in tumor development and induction of anti-tumor immune responses is outlined. Further, immune cells as prognostic and predictive markers of cancer will be discussed. Data are provided that even the brain as immune privileged organ is subjected to immune surveillance and consequently also brain tumors. Immune therapeutic approaches for glioblastoma multiforme, the most frequent and malignant brain tumor, based on vaccination with dendritic cells are outlined and application of hyperthermia in form of magnetic nanoparticles is discussed. We conclude that the immune system and developing tumors are intimately intertwined. Anti-tumor immune responses can be prominently boosted by multimodal therapies aiming on the one hand to induce immunogenic tumor cell death forms and on the other hand to actively counteract the immune suppressive microenvironment based on the tumor itself.

  19. Cross-talk between probiotic lactobacilli and host immune system. (United States)

    Kemgang, T S; Kapila, S; Shanmugam, V P; Kapila, R


    The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is a multicompartmental system, each strain has its way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarizes the interplay existing between the host immune system and probiotic lactobacilli, that is, with emphasis on lactobacilli as a prototype probiotic genus. Several aspects including the bacterial-host cross-talk with the mucosal and systemic immune system are presented, as well as short sections on the competing effect towards pathogenic bacteria and their uses as delivery vehicle for antigens.

  20. Interactions of lactobacilli with the host immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, M.


    The aim of this thesis was to better understand the molecular mechanism of host res-ponses to probiotics. Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate immune responses in epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial effects on the immune system. Carefully selected

  1. Simulation of Artificial Intelligence for Automotive Air-conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiao-mei; CHEN You-hua; CHEN Zhi-jiu


    The artificial intelligence is applied to the simulation of the automotive air-conditioning system ( AACS )According to the system's characteristics a model of AACS, based on neural network, is developed. Different control methods of AACS are discussed through simulation based on this model. The result shows that the neural- fuzzy control is the best one compared with the on-off control and conventional fuzzy control method.It can make the compartment's temperature descend rapidly to the designed temperature and the fluctuation is small.

  2. PRONET: Basic concepts of a system of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasai


    Full Text Available In the work are expounded the principles and basic elements of a system of artificial intelligence. Knowledge representation develops according to the method settled for processing. A thing, a phenomenon can be determined or established by more modules subject to their state as well as the links and relations between them. The system creates a set of blocks (modules for which the concurrent work is pre- established. The volume of knowledge can be also increased without increasing the number of blocks.

  3. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.


    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  4. Intercellular Communication in the Adaptive Immune System (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup


    Higher organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that can respond to pathogens that have not been encountered before. T lymphocytes (T cells) are the orchestrators of the adaptive immune response. They interact with cells, called antigen presenting cells (APC), that display molecular signatures of pathogens. Recently, video microscopy experiments have revealed that when T cells detect antigen on APC surfaces, a spatially patterned supramolecular assembly of different types of molecules forms in the junction between cell membranes. This recognition motif is implicated in information transfer between APC and T cells, and so, is labeled the immunological synapse. The observation of synapse formation sparked two broad questions: How does the synapse form? Why does the synapse form? I will describe progress made in answering these fundamental questions in biology by synergistic use of statistical mechanical theory/computation, chemical engineering principles, and genetic and biochemical experiments. The talk will also touch upon mechanisms that may underlie the extreme sensitivity with which T cells discriminate between self and non-self.

  5. Immunizing digital systems against electromagnetic interference (United States)

    Ewing, P. D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria applicable to the immunization of digital systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI). The work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed as a result of the application of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic level voltages, thereby leading to potentially greater susceptibility of spurious interference being misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria to apply to these digital systems centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and thereby their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Secondly, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related instrumentation problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced.

  6. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems. (United States)

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark


    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels.

  7. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new? (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego


    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment.

  8. Scale-free dynamics of somatic adaptability in immune system

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Shiro


    The long-time dynamics of somatic adaptability in immune system is simulated by a simple physical model. The immune system described by the model exhibits a scale free behavior as is observed in living systems. The balance between the positive and negative feedbacks of the model leads to a robust immune system where the positive one corresponds to the formation of memory cells and the negative one to immunosuppression. Also the immunosenescence of the system is discussed based on the time-dependence of the epigenetic landscape of the adaptive immune cells in the shape space.

  9. Characterization of nonlinear dynamic systems using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina, A. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Hunter, N.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Engineering Science and Analysis Div.; Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.


    The efficient characterization of nonlinear systems is an important goal of vibration and model testing. The authors build a nonlinear system model based on the acceleration time series response of a single input, multiple output system. A series of local linear models are used as a template to train artificial neutral networks (ANNs). The trained ANNs map measured time series responses into states of a nonlinear system. Another NN propagates response states in time, and a third ANN inverts the original map, transforming states into acceleration predictions in the measurement domain. The technique is illustrated using a nonlinear oscillator, in which quadratic and cubic stiffness terms play a major part in the system`s response. Reasonable maps are obtained for the states, and accurate, long-term response predictions are made for data outside the training data set.

  10. Innate immune cells in the pathogenesis of primary systemic vasculitis. (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Agarwal, Vikas


    Innate immune system forms the first line of defense against foreign substances. Neutrophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, γδ T cells, natural killer and natural killer T cells comprise the innate immune system. Genetic polymorphisms influencing the activation of innate immune cells predispose to development of vasculitis and influence its severity. Abnormally activated innate immune cells cross-talk with other cells of the innate immune system, present antigens more efficiently and activate T and B lymphocytes and cause tissue destruction via cell-mediated cytotoxicity and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines further recruit other cells to the sites of vascular injury. They are involved in both the initiation as well as the perpetuation of vasculitis. Evidences suggest reversal of aberrant activation of immune cells in response to therapy. Understanding the role of innate immune cells in vasculitis helps understand the potential of therapeutic modulation of their activation to treat vasculitis.

  11. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.


    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  12. [Understanding of immune system by visualization of spatiotemporal regulation of immune cells in the entire body]. (United States)

    Tomura, Michio


    Immune system is high-dimensional integrated system distributed in the whole body. Many kinds of, total 10(11) of immune cells are regulated by receiving appropriate signals in appropriate places. We have been attempting to understand immune system by revealing spatiotemporal regulation of immune cells at the whole body level by "Visualization of immune response in vivo". Photoconvertible protein, "Kaede"-Tg mice allowed us to monitor cell-replacement and cell-movement in the whole body by marking cells with color of Kaede from green to red with exposure to violet light. It is applicable to small cell number populations in both lymphoid organs and also peripheral tissues under both normal and pathophysiological conditions. By using this system, we have demonstrated novel findings that "Naive CD4(+) T cell recirculation is an active process that they recirculate through lymphoid organs to seek limited niche for interacting with endogenous antigens and upregulate their function." and "Activated regulatory T cells emigrating from cutaneous immune response is responsible for termination of immune reponse." I will introduce these new tools of us and would like to discuss what is needed to understand immune system in the entire body.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasif NABIYEV


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called as ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed with 4 teachers and 59 students in 10th grade in an Anatolian High School in Trabzon. Many institutions and organizations in the world approach seriously to distance education besides traditional education. It is inevitable to use the distance education in teaching the problem solving skills in this different dimension of the education. In the studies in Turkey and abroad in the field of mathematics teaching, problem solving skills are generally stated not to be at the desired level and often expressed to have difficulty in teaching. For this reason, difficulties of the students in problem solving have initially been evaluated and the system has been prepared utilizing artificial intelligence algorithms according to the obtained results. In the evaluation of the findings obtained from the application, it has been concluded that the system is responsive to the needs of the students and is successful in general, but that conceptual changes should be made in order that students adapt to the system quickly.

  14. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision. (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A


    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  15. Mass Cytometry of the Human Mucosal Immune System Identifies Tissue- and Disease-Associated Immune Subsets. (United States)

    van Unen, Vincent; Li, Na; Molendijk, Ilse; Temurhan, Mine; Höllt, Thomas; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Verspaget, Hein W; Mearin, M Luisa; Mulder, Chris J; van Bergen, Jeroen; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Koning, Frits


    Inflammatory intestinal diseases are characterized by abnormal immune responses and affect distinct locations of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the role of several immune subsets in driving intestinal pathology has been studied, a system-wide approach that simultaneously interrogates all major lineages on a single-cell basis is lacking. We used high-dimensional mass cytometry to generate a system-wide view of the human mucosal immune system in health and disease. We distinguished 142 immune subsets and through computational applications found distinct immune subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal biopsies that distinguished patients from controls. In addition, mucosal lymphoid malignancies were readily detected as well as precursors from which these likely derived. These findings indicate that an integrated high-dimensional analysis of the entire immune system can identify immune subsets associated with the pathogenesis of complex intestinal disorders. This might have implications for diagnostic procedures, immune-monitoring, and treatment of intestinal diseases and mucosal malignancies.

  16. Evolution and age characteristics of the innate and adaptive immune system


    ABATUROV A.E.; Agafonova, E. A.; Abaturova, N.I.; Babich, V. L.


    The article describes the basic principles of the immune systems' function. Its given notions of organs and cells of the immune system, especially native and adaptive immunity. The article presents the evolution of age-related features of the immune response.Key words: immunity, native immunity, adaptive immunity.

  17. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N


    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called self objectives supposed to lead to autonomic computing. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an object oriented paradigm architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  18. [Psychoneuroimmunology--regulation of immunity at the systemic level]. (United States)

    Boranić, Milivoj; Sabioncello, Ante; Gabrilovac, Jelka


    Innate and acquired immune reactions are controlled by their intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, ie. by an array of cytokines that mediate communication among cells of the immune system itself and with other cells and tissues, e. g. in areas of inflammation. In addition, the immune system is also subjected to systemic regulation by the vegetative and endocrine systems since immune cells express receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones. Neuroendocrine signals may enhance or suppress the immune reaction, accelerate or slow it, but do not affect specificity. Various stressful factors, including the psychosocial ones, affect immunity. In turn, cytokines generated by the immune system influence hormonal secretion and central nervous system, producing specific behavioral changes (the "sickness behavior") accompanying infectious and inflammatory diseases. That includes somnolence, loss of apetite, depression or anxiety and decrease of cognitive abilities, attention and memory. Local immune systems in skin and mucosa are also subjected to systemic neuroendocrine regulation and possess intrinsic neuroregulatory networks as well. These mechanisms render skin and respiratory and digestive tracts responsive to various forms of stress. Examples are neurodermitis, asthma and ulcerative colitis. In children, the immune and the neuroendocrine systems are still developing, particularly in fetal, neonatal and early infant periods, and exposure to stressful experiences at that time may result in late consequences in the form of deficient immunity or greater risks for allergic or autoimmune reactions. Recognition of the participation of neuroendocrine mechanisms in regulation of immunity helps us understand alterations and disturbances of immune reactions under the influence of stressful factors but so far has not produced reliable therapeutic implications. Psychosocial interventions involving the child and its family may be useful.

  19. Artificial immune models and algorithms for intrusion detection%面向入侵检测的人工免疫模型和算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The rapid development of Internet brings about not only the convenience of people work,live,contact,but also some security risks,including personal privacy,trade secret and even national security. Therefore,the current network security environment is an issue that people are concerned. Because the continuous development of social economy has led to a number of reform and innovation of science and technology,the security technologies of network immune system have achieved an un-precedented qualitative leap. The artificial immune system is one of them. The security problems existing in Internet are re-searched in this paper. An improved intrusion detection program based on the existing artificial immune system is proposed to en-hance the security of the Internet,to ensure the people surfing the Internetin in Internet Security environment,and prevent hackers to intrude into the network by using viruses.%互联网的发展既给人们的工作、生活、交际等带来了便利,同时也带来了一定的安全隐患,其中就包括个人隐私、商业秘密甚至国家安全等问题。因此,当前的网络安全环境是人们所关心的问题,由于社会经济的不断发展带动了多项科学技术的改革创新,网络免疫系统安全技术发展得到了前所未有的一个质跃性发展,人工免疫系统就是其中一项关键技术。针对目前互联网中存在的安全问题进行研究,现有人工免疫系统为基础提出一种改进后的入侵检测方案,旨在提升我国互联网的安全性,保障人们在上网过程中时刻处于安全的环境中,防止黑客利用病毒侵入受保护网络。

  20. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system. (United States)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert


    literature ɛN values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

  1. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia


    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  2. Invited essay: Cognitive influences on the psychological immune system. (United States)

    Rachman, S J


    The construct of the psychological immune system is described and analysed. The direct and indirect cognitive influences on the system are discussed, and the implications of adding a cognitive construal to the influential model of a behavioural immune system are considered. The psychological immune system has two main properties: defensive and healing. It encompasses a good amount of health-related phenomena that is outside the scope of the behavioural model or the biological immune system. Evidence pertaining to the psychological immune system includes meta-analyses of the associations between psychological variables such as positive affect/wellbeing and diseases and mortality, and associations between wellbeing and positive health. The results of long-term prospective studies are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the meta-analyses. Laboratory investigations of the effects of psychological variables on the biological immune system show that negative affect can slow wound-healing, and positive affect can enhance resistance to infections, for example in experiments involving the introduction of the rhinovirus and the influenza A virus. A number of problems concerning the assessment of the functioning of the psychological immune system are considered, and the need to develop techniques for determining when the system is active or not, is emphasized. This problem is particularly challenging when trying to assess the effects of the psychological immune system during a prolonged psychological intervention, such as a course of resilience training.

  3. Role of the immune system in pancreatic cancer progression and immune modulating treatment strategies. (United States)

    Sideras, K; Braat, H; Kwekkeboom, J; van Eijck, C H; Peppelenbosch, M P; Sleijfer, S; Bruno, M


    Traditional chemotherapeutics have largely failed to date to produce significant improvements in pancreatic cancer survival. One of the reasons for the resilience of pancreatic cancer towards intensive treatment is that the cancer is capable of high jacking the immune system: during disease progression the immune system is converted from a system that attacks tumor cells into a support structure for the cancer, exerting trophic actions on the cancer cells. This turn-around of immune system action is achieved through mobilization and activation of regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, all of which suppress CD8 T cells and NK cells. This immune suppression occurs both through the expression of tolerance-inducing cell surface molecules, such as PD-L1, as well as through the production of "tolerogenic" cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. Based on the accumulating insight into the importance of the immune system for the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients multiple new immunotherapeutic approaches against pancreatic cancer are being currently tested in clinical trials. In this review we give an overview of both the immune escaping mechanisms of pancreatic cancer as well as the new immune related therapeutic strategies currently being tested in pancreatic cancer clinical trials.

  4. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network (United States)

    Patyra, Marek J.


    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  5. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai


    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  6. Psychoneuroimmunology--cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems. (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kern, Simone


    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively new field of study that investigates interactions between behaviour and the immune system, mediated by the endocrine and nervous systems. The immune and central nervous system (CNS) maintain extensive communication. On the one hand, the brain modulates the immune system by hardwiring sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves (autonomic nervous system) to lymphoid organs. On the other hand, neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing hormone or substance P regulate cytokine balance. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and immune system-mediated disease.

  7. Mapping the effects of drugs on the immune system. (United States)

    Kidd, Brian A; Wroblewska, Aleksandra; Boland, Mary R; Agudo, Judith; Merad, Miriam; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Brown, Brian D; Dudley, Joel T


    Understanding how drugs affect the immune system has consequences for treating disease and minimizing unwanted side effects. Here we present an integrative computational approach for predicting interactions between drugs and immune cells in a system-wide manner. The approach matches gene sets between transcriptional signatures to determine their similarity. We apply the method to model the interactions between 1,309 drugs and 221 immune cell types and predict 69,995 interactions. The resulting immune-cell pharmacology map is used to predict how five drugs influence four immune cell types in humans and mice. To validate the predictions, we analyzed patient records and examined cell population changes from in vivo experiments. Our method offers a tool for screening thousands of interactions to identify relationships between drugs and the immune system.

  8. The immune system: a new look at pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-hua; HUANG Yu-guang


    Objective To review the relationship between the immune system and the mechanism of pain.Data sources Related researches published in the period of 1987-2005 were systematically reviewed.Study selection Articles about the immune system and pain were selected.Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 74 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Pain was classically viewed as being mediated solely by neurons. However, growing evidence has showed the possible relationships between the immune system and the central nervous system. In this article, we reviewed the role of the immune system in the development of pain, together with the importance of the glia in this process. These findings suggest a novel approach to pain control in the future.Conclusions The immune system plays a potential but important role in the development of pain.

  9. Continuous Dual Resetting of the Immune Repertoire as a Basic Principle of the Immune System Function (United States)


    Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC) such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR) of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity. The CDR functions as a consequence of system's thermodynamically determined intrinsic tendency to acquire new states of inner equilibrium and equilibrium against the environment. Consequently, immune repertoire undergoes continuous dual (two-way) resetting: against the physiologic continuous changes of self and against the continuously changing environment. The CDR-based dynamic concept of immunity describes mechanisms of self-regulation, tolerance, and immunosenescence, and emphasizes the significance of immune system's compartmentalization in the pathogenesis of ICIC. The CDR concept's relative simplicity and concomitantly documented congruency with empirical, clinical, and experimental data suggest it may represent a plausible theoretical framework to better understand the human immune system function. PMID:28246613

  10. The University Immune System: Overcoming Resistance to Change (United States)

    Gilley, Ann; Godek, Marisha; Gilley, Jerry W.


    A university, similar to any other organization, has an immune system that erects a powerful barrier against change. This article discusses the university immune system and what can be done to counteract its negative effects and thereby allow change to occur.

  11. Breakdown of the innate immune system by bacterial proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarman, A.J.


    Bacteria have developed many strategies to circumvent our immune system to survive and colonize human tissues. One of these strategies is by secreting proteases that specifically target the innate immune system. Aureolysin is a metalloprotease from Staphylococcus aureus which target the main compone

  12. The reaction of the immune system of fish to vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, C.H.J.


    The studies presented in this thesis deal with the effect of bacterial antigens of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonashydrophila on the immune system of carp. The antigens were administered by injection or by bath treatment. The effect on the immune system was studied by measuring the numbers of antibody

  13. Immune system responses and fitness costs associated with consumption of bacteria in larvae of Trichoplusia ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel David G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects helped pioneer, and persist as model organisms for, the study of specific aspects of immunity. Although they lack an adaptive immune system, insects possess an innate immune system that recognizes and destroys intruding microorganisms. Its operation under natural conditions has not been well studied, as most studies have introduced microbes to laboratory-reared insects via artificial mechanical wounding. One of the most common routes of natural exposure and infection, however, is via food; thus, the role of dietary microbial communities in herbivorous insect immune system evolution invites study. Here, we examine the immune system response and consequences of exposing a lepidopteran agricultural pest to non-infectious microorganisms via simple oral consumption. Results Immune system response was compared between Trichoplusia ni larvae reared on diets with or without non-pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. Two major immune response-related enzymatic activities responded to diets differently – phenoloxidase activity was inhibited in the bacteria-fed larvae, whereas general antibacterial activity was enhanced. Eight proteins were highly expressed in the hemolymph of the bacteria fed larvae, among them immune response related proteins arylphorin, apolipophorin III and gloverin. Expression response among 25 putative immune response-related genes were assayed via RT-qPCR. Seven showed more than fivefold up regulation in the presence of bacterial diet, with 22 in total being differentially expressed, among them apolipophorin III, cecropin, gallerimycin, gloverin, lysozyme, and phenoloxidase inhibiting enzyme. Finally, potential life-history trade-offs were studied, with pupation time and pupal mass being negatively affected in bacteria fed larvae. Conclusion The presence of bacteria in food, even if non-pathogenic, can trigger an immune response cascade with life history tradeoffs. Trichoplusia ni

  14. Fuzzy-Immune PID Control for AMB Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yixin; LI Xuan; ZHOU Zude; CHEN Youping; ZHANG Danhong


    In order to improve the dynamic performance of active magnetic bearing systems with highly nonlinear and naturally unstable dynamics, a new nonlinear fuzzy-immune proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is proposed by combining the immune feedback law with linear PID control. This controller consists of a PID controller and a basic immune proportional controller in cascaded connection, the nonlinear function of the immune proportional controller is realized by using fuzzy reasoning. Simulation results demonstrate that the active magnetic bearing system with the proposed controller has better dynamic performance and disturbance rejection ability than using the linear PID controller.

  15. Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems (United States)

    Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.


    Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

  16. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults. (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng


    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  17. Artificial intelligence methods in deregulated power systems operations (United States)

    Ilic, Jovan

    With the introduction of the power systems deregulation, many classical power transmission and distribution optimization tools became inadequate. Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment are common computer programs used in the regulated power industry. This work is addressing the Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment in the new deregulated environment. Optimal Power Flow is a high dimensional, non-linear, and non-convex optimization problem. As such, it is even now, after forty years since its introduction, a research topic without a widely accepted solution able to encompass all areas of interest. Unit Commitment is a high dimensional, combinatorial problem which should ideally include the Optimal Power Flow in its solution. The dimensionality of a typical Unit Commitment problem is so great that even the enumeration of all the combinations would take too much time for any practical purposes. This dissertation attacks the Optimal Power Flow problem using non-traditional tools from the Artificial Intelligence arena. Artificial Intelligence optimization methods are based on stochastic principles. Usually, stochastic optimization methods are successful where all other classical approaches fail. We will use Genetic Programming optimization for both Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment. Long processing times will also be addressed through supervised machine learning.

  18. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Saeed Sharif


    Full Text Available Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs, as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  19. Cancer immunoediting by the innate immune system in the absence of adaptive immunity. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy; Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Vermi, William; Koebel, Catherine M; Arthur, Cora; White, J Michael; Uppaluri, Ravi; Andrews, Daniel M; Ngiow, Shin Foong; Teng, Michele W L; Smyth, Mark J; Schreiber, Robert D; Bui, Jack D


    Cancer immunoediting is the process whereby immune cells protect against cancer formation by sculpting the immunogenicity of developing tumors. Although the full process depends on innate and adaptive immunity, it remains unclear whether innate immunity alone is capable of immunoediting. To determine whether the innate immune system can edit tumor cells in the absence of adaptive immunity, we compared the incidence and immunogenicity of 3'methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in syngeneic wild-type, RAG2(-/-), and RAG2(-/-)x γc(-/-) mice. We found that innate immune cells could manifest cancer immunoediting activity in the absence of adaptive immunity. This activity required natural killer (NK) cells and interferon γ (IFN-γ), which mediated the induction of M1 macrophages. M1 macrophages could be elicited by administration of CD40 agonists, thereby restoring editing activity in RAG2(-/-)x γc(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that in the absence of adaptive immunity, NK cell production of IFN-γ induces M1 macrophages, which act as important effectors during cancer immunoediting.

  20. Vitamin D and the Immune System


    Aranow, Cynthia


    It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles in addition to its classic effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. As the vitamin D receptor is expressed on immune cells (B cells, T cells and antigen presenting cells) and these immunologic cells are all are capable of synthesizing the active vitamin D metabolite, vitamin D has the capability of acting in an autocrine manner in a local immunologic milieu. Vitamin D can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses. Deficiency in vitami...

  1. Autopolyreactivity Confers a Holistic Role in the Immune System. (United States)

    Avrameas, S


    In this review, we summarize and discuss some key findings from the study of naturally occurring autoantibodies. The B-cell compartment of the immune system appears to recognize almost all endogenous and environmental antigens. This ability is accomplished principally through autopolyreactive humoral and cellular immune receptors. This extended autopolyreactivity (1) along immunoglobulin gene recombination contributes to the immune system's ability to recognize a very large number of self and non-self constituents; and (2) generates a vast immune network that creates communication channels between the organism's interior and exterior. Thus, the immune system continuously evolves depending on the internal and external stimuli it encounters. Furthermore, this far-reaching network's existence implies activities resembling those of classical biological factors or activities that modulate the function of other classical biological factors. A few such antibodies have already been found. Another important concept is that natural autoantibodies are highly dependent on the presence or absence of commensal microbes in the organism. These results are in line with past and recent findings showing the fundamental influence of the microbiota on proper immune system development, and necessitate the existence of a host-microbe homeostasis. This homeostasis requires that the participating humoral and cellular receptors are able to recognize self-antigens and commensal microbes without damaging them. Autopolyreactive immune receptors expressing low affinity for both types of antigens fulfil this role. The immune system appears to play a holistic role similar to that of the nervous system.

  2. The immune system and inflammation in breast cancer. (United States)

    Jiang, Xinguo; Shapiro, David J


    During different stages of tumor development the immune system can either identify and destroy tumors, or promote their growth. Therapies targeting the immune system have emerged as a promising treatment modality for breast cancer, and immunotherapeutic strategies are being examined in preclinical and clinical models. However, our understanding of the complex interplay between cells of the immune system and breast cancer cells is incomplete. In this article, we review recent findings showing how the immune system plays dual host-protective and tumor-promoting roles in breast cancer initiation and progression. We then discuss estrogen receptor α (ERα)-dependent and ERα-independent mechanisms that shield breast cancers from immunosurveillance and enable breast cancer cells to evade immune cell induced apoptosis and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Finally, we discuss protumorigenic inflammation that is induced during tumor progression and therapy, and how inflammation promotes more aggressive phenotypes in ERα positive breast cancers.

  3. Recognition of bacterial plant pathogens: local, systemic and transgenerational immunity. (United States)

    Henry, Elizabeth; Yadeta, Koste A; Coaker, Gitta


    Bacterial pathogens can cause multiple plant diseases and plants rely on their innate immune system to recognize and actively respond to these microbes. The plant innate immune system comprises extracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial patterns and intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize specific bacterial effectors delivered into host cells. Plants lack the adaptive immune branch present in animals, but still afford flexibility to pathogen attack through systemic and transgenerational resistance. Here, we focus on current research in plant immune responses against bacterial pathogens. Recent studies shed light onto the activation and inactivation of pattern recognition receptors and systemic acquired resistance. New research has also uncovered additional layers of complexity surrounding NLR immune receptor activation, cooperation and sub-cellular localizations. Taken together, these recent advances bring us closer to understanding the web of molecular interactions responsible for coordinating defense responses and ultimately resistance.

  4. Continuous Dual Resetting of the Immune Repertoire as a Basic Principle of the Immune System Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Balzar


    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity. The CDR functions as a consequence of system’s thermodynamically determined intrinsic tendency to acquire new states of inner equilibrium and equilibrium against the environment. Consequently, immune repertoire undergoes continuous dual (two-way resetting: against the physiologic continuous changes of self and against the continuously changing environment. The CDR-based dynamic concept of immunity describes mechanisms of self-regulation, tolerance, and immunosenescence, and emphasizes the significance of immune system’s compartmentalization in the pathogenesis of ICIC. The CDR concept’s relative simplicity and concomitantly documented congruency with empirical, clinical, and experimental data suggest it may represent a plausible theoretical framework to better understand the human immune system function.

  5. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV.


    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  6. New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis. (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S


    Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic disorders in antifungal immune factors that are associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to the infection have provided new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of protective innate immune responses against Candida. In this review, the new developments in our understanding of how the mammalian immune system responds to systemic Candida challenge are synthesized and important future research directions are highlighted.

  7. Visual system based on artificial retina for motion detection. (United States)

    Barranco, Francisco; Díaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo; del Pino, Begoña


    We present a bioinspired model for detecting spatiotemporal features based on artificial retina response models. Event-driven processing is implemented using four kinds of cells encoding image contrast and temporal information. We have evaluated how the accuracy of motion processing depends on local contrast by using a multiscale and rank-order coding scheme to select the most important cues from retinal inputs. We have also developed some alternatives by integrating temporal feature results and obtained a new improved bioinspired matching algorithm with high stability, low error and low cost. Finally, we define a dynamic and versatile multimodal attention operator with which the system is driven to focus on different target features such as motion, colors, and textures.

  8. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system. (United States)

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R


    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  9. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  10. Nociception and role of immune system in pain. (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Ahmed, Ahad S


    Both pain and inflammation are protective responses. However, these self-limiting conditions (with well-established negative feedback loops) become pathological if left uncontrolled. Both pain and inflammation can interact with each other in a multi-dimensional manner. These interactions are known to create an array of 'difficult to manage' pathologies. This review explains in detail the role of immune system and the related cells in peripheral sensitization and neurogenic inflammation. Various neuro-immune interactions are analyzed at peripheral, sensory and central nervous system levels. Innate immunity plays a critical role in central sensitization and in establishing acute pain as chronic condition. Moreover, inflammatory mediators also exhibit psychological effects, thus contributing towards the emotional elements associated with pain. However, there is also a considerable anti-inflammatory and analgesic role of immune system. This review also attempts to enlist various novel pharmacological approaches that exhibit their actions through modification of neuro-immune interface.

  11. Land Use Allocation Based on a Multi-Objective Artificial Immune Optimization Model: An Application in Anlu County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoya Ma


    Full Text Available As the main feature of land use planning, land use allocation (LUA optimization is an important means of creating a balance between the land-use supply and demand in a region and promoting the sustainable utilization of land resources. In essence, LUA optimization is a multi-objective optimization problem under the land use supply and demand constraints in a region. In order to obtain a better sustainable multi-objective LUA optimization solution, the present study proposes a LUA model based on the multi-objective artificial immune optimization algorithm (MOAIM-LUA model. The main achievements of the present study are as follows: (a the land-use supply and demand factors are analyzed and the constraint conditions of LUA optimization problems are constructed based on the analysis framework of the balance between the land use supply and demand; (b the optimization objectives of LUA optimization problems are defined and modeled using ecosystem service value theory and land rent and price theory; and (c a multi-objective optimization algorithm is designed for solving multi-objective LUA optimization problems based on the novel immune clonal algorithm (NICA. On the basis of the aforementioned achievements, MOAIM-LUA was applied to a real case study of land-use planning in Anlu County, China. Compared to the current land use situation in Anlu County, optimized LUA solutions offer improvements in the social and ecological objective areas. Compared to the existing models, such as the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, experimental results demonstrate that the model designed in the present study can obtain better non-dominated solution sets and is superior in terms of algorithm stability.

  12. Automatic Emboli Detection System for the Artificial Heart (United States)

    Steifer, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Karwat, P.; Gawlikowski, M.

    In spite of the progress in material engineering and ventricular assist devices construction, thromboembolism remains the most crucial problem in mechanical heart supporting systems. Therefore, the ability to monitor the patient's blood for clot formation should be considered an important factor in development of heart supporting systems. The well-known methods for automatic embolus detection are based on the monitoring of the ultrasound Doppler signal. A working system utilizing ultrasound Doppler is being developed for the purpose of flow estimation and emboli detection in the clinical artificial heart ReligaHeart EXT. Thesystem will be based on the existing dual channel multi-gate Doppler device with RF digital processing. A specially developed clamp-on cannula probe, equipped with 2 - 4 MHz piezoceramic transducers, enables easy system setup. We present the issuesrelated to the development of automatic emboli detection via Doppler measurements. We consider several algorithms for the flow estimation and emboli detection. We discuss their efficiency and confront them with the requirements of our experimental setup. Theoretical considerations are then met with preliminary experimental findings from a) flow studies with blood mimicking fluid and b) in-vitro flow studies with animal blood. Finally, we discuss some more methodological issues - we consider several possible approaches to the problem of verification of the accuracy of the detection system.

  13. A cognitive computational model inspired by the immune system response. (United States)

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim


    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective.

  14. Immune System Dysregulation in First-Onset Postpartum Psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Veerle; Burgerhout, Karin M.; Weigelt, Karin; Pop, Victor J.; de Wit, Harm; Drexhage, Roos C.; Kushner, Steven A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.


    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of the immune system represents an important vulnerability factor for mood disorders. Postpartum psychosis (PP) is a severe mood disorder occurring within 4 weeks after delivery, a period of heightened immune responsiveness and an altered

  15. Evolution of innate and adaptive immune systems in jawless vertebrates. (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Jun


    Because jawless vertebrates are the most primitive vertebrates, they have been studied to gain understanding of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. Jawless vertebrates have developed lymphocyte-like cells that morphologically resemble the T and B cells of jawed vertebrates, but they express variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) instead of the T and B cell receptors that specifically recognize antigens in jawed vertebrates. These VLRs act as antigen receptors, diversity being generated in their antigen-binding sites by assembly of highly diverse leucine-rich repeat modules. Therefore, jawless vertebrates have developed adaptive immune systems based on the VLRs. Although pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Rig-like receptors (RLRs), and their adaptor genes are conserved in jawless vertebrates, some transcription factor and inflammatory cytokine genes in the TLR and RLR pathways are not present. However, like jawed vertebrates, the initiation of adaptive immune responses in jawless vertebrates appears to require prior activation of the innate immune system. These observations imply that the innate immune systems of jawless vertebrates have a unique molecular basis that is distinct from that of jawed vertebrates. Altogether, although the molecular details of the innate and adaptive immune systems differ between jawless and jawed vertebrates, jawless vertebrates have developed versions of these immune systems that are similar to those of jawed vertebrates.

  16. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators (United States)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.


    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  17. Biological Immune System Applications on Mobile Robot for Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmin Jia


    Full Text Available To improve the service quality of service robots for the disabled, immune system is applied on robot for its advantages such as diversity, dynamic, parallel management, self-organization, and self-adaptation. According to the immune system theory, local environment condition sensed by robot is considered an antigen while robot is regarded as B-cell and possible node as antibody, respectively. Antibody-antigen affinity is employed to choose the optimal possible node to ensure the service robot can pass through the optimal path. The paper details the immune system applications on service robot and gives experimental results.

  18. libtissue - implementing innate immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie


    In a previous paper the authors argued the case for incorporating ideas from innate immunity into articficial immune systems (AISs) and presented an outline for a conceptual framework for such systems. A number of key general properties observed in the biological innate and adaptive immune systems were hughlighted, and how such properties might be instantiated in artificial systems was discussed in detail. The next logical step is to take these ideas and build a software system with which AISs with these properties can be implemented and experimentally evaluated. This paper reports on the results of that step - the libtissue system.

  19. A Hybrid Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization and Artificial Immune for an Assembly Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Du


    Full Text Available To produce the final product, parts need to be fabricated in the process stages and thereafter several parts are joined under the assembly operations based on the predefined bill of materials. But assembly relationship between the assembly parts and components has not been considered in general job shop scheduling problem model. The aim of this research is to find the schedule which minimizes completion time of Assembly Job Shop Scheduling Problem (AJSSP. Since the complexity of AJSSP is NP-hard, a hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO algorithm integrated PSO with Artificial Immune is proposed and developed to solve AJSSP. The selection strategy based on antibody density makes the particles of HPSO maintain the diversity during the iterative process, thus overcoming the defect of premature convergence. Then HPSO algorithm is applied into a case study development from classical FT06. Finally, the effect of key parameters on the proposed algorithm is analyzed and discussed regarding how to select the parameters. The experiment result confirmed its practice and effectiveness.

  20. Autophagy as a Stress Response Pathway in the Immune System. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Eissa, N Tony


    Macroautophagy, hereafter, referred to as autophagy, has long been regarded as a housekeeping pathway involved in intracellular degradation and energy recycling. These housekeeping and homeostatic functions are especially important during cellular stress, such as periods of nutrient deprivation. However, importance of autophagy extends far beyond its degradative functions. Recent evidence shows that autophagy plays an essential role in development, organization and functions of the immune system, and defects in autophagy lead to several diseases, including cancer and autoimmunity. In the immune system, autophagy is important in regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This review focuses on the roles of autophagy in the adaptive immune system. We first introduce the autophagy pathway and provide a brief description of the major molecular players involved in autophagy. We then discuss the importance of autophagy as a stress integrator mechanism and provide relevant examples of this role of autophagy in adaptive immune cells. Then we proceed to describe how autophagy regulates development, activation and functions of different adaptive immune cells. In these contexts, we mention both degradative and non-degradative roles of autophagy, and illustrate their importance. We also discuss role of autophagy in antigen presenting cells, which play critical roles in the activation of adaptive immune cells. Further, we describe how autophagy regulates functions of different adaptive immune cells during infection, inflammation and autoimmunity.

  1. VISART: Artificial vision for industrial use. A comprehensive system (United States)

    Debritoalves, Sdnei


    A thorough description of a Computer Vision System applied to inspection activities is presented, all of the life-cycle stages of this system being dealt with in detail. It was conceived, designed, and implemented within the scope of an applied research, entitled (VISART) Artificial Vision for Industrial Use: A Comprehensive System. During the effort employed in the development of this work, significant contributions were incorporated to the state-of-the-art in processing of binary images. The VISART system includes resources, concepts, and inovations not yet seen in similar systems. A new terminology with technical terms nearer to those used by engineers and technicians, in industrial environments, is proposed and it might contribute for acceptance and dissemination of Vision Systems in these environments. Concepts of Group Technology have been associated to Vision Systems and they might contribute for a greater integration of the industrial process automation. A special data structure was conceived for image data storage, allowing to reduce the processing time of algorithms of industrial part features-extraction. A library with a considerable number of feature extraction algorithms, used for recognition, acceptance or rejection of industrial products under inspection, was conceived and implemented. New algorithms can be appended to this library by the user, without the necessity of reprogramming the modules of the VISART system. Within this respect lies one of the main comprisement features of VISART. It has a graphic editor which makes possible to use it in activities such as teaching and formation of skilled personnel in the area of vision. At first, this facility exempts the use of sensors, making it more economic for use in these activities. All in all, this research work is a pioneer in Brazil, and its divulgation must contribute significantly for the dissemination and growth of the computer vision area applied to inspection, in the country.

  2. Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Florence (Italy)


    In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section.

  3. Understanding the vertebrate immune system: insights from the reptilian perspective. (United States)

    Zimmerman, L M; Vogel, L A; Bowden, R M


    Reptiles are ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotic fishes and amphibians, and endothermic amniotic birds and mammals. A greater understanding of reptilian immunity will provide important insights into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity as well as the growing field of eco-immunology. Like mammals, reptile immunity is complex and involves innate, cell-mediated and humoral compartments but, overall, there is considerably less known about immune function in reptiles. We review the current literature on each branch of the reptilian immune system, placing this information in context to other vertebrates. Further, we identify key areas that are prime for research as well as areas that are lagging because of lack of reagents in non-model systems.

  4. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)


    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  5. Integrated real time bowel sound detector for artificial pancreas systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandaker A. Al Mamun


    Full Text Available This paper reports an ultra-low power real time bowel sound detector with integrated feature extractor for physiologic measure of meal instances in artificial pancreas devices. The system can aid in improving long term diabetic patient care and consists of a front end detector and signal processing unit. The front end detector transduces the initial bowel sound recorded from a piezoelectric sensor into a voltage signal. The signal processor uses a feature extractor to determine whether a bowel sound is detected. The feature extractor consists of a low noise, low power signal front-end, peak and trough locator, signal slope and width detector, digitizer, and bowel pulse locator. The system was fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process, and the bowel sound detection system was characterized and verified with experimentally recorded bowel sounds. The integrated instrument consumes 53 μW of power from a 1 V supply in a 0.96 mm2 area, and is suitable for integration with portable devices.

  6. Conceptual development of the immune system as a sixth sense. (United States)

    Blalock, J Edwin; Smith, Eric M


    Understanding how and why the immune and nervous systems communicate in a bidirectional pathway has been fundamental to the development of the psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) field. This review will discuss some of the pivotal results that found the nervous and immune systems use a common chemical language for intra and inter-system communication. Specifically the nervous and immune systems produce a common set of peptide and nonpeptide neurotransmitters and cytokines that provides a common repertoire of receptors and ligands between the two systems. These studies led to the concept that through the sharing of ligands and receptors the immune system could serve as a sixth sense to detect things the body cannot otherwise hear, see, smell, taste or touch. Pathogens, tumors, and allergens are detected with great sensitivity and specificity by the immune system. As a sixth sense the immune system is a means to signal and mobilize the body to respond to these types of challenges. The paper will also review in a chronological manner some of the PNI-related studies important to validating the sixth sense concept. Finally, the review will suggest ways to apply the new found knowledge of the sixth sense to understanding a placebo effect and developing new therapeutic approaches for treatment of human diseases.

  7. The Thoratec system implanted as a modified total artificial heart: the Bad Oeynhausen technique. (United States)

    Arusoglu, Latif; Reiss, Nils; Morshuis, Michiel; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Gummert, Jan


    The CardioWest™ total artificial heart (SynCardia Systems, Tuscon, AZ, USA) is the only FDA-approved total artificial heart determined as a bridge to human heart transplantation for patients dying of biventricular heart failure. Implantation provides immediate hemodynamic restoration and clinical stabilization, leading to end-organ recovery and thus eventually allowing cardiac transplantation. Occasionally, implantation of a total artificial heart is not feasible for anatomical reasons. For this patient group, we have developed an alternative technique using the paracorporeal Thoratec biventricular support system (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA, USA) as a modified total artificial heart. A detailed description of the implantation technique is presented.

  8. The Immune System, Cytokines, and Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Masi, Anne; Glozier, Nicholas; Dale, Russell; Guastella, Adam J


    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine profiles and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may define a subgroup of ASD, or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previously-identified immune system abnormalities in ASD, specifically addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations. The roles and identification of biomarkers are also addressed, particularly with respect to cytokine profiles in ASD.

  9. [The role of the immune system in hereditary demyelinating neuropathies]. (United States)

    Mäurer, M; Toyka, K V; Martini, R


    Hereditary neuropathies, e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, are inherited diseases of the peripheral nervous system causing chronic progressive motor and sensory dysfunction. Most neuropathies are due to mutations in myelin genes such as PMP22, P0, and the gap junction protein Cx32. Myelin mutant mice are regarded as suitable animal models for several forms of hereditary neuropathies and are important neurobiological tools for the evaluation of pathogenetic and therapeutic concepts in hereditary neuropathies. Using these animal models we could recently show that the immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of hereditary neuropathies. Due to the phenotypic similarities we also consider the immune system important for human inherited neuropathies, in particular since several case reports demonstrate a beneficial effect of immune therapies in patients with hereditary neuropathies. In this review we compare findings from animal models and human disease to elucidate the role of the immune system in hereditary neuropathies.

  10. Dynamic detection for computer virus based on immune system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao


    Inspired by biological immune system,a new dynamic detection model for computer virus based on immune system is proposed.The quantitative description of the model is given.The problem of dynamic description for self and nonself in a computer virus immune system is solved,which reduces the size of self set.The new concept of dynamic tolerance,as well as the new mechanisms of gene evolution and gene coding for immature detectors is presented,improving the generating efficiency of mature detectors,reducing the false-negative and false-positive rates.Therefore,the difficult problem,in which the detector training cost is exponentially related to the size of self-set in a traditional computer immune system,is thus overcome.The theory analysis and experimental results show that the proposed model has better time efficiency and detecting ability than the classic model ARTIS.

  11. Grammatical Immune System Evolution for Reverse Engineering Nonlinear Dynamic Bayesian Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. McKinney


    Full Text Available An artificial immune system algorithm is introduced in which nonlinear dynamic models are evolved to fi t time series of interacting biomolecules. This grammar-based machine learning method learns the structure and parameters of the underlying dynamic model. In silico immunogenetic mechanisms for the generation of model-structure diversity are implemented with the aid of a grammar, which also enforces semantic constraints of the evolved models. The grammar acts as a DNA repair polymerase that can identify recombination and hypermutation signals in the antibody (model genome. These signals contain information interpretable by the grammar to maintain model context. Grammatical Immune System Evolution (GISE is applied to a nonlinear system identification problem in which a generalized (nonlinear dynamic Bayesian model is evolved to fi t biologically motivated artificial time-series data. From experimental data, we use GISE to infer an improved kinetic model for the oxidative metabolism of 17β-estradiol (E2, the parent hormone of the estrogen metabolism pathway.

  12. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis


    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  13. Phosphorus fate, management, and modeling in artificially drained systems. (United States)

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Smith, Douglas R; Bolster, Carl H; Easton, Zachary M


    Phosphorus (P) losses in agricultural drainage waters, both surface and subsurface, are among the most difficult form of nonpoint source pollution to mitigate. This special collection of papers on P in drainage waters documents the range of field conditions leading to P loss in drainage water, the potential for drainage and nutrient management practices to control drainage losses of P, and the ability of models to represent P loss to drainage systems. A review of P in tile drainage and case studies from North America, Europe, and New Zealand highlight the potential for artificial drainage to exacerbate watershed loads of dissolved and particulate P via rapid, bypass flow and shorter flow path distances. Trade-offs are identified in association with drainage intensification, tillage, cover crops, and manure management. While P in drainage waters tends to be tied to surface sources of P (soil, amendments or vegetation) that are in highest concentration, legacy sources of P may occur at deeper depths or other points along drainage flow paths. Most startling, none of the major fate-and-transport models used to predict management impacts on watershed P losses simulate the dominant processes of P loss to drainage waters. Because P losses to drainage waters can be so difficult to manage and to model, major investment are needed (i) in systems that can provide necessary drainage for agronomic production while detaining peak flows and promoting P retention and (ii) in models that can adequately describe P loss to drainage waters.

  14. Environmentally Conscious Polishing System Based on Robotics and Artificial Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dieste


    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the manufacturing issues that are essential in the production flow, but it generates the major amount of defects on parts. Finishing tasks in which polishing is included are performed in the final steps of the manufacturing sequence. Any defect in these steps impliesrejection of the part, generating a big amount of scrap and generating a huge amount of energy consumption, emission, and time to manufacture and replace the rejected part. Traditionally polishing process has not evolved during the last 30 years, while other manufacturing processes have been automated and technologically improved. Finishing processes (grinding and polishing, are still manually performed, especially in freeform surface parts, but to be sustainable some development and automation have to be introduced. This research proposes a novel polishing system based on robotics and artificial vision. The application of this novel system has allowed reducing the failed parts due to finishing process down to zero percent from 28% of rejected parts with manual polishing process. The reduction in process time consumption, and amount of scrapped parts, has reduced the energy consumption up to 30% in finishing process and 20% in whole manufacturing process for an injection moulded aluminium part for automotive industry with high production volumes.

  15. HIV and Malnutrition: Effects on Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Duggal


    Full Text Available HIV or human immunodeficiency virus infection has assumed worldwide proportions and importance in just a span of 25 years. Continuous research is being done in many parts of the world regarding its treatment and vaccine development, and a lot of money has flown into this. However, fully understanding the mechanisms of immune depletion has still not been possible. The focus has also been on improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS through education, counselling, and nutritional support. Malnutrition further reduces the capacity of the body to fight this infection by compromising various immune parameters. Knowledge of essential components of nutrition and incorporating them in the management goes a long way in improving quality of life and better survival in HIV-infected patients.

  16. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria. (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya


    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen.

  17. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo


    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  18. The role of the innate immune system in granulomatous disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Josephine Petersen


    Full Text Available The dynamic structure of the granuloma serves to protect the body from microbiological challenge. This organised aggregate of immune cells seeks to contain this challenge and protect against dissemination, giving host immune cells a chance to eradicate the threat. A number of systemic diseases are characterised by this specialised inflammatory process and granulomas have been shown to develop at multiple body sites and in various tissues. Central to this process is the macrophage and the arms of the innate immune response. This review seeks to explore how the innate immune response drives this inflammatory process in a contrast of diseases, particularly those with a component of immunodeficiency. By understanding the genes and inflammatory mechanisms behind this specialised immune response, will guide research in in the development of novel therapeutics to combat granulomatous diseases.

  19. Traumatic spinal cord injury in mice with human immune systems. (United States)

    Carpenter, Randall S; Kigerl, Kristina A; Marbourg, Jessica M; Gaudet, Andrew D; Huey, Devra; Niewiesk, Stefan; Popovich, Phillip G


    Mouse models have provided key insight into the cellular and molecular control of human immune system function. However, recent data indicate that extrapolating the functional capabilities of the murine immune system into humans can be misleading. Since immune cells significantly affect neuron survival and axon growth and also are required to defend the body against infection, it is important to determine the pathophysiological significance of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced changes in human immune system function. Research projects using monkeys or humans would be ideal; however, logistical and ethical barriers preclude detailed mechanistic studies in either species. Humanized mice, i.e., immunocompromised mice reconstituted with human immune cells, can help overcome these barriers and can be applied in various experimental conditions that are of interest to the SCI community. Specifically, newborn NOD-SCID-IL2rg(null) (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells develop normally without neurological impairment. In this report, new data show that when mice with human immune systems receive a clinically-relevant spinal contusion injury, spontaneous functional recovery is indistinguishable from that achieved after SCI using conventional inbred mouse strains. Moreover, using routine immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, one can easily phenotype circulating human immune cells and document the composition and distribution of these cells in the injured spinal cord. Lesion pathology in humanized mice is typical of mouse contusion injuries, producing a centralized lesion epicenter that becomes occupied by phagocytic macrophages and lymphocytes and enclosed by a dense astrocytic scar. Specific human immune cell types, including three distinct subsets of human monocytes, were readily detected in the blood, spleen and liver. Future studies that aim to understand the functional consequences of manipulating the neuro-immune axis after SCI

  20. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor


    Full Text Available Introduction Automation of agricultural and machinery construction has generally been enhanced by intelligent control systems due to utility and efficiency rising, ease of use, profitability and upgrading according to market demand. A broad variety of industrial merchandise are now supplied with computerized control systems of earth moving processes to be performed by construction and agriculture field vehicle such as grader, backhoe, tractor and scraper machines. A height control machine which is used in measuring base thickness is consisted of two mechanical and electronic parts. The mechanical part is consisted of conveyor belt, main body, electrical engine and invertors while the electronic part is consisted of ultrasonic, wave transmitter and receiver sensor, electronic board, control set, and microcontroller. The main job of these controlling devices consists of the topographic surveying, cutting and filling of elevated and spotted low area, and these actions fundamentally dependent onthe machine's ability in elevation and thickness measurement and control. In this study, machine was first tested and then some experiments were conducted for data collection. Study of system modeling in artificial neural networks (ANN was done for measuring, controlling the height for bases by input variable input vectors such as sampling time, probe speed, conveyer speed, sound wave speed and speed sensor are finally the maximum and minimum probe output vector on various conditions. The result reveals the capability of this procedure for experimental recognition of sensors' behavior and improvement of field machine control systems. Inspection, calibration and response, diagnosis of the elevation control system in combination with machine function can also be evaluated by some extra development of this system. Materials and Methods Designing and manufacture of the planned apparatus classified in three dissimilar, mechanical and electronic module, courses of

  1. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems. (United States)

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A


    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  2. Network modeling of membrane-based artificial cellular systems (United States)

    Freeman, Eric C.; Philen, Michael K.; Leo, Donald J.


    Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments. These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction, optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients. A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While models have been constructed deriving from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes. From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model seeks to link the electrical properties to the underlying chemical characteristics. This model is then applied towards experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics may be understood and optimized.

  3. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  4. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems (United States)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.


    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  5. Artificial intelligence approach for spot application project system design (United States)

    Lefevre, M. J.; Fisse, G.; Martin, E.; de Boissezon, H.; Galaup, M.


    Over the past four years, CNES has been engaged in a major programme focusing on the development of SPOT Operational Application Projects. With a total of sixty projects now complete, we can draw a number of meaningful conclusions and identify a number of objectives to be satisfied by advanced remote sensing methodology. One of the main conclusions points to the importance of human vision in studies on natural complex space imagery. This being so, visual recognition must be one of the main phases of the ``Pilot Project for the Application of Remote Sensing to Agricultural Statistics'': only human experts have the ability to make a meaningful analysis of Spot TM imagery. Non-expert operators will not be able to manage the subsequent rational production phase alone. The first part of this paper describes an approach to the formalization and modelling of expert know-how based on the use of artificial intelligence. The second part puts forward a cooperative operator/computer system based on a cognitive structure. Our proposal comprises 1) a specific knowledge base, 2) an ergonomic interface associated with functional software that is based on automatic image enhancement coupled with perception support functions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Koyano


    Full Text Available Population dynamics in the evolution, extinction, and re-evolution of various logic-function performing organisms is studied in the artificial life system, Avida. Following the work of Yedid (2009, we design an experiment involving two extinction regimes, pulse-extinction (corresponding to a random-kill event and press-extinction (corresponding to a prolonged episode of rare resources. In addition, we study the effect of environmental topology (toroidal grid and clique graph. In the study of population dynamics, logarithmic returns are generally applied. The resulting distributions display a fat tail form of the power law: the more complex the logic function (in terms of NAND components, the broader the full width at half a maximum of the histogram. The power law exponents were in sound agreement with those of “real-life” populations and distributions. The distributions of evolutionary times, as well as post-extinction recovery periods, were very broad, and presumably had no standard deviations. Using 100 runs of 200,000 updates for each of the four cases (about 1 month of central processing unit time, we established the dynamics of the average population, with the effect of world topology.

  7. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System. (United States)

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F


    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  8. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system]. (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng


    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination.

  9. EBV Infection of Mice with Reconstituted Human Immune System Components. (United States)

    Münz, Christian


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 50 years ago as the first candidate human tumor virus. Since then, we have realized that this human γ-herpesvirus establishes persistent infection in the majority of adult humans, but fortunately causes EBV-associated diseases only in few individuals. This is an incredible success story of the human immune system, which controls EBV infection and its transforming capacity for decades. A better understanding of this immune control would not only benefit patients with EBV-associated malignancies, but could also provide clues how to establish such a potent, mostly cell-mediated immune control against other pathogens and tumors. However, the functional relevance of EBV-specific immune responses can only be addressed in vivo, and mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huMice) constitute a small animal model to interrogate the protective value of immune compartments during EBV infection, but also might provide a platform to test EBV-specific vaccines. This chapter will summarize the insights into EBV immunobiology that have already been gained in these models and provide an outlook into promising future avenues to develop this in vivo model of EBV infection and human immune responses further.

  10. The immune system: role in hypertension. (United States)

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L


    Over the past 20 years it has become recognized that low-grade inflammation plays a role in cardiovascular disease. More recently, participation of the innate and the adaptive immune response in mechanisms that contribute to inflammation in cardiovascular disease has been reported in atherosclerosis and hypertension. Different subsets of lymphocytes and their cytokines are involved in vascular remodelling and hypertensive renal disease as well as heart disease. Effector T cells including T-helper (Th) 1 (interferon-γ-producing) and Th2 lymphocytes (interleukin-4 producing), as well as Th17 (which produce interleukin-17), and T suppressor lymphocytes such as T regulatory cells, which express the transcription factor forkhead box P3, participate respectively as pro- and anti-inflammatory cells, and mediate effects of angiotensin II and mineralocorticoids. Involvement of immune mechanisms in cardiac, vascular, and renal changes in hypertension has been demonstrated in many experimental models, an example being the Dahl-salt sensitive rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat. How activation of immunity is triggered remains unknown, but neoantigens could be generated by elevated blood pressure through damage-associated molecular pattern receptors or other mechanisms. When activated, Th1 may contribute to blood pressure elevation by affecting the kidney, vascular remodelling of blood vessels directly via effects of the cytokines produced, or through their effects on perivascular fat. T regulatory cells protect from blood pressure elevation acting on similar targets. These novel findings may open the way for new therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes in hypertension and cardiovascular disease in humans.

  11. Theory of an Immune System Retrovirus. (United States)


    expected strong dependence on the rate of virus produccion as well as the very powerful effect of immunization via the increase of Bo cells.* 4. -4...for the non-linear produccion term YP’= Y’ tdt’(Q(t’)) 2 = 2 ’ftdt it Y(t’)B (t’)z(t’)dt’ (A7) where Y’= Y "’’¥6 YpF = Y>(B YTY’) and now Z =fty(t

  12. Melanoma: oncogenic drivers and the immune system (United States)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; González-Cao, María; Riso, Aldo; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina, Miguel Angel; Chaib, Imane; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Richardet, Eduardo; Bria, Emilio


    Advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma over the past 30 years have contributed to a change in the consideration of melanoma as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. The finding that oncogenic BRAF mutations drive tumor growth in up to 50% of melanomas led to a molecular therapy revolution for unresectable and metastatic disease. Moving beyond BRAF, inactivation of immune regulatory checkpoints that limit T cell responses to melanoma has provided targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the molecular biology of melanoma and we focus on the recent advances of molecularly targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:26605311

  13. A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments (United States)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III


    This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

  14. Promising synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oren, T.I.


    Simulation is viewed within the model management paradigm. Major components of simulation systems as well as elements of model management are outlined. Possible synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories are systematized. 21 references.

  15. Multifunctional astronomical self-organizing system of autonomous navigation and orientation for artificial Earth satellites (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. I.; Danilova, T. V.


    We describe the methods and algorithms of a multifunctional astronomical system of the autonomous navigation and orientation for artificial Earth satellites based on the automatization of the system approach to the design and programming problems of the subject area.

  16. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity. (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A


    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Sheping; Ding Guoqing; Yan Detian; Lin Liangming


    The pneumatic artificial muscles are widely used in the fields of medical robots,etc.Neural networks are applied to modeling and controlling of artificial muscle system.A single-joint artificial muscle test system is designed.The recursive prediction error (RPE) algorithm which yields faster convergence than back propagation (BP) algorithm is applied to train the neural networks.The realization of RPE algorithm is given.The difference of modeling of artificial muscles using neural networks with different input nodes and different hidden layer nodes is discussed.On this basis the nonlinear control scheme using neural networks for artificial muscle system has been introduced.The experimental results show that the nonlinear control scheme yields faster response and higher control accuracy than the traditional linear control scheme.

  18. Control system for solar tracking based on artificial vision; Sistema de control para seguimiento solar basado en vision artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Ramirez, Jesus Horacio; Anaya Perez, Maria Elena; Benitez Baltazar, Victor Hugo [Universidad de onora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail:;;


    This work shows how artificial vision feedback can be applied to control systems. The control is applied to a solar panel in order to track the sun position. The algorithms to calculate the position of the sun and the image processing are developed in LabView. The responses obtained from the control show that it is possible to use vision for a control scheme in closed loop. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra la manera en la cual un sistema de control puede ser retroalimentado mediante vision artificial. El control es aplicado en un panel solar para realizar el seguimiento del sol a lo largo del dia. Los algoritmos para calcular la posicion del sol y para el tratamiento de la imagen fueron desarrollados en LabView. Las respuestas obtenidas del control muestran que es posible utilizar vision para un esquema de control en lazo cerrado.

  19. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system (United States)

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and molting to the 1st nymphal instar were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two e...

  20. Implications of Human Pattern Processing for the Design of Artificial Knowledge Systems. (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    This paper presents evidence that four design principles commonly embodied in artificial knowledge systems are inconsistent with human cognitive capabilities. Because these principles are widely accepted as characteristics of human knowledge processing, common theoretical properties related to cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence which…

  1. Maintenance of systemic immune functions prevents accelerated presbycusis. (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Baba, Susumu; Omae, Mariko; Lee, Shinryu; Yamashita, Toshio; Ikehara, Susumu


    There is no effective therapy for progressive hearing loss such as presbycusis, the causes of which remain poorly understood because of the difficulty of separating genetic and environmental contributions. In the present study, we show that the age-related dysfunctions of the systemic immune system in an animal model of accelerated presbycusis (SAMP1, senescence-accelerated mouse P1) can be corrected by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We also demonstrate that this presbycusis can be prevented; BMT protects the recipients from age-related hearing impairment and the degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) as well as the dysfunctions of T lymphocytes, which have a close relation to immune senescence. No donor cells are infiltrated to the spiral ganglia, confirming that this experimental system using BMT is connected to the systemic immune system and does not contribute to transdifferentiation or fusion by donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), or to the direct maintenance of ganglion cells by locally infiltrated donor immunocompetent cells. Therefore, another procedure which attempts to prevent the age-related dysfunctions of the recipient immune system is the inoculation of syngeneic splenocytes from young donors. These mice show no development of hearing loss, compared with the recipient mice with inoculation of saline or splenocytes from old donors. Our studies on the relationship between age-related systemic immune dysfunctions and neurodegeneration mechanisms open up new avenues of treatment for presbycusis, for which there is no effective therapy.

  2. Effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the ruminant immune system. (United States)

    Gasbarre, L C


    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of ruminants evoke a wide variety of immune responses in their hosts. In terms of specific immune responses directed against parasite antigens, the resulting immune responses may vary from those that give strong protection from reinfection after a relatively light exposure (e.g. Oesophagostomum radiatum) to responses that are very weak and delayed in their onset (e.g. Ostertagia ostertagi). The nature of these protective immune responses has been covered in another section of the workshop and the purpose of this section will be to explore the nature of changes that occur in the immune system of infected animals and to discuss the effect of GI nematode infections upon the overall immunoresponsiveness of the host. The discussion will focus primarily on Ostertagia ostertagi because this parasite has received the most attention in published studies. The interaction of Ostertagia and the host immune system presents what appears to be an interesting contradiction. Protective immunity directed against the parasite is slow to arise and when compared to some of the other GI nematodes, is relatively weak. Although responses that reduce egg output in the feces or increase the number of larvae undergoing inhibition may occur after a relatively brief exposure (3-4 months), immune responses which reduce the number of parasites that can establish in the host are not evident until the animal's second year. Additionally, even older animals that have spent several seasons on infected pastures will have low numbers of Ostertagia in their abomasa, indicating that sterilizing immune responses against the parasite are uncommon. In spite of this apparent lack of specific protective immune responses, infections with Ostertagia induce profound changes in the host immune system. These changes include a tremendous expansion of both the number of lymphocytes in the local lymph nodes and the number of lymphoid cells in the mucosa of the abomasum. This expansion

  3. Fat:A matter of disturbance for the immune system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro; Federico; Elena; D’Aiuto; Francesco; Borriello; Giusi; Barra; Antonietta; Gerarda; Gravina; Marco; Romano; Raffaele; De; Palma


    Obesity is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for a number of benign and malignant gastrointestinal conditions. However, literature on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is sparse and ambiguous. There is compelling evidence that both overnutrition and undernutrition negatively interfere with the immune system. Overnutrition has been found to increase susceptibility to the development of inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. In the regulation of immune and in? ammatory ...

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis: immune system involvement and distinctive clinical cases. (United States)

    Imbesi, S; Minciullo, P L; Isola, S; Gangemi, S


    The aim of this review is drawing the attention to the contact dermatitis, an inflammatory skin condition due to pro-inflammatory and toxic factors able to activate the skin innate immunity (irritant contact dermatitis) or caused by a T-cell- mediated hypersensitivity reaction (allergic contact dermatitis). The immune system involvement and a variety of clinical pictures are described in order to better diagnose, prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  5. Evasion of the human innate immune system by dengue virus


    Pagni, Sarah; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana


    Dengue virus is a worldwide health problem, with billions of people at risk annually. Dengue virus causes a spectrum of diseases, namely dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome with the latter two being linked to death. Understanding how dengue is able to evade the immune system and cause enhanced severity of disease is the main topics of interest in the Fernandez-Sesma laboratory at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Using primary human immune cells, our group investiga...

  6. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M.


    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored. PMID:27733852

  7. A novel artificial anal sphincter system based on transcutaneous energy transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zan Peng; Yan Guozheng; Liu Hua


    For controlling anal incontinence, a new artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) with sensor feedback based on transcutaneous energy transmission is developed. The device mainly comprises an artificial anal sphincter (AAS), a wireless power supply subsystem, and a communication subsystem. The artificial anal sphincter comprises a front cuff and a sensor cuff placed around the rectum, a reservoir sited in abdominal cavity and a micropump controlling inflation and deflation of the front cuff. There are two pressure sensors in the artificial anal sphincter. One can measure the pressure in the front cuff to clamp the rectum, the other in the sensor cuff can measure the pressure of the rectum. Wireless power supply subsystem includes a resonance transmit coil to transmit an alternating magnetic field and a secondary coil to receive the power. Wireless communication subsystem can transmit the pressure information of the artificial anal sphincter to the monitor, or send the control commands to the artificial anal sphincter. A prototype is designed and the basic function of the artificial anal sphincter system has been tested through experiments. The results demonstrate that the artificial anal sphincter system can control anal incontinence effectively.

  8. The application of artificial intelligence in the optimal design of mechanical systems (United States)

    Poteralski, A.; Szczepanik, M.


    The paper is devoted to new computational techniques in mechanical optimization where one tries to study, model, analyze and optimize very complex phenomena, for which more precise scientific tools of the past were incapable of giving low cost and complete solution. Soft computing methods differ from conventional (hard) computing in that, unlike hard computing, they are tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty, partial truth and approximation. The paper deals with an application of the bio-inspired methods, like the evolutionary algorithms (EA), the artificial immune systems (AIS) and the particle swarm optimizers (PSO) to optimization problems. Structures considered in this work are analyzed by the finite element method (FEM), the boundary element method (BEM) and by the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). The bio-inspired methods are applied to optimize shape, topology and material properties of 2D, 3D and coupled 2D/3D structures, to optimize the termomechanical structures, to optimize parameters of composites structures modeled by the FEM, to optimize the elastic vibrating systems to identify the material constants for piezoelectric materials modeled by the BEM and to identify parameters in acoustics problem modeled by the MFS.

  9. Effects of prebiotics on immune system and cytokine expression. (United States)

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Navidshad, Bahman; Liang, Juan Boo


    Nowadays, use of prebiotics as feed and food additives has received increasing interest because of the beneficial effects of prebiotics on the health of animals and humans. One of the beneficial effects of prebiotics is stimulation of immune system, which can be direct or indirect through increasing population of beneficial microbes or probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, in the gut. An important mechanism of action of probiotics and prebiotics, by which they can affect the immune system, is changing the expression of cytokines. The present review tried to summarize the findings of studies that investigated the effects of prebiotics on immune system with focusing on their effects on cytokine expression. Generally, most of reviewed studies indicated beneficial effects for prebiotics in terms of improving immune system, by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while reducing the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. However, most of studies mainly considered the indirect effects of prebiotics on the immune system (through changing the composition and population of gut microbiota), and their direct effects still need to be further studied using prebiotics with different degree of polymerization in different hosts.

  10. In vitro selection with artificial expanded genetic information systems. (United States)

    Sefah, Kwame; Yang, Zunyi; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Zhang, Liqin; Zhu, Guizhi; Shanker, Savita; Yu, Fahong; Turek, Diane; Tan, Weihong; Benner, Steven A


    Artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGISs) are unnatural forms of DNA that increase the number of independently replicating nucleotide building blocks. To do this, AEGIS pairs are joined by different arrangements of hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups, all while retaining their Watson-Crick geometries. We report here a unique case where AEGIS DNA has been used to execute a systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) experiment. This AEGIS-SELEX was designed to create AEGIS oligonucleotides that bind to a line of breast cancer cells. AEGIS-SELEX delivered an AEGIS aptamer (ZAP-2012) built from six different kinds of nucleotides (the standard G, A, C, and T, and the AEGIS nonstandard P and Z nucleotides, the last having a nitro functionality not found in standard DNA). ZAP-2012 has a dissociation constant of 30 nM against these cells. The affinity is diminished or lost when Z or P (or both) is replaced by standard nucleotides and compares well with affinities of standard GACT aptamers selected against cell lines using standard SELEX. The success of AEGIS-SELEX relies on various innovations, including (i) the ability to synthesize GACTZP libraries, (ii) polymerases that PCR amplify GACTZP DNA with little loss of the AEGIS nonstandard nucleotides, and (iii) technologies to deep sequence GACTZP DNA survivors. These results take the next step toward expanding the power and utility of SELEX and offer an AEGIS-SELEX that could possibly generate receptors, ligands, and catalysts having sequence diversities nearer to that displayed by proteins.

  11. Roles of semaphorins in the immune and hematopoietic system. (United States)

    Ji, Jong Dae; Ivashkiv, Lionel B


    Semaphorins were originally discovered in the nervous system, and have been implicated in repulsive axon guidance during the development of nervous system. Semaphorins are also implicated in tumor progression, by affecting adhesion, migration of malignant cells and angiogenesis, and are involved in normal cardiovascular development. Recently, several semaphorins and their receptors are expressed in a variety of lymphoid and myeloid cells, and affect immune cell functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, and cytokine production. This review focuses on recent work on the functions of semaphorins in the immune system and autoimmune diseases.

  12. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system. (United States)

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L


    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms.

  13. The Interplay between the Bone and the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mori


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, numerous scientists have highlighted the interactions between bone and immune cells as well as their overlapping regulatory mechanisms. For example, osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, are derived from the same myeloid precursor cells that give rise to macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. On the other hand, osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, regulate hematopoietic stem cell niches from which all blood and immune cells are derived. Furthermore, many of the soluble mediators of immune cells, including cytokines and growth factors, regulate the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This increased recognition of the complex interactions between the immune system and bone led to the development of the interdisciplinary osteoimmunology field. Research in this field has great potential to provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several diseases affecting both the bone and immune systems, thus providing the molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies. In these review, we reported the latest findings about the reciprocal regulation of bone and immune cells.

  14. The Interplay between the bone and the immune system. (United States)

    Mori, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Faccio, Roberta; Brunetti, Giacomina


    In the last two decades, numerous scientists have highlighted the interactions between bone and immune cells as well as their overlapping regulatory mechanisms. For example, osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, are derived from the same myeloid precursor cells that give rise to macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. On the other hand, osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, regulate hematopoietic stem cell niches from which all blood and immune cells are derived. Furthermore, many of the soluble mediators of immune cells, including cytokines and growth factors, regulate the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This increased recognition of the complex interactions between the immune system and bone led to the development of the interdisciplinary osteoimmunology field. Research in this field has great potential to provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several diseases affecting both the bone and immune systems, thus providing the molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies. In these review, we reported the latest findings about the reciprocal regulation of bone and immune cells.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin Azwary


    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering System in the chatbot using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language are able to communicate and deliver information. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Template Matching, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML Teknologi kecerdasan buatan saat ini dapat diolah dengan berbagai macam bentuk, seperti ChatBot, dan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML menggunakan metode template matching yaitu dengan membandingkan pola-pola tertentu pada database. Proses perancangan template AIML diawali dengan menentukan informasi yang diperlukan, kemudian dibentuk menjadi pertanyaan, pertanyaan tersebut disesuaikan dengan bentuk pattern AIML. Hasil penelitian dapat diperoleh bahwa Question-Answering System dalam bentuk ChatBot menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language dapat berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan informasi. Kata kunci : Kecerdasan Buatan, Pencocokan Pola, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML

  16. Commentary on Special Issue : CNS Diseases and the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F.


    In an increasing number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases a pathogenic contribution of the immune system is proposed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood. The collection of articles in this special issue presents a state-of-the-art review of adaptive and innat

  17. Systems biology of neutrophil differentiation and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Porse, Bo T; Borregaard, Niels


    Systems biology has emerged as a new scientific field, which aims at investigating biological processes at the genomic and proteomic levels. Recent studies have unravelled aspects of neutrophil differentiation and immune responses at the systems level using high-throughput technologies...

  18. [Immune system and rheumatic diseases in the elderly]. (United States)

    Schirmer, Michael


    Impairments of the immune system play an important role in all immun-mediated rheumatic diseases. Recently, the following news were reported: · Early aging of the immune system with thymus insufficiency has now been reported for both patients with rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis, without prethymic lack of progenitors at least in rheumatoid arthritis.. · For giant cell arteritis, the most frequent vasculitis in the elderly, an increased expression of IL-17A in temporal artery biopsies coincides with good prognosis and reponse to glucocorticoids.. · Concerning immunosenescence in systemic lupus erythematosus, BAFF appears to have an important role for relapses after B-cell depletion.. For the future it can be anticipated that the use of unified classification criteria for rheumatic diseases (as with the new 2012 EULAR / ACR classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica) will ensure better comparability of immunological studies also in the elderly.

  19. Physiological targets of artificial gravity: the sensory-motor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Clarke, A.; Bles, W.; Wuyts, F.; Paloski, W.; Clément, G.


    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orie

  20. The Neuro-Immune Pathophysiology of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Systemic Immune-Inflammatory and Neuro-Immune Diseases. (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Galecki, Piotr; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael


    Many patients with systemic immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, including depression, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's disease, cancer, cardiovascular disorder, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, endure pathological levels of fatigue. The aim of this narrative review is to delineate the wide array of pathways that may underpin the incapacitating fatigue occurring in systemic and neuro-inflammatory disorders. A wide array of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), bioenergetic, and neurophysiological abnormalities are involved in the etiopathology of these disease states and may underpin the incapacitating fatigue that accompanies these disorders. This range of abnormalities comprises: increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interferon (IFN) α; O&NS-induced muscle fatigue; activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Cycle through pathogen-associated (PAMPs) and damage-associated (DAMPs) molecular patterns, including heat shock proteins; altered glutaminergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission; mitochondrial dysfunctions; and O&NS-induced defects in the sodium-potassium pump. Fatigue is also associated with altered activities in specific brain regions and muscle pathology, such as reductions in maximum voluntary muscle force, downregulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis master gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, a shift to glycolysis and buildup of toxic metabolites within myocytes. As such, both mental and physical fatigue, which frequently accompany immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, are the consequence of interactions between multiple systemic and central pathways.

  1. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.


    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  2. Immunization information systems--progress on integration of school nurses: a multi-state roundtable. (United States)

    Galemore, Cynthia A


    The following is an article and roundtable discussion on school nurse integration into immunization information systems. The discussion participants were April Bailey, Deputy Director, Immunization Division, Indiana State Department of Health; Thomas Maerz, Manager, Wisconsin Immunization Registry; Erin Seward, Immunization Program Manager, Nevada State Health Division; and Debra Warren, Project Manager, KSWebIZ, Kansas Immunization Program.

  3. Interactions of cnidarian toxins with the immune system. (United States)

    Suput, Dusan


    Cnidarians comprise four classes of toxic marine animals: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. They are the largest and probably the oldest phylum of toxic marine animals. Any contact with a cnidarian, especially the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), can be fatal, but most cnidarians do not possess sufficiently strong venomous apparatus to penetrate the human skin, whereas others rarely come into contact with human beings. Only a small, almost negligible percentage of the vast wealth of cnidarian toxins has been studied in detail. Many polypeptide cnidarian toxins are immunogenic, and cross-reactivity between several jellyfish venoms has been reported. Cnidarians also possess components of innate immunity, and some of those components have been preserved in evolution. On the other hand, cnidarian toxins have already been used for the design of immunotoxins to treat cancer, whereas other cnidarian toxins can modulate the immune system in mammals, including man. This review will focus on a short overview of cnidarian toxins, on the innate immunity of cnidarians, and on the mode of action of cnidarian toxins which can modulate the immune system in mammals. Emphasis is palced on those toxins which block voltage activated potassium channels in the cells of the immune system.

  4. The evolution of secondary organization in immune system gene libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, R.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    A binary model of the immune system is used to study the effects of evolution on the genetic encoding for antibody molecules. We report experiments which show that the evolution of immune system genes, simulated by the genetic algorithm, can induce a high degree of genetic organization even though that organization is not explicitly required by the fitness function. This secondary organization is related to the true fitness of an individual, in contrast to the sampled fitness which is the explicit fitness measure used to drive the process of evolution.

  5. Hopf bifurcation for tumor-immune competition systems with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Bi


    Full Text Available In this article, a immune response system with delay is considered, which consists of two-dimensional nonlinear differential equations. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the Hopf bifurcation of a immune response system with delay. The general formula of the direction, the estimation formula of period and stability of bifurcated periodic solution are also given. Especially, the conditions of the global existence of periodic solutions bifurcating from Hopf bifurcations are given. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the the theoretical analysis and the obtained results.

  6. Quantifying adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Obbard


    Full Text Available It is estimated that a large proportion of amino acid substitutions in Drosophila have been fixed by natural selection, and as organisms are faced with an ever-changing array of pathogens and parasites to which they must adapt, we have investigated the role of parasite-mediated selection as a likely cause. To quantify the effect, and to identify which genes and pathways are most likely to be involved in the host-parasite arms race, we have re-sequenced population samples of 136 immunity and 287 position-matched non-immunity genes in two species of Drosophila. Using these data, and a new extension of the McDonald-Kreitman approach, we estimate that natural selection fixes advantageous amino acid changes in immunity genes at nearly double the rate of other genes. We find the rate of adaptive evolution in immunity genes is also more variable than other genes, with a small subset of immune genes evolving under intense selection. These genes, which are likely to represent hotspots of host-parasite coevolution, tend to share similar functions or belong to the same pathways, such as the antiviral RNAi pathway and the IMD signalling pathway. These patterns appear to be general features of immune system evolution in both species, as rates of adaptive evolution are correlated between the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. In summary, our data provide quantitative estimates of the elevated rate of adaptive evolution in immune system genes relative to the rest of the genome, and they suggest that adaptation to parasites is an important force driving molecular evolution.

  7. Quantifying adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system. (United States)

    Obbard, Darren J; Welch, John J; Kim, Kang-Wook; Jiggins, Francis M


    It is estimated that a large proportion of amino acid substitutions in Drosophila have been fixed by natural selection, and as organisms are faced with an ever-changing array of pathogens and parasites to which they must adapt, we have investigated the role of parasite-mediated selection as a likely cause. To quantify the effect, and to identify which genes and pathways are most likely to be involved in the host-parasite arms race, we have re-sequenced population samples of 136 immunity and 287 position-matched non-immunity genes in two species of Drosophila. Using these data, and a new extension of the McDonald-Kreitman approach, we estimate that natural selection fixes advantageous amino acid changes in immunity genes at nearly double the rate of other genes. We find the rate of adaptive evolution in immunity genes is also more variable than other genes, with a small subset of immune genes evolving under intense selection. These genes, which are likely to represent hotspots of host-parasite coevolution, tend to share similar functions or belong to the same pathways, such as the antiviral RNAi pathway and the IMD signalling pathway. These patterns appear to be general features of immune system evolution in both species, as rates of adaptive evolution are correlated between the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. In summary, our data provide quantitative estimates of the elevated rate of adaptive evolution in immune system genes relative to the rest of the genome, and they suggest that adaptation to parasites is an important force driving molecular evolution.

  8. The Adaptive Immune System of Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Katharina Maier


    Full Text Available To fight off invading genetic elements, prokaryotes have developed an elaborate defence system that is both adaptable and heritable—the CRISPR-Cas system (CRISPR is short for: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and Cas: CRISPR associated. Comprised of proteins and multiple small RNAs, this prokaryotic defence system is present in 90% of archaeal and 40% of bacterial species, and enables foreign intruders to be eliminated in a sequence-specific manner. There are three major types (I–III and at least 14 subtypes of this system, with only some of the subtypes having been analysed in detail, and many aspects of the defence reaction remaining to be elucidated. Few archaeal examples have so far been analysed. Here we summarize the characteristics of the CRISPR-Cas system of Haloferax volcanii, an extremely halophilic archaeon originally isolated from the Dead Sea. It carries a single CRISPR-Cas system of type I-B, with a Cascade like complex composed of Cas proteins Cas5, Cas6b and Cas7. Cas6b is essential for CRISPR RNA (crRNA maturation but is otherwise not required for the defence reaction. A systematic search revealed that six protospacer adjacent motif (PAM sequences are recognised by the Haloferax defence system. For successful invader recognition, a non-contiguous seed sequence of 10 base-pairs between the crRNA and the invader is required.

  9. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    920630 Effects of the spleen on immunestate of patients with gastric cancer.QIUDengbo (仇登波), et al. Dept General Surg,Union Hosp, Tongji Med Univ, Wuhan, 430022.Natl Med J China 1992; 72(6): 334-337. For analysing the effects of the spleen on im-mune state of gastric cancer patients.T-lym-

  10. Special Operations Forces: A Global Immune System?

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Joseph


    The use of special operations forces (SOF) in war fighting and peace keeping efforts has increased dramatically in recent decades. A scientific understanding of the reason for this increase would provide guidance as to the contexts in which SOF can be used to their best effect. Ashby's law of requisite variety provides a scientific framework for understanding and analyzing a system's ability to survive and prosper in the face of environmental challenges. We have developed a generalization of this law to extend the analysis to systems that must respond to disturbances at multiple scales. This analysis identifies a necessary tradeoff between scale and complexity in a multiscale control system. As with Ashby's law, the framework applies to the characterization of successful biological and social systems in the context of complex environmental challenges. Here we apply this multiscale framework to provide a control theoretic understanding of the historical and increasing need for SOF, as well as conventional mili...

  11. Focusing on Ciona intestinalis (Tunicata innate immune system. Evolutionary implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parrinello


    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data provide compelling evidence that ascidians are of critical importance for studying chordate immune system evolution. The Ciona intestinalis draft genome sequence allows searches for phylogenetic relationships, gene cloning and expression of immunorelevant molecules. Acidians lack of the pivotal components of the vertebrate recombinatory adaptive immunity, i.e., MHC, TCRs and dimeric immunoglobulins. However, bioinformatic sequence analyses recognized genic elements indicating the essential features of the Ig superfamily and ancestor proto-MHC genes, suggesting a primitive pre-duplication and pre-recombination status. C. intestinalis genes for individuality in the absence of MHC could encode diverse molecular markers, including a wide panel of complement factors that could be responsible for self-nonself discrimination. Genome analysis reveals a number of innate immunity vertebrate-like genes which encode Toll-like and virus receptors, complement pathways components and receptors, CD94/NK-receptor-like, lectins, TNF, IL1-R, collagens. However, pure homology seeking for vertebrate-specific immunorelevant molecules is of limited value, and functional screening methods may be a more promising approach for tracing the immune system evolution. C. intestinalis, which displays acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, is a model organism for studying innate immunity genes expression and functions.

  12. The contribution of the immune system to parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. De Jongh


    Full Text Available The immune system plays a central role before and during parturition, including the main physiological processes of parturition: uterine contractions and cervical ripening. The immune system comprises white blood cells and their secretions. Polymorphonuclear cells and macrophages invade the cervical tissue and release compounds, such as oxygen radicals and enzymes, which break down the cervical matrix to allow softening and dilatation. During this inflammatory process, white blood cells undergo chemotaxis, adherence to endothelial cells, diapedesis, migration and activation. Factors that regulate white blood cell invasion and secretion include cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor and interleukins. Glucocorticoids, sex hormones and prostaglandins, affect cytokine synthesis. They also modulate the target cells, resulting in altered responses to cytokines. On the other hand, the immune system has profound effects on the hormonal system and prostaglandin synthesis. In animals, nitric oxide has marked effects on uterine quiescence during gestation. At the same time, it plays an important role in regulating the vascular tone of uterine arteries and has anti-adhesive effects on leukocytes. Cytokines are found in amniotic fluid, and in maternal and foetal serum at term and preterm. Several intrauterine cells have been shown to produce these cytoldnes. Since neither white blood cells, cytokines nor nitric oxide seem to be the ultimate intermediate for human parturition, the immune system is an additional but obligatory and underestimated component in the physiology of delivery. Scientists, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists must thus be aware of these processes.

  13. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems for interpreting complex medical datasets. (United States)

    Altman, R B


    Advances in machine intelligence have created powerful capabilities in algorithms that find hidden patterns in data, classify objects based on their measured characteristics, and associate similar patients/diseases/drugs based on common features. However, artificial intelligence (AI) applications in medical data have several technical challenges: complex and heterogeneous datasets, noisy medical datasets, and explaining their output to users. There are also social challenges related to intellectual property, data provenance, regulatory issues, economics, and liability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is an emerging technology. Research in AI is focused on developing computational approaches to intelligent behavior. The computer programs with which AI could be associated are primarily processes associated with complexity, ambiguity, ndecisiveness, and uncertainty. This present paper surveys the development of a condition monitoring procedure for different types ofbearings, which involves an artificial intelligence method as well as reviewed in order to examine the capability of AI methods and techniques to effectively address various hard-to-solve design tasks and issues relating different types of bearing fault. Although this review cannot be collectively exhaustive, it may be considered as a valuable guide for researchers who are interested in the domain of AI and wish to explore the opportunities offered by fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms for further improvement of conditioning monitoring for different types of bearing under different operating conditioning. Recent trends in research on conditioning monitoring using AI for different bearing have also been included.

  15. The immune system as a target for antibiotics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grondel, J.L.


    Studies on antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OxyTC) in particular, are presented in this thesis with respect to the influence of these drugs on the immune system of carp and chickens. Special attention was paid to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of OxyTC.ImmunologyCarp ( Cyprinusca

  16. Systems vaccinology : molecular signatures of immunity to Bordetella pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeven, R.H.M.


    The worldwide resurgence of whooping cough (pertussis), even in highly vaccinated populations, demands improved pertussis vaccines. In this thesis a systems vaccinology approach is applied to deepen knowledge of the immune responses evoked by different pertussis vaccines and compare this with a Bord

  17. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.


    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect th

  18. The nervous and the immune systems: conspicuous physiological analogies. (United States)

    Sotelo, Julio


    From all biological constituents of complex organisms, two are highly sophisticated: the nervous and the immune systems. Interestingly, their goals and processes appear to be distant from each other; however, their physiological mechanisms keep notorious similarities. Both construct intelligence, learn from experience, and keep memory. Their precise responses to innumerable stimuli are delicately modulated, and the exposure of the individual to thousands of potential challenges integrates their functionality; they use a large part of their constituents not in excitatory activities but in the maintenance of inhibitory mechanisms to keep silent vast intrinsic potentialities. The nervous and immune systems are integrated by a basic cell lineage (neurons and lymphocytes, respectively) but each embodies countless cell subgroups with different and specialized deeds which, in contrast with cells from other organs, labyrinthine molecular arrangements conduct to "one cell, one function". Also, nervous and immune actions confer identity that differentiates every individual from countless others in the same species. Both systems regulate and potentiate their responses aided by countless biological resources of variable intensity: hormones, peptides, cytokines, pro-inflammatory molecules, etc. How the immune and the nervous systems buildup memory, learning capability, and exquisite control of excitatory/inhibitory mechanisms constitute major intellectual challenges for contemporary research.

  19. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno


    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  20. The human spleen. Development and role in the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timens, Willem


    In the present thesis an extensive in situ characterization is given of cellular constituents of the human spleen, that play a role in the human immune system. The development of immunocompetent cells in their micro-environment was studied in early embryonic life, fetal life, infancy and childhood,

  1. A Framework for Intelligent Instructional Systems: An Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Approach. (United States)

    Becker, Lee A.


    Presents and develops a general model of the nature of a learning system and a classification for learning systems. Highlights include the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; computer-based instructional systems; intelligent instructional systems; and the role of the learner's knowledge base in an intelligent…


    Eremkin, A V; Elagin, G D; Petchenkin, D V; Fomenkov, O O; Bogatcheva, N V; Kitmanov, A A; Kuklina, G V; Tikhvinskaya, O V


    The immune enzyme and immunochromatographic test-systems for detecting tularemia agent were developed on the basis of selected set of monoclonal antibodies having immunochemical activity to antigens Francisella tularensis. The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of developed test-systems demonstrated that samples provided detection of strains of F. tularensis in concentration from 5.0 x 105 mkxcm-3 to 1.0 x 106 mkxcm-3 and gave no false positive results in analysis of heterologous microorganisms in concentration of 1.0 x 108 mkxcm-3.

  3. Endocannabinoids and the Immune System in Health and Disease. (United States)

    Cabral, Guy A; Ferreira, Gabriela A; Jamerson, Melissa J


    Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that have the potential to signal through cannabinoid receptors to modulate the functional activities of a variety of immune cells. Their activation of these seven-transmembranal, G protein-coupled receptors sets in motion a series of signal transductional events that converge at the transcriptional level to regulate cell migration and the production of cytokines and chemokines. There is a large body of data that supports a functional relevance for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as acting through the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) to inhibit migratory activities for a diverse array of immune cell types. However, unequivocal data that supports a functional linkage of anandamide (AEA) to a cannabinoid receptor in immune modulation remains to be obtained. Endocannabinoids, as typical bioactive lipids, have a short half-life and appear to act in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Their immediate effective action on immune function may be at localized sites in the periphery and within the central nervous system. It is speculated that endocannabinoids play an important role in maintaining the overall "fine-tuning" of the immune homeostatic balance within the host.

  4. Effects of chalcone derivatives on players of the immune system. (United States)

    Lee, Jian Sian; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Fauzi, Norsyahida Mohd


    The immune system is the defense mechanism in living organisms that protects against the invasion of foreign materials, microorganisms, and pathogens. It involves multiple organs and tissues in human body, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. However, the execution of immune activities depends on a number of specific cell types, such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, which provide various immune responses against pathogens. In addition to normal physiological functions, abnormal proliferation, migration, and differentiation of these cells (in response to various chemical stimuli produced by invading pathogens) have been associated with several pathological disorders. The unwanted conditions related to these cells have made them prominent targets in the development of new therapeutic interventions against various pathological implications, such as atherosclerosis and autoimmune diseases. Chalcone derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, as well as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties. Many studies have been conducted to determine their inhibitory or stimulatory activities in immune cells, and the findings are of significance to provide a new direction for subsequent research. This review highlights the effects of chalcone derivatives in different types of immune cells.

  5. Multifunctional antimicrobial proteins and peptides: natural activators of immune systems. (United States)

    Niyonsaba, François; Nagaoka, Isao; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko


    In addition to the physical barrier of the stratum corneum, cutaneous innate immunity also includes the release of various humoral mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, recruitment and activation of phagocytes, and the production of antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs). AMPs form an innate epithelial chemical shield, which provides a front-line component in innate immunity to inhibit microbial invasion; however, this might be an oversimplification of the diverse functions of these molecules. In fact, apart from exhibiting a broad spectrum of microbicidal properties, it is increasingly evident that AMPs display additional activities that are related to the stimulation and modulation of the cutaneous immune system. These diverse functions include chemoattraction and activation of immune and/or inflammatory cells, the production and release of cytokines and chemokines, acceleration of angiogenesis, promotion of wound healing, neutralization of harmful microbial products, and bridging of both innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, better understanding of the functions of AMPs in skin and identification of their signaling mechanisms may offer new strategies for the development of potential therapeutics for the treatment of infection- and/or inflammation-related skin diseases. Here, we briefly outline the structure, regulation of expression, and multifunctional roles of principal skin-derived AMPs.

  6. Stochastic stage-structured modeling of the adaptive immune system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, D. L. (Dennis L.); Davenport, M. P. (Miles P.); Forrest, S. (Stephanie); Perelson, Alan S.,


    We have constructed a computer model of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to antigen and the maintenance of immunological memory. Because immune responses often begin with small numbers of cells and there is great variation among individual immune systems, we have chosen to implement a stochastic model that captures the life cycle of T cells more faithfully than deterministic models. Past models of the immune response have been differential equation based, which do not capture stochastic effects, or agent-based, which are computationally expensive. We use a stochastic stage-structured approach that has many of the advantages of agent-based modeling but is more efficient. Our model can provide insights into the effect infections have on the CTL repertoire and the response to subsequent infections.

  7. Influence of prebiotics on the human immune system (GALT). (United States)

    Bodera, Pawel


    Prebiotics have great potential to improve human health in specific intestinal disorders. The knowledge about the influence of prebiotics on the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) for the improvement of human health is still growing. This paper reviews the latest evidence for the immunity-enhancing effects of prebiotics. Prebiotics, include inulin, fructooligosaccharides, mannosoligosaccharides, and arabinogalactans, are a therapeutic nutritional preparation used for the gut function favoring growth of normal bacterial flora and impedes growth of pathogenic organisms. There is convincing preliminary data to suggest that the consumption of prebiotics can modulate immune parameters in GALT, secondary lymphoid tissues and peripheral circulation. There is increasing evidence that the newly described prebiotics and innovative means of administration can modulate various properties of the immune system, including those of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Authors of recently published patents showed new mechanisms for immuno-modulation, and the ultimate impact on immunological health of prebiotics.

  8. Signal transduction in cells of the immune system in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Kathrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level. Here we review the current knowledge about the question, if and how cellular signal transduction depends on the existence of gravity, with special focus on cells of the immune system. Since immune cell function is fundamental to keep the organism under imnological surveillance during the defence against pathogens, to investigate the effects and possible molecular mechanisms of altered gravity is indispensable for long-term space flights to Earth Moon or Mars. Thus, understanding the impact of gravity on cellular functions on Earth will provide not only important informations about the development of life on Earth, but also for therapeutic and preventive strategies to cope successfully with medical problems during space exploration.

  9. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets. (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia


    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  10. Platelets--an important element of the immune system. (United States)

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Deptuła, W


    Platelets are anucleate cells derived from the megakaryocyte series, and have long been considered only as cells responsible for coagulation and the fibrinolysis process. However, recently more data shows that they are also effector cells in the inflammatory response and important elements of the immunological response. Platelets store and release many biologically active substances, including growth factors, cytokines and chemokines (tab. 1), which actively affect i.a. elements of the immune system, and thus become regulators of immunity and mediators of inflammatory response. Their impact on the immune system cells is also associated with the induction of leucocytes and progenitor cells to the site of pathogen permeation or vascular injury inflow, as well as endothelial cells. Interacting with neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, they not only activate them, but also form platelet-leukocyte aggregates that immobilise pathogens and prevent their spreading. Furthermore, platelets are capable of absorbing pathogens, affecting anti-infection immunity of the system. It is also assumed that the presence of receptors on their surface, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), affects their initiation and activity of the immunological response.

  11. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.


    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla ÖZKAYA


    Full Text Available Automatic fingerprint recognition systems are utilised for personal identification with the use of comparisons of local ridge characteristics and their relationships. Critical stages in personal identification are to extract features automatically, fast and reliably from the input fingerprint images. In this study, a new approach based on artificial neural networks to extract minutiae from fingerprint images is developed and introduced. The results have shown that artificial neural networks achieve the minutiae extraction from fingerprint images with high accuracy.

  13. The Artificial Reverberation Real-time Processing System Based On DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Chuan-xue; ZHENG Sheng-lin; ZHANG Cheng-yun


    A real-time process system of artificial reverberation based on fixed-point DSP is presented in this paper. This paper dis- cusses the hardware interface and software between TMS320VC5509 DSP chip and TLV320AIC23 cedee chip. Based on this, it intro- duces the design and working of the artificial reverberation algorithm. At last, the paper discusses the sticking point in realization of real-time process.

  14. Progress in immunization information systems - United States, 2008. (United States)


    Immunization information systems (IISs) are confidential, computerized information systems that collect and consolidate vaccination data from multiple health-care providers, generate reminder and recall notifications, and assess vaccination coverage within a defined geographic area. A CDC program goal for 2010 is to achieve >or=95% participation in an IIS (defined as having two or more recorded vaccinations) among children aged Information Systems Annual Report (IISAR). All 56 grantees were asked to complete the IISAR; 52 did so for 2008. This report highlights results from the 2008 IISAR, which indicated that 75% of all U.S. children aged or=90% of IIS records (both measures are similar to 2006 results). Increased provider use of electronic health record systems can benefit IISs and their users by producing immunization records that are more timely and complete.

  15. Immune multi-agent model using vaccine for cooperative air-defense system of systems for surface warship formation based on danger theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Xiaozhe Zhao; Beiping Xu; Wei Wang; Zhiyong Niu


    Aiming at the problem on cooperative air-defense of surface warship formation, this paper maps the cooperative air-defense system of systems (SoS) for surface warship formation (CASoSSWF) to the biological immune system (BIS) according to the similarity of the defense mechanism and characteristics be-tween the CASoSSWF and the BIS, and then designs the mo-dels of components and the architecture for a monitoring agent, a regulating agent, a kil er agent, a pre-warning agent and a com-municating agent by making use of the theories and methods of the artificial immune system, the multi-agent system (MAS), the vaccine and the danger theory (DT). Moreover a new immune multi-agent model using vaccine based on DT (IMMUVBDT) for the cooperative air-defense SoS is advanced. The immune response and immune mechanism of the CASoSSWF are analyzed. The model has a capability of memory, evolution, commendable dy-namic environment adaptability and self-learning, and embodies adequately the cooperative air-defense mechanism for the CA-SoSSWF. Therefore it shows a novel idea for the CASoSSWF which can provide conception models for a surface warship forma-tion operation simulation system.

  16. Progress in immunization information systems--United States, 2011. (United States)


    Immunization information systems (IIS) are confidential, computerized, population-based systems that collect and consolidate vaccination data from vaccination providers and provide important tools for designing and sustaining effective immunization strategies. A Healthy People 2020 objective (IID-18) is to increase to 95% the proportion of children aged <6 years whose immunization records are in fully operational, population-based IIS. The National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) has published goals for IIS, including required and optional core data elements for which IIS should collect information. Two of the required core data elements are vaccine manufacturer and vaccine lot number. To monitor progress toward achieving these and other program goals, CDC annually surveys 56 immunization program grantees using the IIS Annual Report (IISAR). Results from the 2011 IISAR (completed by 54 grantees) indicate that 84% (19.2 million) of U.S. children aged <6 years participated in IIS, as defined by having at least two recorded vaccinations, an increase from 82% (18.8 million) in 2010. Grantees reported that an average of 63% of vaccination records for these children contained data in the field for vaccine manufacturer and 60% contained data in the field for lot number. A new project under way to capture vaccine product information, expiration date, and lot number on two-dimensional (2D) barcodes on vaccine vials might increase completeness, accuracy, and availability of these data elements in patient medical records and IIS, which in turn might enhance vaccine safety and support vaccine inventory management.

  17. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: Does the immune system matter? (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline Silva; Zhang, Cun-Jin; Katsumoto, Atsuko; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio


    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis involves proliferation, survival, differentiation and integration of newborn neurons into pre-existing neuronal networks. Although its functional significance in the central nervous system (CNS) has not comprehensively elucidated, adult neurogenesis has been attributed a role in cognition, learning and memory. There is a growing body of evidence that CNS resident as well as peripheral immune cells participate in regulating hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Microglial cells are closely associated with neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) in the neurogenic niche engaged in a bidirectional communication with neurons, which may be important for adult neurogenesis. Microglial and neuronal crosstalk is mediated in part by CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling and a disruption in this pathway has been associated with impaired neurogenesis. It has been also reported that microglial neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in adult neurogenesis occur in a context-dependent manner. Apart from microglia other brain resident and peripheral immune cells including pericytes, perivascular macrophages, mast cells and T-cells also modulate this phenomenon. It is worth mentioning that under some physiological circumstances such as normal aging there is a significant decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. A role for innate and adaptive immune system in adult neurogenesis has been also reported during aging. Here, we review the current evidence regarding neuro-immune interactions in the regulation of neurogenesis under distinct conditions, including aging.

  18. Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Hanley


    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus, of the Herpesviridae family, has evolved alongside humans for thousands of years with an intricate balance of latency, immune evasion, and transmission. While upwards of 70% of humans have evidence of CMV infection, the majority of healthy people show little to no clinical symptoms of primary infection and CMV disease is rarely observed during persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts. Despite the fact that the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, immunologically, CMV hijacks the immune system by infecting and remaining latent in antigen-presenting cells that occasionally reactivate subclinically and present antigen to T cells, eventually causing the inflation of CMV-specific T cells until they can compromise up to 10% of the entire T cell repertoire. Because of this impact on the immune system, as well as its importance in fields such as stem cell and organ transplant, the relationship between CMV and the immune response has been studied in depth. Here we provide a review of many of these studies and insights into how CMV-specific T cells are currently being used therapeutically.

  19. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota. (United States)

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia


    The gut nourishes rich bacterial communities that affect profoundly the functions of the immune system. The relationship between gut microbiota and the immune system is one of reciprocity. The microbiota contributes to nutrient processing and the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. Conversely, the immune system, particularly the adaptive immune system, plays a key role in shaping the repertoire of gut microbiota. The fitness of host immune system is reflected in the gut microbiota, and deficiencies in either innate or adaptive immunity impact on diversity and structures of bacterial communities in the gut. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that underlie this reciprocity and emphasize how the adaptive immune system via immunoglobulins (i.e. IgA) contributes to diversification and balance of gut microbiota required for immune homeostasis.

  20. An Immune Inspired Network Intrusion Detection System Utilising Correlation Context

    CERN Document Server

    Tedesco, Gianni


    Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) are computer systems which monitor a network with the aim of discerning malicious from benign activity on that network. While a wide range of approaches have met varying levels of success, most IDSs rely on having access to a database of known attack signatures which are written by security experts. Nowadays, in order to solve problems with false positive alerts, correlation algorithms are used to add additional structure to sequences of IDS alerts. However, such techniques are of no help in discovering novel attacks or variations of known attacks, something the human immune system (HIS) is capable of doing in its own specialised domain. This paper presents a novel immune algorithm for application to the IDS problem. The goal is to discover packets containing novel variations of attacks covered by an existing signature base.

  1. Research of Anti-spam System Basing on Immunity System and Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Bei; WU Yue; JI Lin; CHEN Jia


    The human immune system has the function of self-discern.It can identify the non-self antigen and clear it through the immune response automatically.So,human body has the power of resisting disease.The anti-spam system basing on immune system is proposed by using immune system's theory,and it is introduced in the mail service of enterprise VPN.Regard VPN as the human body,the mobile agent is simulated the antibody because of its movable and intelligent,and the spam is simulated the antigen.It can clear the spam by using immune mechanism.This method is a new thinking of anti-spam mail.The advantage is overcoming the weakness on independence of traditional anti-spam system.

  2. Delineating the deranged immune system in the antiphospholipid syndrome. (United States)

    van den Hoogen, Lucas L; van Roon, Joël A G; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth D E; Derksen, Ronald H W M


    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized serologically by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and clinically by vascular thrombosis and obstetric complications. The protein β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is identified as the most important autoantigen in this syndrome. Activation of endothelial cells, thrombocytes and placental tissue by anti-β2GPI antibodies relates to the clinical manifestations of APS. This review describes genetic and environmental factors in relation to APS and summarizes the current knowledge on abnormalities in components of both the innate and adaptive immune system in APS. The role of dendritic cells, T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, neutrophils and NK-cells as well as the complement system in APS are discussed. Several gaps in our knowledge on the pathophysiology of APS are identified and a plea is made for future extensive immune cell profiling by a systems medicine approach in order to better unravel the pathogenesis of APS, to gain more insight in the role of the immune system in APS as well as having the potential to reveal biomarkers or novel therapeutic targets.

  3. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Pilot Study Overview (United States)

    Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.


    Efficient, effective, multi-system countermeasures will likely be required to protect the health, safety, and performance of crews aboard planned exploration-class space flight missions to Mars and beyond. To that end, NASA, DLR, and IMBP initiated a multi-center international project to begin systematically exploring the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure in ground based venues using test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. The goal of this project is to explore the efficacy of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensory-motor adaptations to hypogravity. This session reports the results from a pilot study commissioned to validate a standardized protocol to be used by all centers involved in the project. Subject selection criteria, medical monitoring requirements, medical care procedures, experiment control procedures, and standardized dependent measures were established jointly. Testing was performed on 15 rigorously screened male volunteers subjected to 21 days of 6deg HDT bed rest. (All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them.) Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple tests of multiple dependent measures were made in each of the primary physiological systems of interest during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period was complete. Analyses of these data (presented in other papers in this session) suggest the AG prescription had salutary effects on aspects of the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Furthermore, treatment subjects were able to tolerate 153/160 centrifuge sessions over

  4. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli


    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  5. Chasing the recipe for a pro-regenerative immune system (United States)

    Pinto, Alexander R.; Rosenthal, Nadia A.


    Identification of the key ingredients and essential processes required to achieve perfect tissue regeneration in humans has so far remained elusive. Injury in vertebrates induces an obligatory wound response that will precede or overlap any regeneration specific program or scarring outcome. This process shapes the cellular and molecular landscape of the tissue, influencing the success of endogenous repair pathways or for potential clinical intervention. The involvement of immune cells is also required for aspects of development extending beyond the initial inflammatory phase of wounding. It has now become clear from amphibian, fish and mammalian models of tissue injury that the type of immune response and the profile of immune cells attending the site of injury can act as the gatekeepers that determine wound repair quality. The heterogeneity among innate and adaptive immune cell populations, along with the developmental origin of these cells, form key ingredients affecting the potential for downstream repair and the suppression of fibrosis. Cell-to-cell interactions between immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, with stem cells and mesenchymal cells are critically important for shaping this process and these exchanges, are in turn influenced by the type of injury, tissue location and developmental stage of the organism. Developmentally, mouse cardiac regeneration is restricted to early stages of postnatal life where the balance of innate to adaptive immune cells may be poised towards regeneration. In the injured adult mouse liver, specific macrophage subsets improve repair while other bone marrow derived cells can exacerbate injury. Other studies using genetically diverse mice have shown enhanced regeneration in certain strains, restricted to specific tissues. This enhanced repair is linked with expression of genes such as Insulin-like Growth Factor- 1 (IGF-1) and activin (Act 1), that both play important roles in shaping the immune system. Immune cells are

  6. A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems (United States)

    Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain


    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.

  7. Design and performance of heart assist or artificial heart control systems (United States)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.; Gebben, V. D.


    The factors leading to the design of a controlled driving system for either a heart assist pump or artificial heart are discussed. The system provides square pressure waveform to drive a pneumatic-type blood pump. For assist usage the system uses an R-wave detector circuit that can detect the R-wave of the electrocardiogram in the presence of electrical disturbances. This circuit provides a signal useful for synchronizing an assist pump with the natural heart. It synchronizes a square wave circuit, the output of which is converted into square waveforms of pneumatic pressure suitable for driving both assist device and artificial heart. The pressure levels of the driving waveforms are controlled by means of feedback channels to maintain physiological regulation of the artificial heart's output flow. A more compact system that could achieve similar regulatory characteristics is also discussed.

  8. How photons modulate wound healing via the immune system (United States)

    Dyson, Mary


    The immune system is a diverse group of cells that recognize and attack foreign substances, pathogenic organisms and cancer cells. It also produces inflammation, an essential component of the wound healing process and, following the resolution of inflammation, plays a crucial role in the control of granulation tissue formation. Granulation tissue is the precursor of scar tissue. Injured skin and mucous membranes generally heal rapidly. However, some wounds are either slow to heal or fail to heal while in others overgrowth of scar tissue occurs, resulting in the production of either hypertophic or keloid scars. The modulation of wound healing in such conditions is clinically important and may even be vital. Evidence will be presented that phototherapy can modulate wound healing, and that changes induced in the immune system, in particular the secretion of soluble protein mediators including cytokines, may be involved in this modulation. The immune system has peripheral and deep components. The former, being located mainly in the skin and mucous membranes, are readily accessible to photons, which can affect them directly. The components of the immune system are linked by lymphatic vessels and blood vessels, which include many capillaries located in the sub-epithelial connective tissues of the skin and mucous membranes. The superficial location of these capillaries provides the immune cells and molecules in transit through them with ready access to photons. When these cells and molecules, some modified by exposure to photons, reach susceptible cells such as lymphocytes in the deeper parts of the immune system and cells of injured tissues, they can modify their activity. In addition to having direct effects on peripheral cells, photons can thus also produce indirect effects on cells too distant for the photons to reach them. For example, cytokines released from peripheral macrophages in response to the direct action of photons can be transported to and affect other

  9. Dietary influence on pain via the immune system. (United States)

    Totsch, Stacie K; Waite, Megan E; Sorge, Robert E


    Obesity rates are approaching epidemic proportions and are a significant factor in annual health care costs. In addition to cardiovascular comorbidities, the presence of diabetes and/or chronic pain is extremely high in this population of individuals. It is now well accepted that the cells of the innate (and adaptive) immune system mediate both acute and chronic pain through release of cytokines into the system. In this chapter, we outline the ways in which poor food choices and elevated adipose tissue (body fat) are likely to activate the immune system and increase inflammation and pain. In addition, we explore the ways in which a variety of foods (e.g., broccoli, ginger, grapes, and fish oils) may have anti-inflammatory effects via their direct action on cells in the immune system and on the subsequent release of inflammatory cytokines. Some foods (green tea, ginger, and broccoli) have been found to antagonize specific cell surface receptors, whereas others (grapes, soy proteins, tomatoes and ginseng) appear to reduce nuclear translocation of the major transcription factor NFκB, thereby reducing production of inflammatory cytokines. Together, we provide data in support of the use of diet interventions to reduce pain and inflammation in patients suffering from chronic pain or other inflammation-mediated disorders.

  10. The immune system as a self-centered network of lymphocytes. (United States)

    Santori, Fabio R


    This essay makes a brief historical and comparative review of selective and network theories of the immune system which is presented as a chemical sensory system with immune and non-immune functions. The ontogeny of immune networks is the result of both positive and negative selection of lymphocytes to self-epitopes that serve as a "template" for the recognition of foreign antigens. The development of immune networks progresses from single individual clones in early ontogeny into complex "information processing networks" in which lymphocytes are linked to inhibitory and stimulatory immune cells. The results of these regulatory interactions modulate immune responses and tolerance.

  11. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts. (United States)

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can


    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the

  12. Inflammation and immune system activation in aging: a mathematical approach. (United States)

    Nikas, Jason B


    Memory and learning declines are consequences of normal aging. Since those functions are associated with the hippocampus, I analyzed the global gene expression data from post-mortem hippocampal tissue of 25 old (age ≥ 60 yrs) and 15 young (age ≤ 45 yrs) cognitively intact human subjects. By employing a rigorous, multi-method bioinformatic approach, I identified 36 genes that were the most significant in terms of differential expression; and by employing mathematical modeling, I demonstrated that 7 of the 36 genes were able to discriminate between the old and young subjects with high accuracy. Remarkably, 90% of the known genes from those 36 most significant genes are associated with either inflammation or immune system activation. This suggests that chronic inflammation and immune system over-activity may underlie the aging process of the human brain, and that potential anti-inflammatory treatments targeting those genes may slow down this process and alleviate its symptoms.

  13. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: the role of immune system cells. (United States)

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Marzano, Flaviana; Cavallo, Luciano


    In the last years, new evidences of the relationship between immune system and bone have been accumulated both in animal models and in humans affected by bone disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a subsequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. The combined effects of estrogen deprivation and raising of FSH production occurring in menopause cause a marked stimulation of bone resorption and a rapid bone loss which is central for the onset of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This review focuses on the role of immune system in postmenopausal osteoporosis and on therapeutic strategies targeting osteoimmunology pathways.

  14. The role of immune system exhaustion on cancer cell escape and anti-tumor immune induction after irradiation. (United States)

    Mendes, Fernando; Domingues, Cátia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Estrela, Jéssica; Encarnação, João; Pires, Ana Salomé; Laranjo, Mafalda; Alves, Vera; Teixo, Ricardo; Sarmento, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos


    Immune surveillance seems to represent an effective tumor suppressor mechanism. However, some cancer cells survive and become variants, being poorly immunogenic and able to enter a steady-state phase. These cells become functionally dormant or remain hidden clinically throughout. Neoplastic cells seem to be able to instruct immune cells to undergo changes promoting malignancy. Radiotherapy may act as a trigger of the immune response. After radiotherapy a sequence of reactions occurs, starting in the damage of oncogenic cells by multiple mechanisms, leading to the immune system positive feedback against the tumor. The link between radiotherapy and the immune system is evident. T cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells and other immune cells seem to have a key role in controlling the tumor. T cells may be dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell exhaustion, nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, being able to be mobilized to become highly functional. The lack of clinical trials on a large scale makes data a little robust, in spite of promising information, there are still many variables in the studies relating to radiation and immune system. The clarification of the mechanisms underlying immune response to radiation exposure may contribute to treatment improvement, gain of life quality and span of patients.

  15. Immune system evolution among anthropoid primates: parasites, injuries and predators. (United States)

    Semple, Stuart; Cowlishaw, Guy; Bennett, Peter M


    In this study we investigate whether present-day variation in a key component of the immune system (baseline leucocyte concentrations) represents evolutionary adaptation to ecological factors. In particular, we test three hypotheses, namely that leucocyte concentrations will be positively related to one of the following: risk of disease transmission between hosts, which is related to host abundance (hypothesis 1), risk of disease infection from the environment due to parasite viability and abundance (hypothesis 2), and risk of injury and subsequent infection, for example following attacks by predators (hypothesis 3). No support was found for hypothesis 1: neither population density nor group size were associated with variation in leucocyte concentrations. Hypothesis 2 was supported: for both sexes, lymphocyte and phagocyte concentrations were positively correlated with annual rainfall, as predicted if interspecific variation in the immune system is related to parasite prevalence (primates suffer higher rates of parasitism in wetter habitats). Support was also provided for hypothesis 3: for both males and females, platelet concentrations were negatively related to body mass, as predicted if injury risk affects immune system evolution, because animals with larger body mass have a relatively lower surface area available to injury. Additional support was provided for hypothesis 3 by the finding that for males, the sex which plays the active role in troop defence and retaliation against predators, concentration of platelets was positively correlated with rate of predation. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that the risk of disease infection from the environment and the risk of injury have played a key role in immune system evolution among anthropoid primates.

  16. Progress in immunization information systems - United States, 2012. (United States)


    Immunization information systems (IIS) are confidential, computerized, population-based systems that collect and consolidate vaccination data from vaccination providers that can be used in designing and sustaining effective immunization strategies. To monitor progress toward achieving IIS program goals, CDC annually surveys immunization program grantees using the IIS Annual Report (IISAR). Results from the 2012 IISAR, completed by 54 of 56 grantees, indicate that 86% (19.5 million) of U.S. children aged <6 years, and 25% (57.8 million) of U.S. adults participated in IIS. Eight of 12 minimum functional standards for IIS published by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) have been met by ≥90% of grantees. During 2011-2012, progress was also made in meeting three additional functional standards, including the presence of core data element fields, timeliness of vaccine records, and Health Level 7 (HL7) messaging, and will be monitored in new functional standards for IIS published in 2013. Several new and ongoing initiatives, including interoperability between IIS and electronic health records (i.e., ensuring systems can work together and exchange information), the use of IIS to support vaccine ordering and inventory management, the use of two-dimensional barcodes to record vaccination information, and collaboration with pharmacies, federal agencies, and other adult vaccination providers, will support further progress in meeting functional standards and enhance reporting of adult vaccinations to IIS.

  17. Collision avoidance planning in multi-robot system based on improved artificial potential field and rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xin; ZHU Qi-dan; YAN Yong-jie


    For real-time and distributed features of multi-robot system, the strategy of combining the improved artificial potential field method and the mles based on priority is proposed to study the collision avoidance planning in multi-robot systems. The improved artificial potential field based on simulated annealing algorithm satisfactorily overcomes the drawbacks of traditional artificial potential field method, so that robots can find a local collision-free path in the complex environment. According to the movement vector trail of robots, collisions between robots can be detected, thereby the collision avoidance rules can be obtained. Coordination between robots by the priority based rules improves the real-time property of multi-robot system. The combination of these two methods can help a robot to find a collision-free path from a starting point to the goal quickly in an environment with many obstacles. The feasibility of the proposed method is validated in the VC-basod simulated environment.

  18. Platforms for artificial neural networks : neurosimulators and performance prediction of MIMD-parallel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurpijl, L.G.


    In this thesis, two platforms for simulating artificial neural networks are discussed: MIMD-parallel processor systems as an execution platform and neurosimulators as a research and development platform. Because of the parallelism encountered in neural networks, distributed processor systems seem to

  19. Light and immune systems: activation of immunological activities (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.


    Light has been used to treat diseases for hundreds of years. Convenient and powerful light sources such as lasers make photomedicine a major branch in diseases treatment and detection. Originally, light was often used for local treatment, using photomechanical, photochemical, photothermal reactions and photomodulation as the major mechanisms. More and more investigators have become interested in the systemic effects of light, particularly in its effects on immune systems. Much work has been done to activate and/or enhance the host immune system to combat cancer, either using light as a direct tool or as an adjuvant method. Light has long been used for assisting disease detection and diagnosis. Advances in light technology have made photo-diagnostics ever more precise spatially and temporally. Many techniques facilitate observation of bio-molecule interactions and other biological processes at the cellular level, hence providing opportunities to detect and monitor immune activities. This manuscript will review recent photo-immunological research in treatment of cancer. The recent development of combination therapies involving lasers will be presented. Specifically, the results of cancer treatment using laser photothermal interaction, either with or without additional immunological stimulation will be discussed. The immunological effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT), and of its combination with immunotherapy in cancer treatment will also be discussed. Much interest has been recently concentrated in the immunological responses after laser treatment. Such responses at cellular and molecular levels will be discussed. The effect of these treatment modalities on the distant metastases also showed promise of light induced antitumor immunity. The combination therapy and induced immunological responses appear to be the key for long-term control of tumors.

  20. Coordinate actions of innate immune responses oppose those of the adaptive immune system during Salmonella infection of mice. (United States)

    Hotson, Andrew N; Gopinath, Smita; Nicolau, Monica; Khasanova, Anna; Finck, Rachel; Monack, Denise; Nolan, Garry P


    The immune system enacts a coordinated response when faced with complex environmental and pathogenic perturbations. We used the heterogeneous responses of mice to persistent Salmonella infection to model system-wide coordination of the immune response to bacterial burden. We hypothesized that the variability in outcomes of bacterial growth and immune response across genetically identical mice could be used to identify immune elements that serve as integrators enabling co-regulation and interconnectedness of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Correlation analysis of immune response variation to Salmonella infection linked bacterial load with at least four discrete, interacting functional immune response "cassettes." One of these, the innate cassette, in the chronically infected mice included features of the innate immune system, systemic neutrophilia, and high serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. Compared with mice with a moderate bacterial load, mice with the highest bacterial burden exhibited high activity of this innate cassette, which was associated with a dampened activity of the adaptive T cell cassette-with fewer plasma cells and CD4(+) T helper 1 cells and increased numbers of regulatory T cells-and with a dampened activity of the cytokine signaling cassette. System-wide manipulation of neutrophil numbers revealed that neutrophils regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling in B cells during infection. Thus, a network-level approach demonstrated unappreciated interconnections that balanced innate and adaptive immune responses during the dynamic course of disease and identified signals associated with pathogen transmission status, as well as a regulatory role for neutrophils in cytokine signaling.

  1. Magnetostatic bias in Kagome artificial spin ice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, I., E-mail:


    The magnetostatic bias in elongated nanomagnetic elements arranged in artificial Kagome spin ice arrays is studied by micromagnetic simulations. Using the Nmag package the reversal of a given element has been simulated under the influence of its four nearest neighbors with their magnetic states fixed in all possible configurations, which amount to 2{sup 4}=16 states that can be classified under five distinct cases. The hysteresis loop of each element is greatly influenced by the magnetic state of the nearest neighbors, not only by the expected shift due to dipolar interaction bias, but as it regards the loop shape and width itself. This presents a correction to the usual macrospin calculation based on the assumption that the loop is shifted by a biasing field (equal to the local dipole field) but the loop width (and shape in general) does not change. Although coercive and biasing fields depend strongly on the dimensions their relative strength has only weak thickness dependence for a fixed length to width aspect ratio. Therefore the behavior of such arrays is expected to be to a large degree size invariant apart from an appropriate maximum external applied field scaling.

  2. International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Subhransu; Panigrahi, Bijaya


      The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems (ICAEES 2014) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of use of artificial intelligence and evolutionary algorithms in engineering systems. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  3. The effects of ghrelin on inflammation and the immune system. (United States)

    Baatar, Dolgor; Patel, Kalpesh; Taub, Dennis D


    A number of hormones and metabolic mediators signal the brain of changes in the body's energy status and when an imbalance occurs; the brain coordinates the appropriate changes in energy intake and utilization via the control of appetite and food consumption. Under conditions of chronic inflammation and immune activation, there is often a significant loss of body mass and appetite suggesting the presence of shared ligands and signaling pathways mediating "crosstalk" between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced primarily by cells in the stomach and serves as a potent circulating orexigenic hormone controlling food intake, energy expenditure, adiposity and GH secretion. The functional roles of ghrelin and other growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) within the immune system and under states of inflammatory stress and injury are only now coming to light. A number of reports over the past decade have described ghrelin to be a potent anti-inflammatory mediator both in vitro and in vivo and a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and injury. Moreover, ghrelin has also been shown to promote lymphocyte development in the primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow and thymus) and to ablate age-associated thymic involution. In the current report, we review the literature supporting a role for ghrelin as an anti-inflammatory agent and immunoregulatory hormone/cytokine and its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and injury.

  4. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek


    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  5. Levamisole/Cocaine Induced Systemic Vasculitis and Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohit Garg


    Full Text Available Levamisole is an antihelminthic and immunomodulator medication that was banned by the USFDA in 1998. It has been increasingly used to adulterate cocaine due to its psychotropic effects and morphological properties. Adverse reactions including cutaneous vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, and agranulocytosis have been well described. Despite systemic vasculitis in this setting, renal involvement is uncommon. We report here a case of ANCA positive systemic vasculitis with biopsy proven immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis likely secondary to levamisole/cocaine. A 40-year-old Caucasian male with no past medical history presented with 3-week history of fatigue, skin rash, joint pains, painful oral lesions, oliguria, hematuria, worsening dyspnea on exertion, and progressive lower extremity edema. He had a history of regular tobacco and cocaine use. Lab testing revealed severe anemia, marked azotemia, deranged electrolytes, and 4.7 gm proteinuria. Rheumatologic testing revealed hypocomplementemia, borderline ANA, myeloperoxidase antibody, and positive atypical p-ANCA. Infectious and other autoimmune workup was negative. Kidney biopsy was consistent with immune mediated glomerulonephritis and showed mesangial proliferation and immune complex deposition consisting of IgG, IgM, and complement. High dose corticosteroids and discontinuing cocaine use resulted in marked improvement in rash, mucocutaneous lesions, and arthritis. There was no renal recovery and he remained hemodialysis dependent.

  6. Levamisole/Cocaine Induced Systemic Vasculitis and Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis. (United States)

    Garg, Lohit; Gupta, Sagar; Swami, Abhishek; Zhang, Ping


    Levamisole is an antihelminthic and immunomodulator medication that was banned by the USFDA in 1998. It has been increasingly used to adulterate cocaine due to its psychotropic effects and morphological properties. Adverse reactions including cutaneous vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, and agranulocytosis have been well described. Despite systemic vasculitis in this setting, renal involvement is uncommon. We report here a case of ANCA positive systemic vasculitis with biopsy proven immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis likely secondary to levamisole/cocaine. A 40-year-old Caucasian male with no past medical history presented with 3-week history of fatigue, skin rash, joint pains, painful oral lesions, oliguria, hematuria, worsening dyspnea on exertion, and progressive lower extremity edema. He had a history of regular tobacco and cocaine use. Lab testing revealed severe anemia, marked azotemia, deranged electrolytes, and 4.7 gm proteinuria. Rheumatologic testing revealed hypocomplementemia, borderline ANA, myeloperoxidase antibody, and positive atypical p-ANCA. Infectious and other autoimmune workup was negative. Kidney biopsy was consistent with immune mediated glomerulonephritis and showed mesangial proliferation and immune complex deposition consisting of IgG, IgM, and complement. High dose corticosteroids and discontinuing cocaine use resulted in marked improvement in rash, mucocutaneous lesions, and arthritis. There was no renal recovery and he remained hemodialysis dependent.

  7. Viral infections in mice with reconstituted human immune system components. (United States)

    Münz, Christian


    Pathogenic viruses are often difficult to study due to their exclusive tropism for humans. The development of mice with human immune system components opens the possibility to study those human pathogens with a tropism for the human hematopoietic lineage in vivo. These include HCMV, EBV, KSHV, HIV, HTLV-1, dengue virus and JC virus. Furthermore, some human pathogens, like HSV-2, adenovirus, HCV, HBV and influenza A virus, with an additional tropism for somatic mouse tissues or for additional transplanted human tissues, mainly liver, have been explored in these models. The cellular tropism of these viruses, their associated diseases and primarily cell-mediated immune responses to these viral infections will be discussed in this review. Already some exciting information has been gained from these novel chimeric in vivo models and future avenues to gain more insights into the pathology, but also potential therapies, will be outlined. Although the respective in vivo models of human immune responses can still be significantly improved, they already provide preclinical systems for in vivo studies of important viral pathogens of humans.

  8. Human breast milk and the gastrointestinal innate immune system. (United States)

    Jakaitis, Brett M; Denning, Patricia W


    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a large potential portal for multiple infectious agents to enter the human body. The GI system performs multiple functions as part of the neonate's innate immune system, providing critical defense during a vulnerable period. Multiple mechanisms and actions are enhanced by the presence of human breast milk. Bioactive factors found in human milk work together to create and maintain an optimal and healthy environment, allowing the intestines to deliver ideal nutrition to the host and afford protection by a variety of mechanisms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Snopov


    Full Text Available Besides the well-known effects upon bone metabolism, vitamin D (VD plays important roles in many other processes in the body, including immune regulation. VD action is carried out through its cellular membrane receptor, which is expressed in a variety of human organs and tissues, e.g., most cells of immune system, as well as epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes. The cell-membrane bound VD receptor is transferred to the cytoplasm, to form a functional complex with vitamin A and its receptor. This complex provides either inhibiting, or enhancing effect upon transcription of hundreds genes in the nuclear DNA, including those that regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, thus preventing malignancy and angiogenesis. The following effects of VD are supposed with respect to immune system: VD inhibits antigen presentation by dendritic cells, supresses Th1-cell differentiation and the production of Th1-cytokines, shifts the balance of Th1/Th2 cell responses towards the Th2 response, exerts inhibitory effect upon Th17 cells, promotes Treg cell development, and increases their activity. In addition, VD boosts production of «endogenous antibiotics» that may provide powerful effects upon Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses. Therefore, VD seems quite important for prevention of autoimmune and atopic diseases: multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, development of asthma in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. VD protects from a wide range of infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy and respiratory infections, and prevents the development of several tumors. Almost half the population of different countries has a VD hypovitaminosis, often hidden and undiagnosed, and this can be a leading cause of weakened immunity and increased morbidity. The diagnostics of VD hypovitaminosis, prevention and treatment of hypovitaminosis should be among the

  10. A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Yin


    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity.

  11. A multiuser detector based on artificial bee colony algorithm for DS-UWB systems. (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu


    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity.

  12. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems (United States)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza


    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  13. Improved Artificial Immune Algorithm Based on Weapon-Target Assignment%基于改进人工免疫算法的火力分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪引; 李体方; 王立安


    随着现代武器杀伤力的极大提高,任何来袭目标的突防都可能造成极大的破坏,这对传统的火力分配提出了挑战。提出一种新的火力集中原则,在满足对来袭目标一定杀伤的前提下,适当转移火力,实现火力总的集中,据此建立了火力分配优化模型。通过改进人工免疫算法的抗体群,提高模型的求解速度,缩短方案的寻优时间。通过实例进行仿真,结果表明,基于改进人工免疫算法能较快速实现火力分配,算法具有一定的可行性。%With the great improvement of modern weapons,any target penetration may cause great damage,which challenges the traditional fire distribution. So a new firepower-concentrated principle is put forward in this paper. According to the principle,the fire total concentration can be obtained through transferring fire appropriately,and a fire distribution model is founded. An optimized fire distribution scheme is given based on the improved artificial immune algorithm. The simulation results show that the improved artificial immune algorithm is capable of distributing the firepower effectively and quickly,the method has certain feasibility.

  14. Human CD8+ T cells mediate protective immunity induced by a human malaria vaccine in human immune system mice. (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Funakoshi, Ryota; Sheetij, Dutta; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya


    A number of studies have shown that CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in a mouse model. However, whether human CD8+ T cells play a role in protection against malaria remains unknown. We recently established human immune system (HIS) mice harboring functional human CD8+ T cells (HIS-CD8 mice) by transduction with HLA-A∗0201 and certain human cytokines using recombinant adeno-associated virus-based gene transfer technologies. These HIS-CD8 mice mount a potent, antigen-specific HLA-A∗0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response upon immunization with a recombinant adenovirus expressing a human malaria antigen, the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP), termed AdPfCSP. In the present study, we challenged AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice with transgenic Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing full-length PfCSP and found that AdPfCSP-immunized (but not naïve) mice were protected against subsequent malaria challenge. The level of the HLA-A∗0201-restricted, PfCSP-specific human CD8+ T-cell response was closely correlated with the level of malaria protection. Furthermore, depletion of human CD8+ T cells from AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice almost completely abolished the anti-malaria immune response. Taken together, our data show that human CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in vivo.

  15. Olive oil and immune system functions: potential involvement in immunonutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo


    Full Text Available Olive oil plays a crucial role as a main component of the Mediterranean diet, which has shown important benefits for the human health. According to the current knowledge, the administration of diets containing olive oil exerts some beneficial effects on the immune system functions due likely to the action of oleic acid rather than other substances contained in this fat. In the last few years, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have evidenced the potential of certain dietary lipids (containing polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids as modulators of immune system functions due to their ability to suppress several functions of immune system in both humans and animals. As a result, these fats have been applied in the reduction of symptoms from diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system (autoimmune diseases or in the reduction of cancer risk. Here, we review several relevant experimental and clinical data associated with the beneficial effects of olive oil upon the health, the mechanisms of action and the immune function susceptible of being be altered by the administration of dietary lipids and particularly of olive oil. In addition, we will also discuss the detrimental effects on the immune system functions caused by the administration of certain dietary lipids attributed mainly to a reduction of host natural resistance against infectious microorganisms as well as the involvement of olive oil diets in the regulation of immune resistance.El aceite de oliva tiene un papel crucial como componente de la dieta Mediterránea, con importantes beneficios sobre la salud humana. Dietas conteniendo aceite de oliva actúan de manera favorable en las funciones del sistema inmune por la acción sobretodo del ácido oleico. Los estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales publicados en los últimos años demuestran que ciertos lípidos de la dieta [ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y poliinsaturados (PUFA

  16. Cognitive Connected Vehicle Information System Design Requirement for Safety: Role of Bayesian Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Khan


    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS are gaining acceptance around the world and the connected vehicle component of ITS is recognized as a high priority research and development area in many technologically advanced countries. Connected vehicles are expected to have the capability of safe, efficient and eco-driving operations whether these are under human control or in the adaptive machine control mode of operations. The race is on to design the capability to operate in connected traffic environment. The operational requirements can be met with cognitive vehicle design features made possible by advances in artificial intelligence-supported methodology, improved understanding of human factors, and advances in communication technology. This paper describes cognitive features and their information system requirements. The architecture of an information system is presented that supports the features of the cognitive connected vehicle. For better focus, information processing capabilities are specified and the role of Bayesian artificial intelligence is defined for data fusion. Example applications illustrate the role of information systems in integrating intelligent technology, Bayesian artificial intelligence, and abstracted human factors. Concluding remarks highlight the role of the information system and Bayesian artificial intelligence in the design of a new generation of cognitive connected vehicle.

  17. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.


    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  18. Learning Efficiency of Consciousness System for Robot Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shoubaky


    Full Text Available This paper presents learning efficiency of a consciousness system for robot using artificial neural network. The proposed conscious system consists of reason system, feeling system and association system. The three systems are modeled using Module of Nerves for Advanced Dynamics (ModNAD. Artificial neural network of the type of supervised learning with the back propagation is used to train the ModNAD. The reason system imitates behaviour and represents self-condition and other-condition. The feeling system represents sensation and emotion. The association system represents behaviour of self and determines whether self is comfortable or not. A robot is asked to perform cognition and tasks using the consciousness system. Learning converges to about 0.01 within about 900 orders for imitation, pain, solitude and the association modules. It converges to about 0.01 within about 400 orders for the comfort and discomfort modules. It can be concluded that learning in the ModNAD completed after a relatively small number of times because the learning efficiency of the ModNAD artificial neural network is good. The results also show that each ModNAD has a function to imitate and cognize emotion. The consciousness system presented in this paper may be considered as a fundamental step for developing a robot having consciousness and feelings similar to humans.

  19. Modeling of human colonic blood flow for a novel artificial anal sphincter system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZAN; Guo-zheng YAN; Hua LIU


    A novel artificial anal sphincter system has been developed to simulate the normal physiology of the human anorectum. With the goal of engineering a safe and reliable device, the model of human colonic blood flow has been built and the relationship between the colonic blood flow rate and the operating occlusion pressure of the anorectum is achieved. The tissue ischemia is analyzed based on constitutive relations for human anorectum. The results suggest that at the planned operating occlusion pressure of less than 4 kPa the artificial anal sphincter should not risk the vaseularity of the human colon.

  20. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.


    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system. R

  1. Gapped sequence alignment using artificial neural networks: application to the MHC class I system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Nielsen, Morten


    . On this relatively simple system, we developed a sequence alignment method based on artificial neural networks that allows insertions and deletions in the alignment. Results: We show that prediction methods based on alignments that include insertions and deletions have significantly higher performance than methods...

  2. An open and configurable embedded system for EMG pattern recognition implementation for artificial arms. (United States)

    Jun Liu; Fan Zhang; Huang, He Helen


    Pattern recognition (PR) based on electromyographic (EMG) signals has been developed for multifunctional artificial arms for decades. However, assessment of EMG PR control for daily prosthesis use is still limited. One of the major barriers is the lack of a portable and configurable embedded system to implement the EMG PR control. This paper aimed to design an open and configurable embedded system for EMG PR implementation so that researchers can easily modify and optimize the control algorithms upon our designed platform and test the EMG PR control outside of the lab environments. The open platform was built on an open source embedded Linux Operating System running a high-performance Gumstix board. Both the hardware and software system framework were openly designed. The system was highly flexible in terms of number of inputs/outputs and calibration interfaces used. Such flexibility enabled easy integration of our embedded system with different types of commercialized or prototypic artificial arms. Thus far, our system was portable for take-home use. Additionally, compared with previously reported embedded systems for EMG PR implementation, our system demonstrated improved processing efficiency and high system precision. Our long-term goals are (1) to develop a wearable and practical EMG PR-based control for multifunctional artificial arms, and (2) to quantify the benefits of EMG PR-based control over conventional myoelectric prosthesis control in a home setting.

  3. Interactions between the immune and nervous systems in pain


    Ren,Ke; Dubner, Ronald


    Immune cells and glia interact with neurons to alter pain sensitivity and to mediate the transition from acute to chronic pain. In response to injury, resident immune cells are activated and blood-borne immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. Immune cells not only contribute to immune protection but also initiate the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Through the synthesis and release of inflammatory mediators and interactions with neurotransmitters and their receptors, the im...

  4. Defence mechanisms and immune evasion in the interplay between the humane immune system and Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G


    Immunity to P. falciparum malaria is developed as a result of long term exposure to the parasite and depends on immunological memory. The key directors in immune recognition and regulation of the immunological responses are the T-cells. It seems reasonable to propose that immunity is acquired when...... a critical mass of T-cells, recognizing relevant malaria antigens, has been developed. These T-cells mediate immunity by regulating macrophage and B-cell activity, but they may also act directly as cytotoxic cells on infected hepatocytes and through production of parasite-toxic cytokines. The potential...... with development of immunity. Several mechanisms seem to be operating. 1) Induction of the immune response to some macromolecules is avoided because the parasites are living inside host cells during part of their life cycle, and the reaction to other molecules is apparently avoided by mimicry of host molecules. 2...

  5. 人工内分泌系统调节人工神经网络的控制模型%A dynamic control model for modulating using artificial neural networks using the artificial endocrine system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林广栋; 王煦法


    人体的内分泌系统是一个复杂的控制系统,与神经系统、免疫系统一起维持机体的内平衡.受内分泌系统与神经系统的相互作用机制启发,提出一种内分泌系统调节神经网络系统的EMNCS(endocrine modulated neural control system)控制模型.EMNCS模型中,内分泌系统可以根据环境变化动态调节神经网络系统,达到动态控制的目的.把该模型应用于动态环境下的机器人控制系统,实验表明,EMNCS模型能有效提高机器人在动态环境下的适应能力.%The endocrine system in the human body is a complex control system and cooperates with the neural and immune systems to maintain homeostasis. Inspired by the mechanism by which the endocrine system interacts with neural system, an EMNCS (endocrine modulated neural control system) model was proposed in which the artificial endocrine system modulated and artificial neural system. In EMNCS, the endocrine system could modulate the parameters and structures of the neural system in order to achieve dynamic control. The algorithm was applied in the robot system and experimental results show that EMNCS model can improve performance and enhance its adaptability.

  6. Understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in lung cancer: the role of immune checkpoints (United States)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Rosell, Rafael


    Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are poor with 5-year survivals of less than 5%. The immune system has an intricate and complex relationship with tumorigenesis; a groundswell of research on the immune system is leading to greater understanding of how cancer progresses and presenting new ways to halt disease progress. Due to the extraordinary power of the immune system—with its capacity for memory, exquisite specificity and central and universal role in human biology—immunotherapy has the potential to achieve complete, long-lasting remissions and cures, with few side effects for any cancer patient, regardless of cancer type. As a result, a range of cancer therapies are under development that work by turning our own immune cells against tumors. However deeper understanding of the complexity of immunomodulation by tumors is key to the development of effective immunotherapies, especially in lung cancer. PMID:26175923

  7. Friendly Bacteria May Lend a Hand to Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ [选注者言:细菌是可怕的,但是本文标题中的Friendly Bacteria让读者眼睛一亮!读罢全文,我们方才领悟:乳制品中的细菌Bifidobacterium lactis HN019能够在健康成年人体内增强两种免疫系统的细胞.本文核心句是:Certain strains ( 菌系 ) of lactic ( 乳的 ) acid ( 酸 ) bacteria in fermented dairy products may aid digestion, reduce cholesterol ( 胆固醇 ), prevent intestinal infections and boost the immune system, the authors note.

  8. Engineering applications of fpgas chaotic systems, artificial neural networks, random number generators, and secure communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; de la Fraga, Luis Gerardo


    This book offers readers a clear guide to implementing engineering applications with FPGAs, from the mathematical description to the hardware synthesis, including discussion of VHDL programming and co-simulation issues. Coverage includes FPGA realizations such as: chaos generators that are described from their mathematical models; artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict chaotic time series, for which a discussion of different ANN topologies is included, with different learning techniques and activation functions; random number generators (RNGs) that are realized using different chaos generators, and discussions of their maximum Lyapunov exponent values and entropies. Finally, optimized chaotic oscillators are synchronized and realized to implement a secure communication system that processes black and white and grey-scale images. In each application, readers will find VHDL programming guidelines and computer arithmetic issues, along with co-simulation examples with Active-HDL and Simulink. Readers will b...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukach


    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and ninety-nine patients with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system were examined, and 131 (66.16% of them were found to be infected with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma. The mean age of female patients was 42,7±1,35 years. Different infectious agents (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Mycoplasma hominis were identified in cervical canal of uterine cervix and surgical specimens (biopsy samples of excised myoma, adenomyosis or endometrial hyperplasia. The infected patients were found to have decreased monocytes and neutrophils in blood counts, lower phagocytic activity of monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased bactericidal activity of leukocytes. Other findings included lower CD20+, CD8+ and rFAS CD 95 lymphocytes. Assessment of cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes showed a decrease in both spontaneous and stimulated response (р < 0,001. A weakest spontaneous and stimulated response was found in CD3+/IL-4+ lymphocytes. Analysis of results obtained shows systemic immune disorders and impaired cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes correlating with infection factors in the women with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 223-228.

  10. A Red-Light Running Prevention System Based on Artificial Neural Network and Vehicle Trajectory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li


    Full Text Available The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems.

  11. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.


    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  12. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs. (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N


    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs.

  13. Automatic control systems of daylighting and artificial lighting; Saiko shomei setsubi no seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Means for controlling illumination include a blind for adjusting the light coming directly from the sun, system for maintaining environmental comfort by controlling light-modulating glass and the like, labor-saving system incorporating a control center governing multiple buildings in the vicinity, and system intended for improved energy efficiency. Energy saving efforts include an occupancy sensor control for the automatic turn-on/off of lighting by detecting the presence or absence of people in a chamber, optimum lighting control using sensors for adjusting illumination to the designed level, time-scheduled control for the turning-on/off of lighting according to the time of the day, daylight utilizing control for adjusting artificial lighting according to the amount of incident daylight, guidance light control system for turning on guidance lights upon sensing a decrease in incident daylight. Other than these, there are controls of lighting for performance and demonstration. Examples of practical application include the system adopted by Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, for keeping incident light homogeneous, and the optimum illumination control and daylight utilizing control of Research & Development Center, The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Innate immune system and tissue regeneration in planarians: an area ripe for exploration. (United States)

    Peiris, T Harshani; Hoyer, Katrina K; Oviedo, Néstor J


    The immune system has been implicated as an important modulator of tissue regeneration. However, the mechanisms driving injury-induced immune response and tissue repair remain poorly understood. For over 200 years, planarians have been a classical model for studies on tissue regeneration, but the planarian immune system and its potential role in repair is largely unknown. We found through comparative genomic analysis and data mining that planarians contain many potential homologs of the innate immune system that are activated during injury and repair of adult tissues. These findings support the notion that the relationship between adult tissue repair and the immune system is an ancient feature of basal Bilateria. Further analysis of the planarian immune system during regeneration could potentially add to our understanding of how the innate immune system and inflammatory responses interplay with regenerative signals to induce scar-less tissue repair in the context of the adult organism.

  15. Reconfiguration of the immune system network during food limitation in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A; Davies, Gillian; Easy, Russell; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F


    Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. We found that food limitation lowered long-term (i.e. lipid) and short-term (i.e. sugars) energy stores in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. In severely food-limited caterpillars, some immune functions were enhanced. As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism.

  16. Implementation of hybrid short-term load forecasting system using artificial neural networks and fuzzy expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.H. [Kangwon National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Park, J.K. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Hwang, K.J. [Univ. of Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kim, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Power System Control Dept.


    In this paper, a hybrid model for short-term load forecast that integrates artificial neural networks and fuzzy expert systems is presented. The forecasted load is obtained by passing through two steps. In the first procedure, the artificial neural networks are trained with the load patterns corresponding to the forecasting hour, and the provisional forecasted load is obtained by the trained artificial neural networks. In the second procedure, the fuzzy expert systems modify the provisional forecasted load considering the possibility of load variation due to changes in temperature and the load behavior of holiday. In the test case of 1994 for implementation in short term load forecasting expert system of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), the proposed hybrid model provided good forecasting accuracy of the mean absolute percentage errors below 1.3%. The comparison results with exponential smoothing method showed the efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model.

  17. Effects of fenbendazole on the murine humoral immune system. (United States)

    Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B


    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered.

  18. Adaptation of the immune system as a response to pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović Ljubomir


    Full Text Available Introduction Pregnancy is an intriguing immunologic phenomenon. In spite of genetic differences, maternal and fetal cells are in close contact over the whole course of pregnancy with no evidence of either humoral and/or cellular immunologic response of mother to fetus as an allotransplant. The general opinion is that the fundamental protective mechanism must be located locally at the contact-plate, between the maternal and fetal tissues. Immunologic investigations proved the presence of specific systems which block the function of antipaternal maternal antibodies, as well as formation of cytotoxic maternal T-cells to paternal antigens. The system preventing rejection of graft during pregnancy is functioning at the level of maternal and fetal tissues. The protective mechanisms are coded by genes of MCH region, locus HLA-G. Protective mechanisms in the placenta The placenta protects itself against antibody-mediated damage. A high level of complement-regulatory proteins (CD46, CD55 and CD59, being the response to the synthesis of complement-fixing maternal antibodies to paternal antigens and regulation of the placental HLA expression as a preventive reaction of the feto-placental unit to the influence of maternal CTL, are the most important protective mechanisms of placenta. Protective mechanisms shared by the placenta and uterus Protective mechanisms common both for placenta and uterus are as follows: expressions of Fas ligand prevention of infiltration of activated immune cells, regulation of immunosuppression which prevents proliferation of immune cells and high natural immunity (Na cells and macrophages of the decidua.

  19. Safranal as a safe compound to mice immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate immunotoxic effect of safranal (SAF, a main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, using Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: SAF was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 ml/kg for 3 weeks. Hystopathological examination of spleen and bone marrow, cellularity of spleen, delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH response, hemagglutination titer (HA, cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation assay were studied in various groups of animals. Results: Spleen cellularity for SAF groups (0.1 ml/kg SAF: 6.68 [± 0.88] × 107, 0.5 ml/kg SAF: 8.16 [± 1.33] × 107, 1 ml/kg SAF: 6.12 [± 0.59] × 107 did not significantly differ as compared to vehicle control (8.52 [± 1.36] × 107; p > 0.05. In addition, SAF at all doses could not produce any significant changes in hematological parameters, HA titer, DTH and lymphoproliferation responses, as well as in release of cytokines by isolated splenocytes (p > 0.05. Despite a few studies demonstrating some immunomodulatory effects for saffron extract, SAF as a major constituent of saffron did not induce any marked effects in immune system parameters of mice. Conclusion: Contrary to the toxicological studies which have indicated that SAF is more toxic than other active constituents in saffron stigma, at least it was found to be safe to mice immune system and has no toxicity on humoral and cellular immune responses.

  20. A theoretical approach to artificial intelligence systems in medicine. (United States)

    Spyropoulos, B; Papagounos, G


    The various theoretical models of disease, the nosology which is accepted by the medical community and the prevalent logic of diagnosis determine both the medical approach as well as the development of the relevant technology including the structure and function of the A.I. systems involved. A.I. systems in medicine, in addition to the specific parameters which enable them to reach a diagnostic and/or therapeutic proposal, entail implicitly theoretical assumptions and socio-cultural attitudes which prejudice the orientation and the final outcome of the procedure. The various models -causal, probabilistic, case-based etc. -are critically examined and their ethical and methodological limitations are brought to light. The lack of a self-consistent theoretical framework in medicine, the multi-faceted character of the human organism as well as the non-explicit nature of the theoretical assumptions involved in A.I. systems restrict them to the role of decision supporting "instruments" rather than regarding them as decision making "devices". This supporting role and, especially, the important function which A.I. systems should have in the structure, the methods and the content of medical education underscore the need of further research in the theoretical aspects and the actual development of such systems.

  1. Guidance for human interface with artificial intelligence systems (United States)

    Potter, Scott S.; Woods, David D.


    The beginning of a research effort to collect and integrate existing research findings about how to combine computer power and people is discussed, including problems and pitfalls as well as desirable features. The goal of the research is to develop guidance for the design of human interfaces with intelligent systems. Fault management tasks in NASA domains are the focus of the investigation. Research is being conducted to support the development of guidance for designers that will enable them to make human interface considerations into account during the creation of intelligent systems.

  2. A Concise Introduction to Multiagent Systems and Distributed Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Vlassis, Nikos


    Multiagent systems is an expanding field that blends classical fields like game theory and decentralized control with modern fields like computer science and machine learning. This monograph provides a concise introduction to the subject, covering the theoretical foundations as well as more recent developments in a coherent and readable manner. The text is centered on the concept of an agent as decision maker. Chapter 1 is a short introduction to the field of multiagent systems. Chapter 2 covers the basic theory of singleagent decision making under uncertainty. Chapter 3 is a brief introductio

  3. On Three Challenges of Artificial Living Systems and Embodied Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge


    Creating autonomous, self-supporting, self-replicating, sustainable systems is a great challenge. To some extent, understanding life means not only being able to create it from scratch, but also improving, supporting, saving it, or even making it even more advanced. This can be thought of as a long-term goal of living technologies and embodied evolution. Current research agenda targets several short- and middle-term steps towards achieving such a vision: connection of ICT and bio-/chemo- developments, advances in "soft" and "wet" robotics, integration of material science into developmental robotics, and potentially, addressing the self-replication in autonomous systems.

  4. Exercise and the immune system Ejercicio y sistema inmune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Caraballo Gracia


    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that physical exercise, carried out at diverse intensities, modulates the function of different human body systems, and that it plays a major role in the immune response. Therefore, it is necessary to find out if these changes have benefic or harmful effects on the host adaptation against several pathogenic agents. The study of these physical-stress-induced changes might have a great impact on the comprehension and prevention of some diseases that involve activation of the immune system such as allergies, infections, immunodeficiencies and cancer. This article presents a review of current information concerning this area, with the purpose of providing concepts to help readers understand this biological phenomena and their implications in human health. Several immune response parameters have been studied during physical exercise, including their relationship with the stress-induced hormonal response and the profile of different hormones according to the intensity of physical activity. Also, changes in blood cell populations (lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils and the behavior of cytokines and the synthesis of specific immune globulins have been assessed. This knowledge has allowed to establish a relationship between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, which might explain the various changes in the immune response and the adaptation seen in physical activity, as well as the differences found at diverse exercise intensity and frequency levels. Se ha demostrado que el ejercicio hecho a diferentes intensidades cumple una función moduladora sobre diversos sistemas, y que su acción sobre la respuesta inmune es de gran importancia. Por lo tanto, es necesario esclarecer si estos cambios constituyen efectos benéficos o perjudiciales en cuanto a las adaptaciones del hospedero frente a diversos agentes patógenos. El estudio de estos cambios inducidos por el estrés físico puede tener un impacto grande en la comprensi

  5. A Review of Intelligent Driving Style Analysis Systems and Related Artificial Intelligence Algorithms. (United States)

    Meiring, Gys Albertus Marthinus; Myburgh, Hermanus Carel


    In this paper the various driving style analysis solutions are investigated. An in-depth investigation is performed to identify the relevant machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms utilised in current driver behaviour and driving style analysis systems. This review therefore serves as a trove of information, and will inform the specialist and the student regarding the current state of the art in driver style analysis systems, the application of these systems and the underlying artificial intelligence algorithms applied to these applications. The aim of the investigation is to evaluate the possibilities for unique driver identification utilizing the approaches identified in other driver behaviour studies. It was found that Fuzzy Logic inference systems, Hidden Markov Models and Support Vector Machines consist of promising capabilities to address unique driver identification algorithms if model complexity can be reduced.

  6. Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods (United States)

    Leong, Harrison Monfook


    General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

  7. The Innate Immune System in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allal Boutajangout


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the leading cause for dementia in the world. It is characterized by two biochemically distinct types of protein aggregates: amyloid β (Aβ peptide in the forms of parenchymal amyloid plaques and congophilic amyloid angiopathy (CAA and aggregated tau protein in the form of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT. Several risk factors have been discovered that are associated with AD. The most well-known genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4 (Potter and Wisniewski (2012, and Verghese et al. (2011. Recently, it has been reported by two groups independently that a rare functional variant (R47H of TREM2 is associated with the late-onset risk of AD. TREM2 is expressed on myeloid cells including microglia, macrophages, and dendritic cells, as well as osteoclasts. Microglia are a major part of the innate immune system in the CNS and are also involved in stimulating adaptive immunity. Microglia express several Toll-like receptors (TLRs and are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS. In this review, we will focus on the recent advances regarding the role of TREM2, as well as the effects of TLRs 4 and 9 on AD.

  8. Can the Immune System Perform a t-Test? (United States)

    Faria, Bruno Filipe; Mostardinha, Patricia


    The self-nonself discrimination hypothesis remains a landmark concept in immunology. It proposes that tolerance breaks down in the presence of nonself antigens. In strike contrast, in statistics, occurrence of nonself elements in a sample (i.e., outliers) is not obligatory to violate the null hypothesis. Very often, what is crucial is the combination of (self) elements in a sample. The two views on how to detect a change seem challengingly different and it could seem difficult to conceive how immunological cellular interactions could trigger responses with a precision comparable to some statistical tests. Here it is shown that frustrated cellular interactions reconcile the two views within a plausible immunological setting. It is proposed that the adaptive immune system can be promptly activated either when nonself ligands are detected or self-ligands occur in abnormal combinations. In particular we show that cellular populations behaving in this way could perform location statistical tests, with performances comparable to t or KS tests, or even more general data mining tests such as support vector machines or random forests. In more general terms, this work claims that plausible immunological models should provide accurate detection mechanisms for host protection and, furthermore, that investigation on mechanisms leading to improved detection in “in silico” models can help unveil how the real immune system works. PMID:28046042

  9. The evolution of nasal immune systems in vertebrates. (United States)

    Sepahi, Ali; Salinas, Irene


    The olfactory organs of vertebrates are not only extraordinary chemosensory organs but also a powerful defense system against infection. Nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) has been traditionally considered as the first line of defense against inhaled antigens in birds and mammals. Novel work in early vertebrates such as teleost fish has expanded our view of nasal immune systems, now recognized to fight both water-borne and air-borne pathogens reaching the olfactory epithelium. Like other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), NALT of birds and mammals is composed of organized lymphoid tissue (O-NALT) (i.e., tonsils) as well as a diffuse network of immune cells, known as diffuse NALT (D-NALT). In teleosts, only D-NALT is present and shares most of the canonical features of other teleost MALT. This review focuses on the evolution of NALT in vertebrates with an emphasis on the most recent findings in teleosts and lungfish. Whereas teleost are currently the most ancient group where NALT has been found, lungfish appear to be the earliest group to have evolved primitive O-NALT structures.

  10. An immunoenzymatic system to study in vitro immune responses (United States)

    Macario, A. J. L.; Conway De Macario, E.; Celada, F.


    A system for studying in vitro the antibody response against a single determinant and to all the determinants of a macromolecule (β-D-Galactosidase of Escherichia coli) is described. It consists of culturing fragments of rabbit lymph nodes (either preimmunized in vivo or not) and exposing them to antigen in vitro. Antibodies secreted into the culture during several days, and up to 3 months in the secondary response, were titrated for: (a) one-hit activation AMEF, the cross-reacting material produced by a point mutant Lac- E. coli; and (b) precipitation of wild type enzyme. Titrations of activating and binding antibodies are very sensitive owing to the amplification potential inherent in the enzymatic assays, which allows several antibody measurements on minute samples. In addition antigen decay in vitro was followed and correlated with the antibody response, showing faster disappearance when the latter took place. Time-course studies of the in vitro antibody response demonstrated that precipitating titres are higher and last longer than activating antibody titres. Repeated in vitro challenges showed decay of the memory potential of in vivo primed lymph nodes, as well as the possibility of inducing an immune response in vitro using non-primed lymph nodes. The results underline the amenability of the present system to the study of in vitro primary and secondary immune responses toward restricted portions of a macromolecule. PMID:4120932

  11. Characterization of human antiviral adaptive immune responses during hepatotropic virus infection in HLA-transgenic human immune system mice. (United States)

    Billerbeck, Eva; Horwitz, Joshua A; Labitt, Rachael N; Donovan, Bridget M; Vega, Kevin; Budell, William C; Koo, Gloria C; Rice, Charles M; Ploss, Alexander


    Humanized mice have emerged as a promising model to study human immunity in vivo. Although they are susceptible to many pathogens exhibiting an almost exclusive human tropism, human immune responses to infection remain functionally impaired. It has recently been demonstrated that the expression of HLA molecules improves human immunity to lymphotropic virus infections in humanized mice. However, little is known about the extent of functional human immune responses in nonlymphoid tissues, such as in the liver, and the role of HLA expression in this context. Therefore, we analyzed human antiviral immunity in humanized mice during a hepatotropic adenovirus infection. We compared immune responses of conventional humanized NOD SCID IL-2Rγ-deficient (NSG) mice to those of a novel NOD SCID IL-2Rγ-deficient strain transgenic for both HLA-A*0201 and a chimeric HLA-DR*0101 molecule. Using a firefly luciferase-expressing adenovirus and in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we demonstrate a human T cell-dependent partial clearance of adenovirus-infected cells from the liver of HLA-transgenic humanized mice. This correlated with liver infiltration and activation of T cells, as well as the detection of Ag-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. When infected with a hepatitis C virus NS3-expressing adenovirus, HLA-transgenic humanized mice mounted an HLA-A*0201-restricted hepatitis C virus NS3-specific CD8(+) T cell response. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the generation of partial functional antiviral immune responses against a hepatotropic pathogen in humanized HLA-transgenic mice. The adenovirus reporter system used in our study may serve as simple in vivo method to evaluate future strategies for improving human intrahepatic immune responses in humanized mice.

  12. Immunity-based detection, identification, and evaluation of aircraft sub-system failures (United States)

    Moncayo, Hever Y.

    This thesis describes the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an integrated Artificial Immune System (AIS) for detection, identification, and evaluation of a wide variety of sensor, actuator, propulsion, and structural failures/damages including the prediction of the achievable states and other limitations on performance and handling qualities. The AIS scheme achieves high detection rate and low number of false alarms for all the failure categories considered. Data collected using a motion-based flight simulator are used to define the self for an extended sub-region of the flight envelope. The NASA IFCS F-15 research aircraft model is used and represents a supersonic fighter which include model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The flight simulation tests are designed to analyze and demonstrate the performance of the immunity-based aircraft failure detection, identification and evaluation (FDIE) scheme. A general robustness analysis is also presented by determining the achievable limits for a desired performance in the presence of atmospheric perturbations. For the purpose of this work, the integrated AIS scheme is implemented based on three main components. The first component performs the detection when one of the considered failures is present in the system. The second component consists in the identification of the failure category and the classification according to the failed element. During the third phase a general evaluation of the failure is performed with the estimation of the magnitude/severity of the failure and the prediction of its effect on reducing the flight envelope of the aircraft system. Solutions and alternatives to specific design issues of the AIS scheme, such as data clustering and empty space optimization, data fusion and duplication removal, definition of features, dimensionality reduction, and selection of cluster/detector shape are also

  13. Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Etienne


    Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems: Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge focuses on the cognitive approaches, methodologies, principles, and concepts involved in the communication of knowledge. The publication first elaborates on knowledge communication systems, basic issues, and tutorial dialogues. Concerns cover natural reasoning and tutorial dialogues, shift from local strategies to multiple mental models, domain knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, implicit versus explicit encoding of knowledge, knowledge communication, and practical and theoretic

  14. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia (United States)

    Zabrodina, L. V.


    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  15. Event detection challenges, methods, and applications in natural and artificial systems


    Kerman, Mitchell C.; Jiang, Wei; Blumberg, Alan F.; Buttrey, Samuel E.


    A system is a combination of elements whose collaborative actions produce results generally not attainable by the elements acting alone, and an event is a significant occurrence or large-scale activity that is unusual relative to normal patterns of behavior. Event detection, or the process of identifying the occurrence of an event, within both natural and artificial (or man-made) systems has long been a topic of research, and a variety of techniques have been developed to address event detec...

  16. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems


    Kathryn Elizabeth Merrick; Kamran eShafi


    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivati...

  17. Review of Data Preprocessing Methods for Sign Language Recognition Systems based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorins Aleksejs


    Full Text Available The article presents an introductory analysis of relevant research topic for Latvian deaf society, which is the development of the Latvian Sign Language Recognition System. More specifically the data preprocessing methods are discussed in the paper and several approaches are shown with a focus on systems based on artificial neural networks, which are one of the most successful solutions for sign language recognition task.

  18. Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei L9 on mouse systemic immunity and the immune response in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuanbo


    Full Text Available A probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei L9,which was isolated from human intestine, was investigated for its immunomodulatory activity in vivo. Results showed that L9 improved systemic immunity by enhancing the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages, the proliferation ratio of splenocytes, the IgG level in the serum and the level of IgA in the mucosa. Further, L9induced theTh1-polarized immune response by elevating the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in the mucosa. This effect was confirmed by the enhanced IL-12-inducing activity of macrophages after in vitro stimulation of L9. Also detected was increased expression of TLR-2mRNA in the mucosa. We predict that L9 could enhance innate immunity by activating TLR-2 in the mucosa, and enhance acquired immunity by promoting Th1 polarization through induced production of IL-12 by macrophages.

  19. On Three Challenges of Artificial Living Systems and Embodied Evolution


    Kernbach, Serge


    Creating autonomous, self-supporting, self-replicating, sustainable systems is a great challenge. To some extent, understanding life means not only being able to create it from scratch, but also improving, supporting, saving it, or even making it even more advanced. This can be thought of as a long-term goal of living technologies and embodied evolution. Current research agenda targets several short- and middle-term steps towards achieving such a vision: connection of ICT and bio-/chemo- deve...

  20. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry by means of Bonner spheres system and artificial neural networks applying robust design of artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez B, M.R.; Ortiz R, J.M.; Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde No. 801, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    An Artificial Neural Network has been designed, trained and tested to unfold neutron spectra and simultaneously to calculate equivalent doses. A set of 187 neutron spectra compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency and 13 equivalent doses were used in the artificial neural network designed, trained and tested. In order to design the neural network was used the robust design of artificial neural networks methodology, which assures that the quality of the neural networks takes into account from the design stage. Unless previous works, here, for first time a group of neural networks were designed and trained to unfold 187 neutron spectra and at the same time to calculate 13 equivalent doses, starting from the count rates coming from the Bonner spheres system by using a systematic and experimental strategy. (Author)

  1. The Neuromodulation of the Intestinal Immune System and Its Relevance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (United States)

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Verheijden, Simon; Bosmans, Goele; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Matteoli, Gianluca


    One of the main tasks of the immune system is to discriminate and appropriately react to "danger" or "non-danger" signals. This is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract, where the immune system is confronted with a myriad of food antigens and symbiotic microflora that are in constant contact with the mucosa, in addition to any potential pathogens. This large number of antigens and commensal microflora, which are essential for providing vital nutrients, must be tolerated by the intestinal immune system to prevent aberrant inflammation. Hence, the balance between immune activation versus tolerance should be tightly regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and to prevent immune activation indiscriminately against all luminal antigens. Loss of this delicate equilibrium can lead to chronic activation of the intestinal immune response resulting in intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In order to maintain homeostasis, the immune system has evolved diverse regulatory strategies including additional non-immunological actors able to control the immune response. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates a bidirectional link between the two systems in which the brain modulates the immune response via the detection of circulating cytokines and via direct afferent input from sensory fibers and from enteric neurons. In the current review, we will highlight the most recent findings regarding the cross-talk between the nervous system and the mucosal immune system and will discuss the potential use of these neuronal circuits and neuromediators as novel therapeutic tools to reestablish immune tolerance and treat intestinal chronic inflammation.

  2. Research on Immunotherapy: Using the Immune System to Treat Cancer (United States)

    ... cells that suppress immune responses. These advances in cancer immunotherapy are the result of long-term investments in ... Engineering Patients’ Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers Cancer immunotherapy in children: How does it differ from approaches ...

  3. Hybrid Systems for Knowledge Representation in Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari P.V N


    Full Text Available There are few knowledge representation (KR techniques available for efficiently representing knowledge. However, with the increase in complexity, better methods are needed. Some researchers came up with hybrid mechanisms by combining two or more methods. In an effort to construct an intelligent computer system, a primary consideration is to represent large amounts of knowledge in a way that allows effective use and efficiently organizing information to facilitate making the recommended inferences. There are merits and demerits of combinations, and standardized method of KR is needed. In this paper, various hybrid schemes of KR were explored at length and details presented.

  4. The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; Possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, YD; DeJongste, MJL; terHorst, GJ


    The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this investigation the effects of immune activation on the brain are characterized In order to study this, we used a model for chronic immune activation, the myocardial

  5. Excitonic and vibrational coherence in artificial photosynthetic systems studied by negative-time ultrafast laser spectroscopy. (United States)

    Han, Dongjia; Xue, Bing; Du, Juan; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Miyatake, Tomohiro; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Xing, Xin; Yuan, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Leng, Yuxin


    Quantum coherences between excitonic states are believed to have a substantial impact on excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems. Here, the excitonic and vibrational coherence relaxation dynamics of artificially synthetic chlorosomes are studied by a sub 7 fs negative-time-delay laser spectroscopy at room temperature. The results provide direct evidence for the quantum coherence of the excitonic dephasing time of 23 ± 1 fs at physiologically relevant temperatures, which is significant in the initial step of energy transfer in chlorosome or chlorosome-like photosynthetic systems. Meanwhile, coherent molecular vibrations in the excited state are also detected without the effect of wave-packet motion in the ground state, which shows that the excited state wave-packet motion contributes greatly to the vibrational modes of ∼150 and ∼1340 cm(-1) in artificial chlorosome systems.

  6. Risk assessment of sewer condition using artificial intelligence tools: application to the SANEST sewer system. (United States)

    Sousa, V; Matos, J P; Almeida, N; Saldanha Matos, J


    Operation, maintenance and rehabilitation comprise the main concerns of wastewater infrastructure asset management. Given the nature of the service provided by a wastewater system and the characteristics of the supporting infrastructure, technical issues are relevant to support asset management decisions. In particular, in densely urbanized areas served by large, complex and aging sewer networks, the sustainability of the infrastructures largely depends on the implementation of an efficient asset management system. The efficiency of such a system may be enhanced with technical decision support tools. This paper describes the role of artificial intelligence tools such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines for assisting the planning of operation and maintenance activities of wastewater infrastructures. A case study of the application of this type of tool to the wastewater infrastructures of Sistema de Saneamento da Costa do Estoril is presented.

  7. Interactions between glia, the immune system and pain processes during early development. (United States)

    Barr, Gordon A; Hunter, Deirtra A


    Pain is a serious problem for infants and children and treatment options are limited. Moreover, infants born prematurely or hospitalized for illness likely have concurrent infection that activates the immune system. It is now recognized that the immune system in general and glia in particular influence neurotransmission and that the neural bases of pain are intimately connected to immune function. We know that injuries that induce pain activate immune function and suppressing the immune system alleviates pain. Despite this advance in our understanding, virtually nothing is known of the role that the immune system plays in pain processing in infants and children, even though pain is a serious clinical issue in pediatric medicine. This brief review summarizes the existing data on immune-neural interactions in infants, providing evidence for the immaturity of these interactions.

  8. An innovative artificial recharge system to enhance groundwater storage in basaltic terrain: example from Maharashtra, India (United States)

    Bhusari, Vijay; Katpatal, Y. B.; Kundal, Pradeep


    The management of groundwater poses challenges in basaltic terrain as its availability is not uniform due to the absence of primary porosity. Indiscriminate excessive withdrawal from shallow as well as deep aquifers for meeting increased demand can be higher than natural recharge, causing imbalance in demand and supply and leading to a scarcity condition. An innovative artificial recharge system has been conceived and implemented to augment the groundwater sources at the villages of Saoli and Sastabad in Wardha district of Maharashtra, India. The scheme involves resectioning of a stream bed to achieve a reverse gradient, building a subsurface dam to arrest subsurface flow, and installation of recharge shafts to recharge the deeper aquifers. The paper focuses on analysis of hydrogeological parameters like porosity, specific yield and transmissivity, and on temporal groundwater status. Results indicate that after the construction of the artificial recharge system, a rise of 0.8-2.8 m was recorded in the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater levels in 12 dug wells in the study area; an increase in the yield was also noticed which solved the drinking water and irrigation problems. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographic information system to demarcate the area of influence of the recharge system due to increase in yields of the wells. The study demonstrates efficacy, technical viability and applicability of an innovative artificial recharge system constructed in an area of basaltic terrain prone to water scarcity.

  9. Metal-Based Nanoparticles and the Immune System: Activation, Inflammation, and Potential Applications. (United States)

    Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Louis W; Lin, Pinpin


    Nanomaterials, including metal-based nanoparticles, are used for various biological and medical applications. However, metals affect immune functions in many animal species including humans. Different physical and chemical properties induce different cellular responses, such as cellular uptake and intracellular biodistribution, leading to the different immune responses. The goals of this review are to summarize and discuss the innate and adaptive immune responses triggered by metal-based nanoparticles in a variety of immune system models.

  10. Ontogeny of the immune system in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhong; He, Tao; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang


    Histogenesis of the immune system and specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus from fertilization to 50 days after hatching (DAH). The pronephric tubule primordium developed in the embryo, 14 h 30 min post fertilization. The spleen anlage was observed between the swim bladder and the intestine at 5 DAH, and the thymus was formed as a paired structure under the pharyngeal epithelium above the gill arch at 10 DAH. The order of the immune organs becoming lymphoid was the pronephric kidney (10 DAH), thymus (15 DAH) and spleen (21 DAH). As the embryo developed, the specific activity of SOD gradually increased until hatching, but subsequently SOD activity continuously decreased to a minimum at 14 DAH. After the spleen became lymphoid, the specific activity of SOD was relatively stable. It is suggested that the immaturity of the lymphoid organs and low specific activity of SOD was the cause of the high mortality of fingerlings 12 to 16 DAH.

  11. BACE1-Deficient Mice Exhibit Alterations in Immune System Pathways. (United States)

    Stertz, L; Contreras-Shannon, V; Monroy-Jaramillo, N; Sun, J; Walss-Bass, C


    BACE1 encodes for the beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or β-secretase. Genetic deletion of Bace1 leads to behavioral alterations and affects midbrain dopaminergic signaling and memory processes. In order to further understand the role of BACE1 in brain function and behavior, we performed microarray transcriptome profiling and gene pathway analysis in the hippocampus of BACE1-deficient mice compared to wild type. We identified a total of 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), mostly enriched in pathways related to the immune and inflammation systems, particularly IL-9 and NF-κB activation pathways. Serum levels of IL-9 were elevated in BACE1-deficient mice. Our network analysis supports an intimate connection between immune response via NF-κB and BACE1 signaling through the NRG1/Akt1 pathway. Our findings warrant future mechanistic studies to determine if BACE1 signaling and the IL-9 pathway interact to alter behavior and brain function. This study opens new avenues in the investigation of hippocampus-related neuroimmunological and neuroinflammation-associated disorders.

  12. Antimicrobial peptides: key components of the innate immune system. (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin


    Life-threatening infectious diseases are on their way to cause a worldwide crisis, as treating them effectively is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) form an ancient type of innate immunity found universally in all living organisms, providing a principal first-line of defense against the invading pathogens. The unique diverse function and architecture of AMPs has attracted considerable attention by scientists, both in terms of understanding the basic biology of the innate immune system, and as a tool in the design of molecular templates for new anti-infective drugs. AMPs are gene-encoded short (antimicrobial activity. AMPs have been the subject of natural evolution, as have the microbes, for hundreds of millions of years. Despite this long history of co-evolution, AMPs have not lost their ability to kill or inhibit the microbes totally, nor have the microbes learnt to avoid the lethal punch of AMPs. AMPs therefore have potential to provide an important breakthrough and form the basis for a new class of antibiotics. In this review, we would like to give an overview of cationic antimicrobial peptides, origin, structure, functions, and mode of action of AMPs, which are highly expressed and found in humans, as well as a brief discussion about widely abundant, well characterized AMPs in mammals, in addition to pharmaceutical aspects and the additional functions of AMPs.

  13. Central Nervous System-Peripheral Immune System Dialogue in Neurological Disorders: Possible Application of Neuroimmunology in Urology. (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Sun; Park, Min-Jung; Kwon, Min-Soo


    Previous concepts of immune-privileged sites obscured the role of peripheral immune cells in neurological disorders and excluded the consideration of the potential benefits of immunotherapy. Recently, however, numerous studies have demonstrated that the blood-brain barrier in the central nervous system is an educational barrier rather than an absolute barrier to peripheral immune cells. Emerging knowledge of immune-privileged sites suggests that peripheral immune cells can infiltrate these sites via educative gates and that crosstalk can occur between infiltrating immune cells and the central nervous system parenchyma. This concept can be expanded to the testis, which has long been considered an immune-privileged site, and to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Thus, we propose that the relationship between peripheral immune cells, the brain, and the urologic system should be considered as an additional possible mechanism in urologic diseases, and that immunotherapy might be an alternative therapeutic strategy in treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

  14. The role of the immune system in central nervous system plasticity after acute injury. (United States)

    Peruzzotti-Jametti, L; Donegá, M; Giusto, E; Mallucci, G; Marchetti, B; Pluchino, S


    Acute brain injuries cause rapid cell death that activates bidirectional crosstalk between the injured brain and the immune system. In the acute phase, the damaged CNS activates resident and circulating immune cells via the local and systemic release of soluble mediators. This early immune activation is necessary to confine the injured tissue and foster the clearance of cellular debris, thus bringing the inflammatory reaction to a close. In the chronic phase, a sustained immune activation has been described in many CNS disorders, and the degree of this prolonged response has variable effects on spontaneous brain regenerative processes. The challenge for treating acute CNS damage is to understand how to optimally engage and modify these immune responses, thus providing new strategies that will compensate for tissue lost to injury. Herein we have reviewed the available information regarding the role and function of the innate and adaptive immune responses in influencing CNS plasticity during the acute and chronic phases of after injury. We have examined how CNS damage evolves along the activation of main cellular and molecular pathways that are associated with intrinsic repair, neuronal functional plasticity and facilitation of tissue reorganization.

  15. Artificial duplicate reads in sequencing data of 454 Genome Sequencer FLX System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dong; Yangyi Chen; Yan Shen; Shengyue Wang; Guoping Zhao; Weirong Jin


    The 454 Genome Sequencer (GS) FLX System is one of the next-generation sequencing systems featured by long reads, high accuracy, and ultra-high throughput.Based on the mechanism of emulsion PCR, a unique DNA template would only generate a unique sequence read after being amplified and sequenced on GS FLX.However,biased amplification of DNA templates might occur in the process of emulsion PCR, which results in production of artificial duplicate reads.Under the condition that each DNA template is unique to another, 3.49%-18.14% of total reads in GS FLX-sequencing data were found to be artificial duplicate reads.These duplicate reads may lead to misunderstanding of sequencing data and special attention should be paid to the potential biases they introduced to the data.

  16. Friendly Bacteria May Lend a Hand to Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    细菌是可怕的。但是本文标题中的Friendly Bacteria让读者眼睛一亮!读罢全文,我们方才领悟:乳制品中的细菌Bifidobacterium Iactis HN019能够在健康成年人体内增强两种免疫系统的细胞。本文核心句是: Certain strains(菌系)of lactic(乳的)acid(酸)bacteria in fermented dairy products may aid digestion, reduce cholesterol(胆固醇), prevent intestinal infections and boost the immune system, the authors note. 酸奶的保健功能由此可见一斑。

  17. BRAF inhibition improves tumor recognition by the immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Fagone, Paolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando


    In spite of the fact that they occur at high rates, the clinical responses of BRAF(V600) mutant metastatic melanoma to BRAF inhibitors are usually short-lasting, with most cases progressing within less than 8 mo. Immunomodulatory strategies initiated after progression have recently been reported...... to be poorly efficient. By characterizing the immunological interactions between T cells and cancer cells in clinical material as well as the influence of the FDA-approved BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib on the immune system, we aimed at unraveling new strategies to expand the efficacy of adoptive T-cell transfer......, which represents one of the most promising approaches currently in clinical development for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Here we show that blocking the BRAF-MAPK pathway in BRAF signaling-addicted melanoma cells significantly increases the ability of T cells contained in clinical grade tumor...

  18. Coevolution between the Human Microbiota and the Epithelial Immune System. (United States)

    Sigal, Michael; Meyer, Thomas F


    The composition and spatial distribution of our gut microbiota is tightly controlled by the host to prevent bacterial invasion and systemic infection. The gastrointestinal epithelium is predominantly made up of a cellular monolayer equipped with a number of sophisticated autonomous defense mechanisms, which are strikingly efficient in maintaining homeostasis between the luminal microbes and the host. This short review highlights aspects of this finetuned interplay. We also address how deficiencies in mucosal defense can promote disease. First, genetic defects of sensors or effectors of epithelial defense can result in the disruption of the mucosal barrier and lead to chronic inflammatory conditions. Second, chronic colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract can actively manipulate mucosal defense to escape immune surveillance. As shown for Helicobacter pylori in the stomach, sustained manipulation of the epithelium through specialized virulence determinants can increase the risk for genetic lesions and malignant transformation.

  19. Effects of artificial infection of Litopenaeus vannamei by Micrococcus lysodeikticus and WSSV on the activity of immunity related enzymes. (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Gang; Chan, Siuming F


    In this study, the activities of 5 immunity related enzymes namely acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD) and lysozyme phosphatase (LZM)) of Litopenaeus vannamei after they have been injected with different concentrations of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were examined. The cumulative mortality at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h was obtained. Copy numbers of WSSV in L. vannamei after a single infection, secondary infection and concurrent infection were measured. Hemolymph samples of M. lysodeikticus and WSSV injected shrimp were collected at 0, 6, 12 24, 48, 72, 78, 84, 96 and 120 h. The results were: (i) The cumulative mortality of L. vannamei increased as the shrimp were infected with higher concentration of the bacteria; (ii) The most sensitive changes of ACP, AKP and LZM were in the 6.2 × 10(5), 6.2 × 10(6), 6.2 × 10(7) cfu/mL M. lysodeikticus group; (iii) ACP but LZM were more sensitive to M. lysodeikticus than WSSV, and AKP, PO and POD is more sensitive to WSSV; (iv) The copies of WSSV in the co-injected group were higher than WSSV-single infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection group at 48 h. The amount of WSSV in L. vannamei of concurrent infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection groups were higher than that of the WSSV-single infection group.

  20. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro


    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.