Artificial Gravity Research Plan
Gilbert, Charlene
2014-01-01
This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard G Carson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When we move along in time with a piece of music, we synchronise the downward phase of our gesture with the beat. While it is easy to demonstrate this tendency, there is considerable debate as to its neural origins. It may have a structural basis, whereby the gravitational field acts as an orientation reference that biases the formulation of motor commands. Alternatively, it may be functional, and related to the economy with which motion assisted by gravity can be generated by the motor system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a robotic system to generate a mathematical model of the gravitational forces acting upon the hand, and then to reverse the effect of gravity, and invert the weight of the limb. In these circumstances, patterns of coordination in which the upward phase of rhythmic hand movements coincided with the beat of a metronome were more stable than those in which downward movements were made on the beat. When a normal gravitational force was present, movements made down-on-the-beat were more stable than those made up-on-the-beat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ubiquitous tendency to make a downward movement on a musical beat arises not from the perception of gravity, but as a result of the economy of action that derives from its exploitation.
International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity (IMAG) Project
Laurini, Kathy
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts of the International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity Project. Specifically it reviews the NASA Exploration Planning Status, NASA Exploration Roadmap, Status of Planning for the Moon, Mars Planning, Reference health maintenance scenario, and The Human Research Program.
Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover
Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.
2007-01-01
The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.
Research recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity
Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angie
Many experts believe that artificial gravity will be required for an interplanetary mission. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for simplifying operational activities, much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before artificial gravity can be successfully implemented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team on Artificial Gravity recommended a comprehensive program to determine the gravity threshold required to reverse or prevent the detrimental effects of microgravity and to evaluate the effects of centrifugation on various physiological functions. Part of the required research can be accomplished using animal models on a dedicated centrifuge in low Earth orbit. Studies of human responses to centrifugation could be performed during ambulatory, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight studies. Artificial-gravity scenarios should not be a priori discarded in Moon and Mars mission designs. One major step is to determine the relationship between the artificial gravity dose level, duration, and frequency and the physiological responses of the major body functions affected by spaceflight. Once its regime characteristics are defined and a dose-response curve is established, artificial gravity should serve as the standard against which all other countermeasure candidates are evaluated, first on Earth and then in space.
Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation
Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
Space vehicle with artificial gravity and earth-like environment
Gray, V. H. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A space vehicle adapted to provide an artificial gravity and earthlike atmospheric environment for occupants is disclosed. The vehicle comprises a cylindrically shaped, hollow pressure-tight body, one end of which is tapered from the largest diameter of the body, the other end is flat and transparent to sunlight. The vehicle is provided with thrust means which rotates the body about its longitudinal axis, generating an artificial gravity effect upon the interior walls of the body due to centrifugal forces. The walls of the tapered end of the body are maintained at a temperature below the dew point of water vapor in the body and lower than the temperature near the transparent end of the body. The controlled environment and sunlight permits an earth like environment to be maintained wherein the CO2/O2 is balanced, and food for the travelers is supplied through a natural system of plant life grown on spacecraft walls where soil is located.
The Gravbed - artificial gravity for long-term missions
Duenckelmeyer, M.; Ullmann, F.; Gierer, T.; Keller, R.
With this experiment we have applied for the Student Parabolic Flight Campaign of the Esa The effects of long-term missions under micro-gravity conditions on the human body are quite enormous Some of these effects can lead to severe medical problems such as osteoporosis Spider Legs and Puffy Face functional circulatory disorders Space Adaptation Syndrome and a decreasing of the baro-reflex Thus a number of different countermeasures are required to combat these negative effects This proposed experiment will counter some of these effects by applying artificial gravity to the body of an individual crewmember during the sleeping period Using the wasted time of sleep for this important countermeasure is the innovation of this project The proposed method aims at countering negative effects of micro-gravity on the cardio-vasculaer system heart blood circuit and intestinal organs Other effects such as bone or muscle degeneration cannot be counter to a use extent The artificial gravity used in this experiment will be created by rotation around one stable axis As the rotation radius will be quite small the rotational speed will have to be quite high in order to achieve a gravitational load of one G Under these conditions the effects of the coriolis force on the human body seem to be a defining factor possibly even a show stopper Looking at the coriolis force more closely it can be seen that it only applies for test persons moving in a rotating environment Thus we propose to fix the test person in such a way that on the one hand
Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition
Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.
2007-01-01
Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early
Artificial gravity exposure impairs exercise-related neurophysiological benefits.
Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan
2014-01-17
Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (pbenefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning. PMID:24184512
Artificial gravity: head movements during short-radius centrifugation
Young, L. R.; Hecht, H.; Lyne, L. E.; Sienko, K. H.; Cheung, C. C.; Kavelaars, J.
2001-01-01
Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure to long-term weightlessness. Unfortunately, head movements in a rotating environment induce serious discomfort, non-compensatory vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and subjective illusions of body tilt. In two experiments we investigated the effects of pitch and yaw head movements in participants placed supine on a rotating bed with their head at the center of rotation, feet at the rim. The vast majority of participants experienced motion sickness, inappropriate vertical nystagmus and illusory tilt and roll as predicted by a semicircular canal model. However, a small but significant number of the 28 participants experienced tilt in the predicted plane but in the opposite direction. Heart rate was elevated following one-second duration head turns. Significant adaptation occurred following a series of head turns in the light. Vertical nystagmus, motion sickness and illusory tilt all decreased with adaptation. Consequences for artificial gravity produced by short-radius centrifuges as a countermeasure are discussed. Grant numbers: NCC 9-58. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Michael A.; Thomas J. Goodwin; Pelligra, Ralph
2016-01-01
The next major steps in human spaceflight include flyby, orbital, and landing missions to the Moon, Mars, and near earth asteroids. The first crewed deep space mission is expected to launch in 2022, which affords less than 7 years to address the complex question of whether and how to apply artificial gravity to counter the effects of prolonged weightlessness. Various phenotypic changes are demonstrated during artificial gravity experiments. However, the molecular dynamics (genotype and molecu...
Excercise Within LBNP as an Artificial Gravity Countermeasure
Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Meyer, R. S.; Macias, B.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, S.; Steinbach, G.; Groppo, E.; Khalili, N.; Boda, W. L.; O'Leary, D. D.; Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Monga, M.; Rajasekaran, M.; Ziegler, M. G.; Smith, S. M.; Schneider, S. M.
2003-01-01
Previous exercise in space has lacked sufficient loads to maintain preflight cardiovascular and musculoskeletal mass and function. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) produces a static force equivalent to one Earth body weight by each 52 mm Hg of LBNP during supine posture. LBNP also provides transmural blood pressures simulating upright exercise. Thus, this artificial-gravity concept may help maintain cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of crewmembers during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Currently available, bungee cord assisted, treadmill exercise is limited by harness discomfort, lower than normal loads, abnormal post-flight gait, and the absence of gravitational blood pressures within the vascular system. PURPOSE: This project evaluates a method to create artificial gravity using supine LBNP treadmill exercise to prevent loss of physiologic function in microgravity simulated by 30 days of bed rest. Identical twins were used as volunteers so that statistical power could be maximized. This countermeasure is being transitioned to space flight. CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH Methods: Six sets of identical twins (6 females and 14 males, 21-36 years) remained in 6 head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest for 30 days to simulate prolonged microgravity. Six subjects were randomly selected to exercise supine in an LBNP chamber for 40 minutes six days per week (EX group), while their twin brothers served as non-exercise controls (CON). Pressure within the exercise LBNP chamber was adjusted to increase load, hence increasing exercise intensity. During supine treadmill exercise, LBNP (52-63 mmHg) was applied to produce foot ward forces equivalent to those for upright running on Earth at 1.0-1.2 times body weight (BW) and subjects performed an interval exercise protocol (40-80% peak exercise capacity [VO2pk]). Five minutes of resting LBNP immediately followed each exercise session. Results: Orthostatic tolerance time decreased significantly after 30 days bed rest in the CON
Exercise Increases the Cardiovascular Stimulus Provided by Artificial Gravity
Howarth, M. S.; Moore, F. B.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Jezova, D.; Diedrich, A.; Ferris, M. B.; Schlegel, T. T.; Pathwardhan, A. R.; Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.
2008-01-01
We investigated fluid shifts and regulatory responses to variations of posture, exercise, Gz level and radius of rotation in subjects riding NASA Ames 20G centrifuge. Results are from 4 protocols that address radius and exercise effects only. Protocol A: After 10 min supine control, 12 healthy men (35 plus or minus 9 yr, 82.8 plus or minus 7.9 kg) were exposed to rotational 1 Gz (2.5 m radius) for 2 min followed by 20 min alternating between 1 and 1.25 Gz. Blood samples were taken pre and post spin. Protocol B: Same as A, but lower limb exercise (70% V02max) preceded ramps to 1.25 Gz. Protocol C: Same as A but radius of rotation 8.3 m. Protocol D: Same as B but at 8.3 m. The 8 subjects who completed all protocols, increased heart rate (HR) from control, on average, by: A: 5, B: 39, C: 11, D: 44 bpm. For thoracic fluid volume, (bioimpedance), the 8 subjects changed from control, on average: A: -394, B: -548, C: -537, D: -708 mL. For thigh fluid volume, changes from control, on average, were: A: -137, B: 129, C: -75, D: 159 mL. Hematocrit changes from control were: A: 2.3, B: 3.5, C: 2.3, D: 4.3 %. Radius effects were mild and included greater loss of fluid from the thorax, less fluid loss from the thigh and increased heart rate at the longer radius. Pre-acceleration exercise effects were more dramatic and included additional loss of fluid from the chest, increased fluid volume of the thigh, increased hematocrit and greater heart rate increases. We propose that short bouts of intense exercise can be used to magnify the cardiovascular stress delivered by artificial gravity (AG) training and the combination of AG with exercise training can be fine-tuned to preserve orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during spaceflight.
Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness
Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.
2007-01-01
The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.
Recommendations for Refinement and Validation of Intermittent Artificial Gravity
Young, Lauren R.; Paloski, William H.
2007-01-01
The IMAG Pilot Study, recently completed at the University of Texas Medical Branch, filled in the second major gap in knowledge standing in the way of development of a practical Short Radius Centrifuge (SRC) and the use of Artificial Gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to combat the deconditioning associated with extended weightlessness. (The first challenge, to adapt rapidly rotating subjects to permit unlimited head movements without excessive motion sickness, was achieved in a series of studies at MIT involving incremental increases in head and centrifuge velocity.) It remained to be demonstrated that intermittent exposure to AG, at only one hour per day for 21 days, would have any positive effect on slowing or eliminating of deconditioning. Bed-rested normal subjects were used as a ground analog for astronauts in weightlessness. The results are clearly positive for the key physiological systems of interest: cardiovascular, muscle, and bone. No functionally relevant changes were observed in immune, cognitive, or sensory-motor function. Furthermore, we found that our initial concerns about the inability of deconditioned subjects to withstand daily centrifugation without syncope were misplaced. These encouraging initial results clearly support the further development of AG protocols. We recommend, as the next steps, the integration of a controlled exercise device on the SRC to determine the synergy between AG and exercise. Coupled with appropriate exercise device(s) the AG protocol will be tuned to-ward an optimal prescription for minimum exposure duration and frequency, maximum AG level and SRC speed.. Performance of these next steps will require extensive use of bed-rest/centrifuge facilities and eventually validation using an SRC in space. A space SRC could be placed in the ISS or on a planetary surface.
Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4
Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles
2006-01-01
This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.
Precision Gravity Monitoring of Artificial Recharge at Little Cottonwood Canyon, Wasatch Front, Utah
Johnson, B. S.; Gettings, P.; Chapman, D. S.
2008-12-01
Repeated high-precision (± 5 μGal) gravity surveys are used to monitor artificial groundwater recharge at the Little Cottonwood Water Treatment Plant (LCWTP) in the southern portion of the Salt Lake Valley, UT. The gravity survey network consists of 30 sites arranged to capture the expected horizontal migration (> 500 meters/yr) of the infiltrated water. An additional 4 stations are arranged 1500 meters from the LCWTP infiltration sites for regional and environmental background control. Prior to starting recharge operations, a set of five background surveys were made between spring 2006 and summer 2007. Background (natural/environmental) variability is reliably estimated at 20 μGals. Infiltration commenced in mid-September 2007 and bimonthly gravity surveys were conducted until July 2008. A peak gravity change of 100 μGals was observed at the end of infiltration. The campaigns following cessation of infiltration showed a decreasing gravity anomaly indicating a dispersion of the ground water mound produced by the infiltration. The final gravity results from July of 2008 showed a 70 μGal decrease from the peak gravity value. Observations suggest the subsurface water flowed to the west of the LCWTP; however the control stations at the western most extent of the survey area show no increase in gravity. The gravity observations are comparable to a previous study conducted in the Weber River delta, which showed that the gravity decay over 3-5 months can be used to determine the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the area.
Toyota, Masatsugu; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.; Gilroy, Simon
2012-07-01
The starch-statolith hypothesis is the most widely accepted model for plant gravity sensing and proposes that the sedimentation of high-density starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) in shoot endodermal cells and root columella cells is important for gravity sensing of each organ. However, starch-deficient phosphoglucomutase (pgm-1) mutants sense gravity and show gravitropism in inflorescence stems, even though most starchless amyloplasts in this mutant fail to sediment toward the gravity vector. These results raise the questions about the role of starch in gravity sensing and the features of statolith/statocyte essential for shoot gravity sensing. To address these questions, we developed a new centrifuge microscope and analyzed two gravitropic mutants, i.e., pgm-1 and endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1). All optical devices (e.g., objective lens, light source and CCD camera) and specimens were rotated on a direct-drive motor, and acquired images were wirelessly transmitted during centrifugation. Live-cell imaging during centrifugation revealed that the starchless amyloplasts sedimented to the hypergravity vector (10 and 30 g) in endodermal cells of pgm-1 stems, indicating that the density of the starchless amyloplasts is higher than that of cytoplasm. Electron micrographs of shoot endodermal cells in pgm-1 mutants suggested that the starchless amyloplast contains an organized thylakoid membrane but not starch granules, which morphologically resembles chloroplasts in the adjacent cortical cells. Therefore, the shoot amyloplasts without starch are possibly as dense as chloroplasts. We examined eal1 mutants, an allele of shoot gravitropism (sgr) 7/short-root (shr), which also have starchless amyloplasts due to abnormal differentiation of amyloplasts and show no gravitropic response at 1 g. Hypergravity up to 30 g induced little gravitropism in eal1 stems and the starchless amyloplasts failed to sediment under 30 g conditions. However, the eal1 mutants treated with
Pradipta, R.; Lee, M. C.; Cohen, J. A.; Watkins, B. J.
2015-10-01
We report the results of our ionospheric HF heating experiments to generate artificial acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) and traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID), which were conducted at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility in Gakona, Alaska. Based on the data from UHF radar, GPS total electron content, and ionosonde measurements, we found that artificial AGW/TID can be generated in ionospheric modification experiments by sinusoidally modulating the power envelope of the transmitted O-mode HF heater waves. In this case, the modulation frequency needs to be set below the characteristic Brunt-Vaisala frequency at the relevant altitudes. We avoided potential contamination from naturally-occurring AGW/TID of auroral origin by conducting the experiments during geomagnetically quiet time period. We determine that these artificial AGW/TID propagate away from the edge of the heated region with a horizontal speed of approximately 160 m/s.
Method to maintain artificial gravity during transfer maneuvers for tethered spacecraft
Martin, Kaela M.; Landau, Damon F.; Longuski, James M.
2016-03-01
Artificial gravity has long been proposed to limit the harmful effects of the micro-gravity environment on human crews during mission to Mars. A tethered spacecraft spinning at 4 rpm (to avoid motion sickness) provides an attractive configuration. However, if the spacecraft is required to spin down for impulsive maneuvers and then spin up for interplanetary travel, the propellant cost may be unacceptably high. This paper proposes a maneuver that is performed while the spacecraft is spinning thus avoiding additional spin-down and spin-up maneuvers. A control law is provided to achieve the required ΔV while maintaining spin rate. A hypothetical human mission from Earth to Mars is analyzed using the new maneuver which, in this example, may save over 700 kg of propellant.
Combining ergometer exercise and artificial gravity in a compact-radius centrifuge
Diaz, Ana; Trigg, Chris; Young, Laurence R.
2015-08-01
Humans experience physiological deconditioning during space missions, primarily attributable to weightlessness. Some of these adverse consequences include bone loss, muscle atrophy, sensory-motor deconditioning, and cardiovascular alteration, which may lead to orthostatic intolerance when astronauts return to Earth. Artificial gravity could provide a comprehensive countermeasure capable of challenging all the physiological systems at once, particularly if combined with exercise, thereby maintaining overall health during extended exposure to weightlessness. A new Compact Radius Centrifuge (CRC) platform was designed and built on the existing Short Radius Centrifuge (SRC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The centrifuge has been constrained to a radius of 1.4 m, the upper radial limit for a centrifuge to fit within an International Space Station (ISS) module without extensive structural alterations. In addition, a cycle ergometer has been added for exercise during centrifugation. The CRC now includes sensors of foot forces, cardiovascular parameters, and leg muscle electromyography. An initial human experiment was conducted on 12 subjects to analyze the effects of different artificial gravity levels (0 g, 1 g, and 1.4 g, measured at the feet) and ergometer exercise intensities (25 W warm-up, 50 W moderate and 100 W vigorous) on the musculoskeletal function as well as motion sickness and comfort. Foot forces were measured during the centrifuge runs, and subjective comfort and motion sickness data were gathered after each session. Preliminary results indicate that ergometer exercise on a centrifuge may be effective in improving musculoskeletal function. The combination is well tolerated and motion sickness is minimal. The MIT CRC is a novel platform for future studies of exercise combined with artificial gravity. This combination may be effective as a countermeasure to space physiological deconditioning.
Gravity wave turbulence revealed by horizontal vibrations of the container
Issenmann, Bruno
2012-01-01
We experimentally study the role of the forcing on gravity-capillary wave turbulence. Previous laboratory experiments using spatially localized forcing (vibrating blades) have shown that the frequency power-law exponent of the gravity wave spectrum depends on the forcing parameters. By horizontally vibrating the whole container, we observe a spectrum exponent that does not depend on the forcing parameters for both gravity and capillary regimes. This spatially extended forcing leads to a gravity spectrum exponent in better agreement with the theory than by using a spatially localized forcing. The role of the vessel shape has been also studied. Finally, the wave spectrum is found to scale linearly with the injected power for both regimes whatever the forcing type used.
Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.
2007-01-01
The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also
What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax
Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter
2012-01-01
In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…
Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in nightglow satellite imagery.
Miller, Steven D; Straka, William C; Yue, Jia; Smith, Steven M; Alexander, M Joan; Hoffmann, Lars; Setvák, Martin; Partain, Philip T
2015-12-01
Gravity waves (disturbances to the density structure of the atmosphere whose restoring forces are gravity and buoyancy) comprise the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper atmospheric circulation, determining boundary conditions to stratospheric processes, which in turn influence tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various spatial and temporal scales. Despite their recognized importance, very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics. The knowledge gap is mainly due to lack of global, high-resolution observations from currently available satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained, limiting the description of various processes influenced by them. Here we highlight, through a series of examples, the unanticipated ability of the Day/Night Band (DNB) on the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite to resolve gravity structures near the mesopause via nightglow emissions at unprecedented subkilometric detail. On moonless nights, the Day/Night Band observations provide all-weather viewing of waves as they modulate the nightglow layer located near the mesopause (∼ 90 km above mean sea level). These waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from orography to convection, intensifying fronts, and even seismic and volcanic events. Cross-referencing the Day/Night Band imagery with conventional thermal infrared imagery also available helps to discern nightglow structures and in some cases to attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the atmospheric circulation. PMID:26630004
An Artificial Gravity Spacecraft Approach which Minimizes Mass, Fuel and Orbital Assembly Reg
Bell, L.
2002-01-01
The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research and design study that is exploring near and long-term commercial space development opportunities. Space tourism in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and possibly beyond LEO, comprises one business element of this plan. Supported by a financial gift from the owner of a national U.S. hotel chain, SICSA has examined opportunities, requirements and facility concepts to accommodate up to 100 private citizens and crewmembers in LEO, as well as on lunar/planetary rendezvous voyages. SICSA's artificial gravity Science Excursion Vehicle ("AGSEV") design which is featured in this presentation was conceived as an option for consideration to enable round-trip travel to Moon and Mars orbits and back from LEO. During the course of its development, the AGSEV would also serve other important purposes. An early assembly stage would provide an orbital science and technology testbed for artificial gravity demonstration experiments. An ultimate mature stage application would carry crews of up to 12 people on Mars rendezvous missions, consuming approximately the same propellant mass required for lunar excursions. Since artificial gravity spacecraft that rotate to create centripetal accelerations must have long spin radii to limit adverse effects of Coriolis forces upon inhabitants, SICSA's AGSEV design embodies a unique tethered body concept which is highly efficient in terms of structural mass and on-orbit assembly requirements. The design also incorporates "inflatable" as well as "hard" habitat modules to optimize internal volume/mass relationships. Other important considerations and features include: maximizing safety through element and system redundancy; means to avoid destabilizing mass imbalances throughout all construction and operational stages; optimizing ease of on-orbit servicing between missions; and maximizing comfort and performance through careful attention to human needs. A
Response of Ambulatory Human Subjects to Artificial Gravity (Short Radius Centrifugation)
Paloski, William H.; Arya, Maneesh; Newby, Nathaniel; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence
2006-01-01
Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in significant adaptive changes, including cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle atrophy, bone loss, and sensorimotor reorganization, that place individuals at risk for performing physical activities after return to a gravitational environment. Planned missions to Mars include unprecedented hypogravity exposures that would likely result in unacceptable risks to crews. Artificial gravity (AG) paradigms may offer multisystem protection from the untoward effects of adaptation to the microgravity of space or the hypogravity of planetary surfaces. While the most effective AG designs would employ a rotating spacecraft, perceived issues may preclude their use. The questions of whether and how intermittent AG produced by a short radius centrifuge (SRC) could be employed have therefore sprung to the forefront of operational research. In preparing for a series of intermittent AG trials in subjects deconditioned by bed rest, we have examined the responses of several healthy, ambulatory subjects to SRC exposures.
Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond
2007-01-01
Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.
Zhang, Li-Fan; Zhang, Shu
2016-08-25
It has been shown that the minimum gravity exposure requirements vary greatly among different physiological systems. A preliminary comparison between two extremes, vessels vs. bones, shows that not only the mechanostat at the tissue level differs greatly, but also the bone loss during weightlessness may also involve calcium deposition-resorption changes. It seems that the surprising efficacy of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG) is due to the vascular tissues possessing a strong resilience or "memory" function toward restoring their original pre-stress and tensegrity state at the 1 G environment. It appears that the bone tissue is related to a more complex tensegrity paradigm involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and a longer half time for calcium deposition-absorption. Cell-level models (CellML) for calcium dynamics is currently available. We hope that the Physiome Project can use this modeling framework to help interpret the resistance of bones to IAG and to evaluate whether the "intermittent" or "continuous" AG scheme should be adopted eventually for future exploration-class spaceflight. PMID:27546500
Grazing Occultation reveals Gravity Wave Breaking in Pluto's High Atmosphere
Kern, Susan D.; McCarthy, D. W.; Kulesa, C. A.; Hubbard, W. B.; Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A.
2007-10-01
Occultation observations of the star P445.3 (2UCAC 25823784; McDonald & Elliot 2000, AJ 120, 1599) by (134340) Pluto on 2007 March 18.453 UT were simultaneously collected in visible and H-band wavelengths from the 6.5-m MMT (Mt. Hopkins) in Arizona. The event was grazing and slow (6.77 km/s), lasting 4 minutes. These conditions facilitated the detection of large-scale, nearly limb-aligned features in Pluto's atmosphere over a pressure range of 0.1-0.7 μbar (0.01-0.07 Pa; radius range of 1500-1350 km). The data are high signal-to-noise and show these features to be fully resolved and achromatic. The scintillation increases with depth in Pluto's atmosphere and indicates a high-frequency cutoff operating on a broad-band spectrum of gravity waves generated deeper in Pluto's atmosphere. The data are in excellent agreement with atmospheric gravity wave theory (Fritts 1984, RGSP 22, 275). Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of The University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. The integration and alignment of both cameras was funded by the Astronomy Camp science education program. We also acknowledge support from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program via grants NNG04GE48G and NNG04GF25G.
Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.
2014-01-01
A variety of countermeasures have been developed to address the debilitating physiological effects of "zero-gravity" (0-g) experienced by cosmonauts and astronauts during their approximately 0.5-1.2 year long stays in LEO (Low Earth Orbit). Longer interplanetary flights, combined with possible prolonged stays in Mars orbit, could subject crewmembers to up to approximately 2.5 years of weightlessness. In view of known and recently diagnosed problems associated with 0-g, an artificial gravity spacecraft offers many advantages and may indeed be an enabling technology for human flights to Mars. A number of important human factors must be taken into account in selecting the rotation radius, rotation rate, and orientation of the habitation module or modules. These factors include the gravity gradient effect, radial and tangential Coriolis forces, along with cross-coupled acceleration effects. Artificial gravity (AG) Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) concepts are presented that utilize both conventional NTR, as well as, enhanced "bimodal" nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) propulsion. The NTR is a proven technology that generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (I (sub sp)) capability of approximately 900 s - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. The AG/MTV concepts using conventional NTP carry twin cylindrical "ISS-type" habitation modules with their long axes oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the longitudinal spin axis of the MTV and utilize photovoltaic arrays (PVAs) for spacecraft power. The twin habitat modules are connected to a central operations hub located at the front of the MTV via two pressurized tunnels that provide the rotation radius for the habitat modules. For the BNTR AG/MTV option, each engine has its own "closed" secondary helium-xenon gas loop and Brayton rotating unit that can generate tens of kilowatts (kW (sub e)) of spacecraft electrical power during the mission coast phase eliminating the need for large PVAs. A single inflatable
Multi-System Effects of Daily Artificial Gravity Exposures in Humans Deconditioned by Bed Rest
Paloski, William H.
2007-01-01
We have begun to explore the utility of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to the untoward health and performance effects of adaptation to decreased gravity during prolonged space flight. The first study in this exploration was jointly designed by an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists interested in standardizing an approach so that comparable data could be obtained from follow-on studies performed in multiple international locations. Fifteen rigorously screened male volunteers participated in the study after providing written informed consent. All were subjected to 21 days of 6deg head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple observations were made of dependent measures in the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immune, and behavioral systems during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period. Comparisons between the treatment and control subjects demonstrated salutary effects of the AG exposure on aspects of the muscle and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Bone deconditioning was similar between the treatment and control groups, suggesting that the loading provided by this specific AG paradigm was insufficient to protect that system from deconditioning. Future work will be devoted to varying the loading duty cycle and/or coupling the AG loading with exercise to provide maximum physiological protection across all systems. Testing will also be extended to female subjects. The results of this study suggest that intermittent AG could be an effective multi-system countermeasure.
Gender specific changes in cortical activation patterns during exposure to artificial gravity
Schneider, Stefan; Robinson, Ryan; Smith, Craig; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Goswami, Nandu
2014-11-01
Keeping astronauts healthy during long duration spaceflight remains a challenge. Artificial gravity (AG) generated by a short arm human centrifuges (SAHC) is proposed as the next generation of integrated countermeasure devices that will allow human beings to safely spend extended durations in space, although comparatively little is known about any psychological side effects of AG on brain function. 16 participants (8 male and 8 female, GENDER) were exposed to 10 min at a baseline gravitational load (G-Load) of +.03 Gz, then 10 min at +.6 Gz for females and +.8 Gz for males, before being exposed to increasing levels of AG in a stepped manner by increasing the acceleration by +.1 Gz every 3 min until showing signs of pre-syncope. EEG recordings were taken of brain activity during 2 min time periods at each AG level. Analysing the results of the mixed total population of participants by two way ANOVA, a significant effect of centrifugation on alpha and beta activity was found (presponses identified in this study may have wider implications for EEG and AG research.
Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.
2008-07-01
Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.
Evans, J. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ferguson, C. R.; Ribiero, L. C.; Zhang, Q.; Moore, F. B.; Serrador, J.; Smith, J. D.; Knapp, C. F.
2014-01-01
We recently determined that a short exposure to artificial gravity (AG) improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects. We now seek to determine the mechanisms of that improvement in these hypovolemic men and women. Methods. We determined the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). In both cases (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide). Orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output and peripheral resistance (Finometer), cerebral artery blood velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) were measured during supine baseline, during OTL to presyncope and during supine recovery Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater on the day of AG exposure than on the HDBR day. Regression of OTL on these variables identified significant relationships on the HDBR day that were not evident on the AG day: resting TPR correlated positively while resting cerebral flow correlated negatively with OTL. On both days, women's resting stroke volume correlated positively with orthostatic tolerance. Higher group mean values of stroke volume and cerebral artery flow and lower values of blood pressure, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular resistance both at control and during OTL testing were observed on the AG day. Even though regression of OTL on resting stroke volume was significant only in women, presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women while the OTL test lasted 30% longer in men and 22% longer in women. Cerebral artery flow appeared to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper summarizes the results of a year long, multi-center NASA study which examined the viability of nuclear fission propulsion systems for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE). The HOPE mission assumes a crew of six is sent to Callisto. Jupiter's outermost large moon, to establish a surface base and propellant production facility. The Asgard asteroid formation, a region potentially rich in water-ice, is selected as the landing site. High thrust BNTR propulsion is used to transport the crew from the Earth-Moon L1 staging node to Callisto then back to Earth in less than 5 years. Cargo and LH2 'return' propellant for the piloted Callisto transfer vehicle (PCTV) is pre-deployed at the moon (before the crew's departure) using low thrust, high power, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) cargo and tanker vehicles powered by hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The PCTV is powered by three 25 klbf BNTR engines which also produce 50 kWe of power for crew life support and spacecraft operational needs. To counter the debilitating effects of long duration space flight (∼855 days out and ∼836 days back) under '0-gE' conditions, the PCTV generates an artificial gravity environment of '1-gE' via rotation of the vehicle about its center-of-mass at a rate of ∼4 rpm. After ∼123 days at Callisto, the 'refueled' PCTV leaves orbit for the trip home. Direct capsule re-entry of the crew at mission end is assumed. Dynamic Brayton power conversion and high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten metal ''cermet'' fuel is used in both the BNTR and NEP vehicles to maximize hardware commonality. Technology performance levels and vehicle characteristics are presented, and requirements for PCTV reusability are also discussed
Modeling the benefits of an artificial gravity countermeasure coupled with exercise and vibration
Goel, Rahul; Kaderka, Justin; Newman, Dava
2012-01-01
The current, system-specific countermeasures to space deconditioning have limited success with the musculoskeletal system in long duration missions. Artificial gravity (AG) that is produced by short radius centrifugation has been hypothesized as an effective countermeasure because it reintroduces an acceleration field in space; however, AG alone might not be enough stimuli to preserve the musculoskeletal system. A novel combination of AG coupled with one-legged squats on a vibrating platform may preserve muscle and bone in the lower limbs to a greater extent than the current exercise paradigm. The benefits of the proposed countermeasure have been analyzed through the development of a simulation platform. Ground reaction force data and motion data were collected using a motion capture system while performing one-legged and two-legged squats in 1-G. The motion was modeled in OpenSim, an open-source software, and inverse dynamics were applied in order to determine the muscle and reaction forces of lower limb joints. Vibration stimulus was modeled by adding a 20 Hz sinusoidal force of 0.5 body weight to the force plate data. From the numerical model in a 1-G acceleration field, muscle forces for quadriceps femoris, plantar flexors and glutei increased substantially for one-legged squats with vibration compared to one- or two-legged squats without vibration. Additionally, joint reaction forces for one-legged squats with vibration also increased significantly compared to two-legged squats with or without vibration. Higher muscle forces and joint reaction forces might help to stimulate muscle activation and bone modeling and thus might reduce musculoskeletal deconditioning. These results indicate that the proposed countermeasure might surpass the performance of the current space countermeasures and should be further studied as a method of mitigating musculoskeletal deconditioning.
Borowski, Stanley K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James H.; Packard, Thomas W.
2003-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of a year long, multi-center NASA study which examined the viability of nuclear fission propulsion systems for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE). The HOPE mission assumes a crew of six is sent to Callisto. Jupiter's outermost large moon, to establish a surface base and propellant production facility. The Asgard asteroid formation, a region potentially rich in water-ice, is selected as the landing site. High thrust BNTR propulsion is used to transport the crew from the Earth-Moon L1 staging node to Callisto then back to Earth in less than 5 years. Cargo and LH2 ``return'' propellant for the piloted Callisto transfer vehicle (PCTV) is pre-deployed at the moon (before the crew's departure) using low thrust, high power, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) cargo and tanker vehicles powered by hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The PCTV is powered by three 25 klbf BNTR engines which also produce 50 kWe of power for crew life support and spacecraft operational needs. To counter the debilitating effects of long duration space flight (~855 days out and ~836 days back) under ``0-gE'' conditions, the PCTV generates an artificial gravity environment of ``1-gE'' via rotation of the vehicle about its center-of-mass at a rate of ~4 rpm. After ~123 days at Callisto, the ``refueled'' PCTV leaves orbit for the trip home. Direct capsule re-entry of the crew at mission end is assumed. Dynamic Brayton power conversion and high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten metal ``cermet'' fuel is used in both the BNTR and NEP vehicles to maximize hardware commonality. Technology performance levels and vehicle characteristics are presented, and requirements for PCTV reusability are also discussed.
Cardiac and Vascular Function in Bedrested Volunteers: Effects of Artificial Gravity Training
Meng, M.; Platts, S.; Stenger, M.; Diedrich, A.; Schlegel, T.; Natapoff, A.; Knapp, C.; Evans, J.
2007-01-01
Cardiovascular effects of an artificial gravity (AG) countermeasure on deconditioned male volunteers were studied. In two groups of men we measured cardiovascular parameters at rest and in response to 30 minutes of 80 deg. head up tilt (HUT) before, at the end of, and four days following 21 days of 6 deg. head down bed rest (HDBR). One group (N=7) underwent no countermeasure while the other (N=8) received a daily, one hour, dose (2.5 gz at the foot, decreasing to 1.0 gz at the heart) of AG training on the Johnson Space Center short radius centrifuge. Cardiovascular parameters measured included heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, plasma volume shifts, and vasoactive hormones. Untrained subjects exhibited shorter tilt survival (on average 8 minutes shorter) compared to trained subjects. By the end of bed rest, mean heart rate (MHR) was elevated in both groups (both supine and during tilt). In addition, treated subjects demonstrated lower, tilt-induced, increases in MHR four days following HDBR, indicating a more rapid return to pre bed rest conditions. Results from an index of autonomic balance (percentage of MHR spectral power in the respiratory frequency range) in control of heart rate are consistent with the interpretation that parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal was responsible for both tilt- and bed rest-induced increases in MHR. Our data support our pre-study hypothesis that AG treatment would lessen cardiovascular effects of deconditioning in bed rested men and suggest that AG should be further pursued as a space flight countermeasure.
Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure: Effects on Cognitive Function
Sipes, Walter E.; Seaton, Kim; Slack, Kellely; Bowie, Kendra
2007-01-01
The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a medical requirement on the International Space Station, and its purpose is to evaluate cognitive functioning after physical insult (e.g., head trauma, decompression sickness, exposure to toxic gases, medication side effects). The current objective is to assess cognitive functioning in a long duration space mission analog environment where Artificial Gravity is being applied as a countermeasure in a Bed Rest study. Methods: Fifteen male subjects (8 treatment and 7 control) who participated in 21 days of -6 degree head-down bed rest were assessed. Three practice and three baseline WinSCAT test sessions were administered during the pre-bed rest phase of study participation. During the bed rest phase, the WinSCAT test was scheduled every other day, following the centrifuge, for a total of 10 test sessions. (The treatment group received 60 minutes of centrifugation each day during the 21 days of bed rest. The control subjects were strapped to the centrifuge for the same length of time as the treatment group but were not spun.) During the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase, the test was administered 4 times. Results: Individual differences were found both within and between the treatment and control groups. After controlling for the number of subjects in each group, the treatment group accounted for more off-nominal WinSCAT scores than the control group. Conclusions:There is some preliminary evidence that centrifuge spinning might negatively impact cognitive functioning. However, due to sample size limitations, it cannot be ascertained whether there were significant differences in cognitive performance between the treatment and control groups. If centrifugation had a negative effect on cognitive functioning, consistent decrements would be expected to be found with all treatment subjects across time. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are other possible
Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Pilot Study Overview
Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.
2007-01-01
Efficient, effective, multi-system countermeasures will likely be required to protect the health, safety, and performance of crews aboard planned exploration-class space flight missions to Mars and beyond. To that end, NASA, DLR, and IMBP initiated a multi-center international project to begin systematically exploring the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure in ground based venues using test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. The goal of this project is to explore the efficacy of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensory-motor adaptations to hypogravity. This session reports the results from a pilot study commissioned to validate a standardized protocol to be used by all centers involved in the project. Subject selection criteria, medical monitoring requirements, medical care procedures, experiment control procedures, and standardized dependent measures were established jointly. Testing was performed on 15 rigorously screened male volunteers subjected to 21 days of 6deg HDT bed rest. (All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them.) Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple tests of multiple dependent measures were made in each of the primary physiological systems of interest during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period was complete. Analyses of these data (presented in other papers in this session) suggest the AG prescription had salutary effects on aspects of the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Furthermore, treatment subjects were able to tolerate 153/160 centrifuge sessions over
Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim
2012-07-01
Even though human exploration of Mars is a distant objective, it is well understood that, for human space voyages of several years duration, crews would be at risk of catastrophic consequences should any of the systems that provide adequate air, water, food, or thermal protection fail. Moreover, crews will face serious health and/or safety risks resulting from severe physiologic deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The principal ones are related to physical and functional deterioration of the regulation of the blood circulation, decreased aerobic capacity, impaired musculo-skeletal systems, and altered sensory- motor system performance. As the reliance of future space programmes on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown together with the proto-flight hardware development approach, a range of simulation capabilities have become increasingly important in the requirements specification, design, verification, testing, launch and operation of new space systems. In this frame, multibody software is a key tool in providing a more coordinated and consistent approach from the preliminary development phases of the most complex systems. From a scientific prospective, an artificial gravity facility, such as the one evaluated in this paper, would be the first in-flight testing of the effectiveness and acceptability of short radius centrifuge as a countermeasure to human deconditioning on orbit. The ISS represents a unique opportunity to perform this research. From an engineering point of view, the preliminary assessment described in this paper, highlights the difficult engineering challenges of such a facility. The outcome proves that a human can be accommodated in the available volume, while respecting the human ergonomic basic requirements and preserving the global structural integrity of the hosting ISS module. In particular, analysis shows that, although the load capacity of the structural interfaces imposes a very low
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa;
2011-01-01
Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer...... and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion: Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose...... syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition....
Kennedy, Jeffrey
Groundwater provides a fundamental resource for modern life. Throughout the world, groundwater is managed by storing (recharging) it underground in natural aquifers for future withdrawal and consumptive use. In Arizona, over 4 million people benefit from managed aquifer storage, but little effort is made to track the movement of recharged water through the subsurface. Motivated by current limitations in our ability to monitor percolation and groundwater movement at the scale of a recharge facility, an effort to collect time-lapse gravity data was carried out at the Southern Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (SAVSARP) operated by the City of Tucson, Arizona. In addition to collecting water-level data 12 wells, there were three primary gravity experiments: (1) five continuously-recording gravity meters (2 iGrav superconducting gravity meters and 3 gPhone gravity meters) were installed semi-permanently in control buildings adjacent to the recharge basins, (2) absolute gravity measurements were made at nine locations over a 17 month period, and (3) three relative-gravity campaigns were carried out on a network of 70 stations. This large-scale controlled experiment, with known infiltration and pumping rates, resulted in one of the most comprehensive datasets of its kind. Gravity data led to several hydrologic insights, both through direct measurement and modeling. First, the infiltration rate could be estimated accurately based on the initial rate of gravity change during infiltration, regardless of the specific yield. Using two gravity meters, the depth, and therefore speed, of the wetting front beneath a recharge basin was observed, including the time at which the water table was reached. Spatial maps of gravity change from relative gravity surveys show areas where infiltration efficiency is highest, and where groundwater accumulates; storage accumulated preferentially to the west of the recharge basins, away from pumping wells. Such information would be
Structure and Evolution of the Lunar Procellarum Region as Revealed by GRAIL Gravity Data
Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Besserer, Jonathan; Head, James W., III; Howett, Carly J. A.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Lucey, Paul J.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Schenk, Paul M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-01-01
The Procellarum region is a broad area on the nearside of the Moon that is characterized by low elevations, thin crust, and high surface concentrations of the heat-producing elements uranium, thorium, and potassium. The Procellarum region has been interpreted as an ancient impact basin approximately 3200 km in diameter, though supporting evidence at the surface would have been largely obscured as a result of the great antiquity and poor preservation of any diagnostic features. Here we use data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to examine the subsurface structure of Procellarum. The Bouguer gravity anomalies and gravity gradients reveal a pattern of narrow linear anomalies that border the Procellarum region and are interpreted to be the frozen remnants of lava-filled rifts and the underlying feeder dikes that served as the magma plumbing system for much of the nearside mare volcanism. The discontinuous surface structures that were earlier interpreted as remnants of an impact basin rim are shown in GRAIL data to be a part of this continuous set of quasi-rectangular border structures with angular intersections, contrary to the expected circular or elliptical shape of an impact basin. The spatial pattern of magmatic-tectonic structures bounding Procellarum is consistent with their formation in response to thermal stresses produced by the differential cooling of the province relative to its surroundings, coupled with magmatic activity driven by the elevated heat flux in the region.
Structure and evolution of the lunar Procellarum region as revealed by GRAIL gravity data
Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Besserer, Jonathan; Head, James W., III; Howett, Carly J. A.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Lucey, Paul J.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Schenk, Paul M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-10-01
The Procellarum region is a broad area on the nearside of the Moon that is characterized by low elevations, thin crust, and high surface concentrations of the heat-producing elements uranium, thorium, and potassium. The region has been interpreted as an ancient impact basin approximately 3,200 kilometres in diameter, although supporting evidence at the surface would have been largely obscured as a result of the great antiquity and poor preservation of any diagnostic features. Here we use data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to examine the subsurface structure of Procellarum. The Bouguer gravity anomalies and gravity gradients reveal a pattern of narrow linear anomalies that border Procellarum and are interpreted to be the frozen remnants of lava-filled rifts and the underlying feeder dykes that served as the magma plumbing system for much of the nearside mare volcanism. The discontinuous surface structures that were earlier interpreted as remnants of an impact basin rim are shown in GRAIL data to be a part of this continuous set of border structures in a quasi-rectangular pattern with angular intersections, contrary to the expected circular or elliptical shape of an impact basin. The spatial pattern of magmatic-tectonic structures bounding Procellarum is consistent with their formation in response to thermal stresses produced by the differential cooling of the province relative to its surroundings, coupled with magmatic activity driven by the greater-than-average heat flux in the region.
No effect of artificial gravity on lung function with exercise training during head-down bed rest
Su, Longxiang; Guo, Yinghua; Wang, Yajuan; Wang, Delong; Liu, Changting
2016-04-01
The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of microgravity simulated by head-down bed rest (HDBR) and artificial gravity (AG) with exercise on lung function. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly divided into control and exercise countermeasure (CM) groups for 96 h of 6° HDBR. Comparisons of pulse rate, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and lung function were made between these two groups at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h. Compared with the sitting position, inspiratory capacity and respiratory reserve volume were significantly higher than before HDBR (0° position) (P lung volume and ventilation function, but a HDBR model induced no changes in pulmonary function and therefore should not be used to study AG countermeasures.
No effect of artificial gravity on lung function with exercise training during head-down bed rest
Su, Longxiang; Guo, Yinghua; Wang, Yajuan; Wang, Delong; Liu, Changting
2016-04-01
The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of microgravity simulated by head-down bed rest (HDBR) and artificial gravity (AG) with exercise on lung function. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly divided into control and exercise countermeasure (CM) groups for 96 h of 6° HDBR. Comparisons of pulse rate, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and lung function were made between these two groups at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h. Compared with the sitting position, inspiratory capacity and respiratory reserve volume were significantly higher than before HDBR (0° position) (P rate, SpO2, pulmonary volume and pulmonary ventilation function over the HDBR observation time. Postural changes can lead to variation in lung volume and ventilation function, but a HDBR model induced no changes in pulmonary function and therefore should not be used to study AG countermeasures.
de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.
2014-01-01
The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.
Self-gravity wake structures in Saturn's a ring revealed by Cassini vims
Hedman, M.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Salo, H.; Wallis, B.D.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Brown, R.H.; Clark, R.N.
2007-01-01
During the summer of 2005, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed a series of occultations of the star o Ceti (Mira) by Saturn's rings. These observations revealed pronounced variations in the optical depth of the A ring with longitude, which can be attributed to oriented structures in the rings known as self-gravity wakes. While the wakes themselves are only tens of meters across and below the resolution of the measurements, we are able to obtain information about the orientation and shapes of these structures by comparing the observed transmission at different longitudes with predictions from a simple model. Our findings include the following: (1) The orientation of the wakes varies systematically with radius, trailing by between 64?? and 72?? relative to the local radial direction. (2) The maximum transmission peaks at roughly 8% for B = 3.45?? in the middle A ring (???129,000 km). (3) Both the wake orientation and maximum transmission vary anomalously in the vicinity of two strong density waves (Janus 5:4 and Mimas 5:3). (4) The ratio of the wake vertical thickness H to the wake pattern wavelength ?? (assuming infinite, straight, regularly-spaced wake structures) varies from 0.12 to 0.09 across the A ring. Gravitational instability theory predicts ?? ??? 60 m, which suggests that the wake structures in the A ring are only ???6 m thick. ?? 2007. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.
2016-07-01
Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) mean winds, gravity waves, tidal and planetary wave characteristics are investigated using two years (2013-2015) of advanced meteor radar installed at Tirupathi (13.63oN, 79.4oE), India. The observations reveal the presence of high frequency gravity waves (30-120 minutes), atmospheric tides (diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal) along with long period oscillations in both zonal and meridional winds. Background mean zonal winds show clear semi-annual oscillation in the mesosphere, whereas meridional winds are characterized by annual oscillation as expected. Diurnal tide amplitudes are significantly larger (60-80 m/s) than semi-diurnal (10-20 m/s) and terr-diurnal (5-8 m/s) tides and larger in meridional than zonal winds. The measured meridional components are in good agreement with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09) predictions than zonal up to ~90 km in all the seasons, except fall equinox. Diurnal tidal phase matches well than the amplitudes between observations and model predictions. However, no similarity is being found in the semi-diurnal tides between observations and model. The measurements are further compared with nearby Thumba meteor radar (8.5oN, 77oE) observations. Some differences do exist between the measurements from Tirupati and Thumba meteor radar and model outputs at greater heights and the possible reasons are discussed. SVU meteor radar observations clearly showed the dominance of well-known ultra-fast kelvin waves (3.5 days), 5-8 day, 16 day, 27 day, and 30-40 day oscillations. Due to higher meteor count extending up to 110 km, we could investigate the variability of these PWs and oscillations covering wider range (70-110 km) for the first time. Significant change above 100 km is noticed in all the above mentioned PW activity and oscillations. We also used ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets available at 0.125x0.125 degree grids for investigating the characteristics of these PW right from surface to 1 h
Size and structure of the Chicxulub crater revealed by horizontal gravity gradients and cenotes
Hildebrand, A. R.; Pilkington, M.; Connors, M.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Chavez, R. E.
1995-08-01
IT is now widely believed that a large impact occurred on the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period, and that the buried Chicxulub structure in Yucatán, Mexico, is the resulting crater24. Knowledge of the size and internal structure of the Chicxulub crater is necessary for quantifying the effects of the impact on the Cretaceous environment. Although much information bearing on the crater's structure is available, diameter estimates range from 170 to 300 km (refs 1á¤-7), corresponding to an order of magnitude variation in impact energy. Here we show the diameter of the crater to be ~180 km by examining the horizontal gradient of the Bouguer gravity anomaly over the structure. This size is confirmed by the distribution of karst features in the Yucatan region (mainly water-filled sinkholes, known as cenotes). The coincidence of cenotes and peripheral gravity-gradient maxima suggests that cenote formation is closely related to the presence of slump faults near the crater rim.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Clausen, Mathias P.; Christensen, Eva Arnspang
2010-01-01
. The spatial precision in these experiments is ~40 nm (as determined from the standard deviation of repeated position measurements of an immobile QD on a cell). Using this system, we further show that an artificial lipid, biotin-cap-DPPE, inserted in a mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF), labeled with s......Av-QD655, and imaged as described reveals examples of three types of motion, 1) approximately free diffusion, 2) confined (immobile) diffusion, and 3) hop diffusion between compartments with a size of ~100 nm diameter, and a lifetime of ~100-200 milliseconds. In these experiments, we have used sAv-QD655s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leilei Mei
Full Text Available Although behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested two distinct routes of phonological access, their neural substrates have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we designed an artificial language (based on Korean Hangul that can be read either through addressed (i.e., whole word mapping or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping phonology. Two matched groups of native English-speaking participants were trained in one of the two conditions, one hour per day for eight days. Behavioral results showed that both groups correctly named more than 90% of the trained words after training. At the neural level, we found a clear dissociation of the neural pathways for addressed and assembled phonologies: There was greater involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right orbital frontal cortex, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for addressed phonology, but stronger activation in the left precentral gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for assembled phonology. Furthermore, we found evidence supporting the strategy-shift hypothesis, which postulates that, with practice, reading strategy shifts from assembled to addressed phonology. Specifically, compared to untrained words, trained words in the assembled phonology group showed stronger activation in the addressed phonology network and less activation in the assembled phonology network. Our results provide clear brain-imaging evidence for the dual-route models of reading.
Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments
Hariadi, R. F.; Sommese, R. F.; Adhikari, A. S.; Taylor, R. E.; Sutton, S.; Spudich, J. A.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.
2015-08-01
The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes.
Sheth, Seema Nayan; Angert, Amy Lauren
2016-02-01
Species responses to climate change depend on the interplay of migration and adaptation, yet we know relatively little about the potential for adaptation. Genetic adaptations to climate change often involve shifts in the timing of phenological events, such as flowering. If populations at the edge of a species range have lower genetic variation in phenological traits than central populations, then their persistence under climate change could be threatened. To test this hypothesis, we performed artificial selection experiments using the scarlet monkeyflower (Mimulus cardinalis) and compared genetic variation in flowering time among populations at the latitudinal center, northern edge, and southern edge of the species range. We also assessed whether selection on flowering time yielded correlated responses in functional traits, potentially representing a cost associated with early or late flowering. Contrary to prediction, southern populations exhibited greater responses to selection on flowering time than central or northern populations. Further, selection for early flowering resulted in correlated increases in specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen, whereas selection for late flowering led to decreases in these traits. These results provide critical insights about how spatial variation in the potential for adaptation may affect population persistence under changing climates. PMID:26807746
Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang
2016-09-01
Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All these
Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang
2016-09-01
Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mostafa Abdeen, Samir Abohadima
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear permanent progressive wave is one of the most important applicationsin water waves. In this study, analytic formulation of the steep water gravitywaves is presented. Abohadima and Isobe [1] showed that Cokelet solution [2] isthe most accurate among many other solutions. Due to the nonlinearity ofanalytic equations, the need to numeric simulation is raised up. In the currentpaper, consequence numerical models, using one of the artificial intelligencetechniques, are designed to simulate and then predict the non linear properties ofpermanent steep water waves. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, one of theartificial intelligence techniques, is introduced in the current paper to simulateand predict the wave celerity, momentum, energy and other wave integralproperties for any permanent waves in water of arbitrary uniform depth. The ANNresults presented in the current study showed that ANN technique, with lesseffort, is very efficiently capable of simulating and predicting the non linearproperties of permanent steep water waves.
Caviglione, Luca; Gaggero, Mauro; Lalande, Jean-François; Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Urbanski, Marcin
2016-01-01
Modern malware uses advanced techniques to hide from static and dynamic analysis tools. To achieve stealthiness when attacking a mobile device, an effective approach is the use of a covert channel built by two colluding applications to locally exchange data. Since this process is tightly coupled with the used hiding method, its detection is a challenging task, also worsened by the very low transmission rates. As a consequence, it is important to investigate how to reveal the presence of malic...
Durnova, G N
1978-11-01
A comparative histological investigation of the thymus, spleen and inguinal lymph nodes has been performed in the rats flown for 18.5 days on board the biosatellite "Cosmos-936" under the conditions of weightlessness and artificial gravitation (acceleration 1 g) imitating terrestrial magnetism. It has been stated that in the animals that were under the conditions of weightless ness during the flight and were sacrificed 4.5--13 h after they have landed the Earth, accidental involution of lymphoid organs is noted with morphological signs in them of an acute stress in the form of massive degeneration of the thymus lymphocytes and neutrophilic infiltration of the spleen. In rats that during the flight were subjected to the effect of artificial gravitation there was noted neither involution of the lymphoid organs nor morphological signs of acute stress in them. One of the main cause of acute stress in the rats subjected to weightlessness during the space flight is supposed to be transition to the terrestrial gravitation. PMID:736799
Song, I. S.; Jee, G.; Kim, B. M.
2015-12-01
Mesoscale gravity waves are simulated by carrying out the specified chemistry whole atmosphere community climate model (SC-WACCM) at the horizontal resolution of about 25 km to understand the origin of gravity waves in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and their propagation properties throughout the whole atmosphere. Modeled gravity waves are also compared with gravity-wave activities estimated from meteor radar observations made in Antarctica by Korea Polar Research Institute. For this comparison, SC-WACCM is initialized at a specific date and time using atmospheric state variables from the ground to the thermosphere obtained from various data sets such as operational analyses and empirical wind and temperature model results. Model initial conditions are corrected for mass and dynamical balance to reduce spurious waves due to initial shocks. At conference, preliminary results of the mesoscale SC-WACCM simulation and its comparison with observations will be presented.
Artificial Gravity: Tethers and Containers
Criswell, D. R.
1985-01-01
Tethers used in conjunction with containers offer a means of enhanced control of basic variables such as local acceleration, pointing and orientation, and protected or controlled environments against particle or electromagnetic radiation. Permanent occupancy of space will require the rapid exploration of the short and long term responses of many living organisms to the space environment or separated components of that environment. Tethers and ET facilities could provide the rapid establishment of laboratories in LEO within which to study living systems in a wide range of separate controlled environments for long periods of time, support large optical arrays; provide orbiting laboratories; and provide controlled environments within which the application of advanced manufacturing, assembly, control, and robotics could be developed to aid off-Earth industry and science and the conduct of more complex space operations.
Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.
Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田军; 赵博
2015-01-01
人工蜂群算法以其低复杂度和高精度等优点有望取代传统重力匹配方法中的非智能搜索策略，但是，引入人工蜂群算法的重力匹配策略仍会存在抗干扰性能差和可靠性低的问题。论文引入差分思想对人工蜂群的适应度函数进行优化，引入可调权值参数并确定一组最佳权值，最大程度减少惯导信息误差对厄特弗斯效应改正和正常重力计算的影响。仿真结果表明，优化后的重力匹配算法具有更高的匹配精度。%Artificial bee colony algorithm is able to replace non intelligent search strategy for traditional gravity matc‐hing methods to enhance the efficiency of gravity matching navigation for its fast convergence speed and low complexity . However ,the problems of anti‐interference performance and reliability for gravity matching strategy based on ABC still ex‐ist .To reduce the influence of INS error and normal gravity calculation error ,this article improves the fitness function with difference thought ,in which adjustable parameters are introduced and the optimal values are confirmed .The simulation re‐sults show that the optimized gravity matching algorithm can obtain higher matching accuracy .
Time-variable gravity signal in Greenland revealed by high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking
Weigelt, M.; Dam, T.; Jäggi, A.; Prange, L.; Tourian, M. J.; Keller, W.; Sneeuw, N.
2013-07-01
In the event of a termination of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission before the launch of GRACE Follow-On (due for launch in 2017), high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (hl-SST) will be the only dedicated observing system with global coverage available to measure the time-variable gravity field (TVG) on a monthly or even shorter time scale. Until recently, hl-SST TVG observations were of poor quality and hardly improved the performance of Satellite Laser Ranging observations. To date, they have been of only very limited usefulness to geophysical or environmental investigations. In this paper, we apply a thorough reprocessing strategy and a dedicated Kalman filter to Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) data to demonstrate that it is possible to derive the very long-wavelength TVG features down to spatial scales of approximately 2000 km at the annual frequency and for multi-year trends. The results are validated against GRACE data and surface height changes from long-term GPS ground stations in Greenland. We find that the quality of the CHAMP solutions is sufficient to derive long-term trends and annual amplitudes of mass change over Greenland. We conclude that hl-SST is a viable source of information for TVG and can serve to some extent to bridge a possible gap between the end-of-life of GRACE and the availability of GRACE Follow-On.
Maglianesi, María A; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias
2015-05-01
In plant-pollinator networks, the floral morphology of food plants is an important determinant of the interaction niche of pollinators. Studies on foraging preferences of pollinators combining experimental and observational approaches may help to understand the mechanisms behind patterns of interactions and niche partitioning within pollinator communities. In this study, we tested whether morphological floral traits were associated with foraging preferences of hummingbirds for artificial and natural flower types in Costa Rica. We performed field experiments with artificial feeders, differing in length and curvature of flower types, to quantify the hummingbirds' interaction niche under unlimited nectar resources. To quantify the interaction niche under real-world conditions of limited nectar resources, we measured foraging preferences of hummingbirds for a total of 34 plant species. Artificial feeders were visited by Eupherusa nigriventris and Phaethornis guy in the pre-montane forest, and Lampornis calolaemus in the lower montane forest. Under experimental conditions, all three hummingbird species overlapped their interaction niches and showed a preference for the short artificial flower type over the long-straight and the long-curved flower types. Under natural conditions, the two co-occurring hummingbird species preferred to feed on plant species with floral traits corresponding to their bill morphology. The short-billed hummingbird E. nigriventris preferred to feed on short and straight flowers, whereas the long- and curved-billed P. guy preferred long and curved natural flowers. The medium-size billed species L. calolaemus preferred to feed on flowers of medium length and did not show preferences for plant species with specific corolla curvature. Our results show that floral morphological traits constrain access by short-billed hummingbird species to nectar resources. Morphological constraints, therefore, represent one important mechanism structuring trophic
Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V
2014-01-01
Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness. PMID:24820964
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert W Chapman
Full Text Available Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis, a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233 representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold, with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1% to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.
Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Laing, Arlene
2012-01-01
In this study, it is proposed that twin tropical cyclones (TCs), Kesiny and 01A, in May 2002 formed in association with the scale interactions of three gyres that appeared as a convectively coupled mixed Rossby gravity (ccMRG) wave during an active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This is shown by analyzing observational data, including NCEP reanalysis data and METEOSAT 7 IR satellite imagery, and performing numerical simulations using a global mesoscale model. A 10-day control run is initialized at 0000 UTC 1 May 2002 with grid-scale condensation but no sub-grid cumulus parameterizations. The ccMRG wave was identified as encompassing two developing and one non-developing gyres, the first two of which intensified and evolved into the twin TCs. The control run is able to reproduce the evolution of the ccMRG wave and thus the formation of the twin TCs about two and five days in advance as well as their subsequent intensity evolution and movement within an 8-10 day period. Five additional 10-day sensitivity experiments with different model configurations are conducted to help understand the interaction of the three gyres, leading to the formation of the TCs. These experiments suggest the improved lead time in the control run may be attributed to the realistic simulation of the ccMRG wave with the following processes: (1) wave deepening (intensification) associated with a reduction in wavelength and/or the intensification of individual gyres, (2) poleward movement of gyres that may be associated with boundary layer processes, (3) realistic simulation of moist processes at regional scales in association with each of the gyres, and (4) the vertical phasing of low- and mid-level cyclonic circulations associated with a specific gyre.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsueh-Fen Juan
2012-05-01
Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs cause mRNA degradation or translation suppression of their target genes. Previous studies have found direct involvement of miRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Artificial miRNAs, designed to target single or multiple genes of interest, provide a new therapeutic strategy for cancer. This study investigates the anti-tumor effect of a novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, on breast cancer. In this study, we reveal that miR P-27-5p downregulates the differential gene expressions associated with the protein modification process and regulation of cell cycle in T-47D cells. Introduction of this novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, into breast cell lines inhibits cell proliferation and induces the first “gap” phase (G1 cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines but does not affect normal breast cells. We further show that miR P-27-5p targets the 3′-untranslated mRNA region (3′-UTR of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4 and reduces both the mRNA and protein level of CDK4, which in turn, interferes with phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB1. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of miR p-27-5p on cell proliferation and G1 cell cycle arrest are through the downregulation of CDK4 and the suppression of RB1 phosphorylation. This study opens avenues for future therapies targeting breast cancer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia de Rham
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP, cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alternative and related models of massive gravity such as new massive gravity, Lorentz-violating massive gravity and non-local massive gravity.
Non-Anticommutative Quantum Gravity
Moffat, J. W.
2000-01-01
A calculation of the one loop gravitational self-energy graph in non-anticommutative quantum gravity reveals that graviton loops are damped by internal momentum dependent factors in the modified propagator and the vertex functions. The non-anticommutative quantum gravity perturbation theory is finite for matter-free gravity and for matter interactions.
Moravveji, Ehsan; Aerts, Conny; Mathis, Stephane
2016-01-01
KIC 7760680 is so far the richest slowly pulsating B star, by exhibiting 36 consecutive dipole ($\\ell=1$) gravity (g-) modes. The monotonically decreasing period spacing of the series, in addition to the local dips in the pattern confirm that KIC 7760680 is a moderate rotator, with clear mode trapping in chemically inhomogeneous layers. We employ the traditional approximation of rotation to incorporate rotational effects on g-mode frequencies. Our detailed forward asteroseismic modelling of this g-mode series reveals that KIC 7760680 is a moderately rotating B star with mass $\\sim3.25$ M$_\\odot$. By simultaneously matching the slope of the period spacing, and the number of modes in the observed frequency range, we deduce that the equatorial rotation frequency of KIC 7760680 is 0.4805 day$^{-1}$, which is 26\\% of its Roche break up frequency. The relative deviation of the model frequencies and those observed is less than one percent. We succeed to tightly constrain the exponentially-decaying convective core ov...
人工蜂群算法在重力坝断面优化设计中的应用%Optimal design of gravity dam section using artificial bee colony algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏国韶; 钱坤
2011-01-01
Artificial Bee Colony(ABC) algorithm is a newly swarm intelligence optimization algorithm.It has become a powerful tool for solving highly nonlinear multi-peak optimization problems.The results of performances testing using three benchmark functions show that the numbers of evaluation for fitness function of ABC are obviously less than that using particle swarm optimization algorithm.Thus,ABC has better suitability for solving multi-modal optimization problems.Finally,ABC algorithm is applied to the design optimization of gravity dam section.The result shows that the artificial bee colony algorithm is feasible and has the advantages of high efficiency and easy implementation.%人工蜂群算法是一种新型的群智能优化算法,对于处理复杂的非线性多峰值优化问题具有很好的适用性.对三种典型测试函数进行性能测试,与粒子群优化算法相比较,人工蜂群算法的适应度函数评价次数明显较少,对求解多峰值优化问题具有较好的适应性,将人工蜂群算法应用于重力坝断面优化设计,研究结果表明,该方法是可行的,具有寻优效率高且易于实现的优点.
Álvarez, Orlando; Nacif, Silvina; Spagnotto, Silvana; Folguera, Andres; Gimenez, Mario; Chlieh, Mohamed; Braitenberg, Carla
2015-12-01
Considerable improvements in the measurement of the Earth gravity field from GOCE satellite mission have provided global gravity field models with homogeneous coverage, high precision and good spatial resolution. In particular, the vertical gravity gradient (Tzz), in comparison to the classic Bouguer anomaly, defines more accurately superficial mass heterogeneities. Moreover, the correction of these satellite-derived data from the effect of Earth topographic masses by means of new techniques taking into account the Earth curvature, improves results in regional analyses. In a recent work we found a correlation between Tzz and slip distribution for the 2010 Maule Mw = 8.8 earthquake. In the present work, we derive the vertical gravity gradient from the last GOCE only model, corrected by the topographic effect and also by the sediments on depocenters of the offshore region at the Peru-Chile margin, in order to study a spatial relationship between different lobes of the gravity derived signal and the seismic sources of large megathrust earthquakes. In particular, we analyze this relation for the slip models of the 1996 Mw = 7.7 Nazca, 2001 Mw = 8.4 Arequipa, 2007 Mw = 8.0 Pisco events and for the slip models of the 2014 Mw = 8.2 Pisagua and Mw = 7.7 Iquique earthquakes from Schurr et al. (2014), including the previously analyzed 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule event. Then we find a good correlation between vertical gravity gradients and main rupture zones, correlation that becomes even stronger as the event magnitude increases. Besides this, a gravity fall in the gravity gradient was noticed over the area of the main slip patches at least for the two years before 2014 Mw = 8.2 Pisagua and Mw = 7.7 Iquique earthquakes. Additionally, we found temporal variations of the gravity field after 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule event, related to the main patches of the slip distribution, and coseismic deformation. Therefore, we analyzed vertical gravity gradient field variations as an indirect measure
Litvinova, Tamara; Kudryavtsev, Ivan
2016-04-01
The paper considers the results of re-interpretation of geophysical data within the water continuation of the Korotaikha depression. To solve the issue of identifying promising areas of oil and gas accumulation in the region, magnetic and gravity materials were reprocessed: digital maps of potential fields at 1: 500 000 scale were compiled on a frame network of seismic lines (3 lines on land and 3 lines in water area) made by reflection-CDP, density models to a depth of 20 km by solving the direct problem of gravity prospecting in GM-SYS module (Geosoft) in 2D formulation were constructed. Deep reflection-CDP seismic sections specified according to the deep wells were used as starting models. Correctness of the selected density models was controlled by comparing the theoretical curve with the values interpolated on the profile line from the digital model of gravity anomaly (Bouguer, density of the intermediate layer of 2.67 g/cm3). Magnetic modeling was performed using geometry of blocks from the obtained density models to a depth of 20 km and is based on selection of local anomaly sources in the upper section (in the Triassic strata). Blocks of the Precambrian basement were used as sources of regional magnetic anomalies in the considered models. Modeling constructs show the defining role of the topography of terrigenous and carbonate complex boundary within the Paleozoic section as a source of gravity anomalies for the region under study. These findings are confirmed by comparison of gravity and seismic data (maps of local gravity anomalies and structural maps of reflecting horizons) and additionally substantiated by analysis of the nature of local magnetic anomalies distribution. The latter are associated with the Triassic basalt horizons at the top of the terrigenous complex and thus also reflect structures of the sedimentary cover, which are registered independently by gravity data.
Carlos, Dionísio U.; Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.
2016-07-01
Airborne gravity gradiometry data have been recently used in mining surveys to map the 3D geometry of ore deposits. This task can be achieved by different gravity-gradient inversion methods, many of which use a voxel-based discretization of the Earth's subsurface. To produce a unique and stable solution, an inversion method introduces particular constraints. One constraining inversion introduces a depth-weighting function in the first-order Tikhonov regularization imposing a smoothing on the density-contrast distributions that are not restricted to near-surface regions. Another gravity-gradient inversion, the method of planting anomalous densities, imposes compactness and sharp boundaries on the density-contrast distributions. We used these two inversion methods to invert the airborne gravity-gradient data over the iron-ore deposit at the southern flank of the Gandarela syncline in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil). Because these methods differ from each other in the particular constraint used, the estimated 3D density-contrast distributions reveal different geologic features of ore deposit. The depth-weighting smoothing inversion reveals variable dip directions along the strike of the retrieved iron-ore body. The planting anomalous density inversion estimates a compact iron-ore mass with a single density contrast, which reveals a variable volume of the iron ore along its strike increasing towards the hinge zone of the Gandarela syncline which is the zone of maximum compression. The combination of the geologic features inferred from each estimate leads to a synergistic effect, revealing that the iron-ore deposit is strongly controlled by the Gandarela syncline.
Hunt, Earl B
1975-01-01
Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet
Sneddon, Andrew
2013-01-01
Gravity is a cross-disciplinary research project in Fine Art at Sheffield Institute of the Arts (SIA) in partnership with Sheffield Galleries and Museums. Gravity is led by Penny McCarthy, Dr Becky Shaw and Andrew Sneddon. Gravity begins with a series of lectures designed to examine the wider context of practice and discourse. Gravity examines the contemporary condition of the art object or artefact, and the relations between maker, medium, site of production and systems of dissemination. ...
Claudia de Rham
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tetreau Guillaume
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background For most organisms, developing hundreds of genetic markers spanning the whole genome still requires excessive if not unrealistic efforts. In this context, there is an obvious need for methodologies allowing the low-cost, fast and high-throughput genotyping of virtually any species, such as the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT. One of the crucial steps of the DArT technique is the genome complexity reduction, which allows obtaining a genomic representation characteristic of the studied DNA sample and necessary for subsequent genotyping. In this article, using the mosquito Aedes aegypti as a study model, we describe a new genome complexity reduction method taking advantage of the abundance of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs in the genome of this species. Results Ae. aegypti genomic representations were produced following a two-step procedure: (1 restriction digestion of the genomic DNA and simultaneous ligation of a specific adaptor to compatible ends, and (2 amplification of restriction fragments containing a particular MITE element called Pony using two primers, one annealing to the adaptor sequence and one annealing to a conserved sequence motif of the Pony element. Using this protocol, we constructed a library comprising more than 6,000 DArT clones, of which at least 5.70% were highly reliable polymorphic markers for two closely related mosquito strains separated by only a few generations of artificial selection. Within this dataset, linkage disequilibrium was low, and marker redundancy was evaluated at 2.86% only. Most of the detected genetic variability was observed between the two studied mosquito strains, but individuals of the same strain could still be clearly distinguished. Conclusion The new complexity reduction method was particularly efficient to reveal genetic polymorphisms in Ae. egypti. Overall, our results testify of the flexibility of the DArT genotyping technique and open new
Liouville gravity from Einstein gravity
Grumiller, D.; Jackiw, R.
2007-01-01
We show that Liouville gravity arises as the limit of pure Einstein gravity in 2+epsilon dimensions as epsilon goes to zero, provided Newton's constant scales with epsilon. Our procedure - spherical reduction, dualization, limit, dualizing back - passes several consistency tests: geometric properties, interactions with matter and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are as expected from Einstein gravity.
... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Dhaka
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Analyses of hourly radiosonde data of temperature, wind, and relative humidity during four days (two with convection and two with no convection as a part of an intensive observation period in CPEA-2 campaign over Koto Tabang (100.32° E, 0.20° S, Indonesia, are presented. Characteristics of gravity waves in terms of dominant wave frequencies at different heights and their vertical wavelengths are shown in the lower stratosphere during a convective and non-convective period. Gravity waves with periods ~10 h and ~4–5 h were found dominant near tropopause (a region of high stability on all days of observation. Vertical propagation of gravity waves were seen modified near heights of the three identified strong wind shears (at ~16, 20, and 25 km heights due to wave-mean flow interaction. Between 17 and 21 km heights, meridional wind fluctuations dominated over zonal wind, whereas from 22 to 30 km heights, wave fluctuations with periods ~3–5 h and ~8–10 h in zonal wind and temperature were highly associated, suggesting zonal orientation of wave propagation. Gravity waves from tropopause region to 30 km heights were analyzed. In general, vertical wavelength of 2–5 km dominated in all the mean-removed (~ weekly mean wind and temperature hourly profiles. Computed vertical wavelength spectra are similar, in most of the cases, to the source spectra (1–16 km height except that of zonal wind spectra, which is broad during active convection. Interestingly, during and after convection, gravity waves with short vertical wavelength (~2 km and short period (~2–3 h emerged, which were confined in the close vicinity of tropopause, and were not identified on non-convective days, suggesting convection to be the source for them. Some wave features near strong wind shear (at 25 km height were also observed with short vertical wavelengths in both convective and non-convective days, suggesting wind shear to be the sole cause of generation and seemingly not
Einstein Gravity from Conformal Gravity
Maldacena, Juan
2011-01-01
We show that that four dimensional conformal gravity plus a simple Neumann boundary condition can be used to get the semiclassical (or tree level) wavefunction of the universe of four dimensional asymptotically de-Sitter or Euclidean anti-de Sitter spacetimes. This simple Neumann boundary condition selects the Einstein solution out of the more numerous solutions of conformal gravity. It thus removes the ghosts of conformal gravity from this computation. In the case of a five dimensional pure ...
Newburgh, Ronald
2010-01-01
It's both surprising and rewarding when an old, standard problem reveals a subtlety that expands its pedagogic value. I realized recently that the role of gravity in the range equation for a projectile is not so simple as first appears. This realization may be completely obvious to others but was quite new to me.
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferré, Ty P. A.
2016-02-01
The relative gravimeter is the primary terrestrial instrument for measuring spatially and temporally varying gravitational fields. The background noise of the instrument-that is, non-linear drift and random tares-typically requires some form of least-squares network adjustment to integrate data collected during a campaign that may take several days to weeks. Here, we present an approach to remove the change in the observed relative-gravity differences caused by hydrologic or other transient processes during a single campaign, so that the adjusted gravity values can be referenced to a single epoch. The conceptual approach is an example of coupled hydrogeophysical inversion, by which a hydrologic model is used to inform and constrain the geophysical forward model. The hydrologic model simulates the spatial variation of the rate of change of gravity as either a linear function of distance from an infiltration source, or using a 3-D numerical groundwater model. The linear function can be included in and solved for as part of the network adjustment. Alternatively, the groundwater model is used to predict the change of gravity at each station through time, from which the accumulated gravity change is calculated and removed from the data prior to the network adjustment. Data from a field experiment conducted at an artificial-recharge facility are used to verify our approach. Maximum gravity change due to hydrology (observed using a superconducting gravimeter) during the relative-gravity field campaigns was up to 2.6 μGal d-1, each campaign was between 4 and 6 d and one month elapsed between campaigns. The maximum absolute difference in the estimated gravity change between two campaigns, two months apart, using the standard network adjustment method and the new approach, was 5.5 μGal. The maximum gravity change between the same two campaigns was 148 μGal, and spatial variation in gravity change revealed zones of preferential infiltration and areas of relatively high
Matsuo, K.; Heki, K.
2008-12-01
The Martian atmosphere seasonally exchanges CO2 with the surface by repeating condensation and sublimation, causing seasonal growth and decay of the polar CO2 snow caps. These processes leave two kinds of geodetic signatures, i.e. seasonal changes of the Martian gravity field and of surface elevation of the snow-covered regions. These were simultaneously observed by Doppler tracking of MGS as time-variable J3 component [Konopliv et al., 2006], and by laser altimetry from the satellite [Smith et al., 2001], respectively. Here we study gradual increase of the volume density of the Martian snow due to compaction, by combining the two data sets 1999-2001 covering three Martian winters. We tried three models, (model 1) constant density throughout the year, (model 2) gradually increasing density with the same peak value, and (model 3) gradually increasing density with different peak values for the three winters, and found that the agreement between the two data sets gets better as we increase the number of parameters. We found that light fresh snow of about 0.1 g/cm3 slowly becomes denser reaching about 1.0 g/cm3 or more immediately before it thaws. From analogy to terrestrial H2O snow, we suggest densification mechanisms such as gravity-driven compaction and/or sintering of CO2 crystals. The densities reached their maxima when solar longitude was 60"|85 degrees (northern hemisphere, equivalent to May-Jun. of the Earth) and 240"|265 degrees (southern hemisphere, Nov.-Dec.). The maximum snow density varies slightly from year to year, and between hemispheres. In the second southern winter, the density became as high as ~1.6 g/cm3 possibly reflecting enhanced mixing ratio of silicate particles by a large-scale dust storm that occurred around the South Pole early in 2000 (solar longitude 270-285 degrees). We also evaluated sources of systematic errors, such as atmospheric pressure variations (factor A), influence of elastic deformation of the solid Mars by snow loads onto
Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Lavan, David; Diego Orihuela-Tacuri, M.; Sanabria, Gabriela
2016-07-01
Currently, studies in Drosophila melanogaster has shown emerging evidence that microgravity stimuli can be detected at the genetic level. Analysis of the transcriptome in the pupal stage of the fruit flies under microgravity conditions versus ground controls has suggested the presence of a few candidate genes as "gravity sensors" which are experimentally validated. Additionally, several studies have shown that microgravity causes inhibitory effects in different types of cancer cells, although the genes involved and responsible for these effects are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the genes suggested as the sensors of gravitational waves in Drosophila melanogaster and their human counterpart (orthologous genes) are highly involved in carcinogenesis, proliferation, anti-apoptotic signals, invasiveness, and metastatic potential of breast cancer cell tumors. The transcriptome analyses suggested that the observed inhibitory effect in cancer cells could be due to changes in the genetic expression of these candidates. These results encourage the possibility of new therapeutic targets managed together and not in isolation.
Abdelfettah, Yassine; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Tarits, Pascal; Hautot, Sophie; Maia, Marcia; Thuo, Peter
2016-07-01
In order to understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structure of the northwest end of the Turkana Basin, Northern Kenya Rift, we used 2-D joint inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) and gravity data acquired along 3 profiles perpendicular to the main Murua Rith-Lapur Rift Border Fault. The regional geology is characterized by a basement of Precambrian age overlain by a ≤500-m thick sandstone formation named the Lapur Sandstone of upper Cretaceous-lower Eocene in age, covered by thick rhyolitic and basaltic lavas of late Eocene-middle Miocene age, known as the "Turkana Volcanics". Final interpretation of the resistivity and density models, until 5 km depth, obtained by the joint inversion approach confirms the previous general knowledge about the half-graben geometry of the northern part of the Turkana Basin. The main Murua Rith-Lapur Rift Border Fault is well identified by both gravity and MT. At least, two other important secondary faults without surface expression are also identified. A new small half-graben basin, named the Kachoda Basin, parallel to the main Turkana Basin and filled by 1.5 km of sediments, has been also characterized. This study also highlights strong thickness variations of the three main geological units that could be expected in the subsurface of the Turkana Basin. For example, the sedimentary Nachukui and Kibish Formations reach up to >3 km in thickness at the eastern end of the north and central profiles. Lateral variations of the topography of the Precambrian basement are also evidenced. Conceptual geological models, which result from the combination of the obtained density and resistivity models as well as from geological and reflection seismic data, are proposed. In such an area of intensive and promising oil exploration, these models are essential in terms of identification of reservoirs, source rocks and trapping mechanisms.
Seillé, Hoël; Salas, Ramon; Pous, Jaume; Guimerà, Joan; Gallart, Josep; Torne, Montserrat; Romero-Ruiz, Ivan; Diaz, Jordi; Ruiz, Mario; Carbonell, Ramon; Mas, Ramón
2015-11-01
The Iberian Chain is a Cenozoic intraplate thrust belt located within the Iberian plate. Unlike other belts in the Iberia Peninsula, the scarcity of geophysical studies in this area results in a number of unknowns about its crustal structure. The Iberian Chain crust was investigated by means of a NE-SW refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic transect and two magnetotelluric profiles across the chain, oriented along the same direction. The seismic profile was designed to sample the crust by means of three shots designed to obtain a reversed profile. The resulting velocity-depth model shows a moderate thickening of the crust toward the central part of the profile, where crustal thickness reaches values above 40 km, thinning toward de SW Tajo and NE Ebro foreland basins. The crustal thickening is concentrated in the upper crust. The seismic results are in overall agreement with regional trends of Bouguer gravity anomaly and the main features of the seismic model were reproduced by gravity modeling. The magnetotelluric data consist of 39 sites grouped into two profiles, with periods ranging from 0.01 s to 1000 s. Dimensionality analyses show significant 3D effects in the resistivity structure and therefore we carried out a joint 3D inversion of the full impedance tensor and magnetic transfer functions. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins along the Chain are well characterized by shallow high conductive zones and low velocities. Elongated conductors reaching mid-crustal depths evidence the presence of major faults dominating the crustal structure. The results from the interpretation of these complementary geophysical data sets provided the first images of the crustal structure of the Iberian Chain. They are consistent with a Cenozoic shortening responsible of the upper crust thickening as well as of the uplift of the Iberian Chain and the generation of its present day topography.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarkar Suman
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.
Lujan, Richard E.
2001-01-01
A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.
Ennals, J R
1987-01-01
Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of
Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R
2001-11-19
A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...
Natural - synthetic - artificial!
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter E
2010-01-01
The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....
Sato, Kaoru; Tsuchiya, Chikara; Alexander, M. Joan; Hoffmann, Lars
2016-07-01
A new temperature retrieval from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder with a fine horizontal resolution of 13.5 km was used to examine gravity wave (GW) characteristics in the austral summer at an altitude of 39 km in the subtropical stratosphere over 8 years from 2003/2004 to 2010/2011. Using an S transform method, GW components were extracted, and GW variances, horizontal wave numbers, and their orientations were determined at each grid point and time. Both climatology and interannual variability of the GW variance were large in the subtropical South Pacific. About 70% of the interannual variation in the GW variance there was regressed to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. The regression coefficient exhibits a geographical distribution similar to that of the precipitation. In contrast, the regression coefficient of the GW variance to the quasi-biennial oscillation of the equatorial lower stratosphere was not significant in the South Pacific. These results indicate that the interannual variability of GW variance in the South Pacific is controlled largely by the convective activity modulated by the ENSO. An interesting feature is that the GW variance is maximized slightly southward of the precipitation maximum. Possible mechanisms causing the latitudinal difference are (1) dense distribution of islands, which effectively radiate GWs with long vertical wavelengths, to the south of the precipitation maximum; (2) selective excitation of southward propagating GWs in the northward vertical wind shear in the troposphere; and (3) southward refraction of GWs in the latitudinal shear of background zonal wind in the stratosphere.
Davis, Hyman R.; Long, R. H.; Simone, A. A.
1979-01-01
Solids are separated from a liquid in a gravity settler provided with inclined solid intercepting surfaces to intercept the solid settling path to coalesce the solids and increase the settling rate. The intercepting surfaces are inverted V-shaped plates, each formed from first and second downwardly inclined upwardly curved intersecting conical sections having their apices at the vessel wall.
Nutma, Teake
2012-01-01
We present higher-derivative gravities that propagate an arbitrary number of gravitons of different mass on (A)dS backgrounds. These theories have multiple critical points, at which the masses degenerate and the graviton energies are non-negative. For six derivatives and higher there are critical points with positive energy.
Pipinos, Savas
2010-01-01
This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…
Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R
2011-08-15
The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990
Warwick, Kevin
2011-01-01
if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn
2012-01-01
Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...
Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman
2008-01-01
We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981
Clifton, T; Barrow, John D.
2006-01-01
We consider the possibility of energy being exchanged between the scalar and matter fields in scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Such an exchange provides a new mechanism which can drive variations in the gravitational 'constant' G. We find exact solutions for the evolution of spatially flat Friedman-Roberston-Walker cosmologies in this scenario and discuss their behaviour at both early and late times.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the possibility of energy being exchanged between the scalar and matter fields in scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Such an exchange provides a new mechanism which can drive variations in the gravitational 'constant' G. We find exact solutions for the evolution of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies in this scenario and discuss their behavior at both early and late times. We also consider the physical consequences and observational constraints on these models
Hu, B. L. (Bei-Lok)
1999-01-01
We give a summary of the status of current research in stochastic semiclassical gravity and suggest directions for further investigations. This theory generalizes the semiclassical Einstein equation to an Einstein-Langevin equation with a stochastic source term arising from the fluctuations of the energy-momentum tensor of quantum fields. We mention recent efforts in applying this theory to the study of black hole fluctuations and backreaction problems, linear response of hot flat space, and ...
Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.
2016-01-01
This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.
Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John
2016-04-01
It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450
Duda, Antonín
2009-01-01
Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...
Gravity and Mirror Gravity in Plebanski Formulation
Bennett, D. L.; Laperashvili, L. V.; Nielsen, H. B.; Tureanu, A.
2012-01-01
We present several theories of four-dimensional gravity in the Plebanski formulation, in which the tetrads and the connections are the independent dynamical variables. We consider the relation between different versions of gravitational theories: Einstenian, dual, 'mirror' gravities and gravity with torsion. According to Plebanski's assumption, our world, in which we live, is described by the self-dual left-handed gravity. We propose that if the Mirror World exists in Nature, then the 'mirror...
Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2014-01-01
The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that the quantum gravity environment is an information resource-pool from which valuable information can be extracted. We analyze the structure of the quantum gravity space and the entanglement of the space-time geometry. We study the information transfer capabilities of quantum gravity space and define the quantum gravity channel. We reveal that the quantum gravity space acts as a background noise on the local environment states. We characterize the properties of the noise of the quantum gravity space and show that it allows the separate local...
Lombard, John
2016-01-01
We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a positive-definite cosmological constant as a regulator for non-degenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in develop...
Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity
Smolin, Lee
2010-01-01
We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.
Oriti, Daniele
2009-03-01
Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and
Einstein Gravity, Massive Gravity, Multi-Gravity and Nonlinear Realizations
Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Trodden, Mark
2014-01-01
The existence of a ghost free theory of massive gravity begs for an interpre-tation as a Higgs phase of General Relativity. We revisit the study of massive gravity as a Higgs phase. Absent a compelling microphysical model of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gravity, we approach this problem from the viewpoint of nonlinear realizations. We employ the coset construction to search for the most restrictive symmetry breaking pattern whose low energy theory will both admit the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tol...
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-01-01
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Eins...
Linker, Patrick
2016-01-01
A couple of quantum gravity theories were proposed to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of gravity. The most recent approach to quantum gravity, called E-theory, is proposed mathematical, but there is not formulated much about what dynamics of gravity this theory proposes. This research paper treats the main results of the application of E-theory to General relativity involving conservation laws and scattering of particles in presence of gravity. Also the low-energy limit of thi...
Gravity wave transmission diagram
Tomikawa, Yoshihiro
2016-07-01
A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.
Comparison of various isostatic marine gravity disturbances
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Robert Tenzer; Mohammad Bagherbandi; Lars E Sjöberg
2015-08-01
We present and compare four types of the isostatic gravity disturbances compiled at sea level over the world oceans and marginal seas. These isostatic gravity disturbances are computed by applying the Airy–Heiskanen (AH), Pratt–Hayford (PH) and Vening Meinesz–Moritz (VMM) isostatic models. In addition, we compute the complete crust-stripped (CCS) isostatic gravity disturbances which are defined based on a principle of minimizing their spatial correlation with the Moho geometry. We demonstrate that each applied compensation scheme yields a distinctive spatial pattern in the resulting isostatic marine gravity field. The AH isostatic gravity disturbances provide the smoothest gravity field (by means of their standard deviation). The AH and VMM isostatic gravity disturbances have very similar spatial patterns due to the fact that the same isostatic principle is applied in both these definitions expect for assuming a local (in the former) instead of a global (in the latter) compensation mechanism. The PH isostatic gravity disturbances are highly spatially correlated with the ocean-floor relief. The CCS isostatic gravity disturbances reveal a signature of the ocean-floor spreading characterized by an increasing density of the oceanic lithosphere with age.
Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2014-02-01
Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water. PMID:25353576
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandru JIVAN
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.
Cadiz, California Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data...
Northern Oklahoma Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (710 records) were compiled by Professor Ahern. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...
Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...
Gravity wave transmission diagram
Tomikawa, Y.
2015-01-01
A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributio...
2006-01-01
A theory of gravitation is proposed, modeled after the notion of a Ricci flow. In addition to the metric an independent volume enters as a fundamental geometric structure. Einstein gravity is included as a limiting case. Despite being a scalar-tensor theory the coupling to matter is different from Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. In particular there is no adjustable coupling constant. For the solar system the effects of Ricci flow gravity cannot be distinguished from Einstein gravity and therefore...
Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Harms
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^–23 Hz^–1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our
T. Henz; Pawlowski, J. M.; Rodigast, A; Wetterich, C.
2013-01-01
We propose a simple fixed point scenario in the renormalization flow of a scalar dilaton coupled to gravity. This would render gravity non-perturbatively renormalizable and thus constitute a viable theory of quantum gravity. On the fixed point dilatation symmetry is exact and the quantum effective action takes a very simple form. Realistic gravity with a nonzero Planck mass is obtained through a nonzero expectation value for the scalar field, constituting a spontaneous scale symmetry breaking...
Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations
Harms, Jan
2015-12-01
Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^-23 Hz^-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of
AMELINO-CAMELIA, Giovanni
2003-01-01
Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"
Ambjorn, Jan
1994-01-01
I discuss recent progress in our understanding of two barriers in quantum gravity: $c > 1$ in the case of 2d quantum gravity and $D > 2$ in the case of Euclidean Einstein-Hilbert gravity formulated in space-time dimensions $D >2$.
Gravity/Fluid Correspondence For Massive Gravity
Pan, Wen-Jian
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the gravity/fluid correspondence in the framework of massive gravity. Treating the gravitational mass terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor and utilizing the Petrov-like boundary condition on a time-like hypersurface, we find that the perturbation effects of massive gravity in bulk can be completely governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation living on the cutoff surface under the near horizon and non-relativistic limit. Furthermore, in our models, we have concisely computed the ratio of dynamical viscosity to entropy density, and shown that it still satisfies KSS bound.
Einstein Gravity, Massive Gravity, Multi-Gravity and Nonlinear Realizations
Goon, Garrett; Joyce, Austin; Trodden, Mark
2014-01-01
The existence of a ghost free theory of massive gravity begs for an interpretation as a Higgs phase of General Relativity. We revisit the study of massive gravity as a Higgs phase. Absent a compelling microphysical model of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gravity, we approach this problem from the viewpoint of nonlinear realizations. We employ the coset construction to search for the most restrictive symmetry breaking pattern whose low energy theory will both admit the de Rham--Gabadadze--Tolley (dRGT) potentials and nonlinearly realize every symmetry of General Relativity, thereby providing a new perspective from which to build theories of massive gravity. In addition to the known ghost-free terms, we find a novel parity violating interaction which preserves the constraint structure of the theory, but which vanishes on the normal branch of the theory. Finally, the procedure is extended to the cases of bi-gravity and multi-vielbein theories. Analogous parity violating interactions exist here, too, and may be...
Artificial Inteligence and Law
Fuková, Kateřina
2012-01-01
Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...
Strohmayr, Michael
2012-01-01
Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.
Gravity: a gauge theory perspective
Nester, James M
2016-01-01
The evolution of a generally covariant theory is under-determined. One hundred years ago such dynamics had never before been considered; its ramifications were perplexing, its future important role for all the fundamental interactions under the name gauge principle could not be foreseen. We recount some history regarding Einstein, Hilbert, Klein and Noether and the novel features of gravitational energy that led to Noether's two theorems. Under-determined evolution is best revealed in the Hamiltonian formulation. We developed a covariant Hamiltonian formulation. The Hamiltonian boundary term gives covariant expressions for the quasi-local energy, momentum and angular momentum. Gravity can be considered as a gauge theory of the local Poincar\\'e group. The dynamical potentials of the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity are the frame and the connection. The spacetime geometry has in general both curvature and torsion. Torsion naturally couples to spin; it could have a significant magnitude and yet not be noticed,...
Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity
Santos, N O
2016-01-01
General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Townsend, Paul K
2013-01-01
We present a generally-covariant and parity-invariant "zwei-dreibein" action for gravity in three space-time dimensions that propagates two massive spin-2 modes, unitarily, and we use Hamiltonian methods to confirm the absence of unphysical degrees of freedom. We show how zwei-dreibein gravity unifies previous "3D massive gravity" models, and extends them, in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, to allow for a positive central charge consistent with bulk unitarity.
Pirkola, Patrik
2016-01-01
The surface gravity on Mars is smaller than the surface gravity on Earth, resulting in longer falling times. This effect can be simulated on Earth by taking advantage of air resistance and buoyancy, which cause low density objects to fall slowly enough to approximate objects falling on the surface of Mars. We describe a computer simulation based on an experiment that approximates Martian gravity, and verify our numerical results by performing the experiment.
Aspects of multimetric gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a class of gravity theories containing N ≥ 2 metric tensors and a corresponding number of standard model copies. In the Newtonian limit gravity is attractive within each standard model copy, but different standard model copies mutually repel each other. We discuss several aspects of these multimetric gravity theories, including cosmology, structure formation, the post-Newtonian limit and gravitational waves. The most interesting feature we find is an accelerating expansion of the universe that naturally becomes small at late times.
Anderson, James E.
2010-01-01
The gravity model in economics was until relatively recently an intellectual orphan, unconnected to the rich family of economic theory. This review is a tale of the orphan's reunion with its heritage and the benefits that have flowed from it. Gravity has long been one of the most successful empirical models in economics. Incorporating the theoretical foundations of gravity into recent practice has led to a richer and more accurate estimation and interpretation of the spatial relations describ...
Mielke, E W
2006-01-01
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j_5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four--form F^ F= dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed
Anderson, James E.; Yoto V. Yotov
2012-01-01
This paper provides striking confirmation of the restrictions of the structural gravity model of trade. Structural forces predicted by theory explain 95% of the variation of the fixed effects used to control for them in the recent gravity literature, fixed effects that in principle could reflect other forces. This validation opens avenues to inferring unobserved sectoral activity and multilateral resistance variables by equating fixed effects with structural gravity counterparts. Our findings...
Vaid, Deepak
2014-01-01
I have been asked to write brief, gentle introduction to the basic idea behind the field of "quantum gravity" in 1500 words or less. Doing so appears to be almost as great a challenge as coming up with a consistent theory of quantum gravity. However, I will try. Disclaimer: \\emph{The views expressed in this article are my own and do not represent the consensus of the quantum gravity community}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Mukherjee
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.
Gravity Independent Compressor Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...
Artificial gravity intermittent centrifugation as a space flight countermeasure
Vernikos, J.
1997-01-01
Head-down bed rest was used to simulate weightlessness in an experiment that examined variations in dose, time, and frequency of +Gz stimuli countermeasures. Results indicate that 4 hr. standing was most effective for orthostatic intolerance, walking was most effective in achieving peak oxygen consumption, 4 hr. of standing or walking had the best effect on plasma volume, and 4 hr. of walking was most effective in maintaining urinary calcium excretion.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Heiss, Jonny
2000-01-01
Assuming the existence of a Multidirectional Homogeneous and Constant Shower of Elementary Particles (MHCSEP) traveling at light speed in space, several basic laws of physics are derived mainly by geometrical considerations. When placing two bodies in space, obstruction of the MHCSEP creates an attractive force among them that coincides, for two bodies, with Newton's law of gravity, generating a mechanical explanation for gravity.
Counterterms in Lovelock Gravity
Mehdizadeh, M R; Zangeneh, M Kord
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences in the action of Lovelock gravity can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of the black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. We, also, find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there ex...
No consistent bimetric gravity?
Deser, S.; Sandora, M.; Waldron, A
2013-01-01
We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, we show that consistency of BMG relies on it having a PM extension; we then argue that it cannot.
No consistent bimetric gravity?
Deser, S; Waldron, A
2013-01-01
We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, ultimate consistency of both BMG and the putative PM BMG theory relies crucially on this gauge symmetry. We argue, however, that it does not exist.
Consistency of orthodox gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
1997-01-01
A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.
Ultraviolet Complete Quantum Gravity
Moffat, J. W.
2010-01-01
An ultraviolet complete quantum gravity theory is formulated in which vertex functions in Feynman graphs are entire functions and the propagating graviton is described by a local, causal propagator. The cosmological constant problem is investigated in the context of the ultraviolet complete quantum gravity.
Making quantum gravity calculable
Loll, R.
1995-01-01
We describe recent attempts at discretizing canonical quantum gravity in four dimensions in terms of a connection formulation. This includes a general introduction, a comparison between the real and complex connection approach, and a discussion of some open problems. (Contribution to the proceedings of the workshop ``Recent mathematical developments in classical and quantum gravity", Sintra, Portugal, July 1995.)
Topological Aspects of Quantum Gravity
Weis, Morten
1998-01-01
This thesis discusses the topological aspects of quantum gravity, focusing on the connection between 2D quantum gravity and 2D topological gravity. The mathematical background for the discussion is presented in the first two chapters. The possible gauge formulations of 2D topological gravity as a BF or a Super BF theory are presented and compared against 2D quantum gravity in the dynamical triangulation scheme. A new identification between topological gravity in the Super BF formulation and t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravity directs the paths of light rays and the growth of structure. Moreover, gravity on cosmological scales does not simply point down: It accelerates the universal expansion by pulling outward, either due to a highly negative pressure dark energy or an extension of general relativity. We have examined methods to test the properties of gravity through cosmological measurements. We have then considered specific possibilities for a sound gravitational theory based on the Galilean shift symmetry. The evolution of the laws of gravity from the early universe to the present acceleration to the future fate – the paths of gravity – carries rich information on this fundamental force of physics, and on the mystery of dark energy
Palsingh, S. (Inventor)
1975-01-01
An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.
FEM structural analysis of ITER gravity supports
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Because of the complexity of the load cases, the gravity support of ITER endures several large forces during operation besides the dead weight of the magnet system, such as electromagnetic force on the magnets, thermal load and seismic loads (SL). In order to verify the reliability of the design, and make the gravity support operate safely under the various load cases, it is very important to analyze the applied force on the gravity support in different load cases. In this paper, finite-element-method (FEM) is used for the structural analysis. 3-D FEM models of the overall gravity support system, with 20 degree sector and 360 degree respectively, are created by ANSYS according to different load cases. The 20 degree model in the torus is used for the structural analysis of the gravity support system under the several symmetric load combinations, and the 360 degree model is used for the structural analysis under the load combinations with the asymmetric SL. The analysis results are given, such as the static structural analysis and the buckling analysis for the different load combinations, and the modal analysis for the natural frequencies. The calculation results reveal that all of the gravity support components have enough safety margins against various load combinations. (authors)
Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?
Alfons Schuster; Daniel Berrar; Naoyuki Sato
2010-01-01
Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...
Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis
DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.
2010-01-01
In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...
Artificial cognition architectures
Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A
2013-01-01
The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution
Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice
Libal, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.
2015-01-01
We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is rai...
Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo
Amador Díaz, Pedro
2012-01-01
Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.
Note on the relationship between the speed of light and gravity in the bi-metric theory of gravity
Kopeikin, Sergei
2005-01-01
Relationship between the speed of gravity c_g and the speed of light c_e in the bi-metric theory of gravity is discussed. We reveal that the speed of light is a function of the speed of gravity which is a primary fundamental constant. Thus, experimental measurement of relativistic bending of light propagating in time-dependent gravitational field directly compares the speed of gravity versus the speed of light and tests if there is any aether associated with the gravitational field considered...
An observational correlation between stellar brightness variations and surface gravity
Bastien, Fabienne A; Basri, Gibor; Pepper, Joshua
2013-01-01
Surface gravity is one of a star's basic properties, but it is difficult to measure accurately, with typical uncertainties of 25-50 per cent if measured spectroscopically and 90-150 per cent photometrically. Asteroseismology measures gravity with an uncertainty of about two per cent but is restricted to relatively small samples of bright stars, most of which are giants. The availability of high-precision measurements of brightness variations for >150,000 stars provides an opportunity to investigate whether the variations can be used to determine surface gravities. The Fourier power of granulation on a star's surface correlates physically with surface gravity; if brightness variations on timescales of hours arise from granulation, then such variations should correlate with surface gravity. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals an observational correlation between surface gravity and the root-mean-square brightness variations on timescales of less than eight hours for stars with temperatures ...
Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.
Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J
2015-05-22
We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent. PMID:26047218
Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina Dantas Figueiredo
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.
Phenomenological Quantum Gravity
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2009-01-01
If the history of science has taught us anything, it's that persistence and creativity makes the once impossible possible. It has long been thought experimental tests of quantum gravity are impossible. But during the last decade, several different approaches have been proposed that allow us to test, if not the fundamental theory of quantum gravity itself, so at least characteristic features this theory can have. For the first time we can probe experimentally domains in which quantum physics and gravity cohabit, in spite of our failure so far to make a convincing marriage of them on a theoretical level.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for μ and Bμ generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.
Setare, M R
2009-01-01
In this paper we study cosmological application of holographic dark energy density in the modified gravity framework. We employ the holographic model of dark energy to obtain the equation of state for the holographic energy density in spatially flat universe. Our calculation show, taking $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0.73$ for the present time, it is possible to have $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}$ crossing -1. This implies that one can generate phantom-like equation of state from a holographic dark energy model in flat universe in the modified gravity cosmology framework. Also we develop a reconstruction scheme for the modified gravity with $f(R)$ action.
Artificial insemination in poultry
Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...
Are artificial satellites orbits influenced by an expanding Earth?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Scalera
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Albeit in the past great theoretical and experimental efforts were made in proposing and searching for G time-decreasing, a major role could be played by an increase of M. A recent analysis (Scalera, 2003a converges toward an upper limit of the Earths mass variation in the order of magnitude of M/M=10-9 /yr. It is here discussed the possible role that can be played by parameters linked to the expanding Earth in the effects we observe in the orbital motion of the artificial satellites. The important result in this short note is the discrimination between the reality of the glacial rebound process and/or the relaxation of the 100m excess of equatorial bulge testified by the high rate of j2 , and the improbable role that glacial rebound can have in driving PM and TPW. It is recommended that the new technology of drag-free satellites be used (Gravity-Probe B is the first step to reveal possible residual orbital parameter variations ascribable to formerly unrecognized fictitious drag terms due to Earth radial increase.
Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yan Ming
2016-07-01
One of the challenges for geoid determination is the combination of heterogeneous gravity data. Because of the distinctive spectral content of different data sets, spectral combination is a suitable candidate for its solution. The key to have a successful combination is to determine the proper spectral weights, or the error degree variances of each data set. In this paper, the error degree variances of terrestrial and airborne gravity data at low degrees are estimated by the aid of a satellite gravity model using harmonic analysis. For higher degrees, the error covariances are estimated from local gravity data first, and then used to compute the error degree variances. The white and colored noise models are also used to estimate the error degree variances of local gravity data for comparisons. Based on the error degree variances, the spectral weights of satellite gravity models, terrestrial and airborne gravity data are determined and applied for geoid computation in Texas area. The computed gravimetric geoid models are tested against an independent, highly accurate geoid profile of the Geoid Slope Validation Survey 2011 (GSVS11). The geoid computed by combining satellite gravity model GOCO03S and terrestrial (land and DTU13 altimetric) gravity data agrees with GSVS11 to ±1.1 cm in terms of standard deviation along a line of 325 km. After incorporating the airborne gravity data collected at 11 km altitude, the standard deviation is reduced to ±0.8 cm. Numerical tests demonstrate the feasibility of spectral combination in geoid computation and the contribution of airborne gravity in an area of high quality terrestrial gravity data. Using the GSVS11 data and the spectral combination, the degree of correctness of the error spectra and the quality of satellite gravity models can also be revealed.
Massive gravity as a limit of bimetric gravity
Martin-Moruno, Prado; Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
Massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure can lead to an interesting interplay between the "background" and "foreground" metrics in a cosmological context. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit. Thus, solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statem...
BRST symmetry of Unimodular Gravity
Upadhyay, S.; Oksanen, M.; Bufalo, R.
2015-01-01
We derive the BRST symmetry for two versions of unimodular gravity, namely, fully diffeomorphism-invariant unimodular gravity and unimodular gravity with fixed metric determinant. The BRST symmetry is generalized further to the finite field-dependent BRST, in order to establish the connection between different gauges in each of the two versions of unimodular gravity.
Toroidal solutions in Horava Gravity
Ghodsi, Ahmad
2009-01-01
Recently a new four-dimensional non relativistic renormalizable theory of gravity was proposed by Horava. This gravity reduces to Einstein gravity at large distances. In this paper by using the new action for gravity we present different toroidal solutions to the equations of motion. Our solutions describe the near horizon geometry with slow rotating parameter.
Garland, G D; Wilson, J T
2013-01-01
The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp
Logical Foundations Of Artificial Intelligence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The procedures of searching solutions to problems, in Artificial Intelligence, can be brought about, in many occasions, without knowledge of the Domain, and in other situations, with knowledge of it. This last procedure is usually called Heuristic Search. In such methods the matrix techniques reveal themselves as essential. Their introduction can give us an easy and precise way in the search of solution. Our paper explains how the matrix theory appears and fruitfully participates in A I, with feasible applications to Game Theory.
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
Bhattacharya, Swastik
2015-01-01
General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a space-like hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this essay, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and, hence gravity is truly emergent.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...
Oda, Ichiro
2016-01-01
We propose a topological model of induced gravity (pregeometry) where both Newton's coupling constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. The matter sector of a scalar field is also considered, and by solving field equations it is shown that various types of cosmological solutions in the FRW universe can be obtained. A detailed analysis is given of the meaning of the BRST transformations, which make the induced gravity be a topological field theory, by means of the canonical quantization analysis, and the physical reason why such BRST transformations are needed in the present formalism is clarified. Finally, we propose a dynamical mechanism for fixing the Lagrange multiplier fields by following the Higgs mechanism. The present study clearly indicates that the induced gravity can be constructed at the classical level without recourse to quantum fluctuations of matter and suggests an interesting relationship between the induced gravity and the topological qu...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, Dr. William F. Haxby of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University prepared this data base of free-air gravity anomalies, based on...
Bakker MR; Smit, J.
1993-01-01
We look at gravitational attraction in simplicial gravity using the dynamical triangulation method. On the dynamical triangulation configurations we measure quenched propagators of a free massive scalar field. The masses measured from these propagators show that gravitational attraction is present.
Fabrication of gravity-driven microfluidic device
Yamada, H.; Yoshida, Y.; Terada, N.; Hagihara, S.; Komatsu, T.; Terasawa, A.
2008-12-01
We have studied the micro total analysis system as a blood test. A microfluidic device with a three-pronged microchannel and artificial capillary vessels was fabricated. The microchannel is to transport blood, focus blood cells, and line them up. The vessels are to observe red blood cell deformation. An excimer laser was used to form grooves and so on. Numbers of thermosetting resin film and fluororesin were piled up on a cover glass. A laser fabricated part of the channel at the each film every lamination, and then a three-dimensional structure microchannel was fabricated. The channel sizes have widths of 50-150 μm and depths of 45 μm. Through holes used as artificial capillary vessels are made in the fluororesin having a minimum diameter of 5 μm and a length of 100 μm. As blood and a physiological saline are injected into the microchannel, the device stands upward facing the channel, and blood cells go into the vessels by the force of gravity and sheath flow of the saline. By gravity various groove patterns were made changing the width and length for measurement of blood focusing. Moreover, the red blood cell deformation was observed in the vessels with a microscope.
Quantum massive conformal gravity
Faria, F. F.
2016-01-01
We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed.
Quantum massive conformal gravity
Faria, F. F.
2016-04-01
We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed.
Quantum massive conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)
Noncommutative Quantum Gravity
Faizal, Mir
2013-01-01
We discuss the BRST and anti-BRST symmetries for perturbative quantum gravity in noncommutative spacetime. In this noncommutative perturbative quantum gravity the sum of the classical Lagrangian density with a gauge fixing term and a ghost term is shown to be invariant the noncommutative BRST and the noncommutative anti-BRST transformations. We analyse the gauge fixing term and the ghost term in both linear as well as non-linear gauges. We also discuss the unitarity evolution of the theory an...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author)
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
Modified entropic gravity revisited
Wang, Tower
2012-01-01
Inspired by Verlinde's idea, some modified versions of entropic gravity have appeared in the literature. Extending them in a unified formalism, we derive the generalized gravitational equations accordingly. From gravitational equations, the energy-momentum conservation law and cosmological equations are investigated. The covariant conservation law of energy-momentum tensor severely constrains viable modifications of entropic gravity. A discrepancy arises when two independent methods are appli...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.
Shan Gao
2011-01-01
The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entrop...
Emergent Gravity from Noncommutative Spacetime
Yang, Hyun Seok
2006-01-01
We showed before that self-dual electromagnetism in noncommutative (NC) spacetime is equivalent to self-dual Einstein gravity. This result implies a striking picture about gravity: Gravity can emerge from electromagnetism in NC spacetime. Gravity is then a collective phenomenon emerging from gauge fields living in fuzzy spacetime. We elucidate in some detail why electromagnetism in NC spacetime should be a theory of gravity. In particular, we show that NC electromagnetism is realized through ...
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Tenzer and Pavel Novák
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the _ crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The _ gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.
Artificial ecosystem selection.
Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R
2000-08-01
Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maartens Roy
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane" embedded in a 1+3+$d$-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk", with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the $d$ extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak ($sim$TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. General relativity cannot describe gravity at high enough energies and must be replaced by a quantum gravity theory, picking up significant corrections as the fundamental energy scale is approached. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review discusses the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models.
Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence
Jennings, Kyle E.
2010-01-01
The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary condition for making this argument. Rather than requiring that the system be hermetically sealed to avoid perceptions...
Principles of artificial intelligence
Nilsson, Nils J
1980-01-01
A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th
Intelligence: Real or artificial?
Schlinger, Henry D
1992-01-01
Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...
Artificial Personality and Disfluency
Wester, Mirjam; Aylett, Matthew; Tomalin, Marcus; Dall, Rasmus
2015-01-01
The focus of this paper is artificial voices with different personalities. Previous studies have shown links between an individual's use of disfluencies in their speech and their perceived personality. Here, filled pauses (uh and um) and discourse markers (like, you know, I mean) have been included in synthetic speech as a way of creating an artificial voice with different personalities. We discuss the automatic insertion of filled pauses and discourse markers (i.e., fillers) into otherwise f...
Christiansen, John
2000-01-01
The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...
Ensemble Averaged Gravity Theory
Khosravi, Nima
2016-01-01
We put forward the idea that all the theoretically consistent models of gravity have a contribution to the observed gravity interaction. In this formulation each model comes with its own Euclidean path integral weight where general relativity (GR) automatically has the maximum weight in high-curvature regions. We employ this idea in the framework of Lovelock models and show that in four dimensions the result is a specific form of $f(R,G)$ model. This specific $f(R,G)$ satisfies the stability conditions and has self-accelerating solution. Our model is consistent with the local tests of gravity since its behavior is same as GR for high-curvature regimes. In low-curvature regime the gravity force is weaker than GR which can interpret as existence of a repulsive fifth force for very large scales. Interestingly there is an intermediate-curvature regime where the gravity force is stronger in our model than GR. The different behavior of our model in comparison with GR in both low- and intermediate-curvature regimes ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
n-DBI gravity is a gravitational theory introduced in [C. Herdeiro and S. Hirano, arXiv:1109.1468.], motivated by Dirac-Born-Infeld type conformal scalar theory and designed to yield noneternal inflation spontaneously. It contains a foliation structure provided by an everywhere timelike vector field n, which couples to the gravitational sector of the theory, but decouples in the small curvature limit. We show that any solution of Einstein gravity with a particular curvature property is a solution of n-DBI gravity. Among them is a class of geometries isometric to a Reissner-Nordstroem-(anti)-de Sitter black hole, which is obtained within the spherically symmetric solutions of n-DBI gravity minimally coupled to the Maxwell field. These solutions have, however, two distinct features from their Einstein gravity counterparts: (1) the cosmological constant appears as an integration constant and can be positive, negative, or vanishing, making it a variable quantity of the theory; and (2) there is a nonuniqueness of solutions with the same total mass, charge, and effective cosmological constant. Such inequivalent solutions cannot be mapped to each other by a foliation preserving diffeomorphism. Physically they are distinguished by the expansion and shear of the congruence tangent to n, which define scalar invariants on each leaf of the foliation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))
1993-06-15
In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.
Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on gravity formula
Ma, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Hai-Feng
2015-01-01
How to identify the influential spreaders in social networks is crucial for accelerating/hindering information diffusion, increasing product exposure, controlling diseases and rumors, and so on. In this paper, by viewing the k-shell value of each node as its mass and the shortest path distance between any two nodes as their distance, then inspired by the idea of the gravity formula, we propose a gravity centrality index to identify the influential spreaders in complex networks. The comparison between the gravity centrality index with some well-known centralities, such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and k-shell centrality, and so forth, indicates that our method can effectively identify the influential spreaders in real networks as well as artificial networks. We also use the classical Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to verify the good performance of our method.
Development of artificial articular cartilage.
Oka, M; Ushio, K; Kumar, P; Ikeuchi, K; Hyon, S H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, H
2000-01-01
Attempts have been made to develop an artificial articular cartilage on the basis of a new viewpoint of joint biomechanics in which the lubrication and load-bearing mechanisms of natural and artificial joints are compared. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H), 'a rubber-like gel', was investigated as an artificial articular cartilage and the mechanical properties of this gel were improved through a new synthetic process. In this article the biocompatibility and various mechanical properties of the new improved PVA-H is reported from the perspective of its usefulness as an artificial articular cartilage. As regards lubrication, the changes in thickness and fluid pressure of the gap formed between a glass plate and the specimen under loading were measured and it was found that PVA-H had a thicker fluid film under higher pressures than polyethylene (PE) did. The momentary stress transmitted through the specimen revealed that PVA-H had a lower peak stress and a longer duration of sustained stress than PE, suggesting a better damping effect. The wear factor of PVA-H was approximately five times that of PE. Histological studies of the articular cartilage and synovial membranes around PVA-H implanted for 8-52 weeks showed neither inflammation nor degenerative changes. The artificial articular cartilage made from PVA-H could be attached to the underlying bone using a composite osteochondral device made from titanium fibre mesh. In the second phase of this work, the damage to the tibial articular surface after replacement of the femoral surface in dogs was studied. Pairs of implants made of alumina, titanium or PVA-H on titanium fibre mesh were inserted into the femoral condyles. The two hard materials caused marked pathological changes in the articular cartilage and menisci, but the hydrogel composite replacement caused minimal damage. The composite osteochondral device became rapidly attached to host bone by ingrowth into the supporting mesh. The clinical implications of
Airborne Gravity Gradiometry Resolves a Full Range of Gravity Frequencies
Mataragio, J.; Brewster, J.; Mims, J.
2007-12-01
Airborne Full Tensor Gradiometry (Air\\-FTGR) was flown at high altitude coincident with Airborne Gravity (AG) flown in 2003 in West Arnhem Land, Australia. A preliminary analysis of two data sets indicates that the Air\\-FTGR system has the capability of resolving intermediate to long wavelengths features that may be associated with relatively deeper geological structures. A comparison of frequency filtered slices and power spectral density (PSD) for both data sets using the short (> 5 km), intermediate (10 km) and long (20 km) wavelengths reveals that high altitude Air\\-FTGR data show greater response in high frequency anomalies than a conventional Airborne Gravity and matches well with the AG even at the longest wavelengths anomalies. The effect of line spacing and target resolution was examined between the two data sets. Reprocessed gradient and AG data at 2, 4 and 6 km line spacing suggest that Air\\-FTGR could be effectively flown at a comparatively wider line spacing to resolve similar targets the AG would resolve with tighter line spacing. Introduction Airborne Full Tensor Gradiometry (Air\\-FTGR) data have been available to the mining industry since 2002 and their use for geologic applications is well established. However, Air\\-FTGR data has been mostly considered and used in mapping and delineation of near surface geological targets. This is due to the fact that gravity gradiometer measurements are well suited to capture the high frequency signal associated with near\\-surface targets ( Li, 2001). This is possible because the gradiometer signal strength falls off with the cube of the distance to the target. Nonetheless, in recent years there has been an increasing demand from the mining, oil, and gas industry in utilizing Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometer as a mapping tool for both regional and prospect level surveys. Air\\-FTGR as a Regional Mapping Tool Several, relatively low altitude surveys have been successfully flown in Brazil, Canada and Australia
Gravity Propelled Low Temperature Engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikechi Ofong
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to improve the performance of a gravity propelled low temperature engine. It consists of four concentric cylindrical tanks pairs, operating with two fluids, water and 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a. The inner tank holds water which is responsible for producing rotation while the annulus between the concentric cylindrical tanks holds R-134a which vaporizes and produces the vapour pressure that moves water from lower to upper tank mates. Wheel rotation is achieved when the water mass falls by gravity from this height. The inner tanks of the tank pairs are linked by a pipe through which the working fluid is transferred. The entire assembly forms a power wheel of 1.5 m diameter. Heat energy is provided by warm water at 50°C contained in a trough located at the bottom of the wheel. Test results reveal that an average wheel speed of 2.5-3.0 rpm is possible, representing a performance improvement of over 500%. This corresponds to a possible power generation of 30-35 W. Thus power generation from this engine is possible and has the potential to serve as a good alternative power source in remote locations without grid connected electricity.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN04 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan and Lake Huron collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN05 (2012)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS06 (2012 & 2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2012 & 2013 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for PN01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for California and Oregon collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS02 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN03 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2014 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS03 (2009)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas and Louisiana collected in 2009 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alabama and Florida collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.
Intrinsic Time Quantum Gravity
Yu, Hoi Lai
2016-01-01
Correct identification of the true gauge symmetry of General Relativity being 3d spatial diffeomorphism invariant(3dDI) (not the conventional infinite tensor product group with principle fibre bundle structure), together with intrinsic time extracted from clean decomposition of the canonical structure yields a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. A new set of fundamental commutation relations is also presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the spatial dreibein and eight SU(3) generators which correspond to Klauder's momentric variables that characterize a free theory of quantum gravity. The commutation relations are not canonical, but have well defined group theoretical meanings. All fundamental entities are dimensionless; and the quantum wave functionals are preferentially in the dreibein representation. The successful quantum theory of gravity involves only broad spectrum of knowledge and deep insights but no exotic idea.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently proposed 'critical' higher-derivative gravities in AdSD D>3 are expected to carry logarithmic representation of the anti-de Sitter isometry group. In this article, we quantize linear fluctuations of these critical gravities, which are known to be either identical with linear fluctuations of Einstein's gravity or satisfy logarithmic boundary conditions at spacial infinity. We identify the scalar product uniquely defined by the symplectic structure implied by the classical action, and show that it does not posses null vectors. Instead, we show that the scalar product between any two Einstein modes vanishes, while the scalar product of an Einstein mode with a logarithmic mode is generically nonzero. This is the basic property of logarithmic representation that makes them neither unitary nor unitarizable.
Rovelli, C
1998-01-01
The problem of finding the quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open. One of the most active of the current approaches is loop quantum gravity. Loop quantum gravity is a mathematically well-defined, non-perturbative and background independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. The research in loop quantum gravity forms today a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significative results obtained are: (i) The computation of the physical spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume; which yields quantitative predictions on Planck-scale physics. (ii) A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula. (iii) An intriguing physical picture of the microstructure of quantum physical space, characterized by a polymer-like Planck scale discreteness. This discreteness emerges naturally from the quantum theory and provides a mathematicall...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abele, Hartmut; Bittner, Thomas; Cronenberg, Gunther; Filter, Hanno; Jenke, Tobias; Lemmel, Hartmut; Thalhammer, Martin [Atominstitut TU Wien, Wien (Austria); Geltenbort, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)
2012-07-01
This talk is about a test of the Newtons Inverse Square Law of Gravity at micron distances by quantum interference with ultra-cold neutrons deep into the theoretically interesting regime. The method is based on a new resonance spectroscopy technique related to Rabi spectroscopy, but it has been adapted to gravitationally bound quantum systems. By coupling such a quantum system to mechanical vibrations, we observe resonant transitions, devoid of electromagnetic interaction. As Newtonian gravity and hypothetical Fifth Forces evolve with different phase information, the experiment has the potential to test the equivalence principle and Newtons gravity law at the micron scale. This experiment can therefore test speculations on large extra dimensions of sub-millimetre size of space-time or the origin of the cosmological constant in the universe, where effects are predicted in the interesting range of this experiment and might give a signal in an improved setup.
Gravity and embryonic development
Young, R. S.
1976-01-01
The relationship between the developing embryo (both plant and animal) and a gravitational field has long been contemplated. The difficulty in designing critical experiments on the surface of the earth because of its background of 1 g, has been an obstacle to a resolution of the problem. Biological responses to gravity (particularly in plants) are obvious in many cases; however, the influence of gravity as an environmental input to the developing embryo is not as obvious and has proven to be extremely difficult to define. In spite of this, over the years numerous attempts have been made using a variety of embryonic materials to come to grips with the role of gravity in development. Three research tools are available: the centrifuge, the clinostat, and the orbiting spacecraft. Experimental results are now available from all three sources. Some tenuous conclusions are drawn, and an attempt at a unifying theory of gravitational influence on embryonic development is made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This talk is about a test of the Newtons Inverse Square Law of Gravity at micron distances by quantum interference with ultra-cold neutrons deep into the theoretically interesting regime. The method is based on a new resonance spectroscopy technique related to Rabi spectroscopy, but it has been adapted to gravitationally bound quantum systems. By coupling such a quantum system to mechanical vibrations, we observe resonant transitions, devoid of electromagnetic interaction. As Newtonian gravity and hypothetical Fifth Forces evolve with different phase information, the experiment has the potential to test the equivalence principle and Newtons gravity law at the micron scale. This experiment can therefore test speculations on large extra dimensions of sub-millimetre size of space-time or the origin of the cosmological constant in the universe, where effects are predicted in the interesting range of this experiment and might give a signal in an improved setup.
Gravity and the cells of gravity receptors in mammals
Ross, M. D.
1983-01-01
A model of the mammalian gravity receptor system is presented, with attention given to the effects of weightlessness. Two receptors are on each side of the head, with end organs in the saccule and utricle of the vestibular membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, embedded in the temporal bone. Each end organ has a macula, containing hair cells and supporting cells, and an otoconial complex, an otoconial membrane and mineral masses called otoconia. X ray powder diffraction examinations have revealed that the otoconia can behave like crystals, i.e., with piezoelectric properties, due to the mineral deposits. Bending of the hair cells because of acceleration can put pressure on the otoconial mineral, producing an electrical signal in the absence of a gravitational field. The possibility that pyroelectricity, as well as piezoelectricity, is present in the otoconial complexes, is discussed.
1/R gravity and Scalar-Tensor Gravity
Chiba, Takeshi
2003-01-01
We point out that extended gravity theories, the Lagrangian of which is an arbitrary function of scalar curvature $R$, are equivalent to a class of the scalar tensor theories of gravity. The corresponding gravity theory is $\\omega=0$ Brans-Dicke gravity with a potential for the Brans-Dicke scalar field, which is not compatible with solar system experiments if the field is very light: the case when such modifications are important recently.
On the no-gravity limit of gravity
Kowalski-Glikman, J.; Szczachor, M.
2012-01-01
We argue that Relative Locality may arise in the no gravity $G\\rightarrow0$ limit of gravity. In this limit gravity becomes a topological field theory of the BF type that, after coupling to particles, may effectively deform its dynamics. We briefly discuss another no gravity limit with a self dual ground state as well as the topological ultra strong $G\\rightarrow\\infty$ one.
From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity
Giesel, Kristina; Sahlmann, Hanno
2012-01-01
We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantizati...
Sentence Processing in an Artificial Language: Learning and Using Combinatorial Constraints
Amato, Michael S.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
2010-01-01
A study combining artificial grammar and sentence comprehension methods investigated the learning and online use of probabilistic, nonadjacent combinatorial constraints. Participants learned a small artificial language describing cartoon monsters acting on objects. Self-paced reading of sentences in the artificial language revealed comprehenders'…
Jouck, Toon; Depaire, Benoit
2014-01-01
Past research revealed issues with artificial event data used for comparative analysis of process mining algorithms. The aim of this research is to design, implement and validate a framework for producing artificial event logs which should increase discriminatory power of artificial event logs when evaluating process discovery techniques.
De Aquino, Fran
2016-01-01
A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale (10 m).-20 From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity. Introduction Some years ago I wrote a paper [1] where a correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass was obtained. In the paper I pointed out that the relationship betwe...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
What do we know about quantum gravity? The short answer - the short scientific answer - is nothing. The problem has been studied for more than 70 years, yet we still do not have a single experimental result that requires us to advocate a quantum theory of gravity. But some physicists, myself included, believe that this could change very soon - that we might actually gain our first real 'quantum-gravity data'. The motivation for studying quantum gravity comes from a sort of 'aesthetic discomfort' with our inability to obtain a more satisfactory philosophical world view. For many of us it is unsatisfactory, for example, to describe nature in terms of two very different theories. On the one hand we have a description of the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces unified within the Standard Model of particle physics to form a quantum field theory. On the other, we have gravity, which is governed by the theory of general relativity. We do, in fact, have a scientifically well defined 'quantum-gravity problem', which concerns our inability to fully predict the outcome of experiments. The central question is this: can we obtain quantitative predictions for processes in which both gravity and the Standard Model have to be taken into account? Decades of research have shown that the Standard Model is hugely successful in describing microscopic phenomena involving fundamental particles, where gravity can be ignored. General relativity has been equally good at describing the motions of planets and other macroscopic bodies, where the quantum properties of particles can safely be neglected. We do not, however, have any data from situations in which both quantum theory and general relativity have to be taken into account. In the November issue of Physics World Giovanni Amelino-Camelia in the Department of Physics at the University of Rome La Sapienza explains how cosmic-ray observations and space-based gamma ray telescopes could provide physicists with the first experimental
Deser, S; Ong, Y C; Waldron, A
2014-01-01
The method of characteristics is a key tool for studying consistency of equations of motion; it allows issues such as predictability, maximal propagation speed, superluminality, unitarity and acausality to be addressed without requiring explicit solutions. We review this method and its application to massive gravity theories to show the limitations of these models' physical viability: Among their problems are loss of unique evolution, superluminal signals, matter coupling inconsistencies and micro-acausality (propagation of signals around local closed timelike/causal curves). We extend previous no-go results to the entire three-parameter range of massive gravity theories. It is also argued that bimetric models suffer a similar fate.
Brans–Dicke gravity theory from topological gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a model that suggests a mechanism by which the four dimensional Brans–Dicke gravity theory may emerge from the topological gravity action. To achieve this goal, both the Lie algebra and the symmetric invariant tensor that define the topological gravity Lagrangian are constructed by means of the Lie algebra S-expansion procedure with an appropriate abelian semigroup S
SATELLITE GRAVITY SURVEYING TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH OF EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ning Jinsheng
2003-01-01
This is a summarized paper. Two topics are discussed: Firstly, the concept, development and application of four kinds of satellite gravity surveying technology are introduced; Secondly, some problems of theory and method, which must be considered in the study of the Earth's gravity field based on satellite gravity data, are expounded.
Euler Chern Simons Gravity from Lovelock Born Infeld Gravity
Izaurieta, Fernando; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Salgado, Patricio
2004-01-01
In the context of a gauge theoretical formulation, higher dimensional gravity invariant under the AdS group is dimensionally reduced to Euler-Chern-Simons gravity. The dimensional reduction procedure of Grignani-Nardelli [Phys. Lett. B 300, 38 (1993)] is generalized so as to permit reducing D-dimensional Lanczos Lovelock gravity to d=D-1 dimensions.
Gravity anomalies, plate tectonics and the lateral growth of Precambrian North America
Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.
1988-01-01
The widespread gravity coverage of North America provides a picture of the gross structural fabric of the continent via the trends of gravity anomalies. The structural picture so obtained reveals a mosaic of gravity trend domains, many of which correlate closely with structural provinces and orogenic terranes. The gravity trend map, interpreted in the light of plate-tectonic theory, thus provides a new perspective for examining the mode of assembly and growth of North America. Suture zones, palaeosubduction directions, and perhaps, contrasting tectonic histories may be identified using gravity patterns.
Gravity anomalies, plate tectonics and the lateral growth of Precambrian North America
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The widespread gravity coverage of North America provides a picture of the gross structural fabric of the continent via the trends of gravity anomalies. The structural picture so obtained reveals a mosaic of gravity trend domains, many of which correlate closely with structural provinces and orogenic terranes. The gravity trend map, interpreted in the light of plate-tectonic theory, thus provides a new perspective for examining the mode of assembly and growth of North America. Suture zones, palaeosubduction directions, and perhaps, contrasting tectonic histories may be identified using gravity patterns
Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...
Gravity Station Data for Portugal
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...
Gravity Data for South America
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (152,624 records) were compiled by the University of Texas at Dallas. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity...
Gravity Station Data for Spain
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...
Scalable Gravity Offload System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A scalable gravity offload device simulates reduced gravity for the testing of various surface system elements such as mobile robots, excavators, habitats, and...
Topology change in quantum gravity
Dowker, Fay
2002-01-01
A particular approach to topology change in quantum gravity is reviewed, showing that several aspects of Stephen's work are intertwined with it in an essential way. Speculations are made on possible implications for the causal set approach to quantum gravity.
Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment
Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar
2010-01-01
In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.
Perturbative Quantization of Gravity Theories
Bern, Z.
2001-01-01
We discuss string theory relations between gravity and gauge theory tree amplitudes. Together with $D$-dimensional unitarity, these relations can be used to perturbatively quantize gravity theories, i.e. they contain the necessary information for calculating complete gravity $S$-matrices to any loop orders. This leads to a practical method for computing non-trivial gravity $S$-matrix elements by relating them to much simpler gauge theory ones. We also describe arguments that N=8 D=4 supergrav...
Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity
Mercuri, Simone
2012-01-01
The questions I have been asked during the 5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, have compelled me to give an account of the premises that I consider important for a beginner's approach to Loop Quantum Gravity. After a description of some general arguments and an introduction to the canonical theory of gravity, I review the background independent approach to quantum gravity, giving only a brief survey of Loop Quantum Gravity.
Localized gravity on FRW branes
Singh, Parampreet; Dadhich, Naresh
2002-01-01
We study the system of Schwarzschild anti de Sitter (S-AdS) bulk and FRW brane for localization of gravity; i.e. zero mass gravitons having ground state on the brane, and thereby recovering the Einstein gravity with high energy correction. It has been known that gravity is not localized on AdS brane with AdS bulk. We prove the general result that gravity is not localized for dynamic branes whenever Lambda_4 0 and black h...
Conformal Gravity on Noncommutative Spacetime
Kober, Martin
2011-01-01
Conformal gravity on noncommutative spacetime is considered in this paper. The presupposed gravity action consists of the Brans-Dicke gravity action with a special prefactor of the term, where the Ricci scalar couples to the scalar field, to maintain local conformal invariance and the Weyl gravity action. The commutation relations between the coordinates defining the noncommutative geometry are assumed to be of canonical shape. Based on the moyal star product, products of fields depending on ...
Lovelock gravity from entropic force
Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.; Riazi, N.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we first generalize the formulation of entropic gravity to (n+1)-dimensional spacetime. Then, we propose an entropic origin for Gauss-Bonnet gravity and more general Lovelock gravity in arbitrary dimensions. As a result, we are able to derive Newton's law of gravitation as well as the corresponding Friedmann equations in these gravity theories. This procedure naturally leads to a derivation of the higher dimensional gravitational coupling constant of Friedmann/Einstein equation...
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.
2011-01-01
The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Ei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Letter, we propose a massive gravity theory with 5 degrees of freedom. The mass term is constructed by 3 Stückelberg scalar fields, which respects SO(3) symmetry in the fields' configuration. By the analysis on the linear cosmological perturbations, we found that such 5 d.o.f. are free from ghost instability, gradient instability, and tachyonic instability
Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2010-01-01
Starting from the definition of entropy used in statistical mechanics we show that it is proportional to the gravity action. For a stationary black hole this entropy is expressed as $S = E/ 2T$, where $T$ is the Hawking temperature and $E$ is shown to be the Komar energy. This relation is also compatible with the generalised Smarr formula for mass.
Piguet, O.
2014-09-01
In this talk, I give a short general introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG), beginning with some motivations for quantizing General Relativity, listing various attempts and then focusing on the case of LQG. Work supported in part by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (Brazil).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loop quantum gravity is one of the approaches that are being studied to apply the rules of quantum mechanics to the gravitational field described by the theory of General Relativity . We present an introductory summary of the main ideas and recent results. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theoretical basis for gravity-wave astronomy is described, along with the energy and momentum of gravitational fields. Other topics discussed include:- burst and periodic sources of gravitational waves, the cosmological stochastic background, and the detection of gravitational waves. (U.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rovelli Carlo
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of finding the quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open. One of the most active of the current approaches is loop quantum gravity. Loop quantum gravity is a mathematically well-defined, non-perturbative and background independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Research in loop quantum gravity today forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained are: (i The computation of the physical spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yields quantitative predictions on Planck-scale physics. (ii A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula. (iii An intriguing physical picture of the microstructure of quantum physical space, characterized by a polymer-like Planck scale discreteness. This discreteness emerges naturally from the quantum theory and provides a mathematically well-defined realization of Wheeler's intuition of a spacetime ``foam''. Long standing open problems within the approach (lack of a scalar product, over-completeness of the loop basis, implementation of reality conditions have been fully solved. The weak part of the approach is the treatment of the dynamics: at present there exist several proposals, which are intensely debated. Here, I provide a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.
Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.; Otoya, V. J. Vasquez
2012-01-01
Pure gauge theories for de Sitter, anti de Sitter and orthogonal groups, in four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime, are studied. It is shown that, if the theory is asymptotically free and a dynamical mass is generated, then an effective geometry may be induced and a gravity theory emerges.
Bueno, Pablo
2016-01-01
We drastically simplify the problem of linearizing a general higher-order theory of gravity. We reduce it to the evaluation of its Lagrangian on a particular Riemann tensor depending on two parameters, and the computation of two derivatives with respect to one of those parameters. We use our method to construct a D-dimensional cubic theory of gravity which satisfies the following properties: 1) it shares the spectrum of Einstein gravity, i.e., it only propagates a transverse and massless graviton on a maximally symmetric background; 2) the relative coefficients of the different curvature invariants involved are the same in all dimensions; 3) it is neither trivial nor topological in four dimensions. Up to cubic order in curvature, the only previously known theories satisfying the first two requirements are the Lovelock ones: Einstein gravity, Gauss-Bonnet and cubic-Lovelock. Of course, the last two theories fail to satisfy requirement 3 as they are, respectively, topological and trivial in four dimensions. We ...
Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg
2010-01-01
We suggest a new efficient way to constrain a certain class of large scale modifications of gravity. We show that the scale-free relation between density and size of Dark Matter halos, predicted within the LambdaCDM model with Newtonian gravity, gets modified in a wide class of theories of modified gravity.
Loop quantum gravity and observations
Barrau, A.; Grain, J.
2014-01-01
Quantum gravity has long been thought to be completely decoupled from experiments or observations. Although it is true that smoking guns are still missing, there are now serious hopes that quantum gravity phenomena might be tested. We review here some possible ways to observe loop quantum gravity effects either in the framework of cosmology or in astroparticle physics.
From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity
Giesel, Kristina
2012-01-01
We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantization of vacuum general relativity in loop quantum gravity.
Even-dimensional topological gravity from Chern-Simons gravity
Merino, N.; Perez, Alfredo; Salgado, P.(Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile)
2009-01-01
It is shown that the topological action for gravity in 2n-dimensions can be obtained from the 2n+1-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity genuinely invariant under the Poincare group. The 2n-dimensional topological gravity is described by the dynamics of the boundary of a 2n+1-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity theory with suitable boundary conditions. The field $\\phi^{a}$, which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associat...
A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems
Zhendong Yin; Xiaohui Liu(High Energy Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A.); Zhilu Wu
2013-01-01
Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bee...
Probing loop quantum gravity with evaporating black holes.
Barrau, A; Cailleteau, T; Cao, X; Diaz-Polo, J; Grain, J
2011-12-16
This Letter aims at showing that the observation of evaporating black holes should allow the usual Hawking behavior to be distinguished from loop quantum gravity (LQG) expectations. We present a full Monte Carlo simulation of the evaporation in LQG and statistical tests that discriminate between competing models. We conclude that contrarily to what was commonly thought, the discreteness of the area in LQG leads to characteristic features that qualify evaporating black holes as objects that could reveal quantum gravity footprints. PMID:22243065
Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Vikulin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related. The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.
Artificial ionospheric turbulence (review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study is an analysis of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) arising near the level at which a powerful wave is reflected with ordinary polarization. AIT is an inhomogeneous structure in the ionosphere with a size on the order of centimeters or tens of kilometers and with characteristic frequencies from a fraction of a hertz (aperiodic inhomogeneity) to several megahertz (plasma waves). The authors are primarily concerned with small-scale artificial ionospheric turbulence (SAIT), i.e., with inhomogeneities that are greatly extended along the geomagnetic field with transverse dimensions that are less than the wavelengths of the perturbing waves - the pumping waves (PW) - in a vacuum
National Geodetic Survey Gravity Network
Moose, R. E.
1986-12-01
In 1966, the U.S. National Gravity Base Network was established through the cooperative efforts of several government agencies and academic institutions involved in nationwide gravity observations. The network was reobserved between 1975 and 1979 by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) using field procedures designed to give high-quality gravity differences. The report discusses the adjustment and the areas where apparent gravity change was observed. NGS plans to densify and maintain this network and to improve the accuracy of the station values by additional high-quality relative ties and by making observations with a new, absolute gravity meter in each of the states.
Analog Systems for Gravity Duals
Hossenfelder, S.
2014-01-01
We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...
Weyl Conformal Gravity: Mannheim-Kazanas Solution
Bhattacharya, Amrita; Scalia, Massimo; Cattani, Carlo; Nandi, Kamal K
2009-01-01
In this paper, we first point out certain interesting features of the Mannheim-Kazanas solution of Weyl conformal gravity. Next, we adopt the viewpoint that physical effects in Weyl gravity should be determined by the combined effect of both the constants $\\gamma$ and k appearing in the solution, and not by $\\gamma$ alone. This idea is supported by the effect of tidal forces as well as by the required stability of circular orbits of massive particles. To deal with massless particles, we employ the Rindler-Ishak method for calculating the bending of light rays up to second order, which at once reveals the exact Schwarzschild terms as well as the combined effect of $\\gamma$ and k. The enhanced light bending in the attractive halo gravity then provides a positive lower bound for $\\gamma$. A certain reported discrepancy in the literature is also resolved. It turns out that even the first order light bending is modified by Weyl gravity. This is a new effect though too minuscule to be observed at present.
Solar Gravity Modes: Present and Future
Turck-Chièze, S
2005-01-01
Gravity modes are the best probes to study the solar radiative zone dynamics, especially in the nuclear core. These modes remain difficult to observe, but they are essential ingredients for progressing on the evolution of the Sun-Earth relationship at the level of centuries. Today, the knowledge of the internal dynamics comes from acoustic modes and concerns mainly the external 2% of the solar mass. Nevertheless, the flat rotation profile of the radiative zone compels physics beyond the standard framework. I summarize different attempts to look for gravity modes and the results obtained after 8 years of observation with the GOLF/SoHO instrument. Some gravity mode candidates (at 1mm/s level) have appeared with more than 98% confidence level as quadruplets or quintuplets. These patterns, if confirmed as gravity modes, may reveal very exciting physics of the solar core. Getting information on rotation and magnetic field in the solar core are real keys to simulate a complete dynamical solar picture. The understan...
Mechanism of gravity-dependent atelectasis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether airway collapse was concerned in the development of gravity-dependent atelectasis (GDA) in an experimental animal model. After uniform reduction of lung volume in 9 rabbits by artificially-induced pneumoperitoneum, dynamic inhalation CT was performed using 50% nonradioactive xenon. Time-CT attenuation value curves were fitted to an exponential function, y=P-Qxe-RX, and Q value, which is build up of CT attenuation value, was calculated by regression analysis. GDA occurred only in 4/9 rabbits. In this group, Q values in the dorsal regions were decreasing, but enhancement was still recognized until just prior to the appearance of GDA. GDA was not caused by airway collapse. (author)
Attitude stability analyses for small artificial satellites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this paper is to analyze the stability of the rotational motion of a symmetrical spacecraft, in a circular orbit. The equilibrium points and regions of stability are established when components of the gravity gradient torque acting on the spacecraft are included in the equations of rotational motion, which are described by the Andoyer's variables. The nonlinear stability of the equilibrium points of the rotational motion is analysed here by the Kovalev-Savchenko theorem. With the application of the Kovalev-Savchenko theorem, it is possible to verify if they remain stable under the influence of the terms of higher order of the normal Hamiltonian. In this paper, numerical simulations are made for a small hypothetical artificial satellite. Several stable equilibrium points were determined and regions around these points have been established by variations in the orbital inclination and in the spacecraft principal moment of inertia. The present analysis can directly contribute in the maintenance of the spacecraft's attitude
Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.
Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jungjai [Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyunseok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forsberg, René; Sideris, M.G.; Shum, C.K.
2005-01-01
The gravity field of the earth is a natural element of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). Gravity field quantities are like spatial geodetic observations of potential very high accuracy, with measurements, currently at part-per-billion (ppb) accuracy, but gravity field quantities are also...... unique as they can be globally represented by harmonic functions (long-wavelength geopotential model primarily from satellite gravity field missions), or based on point sampling (airborne and in situ absolute and superconducting gravimetry). From a GGOS global perspective, one of the main challenges...... is to ensure the consistency of the global and regional geopotential and geoid models, and the temporal changes of the gravity field at large spatial scales. The International Gravity Field Service, an umbrella "level-2" IAG service (incorporating the International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service...
Production of artificial radioelements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The techniques used in the production of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)
Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami
2014-01-01
This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...
Observations of artificial satellites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. MAMMANO
1964-06-01
Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.
Artificial intelligence within AFSC
Gersh, Mark A.
1990-01-01
Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.
Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens
Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.
2016-03-01
We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.
Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fellermann, Harold
2009-01-01
made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...
Natural or Artificial Intelligence?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Havlík, Vladimír
Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plzeň (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Artificial Intelligence and CALL.
Underwood, John H.
The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…
Micromachined Artificial Haircell
Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.
Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jan
1999-01-01
The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....
Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)
An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such ... An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon ...
Gravity wave initiated convection
Hung, R. J.
1990-01-01
The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.
Gomberoff, Andres
2006-01-01
The 2002 Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute School on Quantum Gravity was held at the Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS),Valdivia, Chile, January 4-14, 2002. The school featured lectures by ten speakers, and was attended by nearly 70 students from over 14 countries. A primary goal was to foster interaction and communication between participants from different cultures, both in the layman’s sense of the term and in terms of approaches to quantum gravity. We hope that the links formed by students and the school will persist throughout their professional lives, continuing to promote interaction and the essential exchange of ideas that drives research forward. This volume contains improved and updated versions of the lectures given at the School. It has been prepared both as a reminder for the participants, and so that these pedagogical introductions can be made available to others who were unable to attend. We expect them to serve students of all ages well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem. Furthermore, we
Gravity from Spacetime Thermodynamics
Padmanabhan, T
2002-01-01
The Einstein-Hilbert action (and thus the dynamics of gravity) can be obtained by combining the principle of equivalence, special relativity and quantum theory in the Rindler frame and postulating that the horizon area must be proportional to the entropy. This approach uses the local Rindler frame as a natural extension of the local inertial frame, and leads to the interpretation that the gravitational action represents the free energy of the spacetime geometry. As an aside, one obtains an insight into the peculiar structure of Einstein-Hilbert action and a natural explanation to the questions:(i) Why does the covariant action for gravity contain second derivatives of the metric tensor? (ii) Why is the gravitational coupling constant is positive ? Some geometrical features of gravitational action are clarified.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Superstrings being consistent theories that include gravity have to produce classical gravity within limits provided by unambiguous quantum effects. Through the study of a hard scattering process - clearly provided by string theory - it is shown that infinite genus calculations give indeed rise to a classical limit, when 'large' distances are explored, as well as quantum effects. These are dominant at distances of the order of the string length (related to the Planck length) but may extend much beyond that region hinting indeed to gravitational instabilities. Below the string length even space-time loses meaning as a classical concept. A new position-momentum uncertainty relation is produced that assigns to the string length the meaning of a minimum observable distance. (orig.)
Christiansen, Nicolai; Meibohm, Jan; Pawlowski, Jan M; Reichert, Manuel
2015-01-01
We investigate the ultraviolet behaviour of quantum gravity within a functional renormalisation group approach. The present setup includes the full ghost and graviton propagators and, for the first time, the dynamical graviton three-point function. The latter gives access to the coupling of dynamical gravitons and makes the system minimally self-consistent. The resulting phase diagram confirms the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity with a non-trivial UV fixed point. A well-defined Wilsonian block spinning requires locality of the flow in momentum space. This property is discussed in the context of functional renormalisation group flows. We show that momentum locality of graviton correlation functions is non-trivially linked to diffeomorphism invariance, and is realised in the present setup.
Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Reichert, M.
2015-12-01
We investigate the ultraviolet behavior of quantum gravity within a functional renormalization group approach. The present setup includes the full ghost and graviton propagators and, for the first time, the dynamical graviton three-point function. The latter gives access to the coupling of dynamical gravitons and makes the system minimally self-consistent. The resulting phase diagram confirms the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity with a nontrivial UV fixed point. A well-defined Wilsonian block spinning requires locality of the flow in momentum space. This property is discussed in the context of functional renormalization group flows. We show that momentum locality of graviton correlation functions is nontrivially linked to diffeomorphism invariance, and is realized in the present setup.
Durka, R
2016-01-01
We explore the $S$-expansion framework to analyze freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition and relating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element leads to the wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results we find not only all the Maxwell algebras of type $\\mathfrak{B}_m$, $\\mathfrak{C}_m$, and recently introduced $\\mathfrak{D}_m$, but we also produce new examples. We discuss some prospects concerning further enlarging the algebras and provide all necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although Einstein's theories of relativity showed that Newton's ideas about gravity, space and time were approximations, general relativity still predicts that the gravitational force between two point objects will obey an inverse-square law in the limit of low velocities and weak gravitational fields. Of course, we know that general relativity is probably an approximation as well and that some grander theory - possibly involving extra dimensions of space - will unify gravity with the other fundamental forces. Many of these theories predict that the inverse-square law will break down at distances that are becoming accessible to (relatively small) experiments with torsion balances. As researchers from the Eoet-Wash group in Seattle report 'Testing the gravitational inverse-square law', the inverse-square law has survived all tests so far, but its days are surely numbered. (U.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamon, Raphael
2010-06-29
Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem
Semiclassical unimodular gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Classically, unimodular gravity is known to be equivalent to General Relativity (GR), except for the fact that the effective cosmological constant Λ has the status of an integration constant. Here, we explore various formulations of unimodular gravity beyond the classical limit. We first consider the non-generally covariant action formulation in which the determinant of the metric is held fixed to unity. We argue that the corresponding quantum theory is also equivalent to General Relativity for localized perturbative processes which take place in generic backgrounds of infinite volume (such as asymptotically flat spacetimes). Next, using the same action, we calculate semiclassical non-perturbative quantities, which we expect will be dominated by Euclidean instanton solutions. We derive the entropy/area ratio for cosmological and black hole horizons, finding agreement with GR for solutions in backgrounds of infinite volume, but disagreement for backgrounds with finite volume. In deriving the above results, the path integral is taken over histories with fixed 4-volume. We point out that the results are different if we allow the 4-volume of the different histories to vary over a continuum range. In this ''generalized'' version of unimodular gravity, one recovers the full set of Einstein's equations in the classical limit, including the trace, so Λ is no longer an integration constant. Finally, we consider the generally covariant theory due to Henneaux and Teitelboim, which is classically equivalent to unimodular gravity. In this case, the standard semiclassical GR results are recovered provided that the boundary term in the Euclidean action is chosen appropriately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problems of application of nonperturbative quantization methods in the theories of the gauge fields and gravity are discussed. Unification of interactions is considered in the framework of the geometrical gauge fields theory. Vacuum conception in the unified theory of interactions and instantons role in the vacuum structure are analyzed. The role of vacuum solutions of Einstein equations in definition of the gauge field vacuum is demonstrated
Scalera, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia
2003-01-01
The analysis of different clues indicating a variation of the local gravity (g) through geological time is performed. The examined data come from Astrogeodesy (PM and TPW), Paleogeography, Tidal torques, J2 variation, and paleogravity data from Geology. It is shown that a joint reasoning about all these data can constrain the possible variation rate of G, g and M (Earth’s mass). The result is that, albeit in the past great theoretical and experimental efforts were made in propo...
Intrinsic Time Quantum Gravity
Yu, Hoi Lai
2016-01-01
Correct identification of the true gauge symmetry of General Relativity being 3d spatial diffeomorphism invariant(3dDI) (not the conventional infinite tensor product group with principle fibre bundle structure), together with intrinsic time extracted from clean decomposition of the canonical structure yields a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. A new set of fundamental commutation relations is also presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum theory and general relativity will only be unified when theory meets experiment. Physics in the 20th century was built on two great revolutions: the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. These two theories have profoundly changed the way we think about space, time and the meaning of reality, and both have been verified to extraordinary precision. However, the two theories are also completely incompatible with one another. Three of the four known forces in nature - the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions - are described by quantum field theories. These theories, which make up the highly successful Standard Model of particle physics, explain fundamental interactions in terms of the exchange of field particles between elementary matter particles. Gravity, on the other hand, does not fit into this framework. Einstein's elegant description of gravity is classical, and gravitational forces result from the curvature of the space-time continuum. But there is something deeply unsettling about this whole picture. Ever since Maxwell unified electricity and magnetism with a single set of equations, finding a general theory that can describe everything that we observe in the physical world has been one of the primary goals in theoretical physics. A unified description of the electromagnetic and weak interactions was achieved in the 1960s, but a true theory of quantum gravity would be a giant step towards this goal. Moreover, a theory of quantum gravity is needed to understand what happens in circumstances when both gravitational and quantum effects are large - such as in the very early universe. (U.K.)
Bittencourt, E.; Moschella, U.; Novello, M.; Toniato, J. D.
2016-06-01
We discuss a class of models for gravity based on a scalar field. The models include and generalize the old approach by Nordström which predated and, in some ways, inspired general relativity. The class include also a model that we have recently introduced and discussed in terms of its cosmological aspects (GSG). We present here a complete characterization of the Schwarschild geometry as a vacuum solution of GSG and sketch a discussion of the first post-Newtonian approximation.
Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians
Huggins, Elisha
2010-01-01
Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…
Dereli, T.; Yetişmişoğlu, C.
2016-06-01
We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first-order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space AdS 3) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rovelli Carlo
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler’s “spacetime foam” intuition. (iii Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv A derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking black-hole entropy. (v Low-energy calculations, yielding n-point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.
Antimatter gravity with muonium
kaplan, Daniel M.; Fischbach, Ephraim; Kirch, Klaus; Mancini, Derrick C.; Phillips, James D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Reasenberg, Robert D; Roberts, Thomas J.; Terry, Jeff
2016-01-01
The gravitational acceleration of antimatter, $\\bar{g}$, has never been directly measured and could bear importantly on our understanding of gravity, the possible existence of a fifth force, and the nature and early history of the universe. Three avenues appear feasible for such a measurement: antihydrogen, positronium, and muonium. The muonium measurement requires a novel monoenergetic, low-velocity, horizontal muonium beam directed at an atom interferometer. The precision three-grating inte...
Bittencourt, E; Novello, M; Toniato, J D
2016-01-01
We discuss a class of models for gravity based on a scalar field. The models include and generalize the old approach by Nordstr\\"om which predated and in some way inspired General Relativity. The class include also a model that we have recently introduced and discussed in its cosmological aspects (GSG). We present here a complete characterisation of the Schwarschild geometry as a vacuum solution of GSG and sketch a discussion of the first Post-Newtonian approximation.
Giribet, Gaston
2014-01-01
Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...
Levin, J J
1995-01-01
The union of high-energy particle theories and gravitation often gives rise to an evolving strength of gravity. The standard picture of the earliest universe would certainly deserve revision if the Planck mass, which defines the strength of gravity, varied. A notable consequence is a gravity-driven, kinetic inflation. Unlike standard inflation, there is no potential nor cosmological constant. The unique elasticity in the kinetic energy of the Planck mass provides a negative pressure able to drive inflation. As the kinetic energy grows, the spacetime expands more quickly. The phenomenon of kinetic inflation has been uncovered in both string theory and Kaluza-Klein theories. The difficulty in exiting inflation in these cases is reviewed. General forms of the Planck field coupling are shown to avoid the severity of the graceful exit problem found in string and Kaluza-Klein theories. The completion of the model is foreshadowed with a suggestion for a heating mechanism to generate the hot soup of the big bang.
Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.
Teodorescu, Ioana
1987-01-01
Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)
Artificial Scarcity, Power, and the Italian Mafia
Champeyrache, Clotilde
2013-01-01
This paper contributes to an institutional theory of crime. More specifically, it focuses on the problem of the Mafia and the infiltration of legitimate businesses. In legal markets, the Mafia resorts to artificial scarcity as a functioning principle. Although scarcity and its consequences for market economies are key aspects of mainstream economics, they have been insufficiently analyzed because the emphasis is only on 'natural' scarcity. The Mafia phenomenon reveals that scarcity can also b...
Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan;
2011-01-01
Airborne gravity, together with high-quality surface data and ocean satellite altimetric gravity, may supplement GOCE to make consistent, accurate high resolution global gravity field models. In the polar regions, the special challenge of the GOCE polar gap make the error characteristics...... of combination models especially sensitive to the correct merging of satellite and surface data. We outline comparisons of GOCE to recent airborne gravity surveys in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. The comparison is done to new 8-month GOCE solutions, as well as to a collocation prediction from GOCE gradients...... in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...
Gravity Resonance Spectroscopy and Einstein-Cartan Gravity
Abele, Hartmut; Ivanov, Andrei; Jenke, Tobias; Pitschmann, Mario; Geltenbort, Peter
2015-01-01
The qBounce experiment offers a new way of looking at gravitation based on quantum interference. An ultracold neutron is reflected in well-defined quantum states in the gravity potential of the Earth by a mirror, which allows to apply the concept of gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS). This experiment with neutrons gives access to all gravity parameters as the dependences on distance, mass, curvature, energy-momentum as well as on torsion. Here, we concentrate on torsion.
Gravity-Matter Entanglement in Regge Quantum Gravity
Paunković, Nikola; Vojinović, Marko
2016-01-01
We argue that Hartle-Hawking states in the Regge quantum gravity model generically contain non-trivial entanglement between gravity and matter fields. Generic impossibility to talk about "matter in a point of space" is in line with the idea of an emergent spacetime, and as such could be taken as a possible candidate for a criterion for a plausible theory of quantum gravity. Finally, this new entanglement could be seen as an additional "effective interaction", which could possibly bring correc...
Smooth quantum gravity: Exotic smoothness and Quantum gravity
Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten
2016-01-01
Over the last two decades, many unexpected relations between exotic smoothness, e.g. exotic $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$, and quantum field theory were found. Some of these relations are rooted in a relation to superstring theory and quantum gravity. Therefore one would expect that exotic smoothness is directly related to the quantization of general relativity. In this article we will support this conjecture and develop a new approach to quantum gravity called \\emph{smooth quantum gravity} by using smoot...
Teleparallel Complex Gravity as Foundation for Noncommutative Gravity
Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash
2001-01-01
We present a teleparallel complex gravity as the foundation for the formulation of noncommutative gravity theory. The negative energy ghosts in the conventional formulation with U(1,3) local Lorentz connection no longer exists, since the local Lorentz invariance is broken down to U(1,3) global Lorentz symmetry. As desired, our teleparallel complex gravity theory also passes the key classical test of perihelion advance of Mercury. Based on this result, we present a lagrangian for the noncommut...
Differentiating between modified gravity and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nature of the fuel that drives today's cosmic acceleration is an open and tantalizing mystery. We entertain the suggestion that the acceleration is not the manifestation of yet another new ingredient in the cosmic gas tank, but rather a signal of our first real lack of understanding of gravitational physics. By requiring that the underlying gravity theory respect Birkhoff's law, we derive the modified gravitational force law necessary to generate any given cosmology, without reference to the fundamental theory, revealing modifications of gravity at scales typically much smaller than today's horizon. We discuss how, through these modifications, the growth of density perturbations, the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, and even solar-system measurements may be sensitive to whether today's cosmic acceleration is generated by dark energy or modified gravitational dynamics, and are subject to imminent observational discrimination. We argue how these conclusions can be more generic, and probably not dependent on the validity of Birkhoff's law
Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;
2008-01-01
Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that...... successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well as...
A Pathway to Artificial Metalloenzymes
Fischer, Johannes
2015-12-01
The advancement of catalytic systems and the application thereof has proven to be the key to overcome traditional limitations of industrial-scale synthetic processes. Converging organometallic and biocatalytic principles lead to the development of Artificial Metalloenzymes (ArMs) that comprise a synthetic metal catalyst embedded in a protein scaffold, thereby combining the reactivity of the former with the versatility of the latter. This synergistic approach introduces rationally designed building blocks for the catalytic site and the host protein to assemble enzyme-like structures that follow regio-, chemo-, enantio- and substrate-selective principles. Yet, the identification of suitable protein scaffolds has thus far been challenging. Herein we report a rationally optimized fluorescent protein host, mTFP*, that was engineered to have no intrinsic metal binding capability and, owing to its robust nature, can act as scaffold for the design of novel ArMs. We demonstrate the potential of site-specific modifications within the protein host, use protein X-Ray analysis to validate the respective scaffolds and show how artificial mutant binding sites can be introduced. Transition metal Förster Resonance Energy transfer (tmFRET) methodologies help to evaluate micromolar dissociation constants and reveal structural rearrangements upon coordination of the metal centers. In conjunction with molecular insights from X-Ray crystallographic structure determination, dynamics of the binding pocket can be inferred. The versatile subset of different binding motifs paired with transition metal catalysts create artificial metalloenzymes that provide reactivities which otherwise do not exist in nature. As a proof of concept, Diels-Alder cycloadditions highlight the potential of the present mTFP* based catalysts by stereoselectively converting azachalcone and cyclopentadiene substrates. Screens indicate an enantiomeric excess of up to 60% and provide insights into the electronic and
Artificial organisms that sleep.
Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico
2003-01-01
Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...
Impacts of Artificial Intelligence
Trappl, R.
1986-01-01
This book, which is intended to serve as the first stage in an iterative process of detecting, predicting, and assessing the impacts of Artificial Intelligence opens with a short "one-hour course" in AI, which is intended to provide a nontechnical informative introduction to the material which follows. Next comes an overview chapter which is based on an extensive literature search, the position papers, and discussions. The next section of the book contains position papers whose richness...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kapil Nahar
2012-12-01
Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.
Artificial Intelligence in Transition
Hart, Peter E.
1984-01-01
In the past fifteen years artificial intelligence has changed from being the preoccupation of a handful of scientists to a thriving enterprise that has captured the imagination of world leaders and ordinary citizens alike. While corporate and government officials organize new projects whose potential impact is widespread, to date few people have been more affected by the transition than those already in the field. I review here some aspects of this transition, and pose some issues that it rai...
Artificial neural network modelling
Samarasinghe, Sandhya
2016-01-01
This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .
Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise
Chace, William M.
1984-01-01
I rise now to speak with the assumption that all of you know very well what I am going to say. I am the humanist here, the professor of English. We humanists, when asked to speak on questions of science and technology, are notorious for offering an embarrassed and ignorant respect toward those matters, a respect, however, which can all too quickly degenerate into insolent condescension. Face to face with the reality of computer technology, say, or with "artificial intelligence," we humanists ...
Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-08-01
The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)
Astrophysical aspects of Weyl gravity
Kazanas, Demosthenes
1991-01-01
This paper discusses the astrophysical implications and applications of Weyl gravity, which is the theory resulting from the unique action allowed under the principle of local scale invariance in Einstein gravity. These applications include galactic dynamics, the mass-radius relation, the cosmological constant, and the 'Modified Newtonian Dynamics' proposed by Milgrom (1983). The relation of Weyl gravity to other scale-invariant theories is addressed.
Cosmological tests of modified gravity.
Koyama, Kazuya
2016-04-01
We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years. PMID:27007681
Schwarzschild Solution from WTDiff Gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2016-01-01
We study classical solutions in the Weyl-transverse (WTDiff) gravity. The WTDiff gravity is invariant under both the local Weyl (conformal) transformation and the volume preserving diffeormorphisms (transverse diffeomorphisms) and is known to be equivalent to general relativity at least at the classical level. In particular, we find that in a general space-time dimension, the Schwarzschild metric is a classical solution in the WTDiff gravity when it is expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system.
Cosmological tests of modified gravity
Koyama, Kazuya
2016-04-01
We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.
Quantum Gravity: Motivations and Alternatives
Hedrich, Reiner
2009-01-01
The mutual conceptual incompatibility between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics / Quantum Field Theory is generally seen as the most essential motivation for the development of a theory of Quantum Gravity. It leads to the insight that, if gravity is a fundamental interaction and Quantum Mechanics is universally valid, the gravitational field will have to be quantized, not at least because of the inconsistency of semi-classical theories of gravity. The objective of a theory of Quantum G...
Entropic Gravity in Rindler Space
Halyo, Edi
2011-01-01
We show that Rindler horizons are entropic screens and gravity is an entropic force in Rindler space by deriving the Verlinde entropy formula from the focusing of light due to a mass close to the horizon. Consequently, gravity is also entropic in the near horizon regions of Schwarzschild and de Sitter space-times. In different limits, the entropic nature of gravity in Rindler space leads to the Bekenstein entropy bound and the uncertainty principle.
Conformal Tensors via Lovelock Gravity
Kastor, David
2013-01-01
Constructs from conformal geometry are important in low dimensional gravity models, while in higher dimensions the higher curvature interactions of Lovelock gravity are similarly prominent. Considering conformal invariance in the context of Lovelock gravity leads to natural, higher-curvature generalizations of the Weyl, Schouten, Cotton and Bach tensors, with properties that straightforwardly extend those of their familiar counterparts. As a first application, we introduce a new set of conformally invariant gravity theories in D=4k dimensions, based on the squares of the higher curvature Weyl tensors.
An Underlying Theory for Gravity
Ha, Yuan K
2012-01-01
A new direction to understand gravity has recently been explored by considering classical gravity to be a derived interaction from an underlying theory. This underlying theory would involve new degrees of freedom at a deeper level and it would be structurally different from classical gravitation. It may conceivably be a quantum theory or a non-quantum theory. The relation between this underlying theory and Einstein's gravity is similar to the connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. We discuss the apparent lack of evidence of any quantum nature of gravity in this context.
An underlying theory for gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new direction to understand gravity has recently been explored by considering classical gravity to be a derived interaction from an underlying theory. This underlying theory would involve new degrees of freedom at a deeper level, and it would be structurally different from classical gravitation. It may conceivably be a quantum theory or a non-quantum theory. The relation between this underlying theory and Einstein's gravity is similar to the connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. We discuss the apparent lack of evidence of any quantum nature of spacetime and the meaning of quantum gravity in this context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shan Gao
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.
Inflation in Brane World Gravity
Banerjee, Argha
2015-01-01
We study the inflationary dynamics in Brane World gravity and look for observational signatures of any deviation from the standard General Relativity based results of Cosmological Perturbation Theory. We first review the standard paradigm of General Relativity based inflationary dynamics and cosmological perturbation theory and then go on to review Brane World gravity. Finally we look at the high energy corrections for some chosen models and compare the results with the Planck and WMAP (9 year) data. Then we make a summary of our results and point out certain interesting features of Brane World gravity based calculations and infer it's implications on Brane World gravity itself.
Symmetries of Quantum Nonsymmetric Gravity
Mebarki, N; Boudine, A; Benslama, A
1999-01-01
Symmetries of Quantum Nonsymmetric gravity are studied and the corresponding generators are constructed . The related equal time canonical (and non canonical) (anti) commutation relations are established.
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K
2011-01-01
The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity", linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode" solutions, which we categorize as `spin 2' or `Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin 2 modes of the non-critical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin 2 log mode is itself a 'non-gauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.
Renormalization of Horava Gravity
Barvinsky, Andrei O; Herrero-Valea, Mario; Sibiryakov, Sergey M; Steinwachs, Christian F
2016-01-01
We prove perturbative renormalizability of projectable Horava gravity. The key element of the argument is the choice of a gauge which ensures the correct anisotropic scaling of the propagators and their uniform falloff at large frequencies and momenta. This guarantees that the counterterms required to absorb the loop divergences are local and marginal or relevant with respect to the anisotropic scaling. Gauge invariance of the counterterms is achieved by making use of the background-covariant formalism. We also comment on the difficulties of this approach when addressing the renormalizability of the non-projectable model.
Baryogenesis by Quantum Gravity
Hamada, Ken-ji; Sugamoto, Akio
2007-01-01
A novel mechanism of baryogenesis is proposed on the basis of the phase transition from the conformal invariant space-time to the Einstein space-time in quantum gravity. Strong-coupling gravitational excitations with dynamical mass about 10^17 GeV are generated at the transition. They eventually decay into ordinary matters. As a realization of unparticle physics we show that the low energy effective interactions between the gravitational potential describing the excitation and the non-conserving matter currents by the axial anomalies can explain matter asymmetry out of thermal equilibrium.
Experimental semiclassical gravity
Gan, C C; Scully, S
2015-01-01
We show that optomechanical systems can provide definitive tests of the many-body Schrodinger-Newton equation of gravitational quantum mechanics. This equation is motivated by semiclassical gravity, a widely used theory of interacting gravitational and quantum fields. The many-body equation implies an approximate Schrodinger-Newton equation for the center-of-mass dynamics of macroscopic objects. It predicts a distinctive double-peaked signature in the output optical quadrature spectral density of certain optomechanical systems. Since the many-body Schrodinger-Newton equation lacks free parameters, these will allow its experimental confirmation or refutation.
Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen
2010-01-01
We propose a phantom crossing Dvali--Gabadadze--Porrati (DGP) model. In our model, the effective equation of state of the DGP gravity crosses the phantom divide line. We demonstrate crossing of the phantom divide does not occur within the framework of the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner. By extending their model, we construct a model that realizes crossing of the phantom divide. DGP models can account for late-time acceleration of the universe without dark en...
Espinosa Aldama, Mariana
2015-04-01
The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning
2006-01-01
It is well known that energy-momentum is the source of gravitational field. For a long time, it is generally believed that only stars with huge masses can generate strong gravitational field. Based on the unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions, a new mechanism of the generation of gravitational field is studied. According to this mechanism, in some special conditions, electromagnetic energy can be directly converted into gravitational energy, and strong gravitational field can be generated without massive stars. Gravity impulse found in experiments is generated by this mechanism.
New Massive Gravity Holography
dS, U Camara; Sotkov, G M
2010-01-01
We investigate the holographic renormalization group flows and the classical phase transitions in two dimensional QFT model dual to the New Massive 3D Gravity coupled to scalar matter. Specific matter self-interactions generated by quadratic superpotential are considered. Assuming that the off-critical $AdS_3/CFT_2$ correspondence takes place, we reconstruct the exact form of the $ QFT_2$ 's $\\beta$ -function which allows to find the singular part of the reduced free energy. The corresponding scaling laws and critical exponents characterizing all the RG fixed points as well as the values of the mass gaps in the massive phases are obtained.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN04 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN05 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Discrete Gravity Models and Loop Quantum Gravity: a Short Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Speziale
2012-08-01
Full Text Available We review the relation between Loop Quantum Gravity on a fixed graph and discrete models of gravity. We compare Regge and twisted geometries, and discuss discrete actions based on twisted geometries and on the discretization of the Plebanski action. We discuss the role of discrete geometries in the spin foam formalism, with particular attention to the definition of the simplicity constraints.
Discrete Gravity Models and Loop Quantum Gravity: a Short Review
Simone Speziale; Ryan, James P.; Maïté Dupuis
2012-01-01
We review the relation between Loop Quantum Gravity on a fixed graph and discrete models of gravity. We compare Regge and twisted geometries, and discuss discrete actions based on twisted geometries and on the discretization of the Plebanski action. We discuss the role of discrete geometries in the spin foam formalism, with particular attention to the definition of the simplicity constraints.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN02 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS04 (2009)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS01 (2008)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
New Insights into Quantum Gravity from Gauge/gravity Duality
Engelhardt, Netta
2016-01-01
Using gauge/gravity duality, we deduce several nontrivial consequences of quantum gravity from simple properties of the dual field theory. These include: (1) a version of cosmic censorship, (2) restrictions on evolution through black hole singularities, and (3) the exclusion of certain cosmological bounces. In the classical limit, the latter implies a new singularity theorem.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS05 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2014 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Lovelock gravities from Born-Infeld gravity theory
Concha, P K; Rodríguez, E K
2016-01-01
We present a Born-Infeld gravity theory based on generalizations of Maxwell symmetries denoted as $\\mathfrak{C}_{m}$. We analyze different configuration limits allowing to recover diverse Lovelock gravity actions in six dimensions. Further, the generalization to higher even dimensions is also considered.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES02 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida and the Gulf of Mexico collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS08 (2015)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for CS08 collected in 2006 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN06 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamics with self-gravity
García-Senz, D; Cabezon, R M; Bravo, E
2008-01-01
The axisymmetric form of the hydrodynamic equations within the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) formalism is presented and checked using idealized scenarios taken from astrophysics (free fall collapse, implosion and further pulsation of a sun-like star), gas dynamics (wall heating problem, collision of two streams of gas) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF, -ablative implosion of a small capsule-). New material concerning the standard SPH formalism is given. That includes the numerical handling of those mass points which move close to the singularity axis, more accurate expressions for the artificial viscosity and the heat conduction term and an easy way to incorporate self-gravity in the simulations. The algorithm developed to compute gravity does not rely in any sort of grid, leading to a numerical scheme totally compatible with the lagrangian nature of the SPH equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a nonlinear quantum theory of Newtonian gravity consistent with an objective interpretation of the wavefunction. Inspired by the ideas of Schroedinger, and Bell, we seek a dimensional reduction procedure to map complex wavefunctions in configuration space onto a family of observable fields in space-time. Consideration of quasi-classical conservation laws selects the reduced one-body quantities as the basis for an explicit quasi-classical coarse-graining. These we interpret as describing the objective reality of the laboratory. Thereafter, we examine what may stand in the role of the usual Copenhagen observer to localise this quantity against macroscopic dispersion. Only a tiny change is needed, via a generically attractive self-potential. A nonlinear treatment of gravitational self-energy is thus advanced. This term sets a scale for all wavepackets. The Newtonian cosmology is thus closed, without need of an external observer. Finally, the concept of quantisation is re-interpreted as a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. To illustrate, we exhibit an elementary family of gravitationally self-bound solitary waves. Contrasting this theory with its canonically quantised analogue, we find that the given interpretation is empirically distinguishable, in principle. This result encourages deeper study of nonlinear field theories as a testable alternative to canonically quantised gravity. (author). 46 refs., 5 figs
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Kounnas, Costas; Lust, Dieter; Riotto, Antonio
2015-01-01
We discuss quadratic gravity where terms quadratic in the curvature tensor are included in the action. After reviewing the corresponding field equations, we analyze in detail the physical propagating modes in some specific backgrounds. First we confirm that the pure $R^2$ theory is indeed ghost free. Then we point out that for flat backgrounds the pure $R^2$ theory propagates only a scalar massless mode and no spin-two tensor mode. However, the latter emerges either by expanding the theory around curved backgrounds like de Sitter or anti-de Sitter, or by changing the long-distance dynamics by introducing the standard Einstein term. In both cases, the theory is modified in the infrared and a propagating graviton is recovered. Hence we recognize a subtle interplay between the UV and IR properties of higher order gravity. We also calculate the corresponding Newton's law for general quadratic curvature theories. Finally, we discuss how quadratic actions may be obtained from a fundamental theory like string- or M-...
Ashour, Amani; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Hammad, Fayçal
2016-01-01
In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of black $p$-branes (BB) in the context of Gravity's Rainbow. We investigate this, first within the framework of rainbow functions that have been proposed by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in \\cite{amerev, AmelinoCamelia:1996pj}, then examine, for the sake of comparison, a couple of other rainbow functions that have also appeared in the literature. We show that, for consistency, Rainbow Gravity imposes a constraint on the minimum mass of the BB, a constraint that we interpret here as implying the existence of a black $p$-brane remnant. This interpretation is supported by the computation of the black $p$-brane's heat capacity that shows that the latter vanishes when the Schwarzschild radius takes on a value that is bigger than its extremal limit. We found that the same conclusion is reached for the third version of rainbow functions treated here but not with the second one for which only standard black $p$-brane thermodynamics is recovered.
Massive Gravity: A Lorentz-Symmetric Aether
Mirbabayi, Mehrdad
2014-01-01
This is a heuristic introduction to massive gravity based on an analogy with perfect fluids. I will argue that massive gravity can be thought of as Einstein gravity in the presence of a medium with unusual properties.
The structure of local gravity theories
Dupre, Maurice J.
2014-01-01
We discuss the structure of local gravity theories as resulting from the idea that locally gravity must be physically characterized by tidal acceleration, and show how this relates to both Newtonian gravity and Einstein's general relativity.
The role of information in gravity
Spaans, M.
2009-01-01
It is argued that particle-specific information on energy-momentum adjusts the strength of gravity. This form of gravity has no free parameters, preserves Einstein gravity locally and predicts 6 times stronger accelerations on galaxy scales.
Artificial intelligence in hematology.
Zini, Gina
2005-10-01
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems. PMID:16203606
Emergent universe in chameleon, f(R) and f(T) gravity theories
Chattopadhyay, Surajit
2011-01-01
In this work, we consider an emergent universe in generalized gravity theories like the chameleon, f(R) and f(T) gravities. We reconstruct the potential of the chameleon field under the emergent scenario of the universe and observe its increasing nature with the evolution of the universe. We reveal that in the emergent universe scenario, the equation-of-state parameter behaves like quintessence in the case of f(R) gravity and like phantom in the case of f(T) gravity.
Weyl gravity as general relativity
Wheeler, James Thomas
2013-01-01
When the full connection of Weyl conformal gravity is varied instead of just the metric, the resulting vacuum field equations reduce to the vacuum Einstein equation, up to the choice of local units, if and only if the torsion vanishes. This result differs strongly from the usual fourth-order formulation of Weyl gravity.
Bailey, Quentin G
2016-01-01
In this talk, the gravity sector of the effective field theory description of local Lorentz violation is discussed, including minimal and nonminimal curvature couplings. Also, recent experimental and observational analyses including solar-system ephemeris and short-range gravity tests are reviewed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Gravity in three dimensions strikes a balance between models that are tractable and models that are relevant in nature. It may exhibit black hole solutions, graviton modes and asymptotically Anti-deSitter solutions that may have holographic CFT duals. Some of the recent progress in this field is reviewed, with focus on quantum gravity. (author)
Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ipsen, Asger Cronberg
The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...
Observable Effects of Quantum Gravity
Chang, Lay Nam; Sun, Chen; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2016-01-01
We discuss the generic phenomenology of quantum gravity and, in particular, argue that the observable effects of quantum gravity, associated with new, extended, non-local, non-particle-like quanta, and accompanied by a dynamical energy-momentum space, are not necessarily Planckian and that they could be observed at much lower and experimentally accessible energy scales.
Fixed points of quantum gravity
Litim, D.F.(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH, UK)
2004-01-01
Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.
Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.
2014-01-01
We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same 'minimal' bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new 'minimal massive gravity'
Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2016-01-01
We propose a model of gravity in which the mixing of a metric tensor of General Relativity and an effective metric generated from a single scalar as formulated in Geometric Scalar Gravity. We show that the model admits the exact Schwarzschild solution and accelerating behaviors of scale factors in cosmological solutions.
Fluid Dynamics and Entropic Gravity
Nagle, Ian
2016-01-01
A new entropic gravity inspired derivation of general relativity from thermodynamics is presented. This generalizes, within Einstein gravity, the "Thermodynamics of Spacetime" approach by T. Jacobson, which relies on the Raychaudhuri evolution equation. Here the rest of the first law of thermodynamics is incorporated by using the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation, known from the membrane paradigm for describing fluid dynamics on the horizon.
Quantum Gravity and Equivariant Cohomology
Brooks, R.; Lifschytz, G.
1994-01-01
A procedure for obtaining correlation function densities and wavefunctionals for quantum gravity from the Donaldson polynomial invariants of topological quantum field theories, is given. We illustrate how our procedure may be applied to three and four dimensional quantum gravity. Detailed expressions, derived from \\sbft{}, are given in the three dimensional case. A procedure for normalizing these wavefunctionals is proposed.
Quantum Gravity Yesterday and Today
DeWitt, Bryce
2008-01-01
We present a talk given by Bryce DeWitt on Quantum Gravity, and present many references. This article is the first installment of the book "The Pursuit of Quantum Gravity 1946-2004; Memoirs of Bryce DeWitt" that Cecile DeWitt is preparing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tissaphern Mirfakhrai
2007-04-01
Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.
Uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Kanal, LN
1986-01-01
How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.
Bayesian artificial intelligence
Korb, Kevin B
2010-01-01
Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente
Yamane, Takashi
2016-01-01
This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.
The Gravity of Giraffe Physiology
Hargens, Alan R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
By virtue of its tallness and terrestrial environment, the giraffe is a uniquely sensitive African animal to investigate tissue adaptations to gravitational stress. One decade ago, we studied transcapillary fluid balance and local tissue adaptations to high cardiovascular and musculoskeletal loads in adult and fetal giraffes. Previous studies by Goetz, Pattersson, Van Citters, Warren and their colleagues revealed that arterial pressure near the giraffe heart is about twice that in humans, to provide more normal blood pressure and perfusion to the brain. Another important question is how giraffes avoid pooling of blood and tissue fluid (edema) in dependent tissue of the extremities. As monitored by radiotelemetry, the blood and tissue fluid pressures that govern transcapillary exchange vary greatly with exercise. These pressures, combined with a tight skin layer, move fluid upward against gravity. Other mechanisms that prevent edema include precapillary vasoconstriction and low permeability of capillaries to plasma proteins. Other anatomical adaptations in dependent tissues of giraffes represent developmental adjustments to high and variable gravitational forces. These include vascular wall hypertrophy, thickened capillary basement membrane and other connective tissue adaptations. Our results in giraffe suggest avenues of future gravitational research in other animals including humans.
QCD analogy for quantum gravity
Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing
2016-06-01
Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.
Wessling, Francis C.; Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Matthews, John; Patel, Darayas
1990-01-01
An apparatus that produced the first polyurethane foam in low gravity has been described. The chemicals were mixed together in an apparatus designed for operation in low gravity. Mixing was by means of stirring the chemicals with an electric motor and propeller in a mixing chamber. The apparatus was flown on Consort 1, the first low-gravity materials payload launched by a commercial rocket launch team. The sounding rocket flight produced over 7 min of low gravity during which a polyurethane spheroidal foam of approximately 2300 cu cm was formed. Photographs of the formation of the foam during the flight show the development of the spheroidal form. This begins as a small sphere and grows to approximately a 17-cm-diam spheroid. The apparatus will be flown again on subsequent low-gravity flights.
Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges
Structure and corrosion resistance of nickel foils deposited in a vertical gravity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of vertical gravity fields on the structural characteristics of electrodeposited Ni foils were investigated in a centrifuge. Analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the surface roughness of Ni foils reduces from 37.6 nm to 8.1 nm with the increase of gravity coefficient (G) from 1 to 354. Furthermore, the roughness of Ni foils deposited at G = 62 evolves much more slowly than that deposited at G = 1. The study of the textural perfection by X-ray diffractiometry (XRD) reveals that the degree of (2 0 0) preferred orientation parallel to the substrate plane is lowered by the vertical gravity field. Randomly oriented deposits are obtained in the vertical gravity field while deposits with uniaxial texture are obtained in the natural gravity field. Due to these variations in the structure, the Ni foils obtained in the vertical gravity field exhibit improved corrosion resistance.
Application requirements of artificial muscles for swimming robots
Kerrebrock, Peter A.; Anderson, Jamie M.; Parry, Joel R.
2001-07-01
In the near future, we will find biomimetic undersea robots in the forefront of unmanned underwater applications due to their ability to operate in new, challenging, and highly dynamic environments such as rivers, surf, and turbulent pipe flow. In particular, fish-like vehicles (FLVs) have emerged as a viable technology for highly maneuverable, efficient and stealthy platforms. Attempts to produce fish-like motion using conventional mechanical means have proven difficult, however, resulting in complex and unreliable machines, especially when compared to the simplicity of a rotating propeller and conventional control surfaces. To take full advantage of fish-like propulsion, a new actuation strategy is needed, to which artificial muscles may be uniquely suited. Some artificial muscles are made of materials with relatively low specific gravity (compared to conventional mechanical systems), and so will be nearly neutrally buoyant in underwater applications. This is critical in FLV actuation, as correct longitudinal mass distribution is required to avoid stability problems. Additionally, some artificial muscle formulations require water, sometimes including an electrolyte, which is easily provided in underwater applications. Finally, for stealthy applications, artificial muscles may provide acoustically quiet actuation due to their suppleness and reduced number of interconnecting mechanical components. In this paper, we suggest artificial muscle-based actuation strategies for FLVs, based on experience with the Vorticity Control Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (VCUUV), an eight-foot long autonomous robotic tuna. Recently developed artificial muscles are surveyed and evaluated as to their suitability for fish-like propulsion. Requirements for force, power, and strain as well as implementation issues are discussed.
Initial Results of Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE tracking data
Matsumoto, Koji; Goossens, Sander; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Liu, Qinghui; Iwata, Takahiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Sho
Two small spin-stabilized sub-satellites, Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA), have successfully been separated from Main satellite of SELENE (KAGUYA) and inserted into planned elliptical orbits on October 9 and 12, 2007, respectively. These spacecraft are dedicated to improving our knowledge of the global lunar gravity field with the mission instruments on-board, i.e., RSAT (a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system) and VRAD (artificial radio sources for VLBI). We have started collecting new types of tracking data for the lunar-orbiting satellites, i.e., 4-way Doppler tracking between the Main satellite and Rstar (i.e., a direct far-side gravity observation), and multi-frequency differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar. A global lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy is expected to be estimated through precision orbit determination by using these tracking data. A preliminary global lunar gravity field model (degree and order up to 60) was developed from about 3-month of SELENE tracking data which include 2-way Doppler, 2-way range, and 4-way Doppler data. Although the current far-side data coverage is incomplete and a Kaula-type a priori constraint is necessary for meaningful inversion, some of ring-shaped gravity anomalies are more clearly resolved in the far-side compared with existing lunar gravity models. We will present concept of tracking data acquisition scheduling, current status of tracking data acquisition, and preliminary results of global lunar gravity filed recovery.
Padmanabhan, T
2007-01-01
I review the problem of dark energy focusing on the cosmological constant as the candidate and discuss its implications for the nature of gravity. Part 1 briefly overviews the currently popular `concordance cosmology' and summarises the evidence for dark energy. It also provides the observational and theoretical arguments in favour of the cosmological constant as the candidate and emphasises why no other approach really solves the conceptual problems usually attributed to the cosmological constant. Part 2 describes some of the approaches to understand the nature of the cosmological constant and attempts to extract the key ingredients which must be present in any viable solution. I argue that (i)the cosmological constant problem cannot be satisfactorily solved until gravitational action is made invariant under the shift of the matter lagrangian by a constant and (ii) this cannot happen if the metric is the dynamical variable. Hence the cosmological constant problem essentially has to do with our (mis)understan...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of braneworlds has been an area of intense activity over the past decade, with thousands of papers being written, and many important technical advances being made. This book focuses on a particular aspect of braneworlds, namely perturbative gravity in one specific model: the Randall-Sundrum model. The book starts with an overview of the Randall-Sundrum model, discussing anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and the Israel equations in some detail. It then moves on to discuss cosmological branes, focusing on branes with constant curvature. The book then turns to brane gravity, i.e. what do we, as brane observers, perceive the gravitational interaction to be on the brane as derived from the actual five-dimensional gravitational physics? After a derivation of the general brane equations from the Israel equations, the remainder of the book deals with perturbative gravity. This part of the book is extremely detailed, with calculations given explicitly. Overall, the book is quite pedagogical in style, with the aim being to explain in detail the topics it chooses to cover. While it is not unusual to have books written on current and extremely popular research areas, it is unusual to have calculations written so explicitly. This is both a strength and a weakness of this book. It is a strength because the calculations are presented in a detail that students learning the topic will definitely appreciate; however, the narrow focus of the book also means that it lacks perspective and fails to present the broader context. In choosing to focus on one particular aspect of Randall-Sundrum branes, the book has not managed to communicate why a large number of theorists have worked so intensively on this model. In its early stages, the explicit detail of the Randall-Sundrum model would be extremely useful for a student starting out in this research area. In addition, the calculational detail later in the computation of the graviton propagator on the brane would also be welcome not
Frè, Pietro Giuseppe
2013-01-01
‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications, updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes. Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed account of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations. Differe...
Supersymmetrizing massive gravity
Malaeb, O.
2013-07-01
When four scalar fields with global Lorentz symmetry are coupled to gravity and take a vacuum expectation value, breaking diffeomorphism invariance spontaneously, the graviton becomes massive. This model is supersymmetrized by considering four N=1 chiral superfields with global Lorentz symmetry. The global supersymmetry is promoted to a local one using the rules of tensor calculus of coupling the N=1 supergravity Lagrangian to the four chiral multiplets. When the scalar components of the chiral multiplets zA acquire a vacuum expectation value, both diffeomorphism invariance and local supersymmetry are broken spontaneously. The global Lorentz index A becomes identified with the space-time Lorentz index, making the scalar fields zA vectors and the chiral spinors ψA spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields. We show that the spectrum of the model in the broken phase consists of a massive spin-2 field, two massive spin-3/2 fields with different mass and a massive vector.
Kay, Bernard S
2015-01-01
We give an account of the matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this new approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. We also very briefly review some recent related work on the nature of equilibrium states involving quantum black holes and point out how it promises to resolve some puzzling issues in the current version of the string theory approach to black hole entropy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author presents a series of lectures intended for students familiar with the methods used in many developments of general relativity, cosmology and supergravity. First, he deals with geometry before gravity; manifolds, tensors, spinors and their derivatives are defined. The rules of Cartan's exterior differential calculus are established. Basic formulas of Riemannian geometry are proved with the method of the moving frame (veilbein). Some aspects of the de Rham cohomology are lightly touched on; the physical meaning of the curvature tensor which leads to the Einstein equations is analyzed; Weyl's and Palitini's variational principle are introduced and compared; the extension of first integrals for field equations on curved space is discussed; and finally, a brief description of homogeneous cosmologies, in particular the anti-de Sitter space, is given
Antimatter gravity with muonium
Kaplan, Daniel M; Kirch, Klaus; Mancini, Derrick; Phillips, James D; Phillips, Thomas J; Reasenberg, Robert D; Roberts, Thomas J; Terry, Jeff
2016-01-01
The gravitational acceleration of antimatter, $\\bar{g}$, has never been directly measured and could bear importantly on our understanding of gravity, the possible existence of a fifth force, and the nature and early history of the universe. Three avenues appear feasible for such a measurement: antihydrogen, positronium, and muonium. The muonium measurement requires a novel monoenergetic, low-velocity, horizontal muonium beam directed at an atom interferometer. The precision three-grating interferometer can be produced in silicon nitride or ultrananocrystalline diamond using state-of-the-art nanofabrication. The required precision alignment and calibration at the picometer level also appear to be feasible. With 100 nm grating pitch, a 10% measurement of $\\bar{g}$ can be made using some months of surface-muon beam time, and a 1% or better measurement with a correspondingly larger exposure. This could constitute the first gravitational measurement of leptonic matter, of 2nd-generation matter and, possibly, the f...
Semiclassical Supersymmetric Quantum Gravity
Kiefer, Claus; Lück, Tobias; Vargas Moniz, Paulo
2008-09-01
We develop a semiclassical approximation scheme for the constraint equations of supersymmetric canonical quantum gravity. This is achieved by a Born-Oppenheimer type of expansion, in analogy to the case of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We recover at consecutive orders the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the functional Schrödinger equation, and quantum gravitational correction terms to this Schrödinger equation. In particular, our work has the following implications: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and therefore the background spacetime must involve the gravitino, (ii) a (many fingered) local time parameter has to be present on Super Riem Σ (the space of all possible tetrad and gravitino fields), (iii) quantum supersymmetric gravitational corrections affect the evolution of the very early universe.
Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo
2016-06-01
In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.
Bailey, Quentin G
2009-01-01
In the last decade, a variety of high-precision experiments have searched for miniscule violations of Lorentz symmetry. These searches are largely motivated by the possibility of uncovering experimental signatures from a fundamental unified theory. Experimental results are reported in the framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME), which describes general Lorentz violation for each particle species in terms of its coefficients for Lorentz violation. Recently, the role of gravitational experiments in probing the SME has been explored in the literature. In this talk, I will summarize theoretical and experimental aspects of these works. I will also discuss recent lunar laser ranging and atom interferometer experiments, which place stringent constraints on gravity coefficients for Lorentz violation.
Is quantum gravity unpredictable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An investigation of Hawking's proposal that the inclusion of topologically non-trivial manifolds in the functional integral of quantum gravity leads to the loss of quantum coherence is carried out. We discuss some of the problems associated with Hawking's Dollar-matrix theory, including the breakdown of the connection between symmetry principles and conservation laws. It is proposed to use Kaluza-Klein theories to study this issue, since these theories contain well-defined euclidean instantons. These can be used to perform explicit semiclassical calculations of the effects of space-time foam. A general method is presented for constructing Kaluza-Klein instantons based on solutions of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. It is argued that none of these will lead to a breakdown of quantum mechanics. The physical effects of space-time foam are discussed in some detail using explicit instantons of a four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. (orig.)
Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo
2015-01-01
In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.
Deser, S.; Izumi, K.; Ong, Y. C.; Waldron, A.
2015-01-01
The method of characteristics is a key tool for studying consistency of equations of motion; it allows issues such as predictability, maximal propagation speed, superluminality, unitarity and acausality to be addressed without requiring explicit solutions. We review this method and its application to massive gravity (mGR) theories to show the limitations of these models' physical viability: Among their problems are loss of unique evolution, superluminal signals, matter coupling inconsistencies and micro-acausality (propagation of signals around local closed time-like curves (CTCs)/closed causal curves (CCCs)). We extend previous no-go results to the entire three-parameter range of mGR theories. It is also argued that bimetric models suffer a similar fate.
Stochastic quantization and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a preliminary account of the application of stochastic quantization to the gravitational field. We start in Section I from Nelson's formulation of quantum mechanics as Newtonian stochastic mechanics and only then introduce the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme on which all the later discussion will be based. In Section II we present a generalization of the scheme that is applicable to fields in physical (i.e. Lorentzian) space-time and treat the free linearized gravitational field in this manner. The most remarkable result of this is the noncausal propagation of conformal gravitons. Moreover the concept of stochastic gauge-fixing is introduced and a complete discussion of all the covariant gauges is given. A special symmetry relating two classes of covariant gauges is exhibited. Finally Section III contains some preliminary remarks on full nonlinear gravity. In particular we argue that in contrast to gauge fields the stochastic gravitational field cannot be transformed to a Gaussian process. (Author)
Karasik, D; Karasik, David; Davidson, Aharon
2003-01-01
Geodetic brane gravity treats the universe as an extended object evolving geodetically within a higher dimensional flat background. In this paper we derive the quadratic Hamiltonian of the brane by introducing a new pair of canonical fields $\\lambda,P_{\\lambda}$. This causes second class constraints to enter the game, and calls for the use of Dirac Brackets. The algebra of first class constraints is calculated, and the BRST generator of the brane universe is of rank 1. The Einstein case, associated with $\\lambda$ being a vanishing (degenerate) eigenvalue, can be treated only as a limiting case. At the quantum level, the road is open for canonical quantization, or functional integral quantization. The main advantages of GBG are: It contains an intrinsic, geometrically originated 'dark matter' components. It contains an intrinsic solution to the 'problem of time' with the aid of the 'bulk' time coordinate. It enables calculation of meaningful probabilities within quantum cosmology without any additional scalar ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The local position invariance of a physical system is examined using a Rydberg atom and the universality of free fall is found to be invalid for a quantum system. A Rydberg atom is analysed in Newtonian gravity and curved space. The energy is found to vary as n2 for very large values of the principal quantum number n. The change in energy is calculated using this formalism and compared to a similar calculation by Chiao. The value that we have got from our calculation is found to be 6 orders higher in magnitude than Chiao's value. These results can be of significance in gravitational redshift experiements proposed by Muller et al and Wolf et al
Bahrami, M; McMillen, S; Paternostro, M; Ulbricht, H
2015-01-01
What gravitational field is generated by a massive quantum system in a spatial superposition? This is one of the most important questions in modern physics, and after decades of intensive theoretical and experimental research, we still do not know the answer. On the experimental side, the difficulty lies in the fact that gravity is weak and requires large masses to be detectable. But for large masses, it becomes increasingly difficult to generate spatial quantum superpositions, which live sufficiently long to be detected. A delicate balance between opposite quantum and gravitational demands is needed. Here we show that this can be achieved in an optomechanics scenario. We propose an experimental setup, which allows to decide whether the gravitational field generated by a quantum system in a spatial superposition is the superposition of the two alternatives, or not. We estimate the magnitude of the effect and show that it offers good perspectives for observability. Performing the experiment will mark a breakth...
Transverse gravity versus observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theories of gravity invariant under those diffeomorphisms generated by transverse vectors, ∂μξμ = 0 are considered. Such theories are dubbed transverse, and differ from General Relativity in that the determinant of the metric, g, is a transverse scalar. We comment on diverse ways in which these models can be constrained using a variety of observations. Generically, an additional scalar degree of freedom mediates the interaction, so the usual constraints on scalar-tensor theories have to be imposed. If the purely gravitational part is Einstein-Hilbert but the matter action is transverse, the models predict that the three a priori different concepts of mass (gravitational active and gravitational passive as well as inertial) are not equivalent anymore. These transverse deviations from General Relativity are therefore tightly constrained, actually correlated with existing bounds on violations of the equivalence principle, local violations of Newton's third law and/or violation of Local Position Invariance
Testing Gravity on Accelerators
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2016-01-01
Weak equivalence principle (WEP) is one of the cornerstones of the modern theories of gravity, stating that the trajectory of a freely falling test body is independent of its internal structure and composition. Even though WEP is known to be valid for the normal matter with a high precision, it has never been experimentally confirmed for relativistic matter and antimatter. We make an attempt to constrain possible deviations from WEP utilizing the modern accelerator technologies. We analyze the (absence of) vacuum Cherenkov radiation, photon decay, anomalous synchrotron losses and the Compton spectra to put limits on the isotropic Lorentz violation and further convert them to the constraints on the difference between the gravitational and inertial masses of the relativistic electrons/positrons. Our main result is the 0.1% limit on the mentioned difference.
Jankiewicz, Marcin
2007-12-01
This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.
Steep sharp-crested gravity waves on deep water
Lukomsky, Vasyl'; Gandzha, Ivan,; Lukomsky, Dmytro
2001-01-01
A new type of steady steep two-dimensional irrotational symmetric periodic gravity waves on inviscid incompressible fluid of infinite depth is revealed. We demonstrate that these waves have sharper crests in comparison with the Stokes waves of the same wavelength and steepness. The speed of a fluid particle at the crest of new waves is greater than their phase speed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has been shown by Atkinson (1965) that there is a rigorously exact euclidean interpretation of the general relativity field equations if certain arbitrary definitions of mass (m) and the velocity of light (c) are invoked. With a preferred (euclidean) frame postulated ab initio, a particularly simple explanation in terms of classical physics may be found for very similar definitions of m and c. It is not unexpected that with this scheme, all the usual tests of general relativity (light deflexion, perihelion motion, gravitational redshift, and radar delay time) are immediately satisfied. The preferred frame is however identified with a real aether and this requires a return to the Lorentzian interpretation of the special relativistic transformations of space and time variables. It is shown that gravity may be attributed to the action of a temperature gradient in the aether and an explanation of its origin in terms of an ideal relativistic gas is proposed. The temperature gradients are thermodynamically stable and do not diffuse if the relativistic aether (γsub(A)) is effectively adiabatic and matter is fundamentally a species of aether with instantaneous motion at high γ (>γsub(A)) relative to the aethereal rest frame. To be consistent with such a picture, it is necessary to assume aether particles are capable of forming temporary associations (not recognized as matter) which take on some of the properties of crystalline solids and thereby become the means of transmitting electromagnetic radiation through space. A number of specific predictions arising from this theory of gravity are indicated and these may serve to discriminate it from general relativity. (Auth.)
Gravity-matter entanglement in Regge quantum gravity
Paunković, Nikola; Vojinović, Marko
2016-03-01
We argue that Hartle-Hawking states in the Regge quantum gravity model generically contain non-trivial entanglement between gravity and matter fields. Generic impossibility to talk about “matter in a point of space” is in line with the idea of an emergent spacetime, and as such could be taken as a possible candidate for a criterion for a plausible theory of quantum gravity. Finally, this new entanglement could be seen as an additional “effective interaction”, which could possibly bring corrections to the weak equivalence principle.
Gravity-Matter Entanglement in Regge Quantum Gravity
Paunković, Nikola
2016-01-01
We argue that Hartle-Hawking states in the Regge quantum gravity model generically contain non-trivial entanglement between gravity and matter fields. Generic impossibility to talk about "matter in a point of space" is in line with the idea of an emergent spacetime, and as such could be taken as a possible candidate for a criterion for a plausible theory of quantum gravity. Finally, this new entanglement could be seen as an additional "effective interaction", which could possibly bring corrections to the weak equivalence principle.
AdS Chern-Simons gravity induces conformal gravity
Aros, Rodrigo; Díaz, Danilo E.
2014-04-01
The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional conformal gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as the dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauge-fixed, tractorlike) five-dimensional anti-de Sitter connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program readily admits a generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.
AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity
Aros, Rodrigo
2013-01-01
The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.
Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.
Ifukube, Tohru
2009-01-01
Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498
Falsification of Mannheim's conformal gravity
Yoon, Youngsub
2013-01-01
We show that Mannheim's conformal gravity, whose potential has a term proportional to $1/r$ and another term proportional to $r$, doesn't reduce to Newtonian gravity at short distances. Therefore, despite the claim that it successfully explains galaxy rotation curves, it seems falsified by numerous Cavendish-type experiments performed at laboratories on Earth whose work haven't found any deviations from Newton's theory. Moreover, when Mannheim used his potential to fit the galaxy rotation curve, he used the Newtonian formula to calculate the effects of the term proportional to $1/r$, not the conformal gravity one. So, he lacked consistency. After all, he would not have been able to use the conformal gravity one either since it deviates so much from the Newtonian one, which the conformal gravity one should reduce to. We also give a couple of other similar reasons why Mannheim's conformal gravity is wrong. For example, the gravitational potential of conformal gravity doesn't reduce to the Newtonian one even in ...
Exploration of Artificial Frustrated Magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter
2015-02-17
This program encompasses experimental and theoretical studies of arrays of nanometer-scale magnets known as “artificial frustrated magnets”. These magnets are small and closely spaced, so that their behavior as a collective group is complex and reveals insights into how such collections of interacting objects behave as a group. In particular, the placement of the magnets is such that the interactions between them are “frustrated”, in that they compete with each other. These systems are analogs to a class of magnetic materials in which the lattice geometry frustrates interactions between individual atomic moments, and in which a wide range of novel physical phenomena have been recently observed. The advantage to studying the arrays is that they are both designable and resolvable: i.e., the experiments can control all aspects of the array geometry, and can also observe how individual elements of the arrays behave. This research program demonstrated a number of phenomena including the role of multiple collective interactions, the feasibility of using systems with their magnetism aligned perpendicular to the plane of the array, the importance of disorder in the arrays, and the possibility of using high temperatures to adjust the magnet orientations. All of these phenomena, and others explored in this program, add to the body of knowledge around collective magnetic behavior and magnetism in general. Aside from building scientific knowledge in an important technological area, with relevance to computing and memory, the program also gave critical support to the education of students working on the experiments.
Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Bei Lok
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein–Langevin equation, which has, in addition, sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bitensor, which describes the fluctuations of quantum-matter fields in curved spacetimes. A new improved criterion for the validity of semiclassical gravity may also be formulated from the viewpoint of this theory. In the first part of this review we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to the correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman–Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger–Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic-gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, using the Einstein–Langevin equation, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation and the behavior of metric fluctuations for both the quasi-equilibrium condition of a black-hole in a box and the fully nonequilibrium condition of an evaporating black hole spacetime. Finally, we briefly discuss the theoretical structure of stochastic gravity in relation to quantum gravity and point out
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES03 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN09 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN10 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the...
Transplanckian inflation as gravity echoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we show that, in the presence of non-minimal coupling to gravity, it is possible to generate sizeable tensor modes in single-field models without transplanckian field values. These transplanckian field values apparently needed in Einstein gravity to accommodate the experimental results may only be due to our insistence of imposing a minimal coupling of the inflaton field to gravity in a model with non-minimal couplings. We present three simple single-field models that prove that it is possible to accommodate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio without requiring transplanckian field values within the slow-roll regime
Compact objects in Horndeski gravity
Silva, Hector O; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele
2016-01-01
Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein's theory of general relativity with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of general relativity in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes and neutron stars) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating black holes and present some new results on slowly rotating neutron stars.
Cosmology in Weyl Transverse Gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2016-01-01
We study the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology in the Weyl-transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. The WTDiff gravity is invariant under both the local Weyl (conformal) transformation and the volume preserving diffeormorphisms (transverse diffeomorphisms) and is believed to be equivalent to general relativity at least at the classical level (perhaps, even in the quantum regime). It is explicitly shown by solving the equations of motion that the FLRW metric is a classical solution in the WTDiff gravity only when the spatial metric is flat, that is, the Euclidean space, and the lapse function is a nontrivial function of the scale factor.
Compact objects in Horndeski gravity
Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele
2016-04-01
Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.
Topological gravity with exchange algebra
Aoyama, S.
1993-01-01
A topological gravity is obtained by twisting the effective $(2,0)$ super\\-gravity. We show that this topological gravity has an infinite number of BRST invariant quantities with conformal weight $0$. They are a tower of OSp$(2,2)$ multiplets and satisfy the classical exchange algebra of OSp$(2,2)$. We argue that these BRST invariant quantities become physical operators in the quantum theory and their correlation functions are braided according to the quantum OSp$(2,2)$ group. These propertie...
Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity
Do, Tuan Q.
2016-05-01
Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.
Riding Gravity Away from Doomsday
Sen, Ashoke
2015-01-01
The discovery that most of the energy density in the universe is stored in the form of dark energy has profound consequences for our future. In particular our current limited understanding of quantum theory of gravity indicates that some time in the future our universe will undergo a phase transition that will destroy us and everything else around us instantaneously. However the laws of gravity also suggest a way out -- some of our descendants could survive this catastrophe by riding gravity away from the danger. In this essay I describe the tale of this escape from doomsday.
Transplanckian inflation as gravity echoes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barenboim, G., E-mail: Gabriela.Barenboim@uv.es; Vives, O.
2015-09-02
In this work, we show that, in the presence of non-minimal coupling to gravity, it is possible to generate sizeable tensor modes in single-field models without transplanckian field values. These transplanckian field values apparently needed in Einstein gravity to accommodate the experimental results may only be due to our insistence of imposing a minimal coupling of the inflaton field to gravity in a model with non-minimal couplings. We present three simple single-field models that prove that it is possible to accommodate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio without requiring transplanckian field values within the slow-roll regime.
Natural inflation and quantum gravity.
de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman
2015-04-17
Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models. PMID:25933305
Artificial sweeteners - a review.
Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu
2014-04-01
Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154
Artificial Immune Systems (2010)
Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe
2010-01-01
The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...
A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.
Leal, Ralph A.
A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…
Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks
Tawel, Raoul
1993-01-01
Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.
Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;
2014-01-01
There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from a...
Gravity and the cells of gravity receptors in mammals
Ross, M. D.
Two new findings, that crystals located in the inner ear gravity receptors of mammals have the internal organization requisite for the piezoelectric property, and that sensory hair cells of these same receptors possess contractile-appearing striated organelles, have prompted the author to model mammalian gravity receptors in the ear on the principles of piezoelectricity and bioenergetics. This model is presented and a brief discussion of its implications for the possible effects of weightlessness follows.
Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity
Matas, Andrew
2016-04-01
Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware-Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity.
Soft computing in artificial intelligence
Matson, Eric
2014-01-01
This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...
Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference
Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide
2015-01-01
This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations. Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities. While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...
The quantum spacetime of c > 0 2 d gravity
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Thorleifsson, G.
1998-04-01
We review recent developments in the understanding of the fractal properties of quantum spacetime of 2d gravity coupled to c > 0 conformal matter. In particular we discuss bounds put by numerical simulations using dynamical triangulations on the value of the Hausdorff dimension dH obtained from scaling properties of two point functions defined in terms of geodesic distance. Further insight to the fractal structure of spacetime is obtained from the study of the loop length distribution function which reveals that the 0 < c ≤ 1 system has similar geometric properties with pure gravity, whereas the branched polymer structure becomes clear for c ≥ 5.
Chern-Simons-like Gravity Theories
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.
2014-01-01
A wide class of three-dimensional gravity models can be put into "Chern-Simons-like" form. We perform a Hamiltonian analysis of the general model and then specialise to Einstein-Cartan Gravity, General Massive Gravity, the recently proposed Zwei-Dreibein Gravity and a further parity violating generalisation combining the latter two.
Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity
Ambjorn, J.; S. Jain; G. Thorleifsson
1993-01-01
We investigate the fractal structure of $2d$ quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent $\\g_{string}$.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The relatively simple Fibre-Bundle geometry of a Yang-Mills gauge theory - mainly the clear distinction between base and fibre - made it possible, between 1953 and 1971, to construct a fully quantized version and prove that theory's renormalizability; moreover, nonperturbative (topological) solutions were subsequently found in both the fully symmetric and the spontaneously broken modes (instantons, monopoles). Though originally constructed as a model formalism, it became in 1974 the mathematical mold holding the entire Standard Model (i.e. QCD and the Electroweak theory). On the other hand, between 1974 and 1984, Einstein's theory was shown to be perturbatively nonrenormalizable. Since 1974, the search for Quantum Gravity has therefore provided the main motivation for the construction of Gauge Theories of Gravity. Earlier, however, in 1958-76 several such attempts were initiated, for aesthetic or heuristic reasons, to provide a better understanding of the algebraic structure of GR. A third motivation has come from the interest in Unification, making it necessary to bring GR into a form compatible with an enlargement of the Standard Model. Models can be classified according to the relevant structure group in the fibre. Within the Poincare group, this has been either the R4 translations, or the Lorentz group SL(2, C) - or the entire Poincare SL(2, C) x R4. Enlarging the group has involved the use of the Conformal SU(2, 2), the special Affine SA(4, R) = SL(4, R) x R4 or Affine A(4, R) groups. Supergroups have included supersymmetry, i.e. the graded-Poincare group (n =1...8 m its extensions) or the superconformal SU(2, 2/n). These supergravity theories have exploited the lessons of the aesthetic-heuristic models - Einstein-Cartan etc. - and also achieved the Unification target. Although perturbative renormalizability has been achieved in some models, whether they satisfy unitarity is not known. The nonperturbative Ashtekar program has exploited the understanding of
PPN-limit of Fourth Order Gravity inspired by Scalar-Tensor Gravity
Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A.
2005-01-01
Based on the {\\it dynamical} equivalence between higher order gravity and scalar-tensor gravity the PPN-limit of fourth order gravity is discussed. We exploit this analogy developing a fourth order gravity version of the Eddington PPN-parameters. As a result, Solar System experiments can be reconciled with higher order gravity, if physical constraints descending from experiments are fulfilled.
Geometric Formulation of Gauge Theory of Gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WUNing; ZHANGDa-Hua; RUANTu-Nan
2003-01-01
DitTerential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied in this paper. The quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated completely in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. In order to study the relationship between quantum gauge theory of gravity and traditional quantum gravity which is formulated in curved space, it is important to set up the geometry picture of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The correspondence between quantum gauge theory of gravity and differential geometry is discussed and the geometry picture of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied.
Geometric Formulation of Gauge Theory of Gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning; ZHANG Da-Hua; RUAN Tu-Nan
2003-01-01
Differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied in this paper. The quantumgauge theory of gravity is formulated completely in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. In order to studythe relationship between quantum gauge theory of gravity and traditional quantum gravity which is formulated in curvedspace, it is important to set up the geometry picture of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The correspondence betweenquantum gauge theory of gravity and differential geometry is discussed and the geometry picture of quantum gaugetheory of gravity is studied.
Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos
2013-01-01
Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe. While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models. ...
Weak turbulence of gravity waves
Dyachenko, A. I.; Korotkevich, A. O.; Zakharov, V. E.
2003-01-01
For the first time weak turbulent theory was demonstrated for the surface gravity waves. Direct numerical simulation of the dynamical equations shows Kolmogorov turbulent spectra as predicted by analytical analysis from kinetic equation.
Gravity Data For Colombia 1997
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (9,050 records), were observed and processed by the Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi(IGAC), in Colombia from 1958 to 1996. This data...
Cosmological perturbations in unimodular gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study cosmological perturbation theory within the framework of unimodular gravity. We show that the Lagrangian constraint on the determinant of the metric required by unimodular gravity leads to an extra constraint on the gauge freedom of the metric perturbations. Although the main equation of motion for the gravitational potential remains the same, the shift variable, which is gauge artifact in General Relativity, cannot be set to zero in unimodular gravity. This non-vanishing shift variable affects the propagation of photons throughout the cosmological evolution and therefore modifies the Sachs-Wolfe relation between the relativistic gravitational potential and the microwave temperature anisotropies. However, for adiabatic fluctuations the difference between the result in General Relativity and unimodular gravity is suppressed on large angular scales. Thus, no strong constraints on the theory can be derived
Low Gravity Anchoring System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future sampling missions to the Moon, Mars and Asteroids will likely involve drilling and in-situ analysis from mobile robotic platforms in low gravity. Past...
Testing Gravity using Cosmic Voids
Falck, Bridget
2016-01-01
Though general relativity is well-tested on small (Solar System) scales, the late-time acceleration of the Universe provides strong motivation to test GR on cosmological scales. The difference between the small and large scale behavior of gravity is determined by the screening mechanism in modified gravity theories. Dark matter halos are often screened in these models, especially in models with Vainshtein screening, motivating a search for signatures of modified gravity in cosmic voids. We explore density, force, and velocity profiles of voids found in N-body simulations, using both dark matter particles and dark matter halos to identify the voids. The prospect of testing gravity using cosmic voids may be limited by the sparsity of halos as tracers of the density field.
An introduction to quantum gravity
Esposito, Giampiero
2011-01-01
Quantum gravity was born as that branch of modern theoretical physics that tries to unify its guiding principles, i.e., quantum mechanics and general relativity. Nowadays it is providing new insight into the unification of all fundamental interactions, while giving rise to new developments in mathematics. The various competing theories, e.g. string theory and loop quantum gravity, have still to be checked against observations. We review the classical and quantum foundations necessary to study field-theory approaches to quantum gravity, the passage from old to new unification in quantum field theory, canonical quantum gravity, the use of functional integrals, the properties of gravitational instantons, the use of spectral zeta-functions in the quantum theory of the universe, Hawking radiation, some theoretical achievements and some key experimental issues.
Neutron stars in Horndeski gravity
Maselli, Andrea; Silva, Hector O.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele
2016-06-01
Horndeski's theory of gravity is the most general scalar-tensor theory with a single scalar whose equations of motion contain at most second-order derivatives. A subsector of Horndeski's theory known as "Fab Four" gravity allows for dynamical self-tuning of the quantum vacuum energy, and therefore it has received particular attention in cosmology as a possible alternative to the Λ CDM model. Here we study compact stars in Fab Four gravity, which includes as special cases general relativity ("George"), Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity ("Ringo"), theories with a nonminimal coupling with the Einstein tensor ("John"), and theories involving the double-dual of the Riemann tensor ("Paul"). We generalize and extend previous results in theories of the John class and were not able to find realistic compact stars in theories involving the Paul class.
Scalable Gravity Offload System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a scalable gravity off-load system that enables controlled integrated testing of Surface System elements such as rovers, habitats, and...
Positive Signs in Massive Gravity
Cheung, Clifford
2016-01-01
We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...
Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric gμν=C(R)gμν with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.
Quantum Gravity on the Lattice
Hamber, Herbert W
2009-01-01
I review the lattice approach to quantum gravity, and how it relates to the non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point scenario of the continuum theory. After a brief introduction covering the general problem of ultraviolet divergences in gravity and other non-renormalizable theories, I cover the general methods and goals of the lattice approach. An underlying theme is an attempt at establishing connections between the continuum renormalization group results, which are mainly based on diagrammatic perturbation theory, and the recent lattice results, which should apply to the strong gravity regime and are inherently non-perturbative. A second theme in this review is the ever-present natural correspondence between infrared methods of strongly coupled non-abelian gauge theories on the one hand, and the low energy approach to quantum gravity based on the renormalization group and universality of critical behavior on the other. Towards the end of the review I discuss possible observational consequences of path integral q...
Squids, brains and gravity waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Superconducting quantum interference devices are so sensitive to magnetic flux that they can map the tiny magnetic fields emanating from the human brain and detect the submicroscopic motions of gravity-wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the greatest challenges facing theoretical physics lies in reconciling Einstein's classical theory of gravity - general relativity -with quantum field theory. Although both theories have been experimentally supported in their respective regimes, they are as compatible as a square peg and a round hole. This article summarises the current status of the superstring approach to the problem, the status of the Ashtekar program, and problem of time in quantum gravity
$\\gamma$-Gravity: Steepness Control
O'Dwyer, M; Waga, I
2013-01-01
We investigate a simple generalization of the metric exponential $f(R)$ gravity theory that is cosmologically viable and compatible with solar system tests of gravity. We show that, as compared to other viable $f(R)$ theories, its steep dependence on the Ricci scalar $R$ facilitates agreement with structure constraints and it gives rise to an effective dark energy that can be differentiated from a cosmological constant with future surveys.
Testing Lorentz Symmetry with Gravity
Bailey, Quentin G.
2007-01-01
In this talk, results from the gravitational sector of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) are discussed. The weak-field phenomenology of the resulting modified gravitational field equations is explored. The application of the results to a variety of modern gravity experiments, including lunar laser ranging, Gravity Probe B, binary pulsars, and Earth-laboratory tests, shows promising sensitivity to gravitational coefficients for Lorentz violation in the SME.
Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force
Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai
2010-01-01
We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...
Global flows in quantum gravity
Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Rodigast, A.
2016-02-01
We study four-dimensional quantum gravity using nonperturbative renormalization group methods. We solve the corresponding equations for the fully momentum-dependent propagator, Newtons coupling and the cosmological constant. For the first time, we obtain a global phase diagram where the non-Gaussian ultraviolet fixed point of asymptotic safety is connected via smooth trajectories to a classical infrared fixed point. The theory is therefore ultraviolet complete and deforms smoothly into classical gravity as the infrared limit is approached.
Matter in Loop Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghanashyam Date
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Loop quantum gravity, a non-perturbative and manifestly background free, quantum theory of gravity implies that at the kinematical level the spatial geometry is discrete in a specific sense. The spirit of background independence also requires a non-standard quantum representation of matter. While loop quantization of standard model fields has been proposed, detail study of its implications is not yet available. This review aims to survey the various efforts and results.
Gravity's Rainbow and Traversable Wormholes
Garattini, Remo
2015-01-01
In the context of Gravity's Rainbow, we compute the graviton one-loop contribution to a classical energy in a traversable wormhole background, by considering the equation of state $p_{r} = \\omega\\rho$. The investigation is evaluated by means of a variational approach with Gaussian trial wave functionals. However, instead of using a regularization/renormalization process, we use the distortion induced by Gravity's Rainbow to handle the divergences.
Connected Correlators in Quantum Gravity
Ambjorn, J.; Bialas, P.; Jurkiewicz, J.(Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, ul. prof. Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, PL 30-348, Poland)
1998-01-01
We discuss the concept of connected, reparameterization invariant matter correlators in quantum gravity. We analyze the effect of discretization in two solvable cases: branched polymers and two-dimensional simplicial gravity. In both cases the naively defined connected correlators for a fixed volume display an anomalous behavior, which could be interpreted as a long-range order. We suggest that this is in fact only a highly non-trivial finite-size effect and propose an improved definition of ...
Three Dimensional Canonical Quantum Gravity
Matschull, Hans-Juergen
1995-01-01
General aspects of vielbein representation, ADM formulation and canonical quantization of gravity are reviewed using pure gravity in three dimensions as a toy model. The classical part focusses on the role of observers in general relativity, which will later be identified with quantum observers. A precise definition of gauge symmetries and a classification of inequivalent solutions of Einstein's equations in dreibein formalism is given as well. In the quantum part the construction of the phys...
Filariasis and serum specific gravity
Viroj Wiwanitkit
2009-01-01
"nFilariasis is a problematic tropical vector borne infection. Here, the author proposes an idea on a physical change, serum specific gravity, in serum of filariasis cases and further extrapolates for its clinical usefulness. According to this study, the finalized estimated serum specificity in filariasis is more than that of normal condition. The change of the specific gravity due to additional content or mass can be demonstrated and might be useful for diagnosis and following...