WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial gene fusion

  1. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... with these modifications, it is likely that the primary use of DNA vaccines may be as primers for viral-vectored vaccines, rather than as single agents. This review discusses the approaches used to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity, with a primary focus on fusion strategies that enhance antigen presentation....

  2. Multiple image sensor data fusion through artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    With multisensor data fusion technology, the data from multiple sensors are fused in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement, processing and analysis. Artificial neural networks are the computational models that mimic biological neural networks. With high per...

  3. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide; Girke Jørgensen, Mikkel; Hotz, Peter Eggenberger; Hanczyc, Martin; Yomo, Tetsuya

    special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium. In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles to...... induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different mechanisms are available, e.g. addition of...... fusion, fission and exocytosis....

  4. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and ...

  5. Artificial Bee Colony and Its Application for Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony (ABC is one of the latest swarm algorithm based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees introduced in the year 2005 by Karaboga since then it has been used for optimization of various solutions. And it is recently introduced for processing and analysis of images such as segmentation, object recognition and image retrieval. Fusing images from a vast collection of different images has become one of the interesting challenges and has drawn the attention of researchers towards the development of fusion techniques. In this paper, we have proposed the usage of ABC for optimal fusion of multi-temporal images and studied the effect of variation in the source area.

  6. Assessment of fusion gene status in sarcomas using a custom made fusion gene microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Løvf

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are relatively rare malignancies and include a large number of histological subgroups. Based on morphology alone, the differential diagnoses of sarcoma subtypes can be challenging, but the identification of specific fusion genes aids correct diagnostication. The presence of individual fusion products are routinely investigated in Pathology labs. However, the methods used are time-consuming and based on prior knowledge about the expected fusion gene and often the most likely break-point. In this study, 16 sarcoma samples, representing seven different sarcoma subtypes with known fusion gene status from a diagnostic setting, were investigated using a fusion gene microarray. The microarray was designed to detect all possible exon-exon breakpoints between all known fusion genes in a single analysis. An automated scoring of the microarray data from the 38 known sarcoma-related fusion genes identified the correct fusion gene among the top-three hits in 11 of the samples. The analytical sensitivity may be further optimised, but we conclude that a sarcoma-fusion gene microarray is suitable as a time-saving screening tool to identify the majority of the correct fusion genes.

  7. Comparison of SUMO fusion technology with traditional gene fusion systems: Enhanced expression and solubility with SUMO

    OpenAIRE

    Marblestone, Jeffrey G; Edavettal, Suzanne C.; Lim, Yiting; Lim, Peter; Zuo, Xun; Butt, Tauseef R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous gene fusion systems, recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli remains difficult. Establishing the best fusion partner for difficult-to-express proteins remains empirical. To determine which fusion tags are best suited for difficult-to-express proteins, a comparative analysis of the newly described SUMO fusion system with a variety of commonly used fusion systems was completed. For this study, three model proteins, enhanced green florescent protei...

  8. The Structural Characterization of Tumor Fusion Genes and Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dandan; Li, Daixi; Qin, Guangrong; Zhang, Wen; Ouyang, Jian; Zhang, Menghuan; Xie, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation, which generates fusion proteins in blood tumor or solid tumor, is considered as one of the major causes leading to cancer. Recent studies suggested that the disordered fragments in a fusion protein might contribute to its carcinogenicity. Here, we investigated the sequence feature near the breakpoints in the fusion partner genes, the structure features of breakpoints in fusion proteins, and the posttranslational modification preference in the fusion proteins. Result...

  9. The Structural Characterization of Tumor Fusion Genes and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocation, which generates fusion proteins in blood tumor or solid tumor, is considered as one of the major causes leading to cancer. Recent studies suggested that the disordered fragments in a fusion protein might contribute to its carcinogenicity. Here, we investigated the sequence feature near the breakpoints in the fusion partner genes, the structure features of breakpoints in fusion proteins, and the posttranslational modification preference in the fusion proteins. Results show that the breakpoints in the fusion partner genes have both sequence preference and structural preference. At the sequence level, nucleotide combination AG is preferred before the breakpoint and GG is preferred at the breakpoint. At the structural level, the breakpoints in the fusion proteins prefer to be located in the disordered regions. Further analysis suggests the phosphorylation sites at serine, threonine, and the methylation sites at arginine are enriched in disordered regions of the fusion proteins. Using EML4-ALK as an example, we further explained how the fusion protein leads to the protein disorder and contributes to its carcinogenicity. The sequence and structural features of the fusion proteins may help the scientific community to predict novel breakpoints in fusion genes and better understand the structure and function of fusion proteins.

  10. FusionQ: a novel approach for gene fusion detection and quantification from paired-end RNA-Seq

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chenglin; Ma, Jinwen; Chang, ChungChe (Jeff); Zhou, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene fusions, which result from abnormal chromosome rearrangements, are a pathogenic factor in cancer development. The emerging RNA-Seq technology enables us to detect gene fusions and profile their features. Results In this paper, we proposed a novel fusion detection tool, FusionQ, based on paired-end RNA-Seq data. This tool can detect gene fusions, construct the structures of chimerical transcripts, and estimate their abundances. To confirm the read alignment on both sides of a f...

  11. A Screening Method for the ALK Fusion Gene in NSCLC

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiko eMurakami; Tetsuya eMitsudomi; Yasushi eYatabe

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer research has recently made significant progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and in developing treatments for it. Such achievements are directly utilized in clinical practice. Indeed, the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was first described in non-small cell lung cancer in 2007, and a molecularly targeted drug against the fusion was approved in 2011. However, lung cancer with the ALK fusion ...

  12. RET fusion gene: translation to personalized lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Nakaoku, Takashi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Development of lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), the most frequent histological type of lung cancer, depends in many cases on the activation of "driver" oncogenes such as KRAS, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Inhibitors that target the EGFR and ALK tyrosine kinases show therapeutic effects against LADCs containing EGFR gene mutations and ALK gene fusions, respectively. Recently, we and others identified the RET fusion gene as a new targetable driver gene in LADC. The RET fusions occur in 1-2% of LADCs. Existing US Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitors of RET tyrosine kinase show promising therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo, as well as in a few patients. Clinical trials are underway to investigate the therapeutic effects of RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as vandetanib (ZD6474) and cabozantinib (XL184), in patients with RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:23991695

  13. Artificial transcription factor-mediated regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Niels; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2014-08-01

    The transcriptional regulation of endogenous genes with artificial transcription factors (TFs) can offer new tools for plant biotechnology. Three systems are available for mediating site-specific DNA recognition of artificial TFs: those based on zinc fingers, TALEs, and on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Artificial TFs require an effector domain that controls the frequency of transcription initiation at endogenous target genes. These effector domains can be transcriptional activators or repressors, but can also have enzymatic activities involved in chromatin remodeling or epigenetic regulation. Artificial TFs are able to regulate gene expression in trans, thus allowing them to evoke dominant mutant phenotypes. Large scale changes in transcriptional activity are induced when the DNA binding domain is deliberately designed to have lower binding specificity. This technique, known as genome interrogation, is a powerful tool for generating novel mutant phenotypes. Genome interrogation has clear mechanistic and practical advantages over activation tagging, which is the technique most closely resembling it. Most notably, genome interrogation can lead to the discovery of mutant phenotypes that are unlikely to be found when using more conventional single gene-based approaches. PMID:25017160

  14. Data fusion with artificial neural networks (ANN) for classification of earth surface from microwave satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lure, Y. M. Fleming; Grody, Norman C.; Chiou, Y. S. Peter; Yeh, H. Y. Michael

    1993-01-01

    A data fusion system with artificial neural networks (ANN) is used for fast and accurate classification of five earth surface conditions and surface changes, based on seven SSMI multichannel microwave satellite measurements. The measurements include brightness temperatures at 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz at both H and V polarizations (only V at 22 GHz). The seven channel measurements are processed through a convolution computation such that all measurements are located at same grid. Five surface classes including non-scattering surface, precipitation over land, over ocean, snow, and desert are identified from ground-truth observations. The system processes sensory data in three consecutive phases: (1) pre-processing to extract feature vectors and enhance separability among detected classes; (2) preliminary classification of Earth surface patterns using two separate and parallely acting classifiers: back-propagation neural network and binary decision tree classifiers; and (3) data fusion of results from preliminary classifiers to obtain the optimal performance in overall classification. Both the binary decision tree classifier and the fusion processing centers are implemented by neural network architectures. The fusion system configuration is a hierarchical neural network architecture, in which each functional neural net will handle different processing phases in a pipelined fashion. There is a total of around 13,500 samples for this analysis, of which 4 percent are used as the training set and 96 percent as the testing set. After training, this classification system is able to bring up the detection accuracy to 94 percent compared with 88 percent for back-propagation artificial neural networks and 80 percent for binary decision tree classifiers. The neural network data fusion classification is currently under progress to be integrated in an image processing system at NOAA and to be implemented in a prototype of a massively parallel and dynamically reconfigurable Modular

  15. Detection of fusion genes and fusion proteins in sarcoma : methodological and clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Gunnar

    1999-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma/PNET and synovial sarcoma, all regarded as high-grade tumours, have their peak incidence during the second decade of life, thus affecting children and adolescents. Both tumour types have specific chromosomal translocations, i.e. t(11;22) and t(X;18), respectively, resulting in fusion genes coding for chimeric proteins. The t(11;22) translocation, present in 85% of Ewing's sarcoma/PNET, results in the fusion of the EWS gene to the FLI- 1 gene forming EWS-FLI- ...

  16. Fusion-Triggered Switching of Enzymatic Activity on an Artificial Cell Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kikuchi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A nanosensory membrane device was constructed for detecting liposome fusion through changes in an enzymatic activity. Inspired by a biological signal transduction system, the device design involved functionalized liposomal membranes prepared by self-assembly of the following molecular components: a synthetic peptide lipid and a phospholipid as matrix membrane components, a Schiff’s base of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate with phosphatidylethanolamine as a thermo-responsive artificial receptor, NADH-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase as a signal amplifier, and Cu2+ ion as a signal mediator between the receptor and enzyme. The enzymatic activity of the membrane device was adjustable by changing the matrix lipid composition, reflecting the thermotropic phase transition behavior of the lipid membranes, which in turn controlled receptor binding affinity toward the enzyme-inhibiting mediator species. When an effective fusogen anionic polymer was added to these cationic liposomes, membrane fusion occurred, and the functionalized liposomal membranes responded with changes in enzymatic activity, thus serving as an effective nanosensory device for liposome fusion detection.

  17. Deep RNA sequencing analysis of readthrough gene fusions in human prostate adenocarcinoma and reference samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacu Serban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Readthrough fusions across adjacent genes in the genome, or transcription-induced chimeras (TICs, have been estimated using expressed sequence tag (EST libraries to involve 4-6% of all genes. Deep transcriptional sequencing (RNA-Seq now makes it possible to study the occurrence and expression levels of TICs in individual samples across the genome. Methods We performed single-end RNA-Seq on three human prostate adenocarcinoma samples and their corresponding normal tissues, as well as brain and universal reference samples. We developed two bioinformatics methods to specifically identify TIC events: a targeted alignment method using artificial exon-exon junctions within 200,000 bp from adjacent genes, and genomic alignment allowing splicing within individual reads. We performed further experimental verification and characterization of selected TIC and fusion events using quantitative RT-PCR and comparative genomic hybridization microarrays. Results Targeted alignment against artificial exon-exon junctions yielded 339 distinct TIC events, including 32 gene pairs with multiple isoforms. The false discovery rate was estimated to be 1.5%. Spliced alignment to the genome was less sensitive, finding only 18% of those found by targeted alignment in 33-nt reads and 59% of those in 50-nt reads. However, spliced alignment revealed 30 cases of TICs with intervening exons, in addition to distant inversions, scrambled genes, and translocations. Our findings increase the catalog of observed TIC gene pairs by 66%. We verified 6 of 6 predicted TICs in all prostate samples, and 2 of 5 predicted novel distant gene fusions, both private events among 54 prostate tumor samples tested. Expression of TICs correlates with that of the upstream gene, which can explain the prostate-specific pattern of some TIC events and the restriction of the SLC45A3-ELK4 e4-e2 TIC to ERG-negative prostate samples, as confirmed in 20 matched prostate tumor and normal

  18. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  19. Gene Prioritization by Compressive Data Fusion and Chaining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Žitnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data integration procedures combine heterogeneous data sets into predictive models, but they are limited to data explicitly related to the target object type, such as genes. Collage is a new data fusion approach to gene prioritization. It considers data sets of various association levels with the prediction task, utilizes collective matrix factorization to compress the data, and chaining to relate different object types contained in a data compendium. Collage prioritizes genes based on their similarity to several seed genes. We tested Collage by prioritizing bacterial response genes in Dictyostelium as a novel model system for prokaryote-eukaryote interactions. Using 4 seed genes and 14 data sets, only one of which was directly related to the bacterial response, Collage proposed 8 candidate genes that were readily validated as necessary for the response of Dictyostelium to Gram-negative bacteria. These findings establish Collage as a method for inferring biological knowledge from the integration of heterogeneous and coarsely related data sets.

  20. Recurrent gene fusions in prostate cancer: their clinical implications and uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, D.; Schalken, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Gene fusions, resulting from chromosomal rearrangements, have been attributed to leukaemias and soft tissue sarcomas. The recent discovery of a recurrent gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG in approximately half of the prostate cancers tested indicates that gene fusions also play a role in the onset of common e

  1. Anterior Lumbar Intervertebrai Fusion with Artificial Bone in Place of Autologous Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫国; 陈安民; 冯旭; 印卫锋

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of anterior lumbar intervertebral fusion with artificial bone in place of au-togenous bone was investigated. Porous hydroxyapatite(HA)/ZrO2 ceramics loading bone morpho-genetic protein (BMP) were implanted after removal of lumbar vertebral disc in rabbits. The adja-cent intervertebral discs were also removed by the same way and autogenous illic bone was implan-ted. SEM observation and biomechanical test were carried out. Compound bone had a bit lower os-teoinductive activity than autogenous bone by SEM(Osteoindutive activity of artificial bone in 12weeks was the same as that of autogenous bone in 9 weeks). Biomechanical test revealed that com-pound bone had lower anti-pull strength than autogenous bone (P<0. 001), but there was no sig-nificant difference in anti-pull strength between compound bone at 12th week and autogenous boneat 9th week (P>0.05). It was concluded that compound bone could be applied for anterior spinalfusion, especially for those patients who can't use autogenous bone.

  2. Fusion of Biogeography based optimization and Artificial bee colony for identification of Natural Terrain Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Arora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Swarm Intelligence techniques expedite the configuration and collimation of the remarkable ability of group members to reason and learn in an environment of contingency and corrigendum from their peers by sharing information. This paper introduces a novel approach of fusion of two intelligent techniques generally to augment the performance of a single intelligent technique by means of information sharing. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO is a recently developed heuristic algorithm, which proves to be a strong entrant in swarm intelligence with the encouraging and consistent performance. But, as BBO lacks inbuilt property of clustering, its behavior can be replaced with the honey bees of artificial bee colony (ABC, a new swarm intelligent technique. These two methods can be combined to create a new method which is easy to implement and gives more optimized results than the results when BBO is used. We have successfully applied this fusion of techniques for classifying diversified land cover areas in a multispectral remote sensing satellite image. The results illustrate that the proposed approach is very efficient than BBO and highly accurate land cover features can be extracted by using this approach.

  3. A Screening Method for the ALK Fusion Gene in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yoshiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer research has recently made significant progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and in developing treatments for it. Such achievements are directly utilized in clinical practice. Indeed, the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was first described in non-small cell lung cancer in 2007, and a molecularly targeted drug against the fusion was approved in 2011. However, lung cancer with the ALK fusion constitutes only a small fraction of lung cancers; therefore, efficient patient selection is crucial for successful treatment using the ALK inhibitor. Currently, RT-PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry are commonly used to detect the ALK fusion. Although FISH is currently the gold standard technique, there are no perfect methods for detecting these genetic alterations. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the possible criteria for selecting patients who are more likely to have the ALK fusion. If we can successfully screen patients, then ALK inhibitor treatment will be the best example of personalized therapy in terms of selecting patients with an uncommon genotype from a larger group with the same tumor phenotype. In other words, the personalized therapy may offer a new challenge for current clinical oncology. PMID:22655265

  4. Mitochondrial genome transmission in Chlamydomonas diploids obtained by sexual crosses and artificial fusions: role of the mating type and of a 1 kb intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, C; Bovie, C; Michel-Wolwertz, M R; Loppes, R; Matagne, R F

    1990-09-01

    The linear mitochondrial DNAs of the two infertile algal species Chlamydomonas smithii and C. reinhardtii are co-linear with the exception of a 1 kb intron (alpha intron) located in the cytochrome b gene of C. smithii. C. smithii also possesses an additional HpaI restriction site (H marker) located in the COXI gene, about 5 kb from the intron. In reciprocal crosses, C. smithii (H+ alpha +) x C. reinhardtii (H- alpha -), the alpha intron is transmitted to all diploid progeny, whereas the H marker is frequently transmitted either biparentally or paternally depending on whether the C. smithii parent is maternal (mt+) or paternal (mt-). In diploids resulting from artificial fusion between vegetative cells, the absolute transmission of alpha is accompanied by the frequent transmission of the H+ marker, irrespective of the mating type of the parental strains. Finally, in reciprocal crosses between C. smithii (H+ alpha +) and recombinant H- alpha + clones, the transmission of the H marker is predominantly paternal or biparental. These results allow us to conclude that (1) the alpha intron behaves as a group I intron whose unidirectional conversion influences the transmission of the H marker; and (2) the mt- paternal mitochondrial genome is transmitted more often than the mt+. The mating type has no effect in diploids obtained by artificial fusion. PMID:2250646

  5. Use of artificial genomes in assessing methods for atypical gene detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K Azad

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Parametric methods for identifying laterally transferred genes exploit the directional mutational biases unique to each genome. Yet the development of new, more robust methods--as well as the evaluation and proper implementation of existing methods--relies on an arbitrary assessment of performance using real genomes, where the evolutionary histories of genes are not known. We have used the framework of a generalized hidden Markov model to create artificial genomes modeled after genuine genomes. To model a genome, "core" genes--those displaying patterns of mutational biases shared among large numbers of genes--are identified by a novel gene clustering approach based on the Akaike information criterion. Gene models derived from multiple "core" gene clusters are used to generate an artificial genome that models the properties of a genuine genome. Chimeric artificial genomes--representing those having experienced lateral gene transfer--were created by combining genes from multiple artificial genomes, and the performance of the parametric methods for identifying "atypical" genes was assessed directly. We found that a hidden Markov model that included multiple gene models, each trained on sets of genes representing the range of genotypic variability within a genome, could produce artificial genomes that mimicked the properties of genuine genomes. Moreover, different methods for detecting foreign genes performed differently--i.e., they had different sets of strengths and weaknesses--when identifying atypical genes within chimeric artificial genomes.

  6. Use of Artificial Genomes in Assessing Methods for Atypical Gene Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Parametric methods for identifying laterally transferred genes exploit the directional mutational biases unique to each genome. Yet the development of new, more robust methods-as well as the evaluation and proper implementation of existing methods-relies on an arbitrary assessment of performance using real genomes, where the evolutionary histories of genes are not known. We have used the framework of a generalized hidden Markov model to create artificial genomes modeled after genuine genomes. To model a genome, "core" genes-those displaying patterns of mutational biases shared among large numbers of genes-are identified by a novel gene clustering approach based on the Akaike information criterion. Gene models derived from multiple "core" gene clusters are used to generate an artificial genome that models the properties of a genuine genome. Chimeric artificial genomes-representing those having experienced lateral gene transfer-were created by combining genes from multiple artificial genomes, and the performance of the parametric methods for identifying "atypical" genes was assessed directly. We found that a hidden Markov model that included multiple gene models, each trained on sets of genes representing the range of genotypic variability within a genome, could produce artificial genomes that mimicked the properties of genuine genomes. Moreover, different methods for detecting foreign genes performed differently-i.e., they had different sets of strengths and weaknesses-when identifying atypical genes within chimeric artificial genomes.

  7. Nucleoporin Gene Fusions and Hematopoietic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Fahrenkrog

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs are the sole gateways between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and they mediate all macromolecular trafficking between these cellular compartments. Nucleocytoplasmic transport is highly selective and precisely regulated and as such an important aspect of normal cellular function. Defects in this process or in its machinery have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer. Nucleoporins, which are about 30 proteins that built up NPCs, are critical players in nucleocytoplasmic transport and have also been shown to be key players in numerous other cellular processes, such as cell cycle control and gene expression regulation. This review will focus on the three nucleoporins Nup98, Nup214, and Nup358. Common to them is their significance in nucleocytoplasmic transport, their multiple other functions, and being targets for chromosomal translocations that lead to haematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukaemia. The underlying molecular mechanisms of nucleoporin-associated leukaemias are only poorly understood but share some characteristics and are distinguished by their poor prognosis and therapy outcome.

  8. Molecular Principles of Gene Fusion Mediated Rewiring of Protein Interaction Networks in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latysheva, Natasha S; Oates, Matt E; Maddox, Louis; Flock, Tilman; Gough, Julian; Buljan, Marija; Weatheritt, Robert J; Babu, M Madan

    2016-08-18

    Gene fusions are common cancer-causing mutations, but the molecular principles by which fusion protein products affect interaction networks and cause disease are not well understood. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of the structural, interactomic, and regulatory properties of thousands of putative fusion proteins. We demonstrate that genes that form fusions (i.e., parent genes) tend to be highly connected hub genes, whose protein products are enriched in structured and disordered interaction-mediating features. Fusion often results in the loss of these parental features and the depletion of regulatory sites such as post-translational modifications. Fusion products disproportionately connect proteins that did not previously interact in the protein interaction network. In this manner, fusion products can escape cellular regulation and constitutively rewire protein interaction networks. We suggest that the deregulation of central, interaction-prone proteins may represent a widespread mechanism by which fusion proteins alter the topology of cellular signaling pathways and promote cancer. PMID:27540857

  9. Breakpoint analysis of transcriptional and genomic profiles uncovers novel gene fusions spanning multiple human cancer types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig P Giacomini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene fusions, like BCR/ABL1 in chronic myelogenous leukemia, have long been recognized in hematologic and mesenchymal malignancies. The recent finding of gene fusions in prostate and lung cancers has motivated the search for pathogenic gene fusions in other malignancies. Here, we developed a "breakpoint analysis" pipeline to discover candidate gene fusions by tell-tale transcript level or genomic DNA copy number transitions occurring within genes. Mining data from 974 diverse cancer samples, we identified 198 candidate fusions involving annotated cancer genes. From these, we validated and further characterized novel gene fusions involving ROS1 tyrosine kinase in angiosarcoma (CEP85L/ROS1, SLC1A2 glutamate transporter in colon cancer (APIP/SLC1A2, RAF1 kinase in pancreatic cancer (ATG7/RAF1 and anaplastic astrocytoma (BCL6/RAF1, EWSR1 in melanoma (EWSR1/CREM, CDK6 kinase in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (FAM133B/CDK6, and CLTC in breast cancer (CLTC/VMP1. Notably, while these fusions involved known cancer genes, all occurred with novel fusion partners and in previously unreported cancer types. Moreover, several constituted druggable targets (including kinases, with therapeutic implications for their respective malignancies. Lastly, breakpoint analysis identified new cell line models for known rearrangements, including EGFRvIII and FIP1L1/PDGFRA. Taken together, we provide a robust approach for gene fusion discovery, and our results highlight a more widespread role of fusion genes in cancer pathogenesis.

  10. Prediction of enthalpy of fusion of pure compounds using an Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → An Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution method is presented for prediction of enthalpy of fusion of pure compounds at their normal melting point. → Validity of the model is confirmed using a large evaluated data set containing 4157 pure compounds. → The average percent error of the model is equal to 2.65% in comparison with the experimental data. - Abstract: In this work, the Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution (ANN-GC) method is applied to estimate the enthalpy of fusion of pure chemical compounds at their normal melting point. 4157 pure compounds from various chemical families are investigated to propose a comprehensive and predictive model. The obtained results show the Squared Correlation Coefficient (R2) of 0.999, Root Mean Square Error of 0.82 kJ/mol, and average absolute deviation lower than 2.65% for the estimated properties from existing experimental values.

  11. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Mate...

  12. Improved Pharmacological and Structural Properties of HIV Fusion Inhibitor AP3 over Enfuvirtide: Highlighting Advantages of Artificial Peptide Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Yun; Ye, Sheng; Wang, Qian; Xu, Wei; Su, Shan; Sun, Zhiwu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Zhenqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing; Du, Lanying; Liu, Keliang; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Rongguang; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-01-01

    Enfuvirtide (T20), is the first HIV fusion inhibitor approved for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, its clinical application is limited because of short half-life, drug resistance and cross-reactivity with the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients. Using an artificial peptide strategy, we designed a peptide with non-native protein sequence, AP3, which exhibited potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains, including those resistant to T20, and had remarkably longer in vivo half-life than T20. While the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients significantly suppressed T20's antiviral activity, these antibodies neither recognized AP3, nor attenuated its anti-HIV-1 activity. Structurally different from T20, AP3 could fold into single-helix and interact with gp41 NHR. The two residues, Met and Thr, at the N-terminus of AP3 form a hook-like structure to stabilize interaction between AP3 and NHR helices. Therefore, AP3 has potential for further development as a new HIV fusion inhibitor with improved antiviral efficacy, resistance profile and pharmacological properties over enfuvirtide. Meanwhile, this study highlighted the advantages of artificially designed peptides, and confirmed that this strategy could be used in developing artificial peptide-based viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses. PMID:26286358

  13. Discovering and understanding oncogenic gene fusions through data intensive computational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latysheva, Natasha S; Babu, M Madan

    2016-06-01

    Although gene fusions have been recognized as important drivers of cancer for decades, our understanding of the prevalence and function of gene fusions has been revolutionized by the rise of next-generation sequencing, advances in bioinformatics theory and an increasing capacity for large-scale computational biology. The computational work on gene fusions has been vastly diverse, and the present state of the literature is fragmented. It will be fruitful to merge three camps of gene fusion bioinformatics that appear to rarely cross over: (i) data-intensive computational work characterizing the molecular biology of gene fusions; (ii) development research on fusion detection tools, candidate fusion prioritization algorithms and dedicated fusion databases and (iii) clinical research that seeks to either therapeutically target fusion transcripts and proteins or leverages advances in detection tools to perform large-scale surveys of gene fusion landscapes in specific cancer types. In this review, we unify these different-yet highly complementary and symbiotic-approaches with the view that increased synergy will catalyze advancements in gene fusion identification, characterization and significance evaluation. PMID:27105842

  14. Study on Fusion Protein and Its gene in Baculovirus Specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baculoviruses are subdivided into two groups depending on the type of budded virus envelop fusion protein; group I utilized gp64 which include the most of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), group II utilized F protein which include the remnants of NPVs and all Granuloviruses (GVs). Recent studies reported the viral F protein coding gene as a host cellular sourced gene and may evolutionary acquired from the host genome referring to phylogeny analysis of fusion proteins. Thus, it was deduced that F protein coding gene is species- specific nucleotide sequence related to the type of the specific host and if virus could infect an unexpected host, the resulted virus may encode a vary F gene. In this regard, the present study utilized the mentioned properties of F gene in an attempt to produce a model of specific and more economic wider range granulovirus bio- pesticide able to infect both Spodoptera littoralis and Phthorimaea operculella larvae. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny analysis were performed on six members of group II baculovirus, novel universal PCR primers were manually designed from the conserved regions in the alignment graph, targeted to amplify species- specific sequence entire F gene open reading frame (ORF) which is useful in molecular identification of baculovirus in unknown samples. So, the PCR product of SpliGV used to prepare a specific probe for the F gene of this type of virus. Results reflected that it is possible to infect S. littoralis larvae by PhopGV if injected into larval haemocoel, the resulted virus of this infection showed by using DNA hybridization technique to be encode to F gene homologous with the F gene of Spli GV, which is revealed that the resulted virus acquired this F gene sequence from the host genome after infection. Consequently, these results may infer that if genetic aberrations occur in the host genome, this may affect in baculoviral infectivity. So, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation at

  15. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3-4 ACDR+C4-6 ACDF+C6-7ACDR; hybrid C3-5ACDF+C5-6ACDR+C6-7ACDR; hybrid C3-4ACDR+C4-5ACDR+C5-7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. RESULTS Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3-C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. CONCLUSIONS Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  16. Protein functional links in Trypanosoma brucei, identified by gene fusion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimpalis Philip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domain or gene fusion analysis is a bioinformatics method for detecting gene fusions in one organism by comparing its genome to that of other organisms. The occurrence of gene fusions suggests that the two original genes that participated in the fusion are functionally linked, i.e. their gene products interact either as part of a multi-subunit protein complex, or in a metabolic pathway. Gene fusion analysis has been used to identify protein functional links in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotic model organisms, such as yeast and Drosophila. Results In this study we have extended this approach to include a number of recently sequenced protists, four of which are pathogenic, to identify fusion linked proteins in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. We have also examined the evolution of the gene fusion events identified, to determine whether they can be attributed to fusion or fission, by looking at the conservation of the fused genes and of the individual component genes across the major eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages. We find relatively limited occurrence of gene fusions/fissions within the protist lineages examined. Our results point to two trypanosome-specific gene fissions, which have recently been experimentally confirmed, one fusion involving proteins involved in the same metabolic pathway, as well as two novel putative functional links between fusion-linked protein pairs. Conclusions This is the first study of protein functional links in T. brucei identified by gene fusion analysis. We have used strict thresholds and only discuss results which are highly likely to be genuine and which either have already been or can be experimentally verified. We discuss the possible impact of the identification of these novel putative protein-protein interactions, to the development of new trypanosome therapeutic drugs.

  17. Fusion genes in solid tumors:an emerging target for cancer diagnosis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brittany C. Parker; Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Studies over the past decades have uncovered fusion genes, a class of oncogenes that provide immense diagnostic and therapeutic advantages because of their tumor-specific expression. Originally associated with hemotologic cancers, fusion genes have recently been discovered in a wide array of solid tumors, including sarcomas, carcinomas, and tumors of the central nervous system. Fusion genes are attractive as both therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools due to their inherent expression in tumor tissue alone. Therefore, the discovery and elucidation of fusion genes in various cancer types may provide more effective therapies in the future for cancer patients.

  18. Plasmid insertion mutagenesis and lac gene fusion with mini-mu bacteriophage transposons.

    OpenAIRE

    Castilho, B A; Olfson, P; Casadaban, M J

    1984-01-01

    Small bacteriophage Mu transposable elements containing the lac operon structural genes were constructed to facilitate the isolation and use of Mu insertions and lac gene fusions. These mini-Mu elements have selectable genes for either ampicillin or kanamycin resistance and can be used to form both transcriptional and translational lac gene fusions. Some of the mini-Mu-lac elements constructed are deleted for the Mu A and B transposition genes and form stable insertions that cannot undergo tr...

  19. Genetically controlled fusion, exocytosis and fission of artificial vesicles-a roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; de Lucrezia, Davide;

    2011-01-01

    Artificial vesicles represent ideal candidates as a model for artificial cells. It was shown that artificial genetic programs and the required cellular machinery (cell-free expression systems) can be incorporated into vesicles and allow the synthesis of proteins (Noireaux et al. 2005). Vesicles w...

  20. Pegasus: a comprehensive annotation and prediction tool for detection of driver gene fusions in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Francesco; Zairis, Sakellarios; Ficarra, Elisa; Acquaviva, Andrea; Wiggins, Chris H.; Frattini, Veronique; Lasorella, Anna; Iavarone, Antonio; Inghirami, Giorgio; Rabadan, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Background The extraordinary success of imatinib in the treatment of BCR-ABL1 associated cancers underscores the need to identify novel functional gene fusions in cancer. RNA sequencing offers a genome-wide view of expressed transcripts, uncovering biologically functional gene fusions. Although several bioinformatics tools are already available for the detection of putative fusion transcripts, candidate event lists are plagued with non-functional read-through events, reverse transcriptase tem...

  1. Fusions of flagellar operons to lactose genes on a mu lac bacteriophage.

    OpenAIRE

    Komeda, Y

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have defined 29 genes necessary for synthesis of the Escherichia coli flagellar apparatus. This study analyzed the transcriptional control of flagellar genes, using Mu d (Apr lac) phage to generate flagellar mutants by insertion. These mutants contained operon fusions of flagellar genes to the lac genes of the Mu d phage and allowed the measurement of flagellar operon expression by detection of beta-galactosidase activity. These fusion mutants expressed the enzyme activity co...

  2. DNA immunization with fusion genes containing HCV core region and HBV core region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 刘晶; 孔玉英; 汪垣; 李光地

    1999-01-01

    The eucaryotic expression plasmids were constructed to express the complete (HCc191) or the truncated (HCc69 and HCc40) HCV core genes, solely or fused with the HBV core gene (HBc144). These constructions were transiently expressed in COS cells under the control of the CMV promoter. The antigenicity of HBc and HCc could be detected in the expression products by ELISA and Western blot. The mice immunized with these expression plasmids efficiently produced the anti-HCc antibodies, and also anti-HBc antibodies when the plasmids contained the fusion genes. In addition, the antibodies induced by the fusion genes were more persistent than those induced by the non-fusion HCV core genes. These indicate that the fusion of HCc genes to HBc gene is in favor of the immunogenicity of HCc, while the immunogenicity of HBc is not affected.

  3. Identification of Gene Mutations and Fusion Genes in Patients with Sézary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Aparna; Rabionet, Raquel; Espinet, Blanca; Zapata, Luis; Puiggros, Anna; Melero, Carme; Puig, Anna; Sarria-Trujillo, Yaris; Ossowski, Stephan; Garcia-Muret, Maria P; Estrach, Teresa; Servitje, Octavio; Lopez-Lerma, Ingrid; Gallardo, Fernando; Pujol, Ramon M; Estivill, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Sézary syndrome is a leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with an aggressive clinical course. The genetic etiology of the disease is poorly understood, with chromosomal abnormalities and mutations in some genes being involved in the disease. The goal of our study was to understand the genetic basis of the disease by looking for driver gene mutations and fusion genes in 15 erythrodermic patients with circulating Sézary cells, 14 of them fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of Sézary syndrome. We have discovered genes that could be involved in the pathogenesis of Sézary syndrome. Some of the genes that are affected by somatic point mutations include ITPR1, ITPR2, DSC1, RIPK2, IL6, and RAG2, with some of them mutated in more than one patient. We observed several somatic copy number variations shared between patients, including deletions and duplications of large segments of chromosome 17. Genes with potential function in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway and tumorigenesis were disrupted in Sézary syndrome patients, for example, CBLB, RASA2, BCL7C, RAMP3, TBRG4, and DAD1. Furthermore, we discovered several fusion events of interest involving RASA2, NFKB2, BCR, FASN, ZEB1, TYK2, and SGMS1. Our work has implications for the development of potential therapeutic approaches for this aggressive disease. PMID:27039262

  4. Refined human artificial chromosome vectors for gene therapy and animal transgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuki, Y; Hoshiya, H.; Takiguchi, M.; S. Abe; Iida, Y; Osaki, M.; Katoh, M; Hiratsuka, M; Shirayoshi, Y; Hiramatsu, K; Ueno, E; N. Kajitani; Yoshino, T.; Kazuki, K; Ishihara, C.

    2010-01-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages as gene therapy vectors, including stable episomal maintenance, and the ability to carry large gene inserts. We previously developed HAC vectors from the normal human chromosomes using a chromosome engineering technique. However, endogenous genes were remained in these HACs, limiting their therapeutic applications. In this study, we refined a HAC vector without endogenous genes from human chromosome 21 in homologous recombination-pro...

  5. A Mutation Affecting the Regulation of a Seca-Lacz Fusion Defines a New Sec Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, P. D.; Derman, A. I.; Beckwith, J

    1988-01-01

    It was shown previously that the secA gene of Escherichia coli is derepressed in cells that have a defect in protein export. Here it is demonstrated that the β-galactosidase produced by a secA-lacZ gene fusion strain is regulated in the same way. Studies on the fusion strain reveal that the promoter or a site involved in regulation of the secA gene is located considerably upstream from the structural gene. The properties of the fusion strain provide a new selection for mutants that are defect...

  6. Cloning of α-β fusion gene from Clostridium perfringens and its expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Ning Bai; Yan Zhang; Bao-Hua Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the cloning of α-β fusion gene from Clostridium perfringens and the immunogenicity of α-β fusion expression.METHODS: Cloning was accomplished after PCR amplification from strains NCTC64609 and C58-1 of the protective antigen genes of α-toxin and β-toxin. The fragment of the gene was cloned using plasmid pZCPAB. This fragment coded for the gene with the stable expression of α-β fusion gene binding. In order to verify the exact location of the α-β fusion gene, domain plasmids were constructed. The two genes were fused into expression vector pBV221. The expressed α-β fusion protein was identified by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and neutralization assay.RESULTS: The protective α-toxin gene (cpa906) and the β-toxin gene (cpb930) were obtained. The recombinant plasmid pZCPAB carrying α-β fusion gene was constructed and transformed into BL21(DE3). The recombinant strain BL21(DE3)(pZCPAB) was obtained. After the recombinant strain BL21(DE3)(pZCPAB) was induced by 42℃, its expressed product was about 22.14% of total cellular protein at SDS-PAGE and thin-layer gel scanning analysis. Neutralization assay indicated that the antibody induced by immunization with α-β fusion protein could neutralize the toxicity of α-toxin and β-toxin.CONCLUSION: The obtained α-toxin and β-toxin genes are correct. The recombinant strain BL21(DE3)(pZCPAB)could produce α-β fusion protein. This protein can be used for immunization and is immunogenic. The antibody induced by immunization with α-β fusion protein could neutralize the toxicity of α-toxin and β-toxin.

  7. BCR-ABL fusion genes are inducible by X-irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philadelphia chromosome consists of a reciprocal translocation between the ABL oncogene at chromosome 9q34 and the BCR gene at chromosome 22q resulting in the expression of chimeric BCR-ABL mRNAs specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The presence of the fusion genes can be detected with high specificity and sensitivity by means of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Using this assay, it was possible to detect BCR-ABL fusion genes induced among HL60 cells after 100 Gy of X-irradiation in vitro. A total of five fusion gene transcripts were obtained. These fusion genes contained not only CML-specific BCR-ABL rearrangements, but also other forms of BCR-ABL fusions. These latter genes had junctions of BCR exon 4/ABL exon 2 intervened by a segment of DNA of unknown origin, BCR exon 5/ABL exon 2, and BCR exon 4/ABL exon 2. The results appear to be the first evidence for the induction of the BCR-ABL fusion gene by X-irradiation. In terms of leukemogenesis, it is suggested that only those cells bearing certain CML-related BCR-ABL fusion genes are positively selected by virtue of a growth advantage in vivo. (author)

  8. Length of Selection Around Candidate Genes for Artificial Selection During Domestication and Crop Improvement in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic screens for artificial selection have been successful in identifying candidate genes for agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L). However, the validity of the candidates identified requires that selection sweeps are very short, only containing the candidate gene with the nearest neighboring g...

  9. Gene fusions with lacZ by duplication insertion in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinococcus radiodurans is the most-studied species of a eubacterial family characterized by extreme resistance to DNA damage. We have focused on developing molecular biological techniques to investigate the genetics of this organism. We report construction of lacZ gene fusions by a method involving both in vitro splicing and the natural transformation of D. radiodurans. Numerous fusion strains were identified by expression of beta-galactosidase. Among these fusion strains, several were inducible by exposure to the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C, and four of the inducible fusion constructs were cloned in Escherichia coli. Hybridization studies indicate that one of the damage-inducible genes contains a sequence reiterated throughout the D. radiodurans chromosome. Survival measurements show that two of the fusion strains have increased sensitivity to mitomycin C, suggesting that the fusions within these strains inactivate repair functions

  10. DNASynth: A Computer Program for Assembly of Artificial Gene Parts in Decreasing Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Robert M; Anna Wojtowicz-Krawiec; Andrzej Plucienniczak

    2015-01-01

    Artificial gene synthesis requires consideration of nucleotide sequence development as well as long DNA molecule assembly protocols. The nucleotide sequence of the molecule must meet many conditions including particular preferences of the host organism for certain codons, avoidance of specific regulatory subsequences, and a lack of secondary structures that inhibit expression. The chemical synthesis of DNA molecule has limitations in terms of strand length; thus, the creation of artificial ge...

  11. Construction and characterization of calreticulin-HBsAg fusion gene recombinant adenovirus expression vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To generate recombinant adenoviral vector con-taining calreticulin (CRT)-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fusion gene for developing a safe, effective and HBsAg-specific therapeutic vaccine.METHODS: CRT and HBsAg gene were fused using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), endonuclease diges-tion and ligation methods. The fusion gene was cloned into pENTR/D-TOPO transfer vector after the base pairs of DNA (CACC) sequence was added to the 5′ end. Adenoviral expression vector containing CRT-HBsAg fusion gen...

  12. The Investigation of EWS-FLI-1 Fusion Gene in the Ewing Family of Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GangFeng; ZhongquanZhao; DonglinWang

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that 95% of the Ewing family of tumors (EFT) have a EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene. EWS-FL1-1 is a transcription factor with a pivotal function and it is known to bind to a special DNA sequence. Research has demonstrated that the EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene occurrence is related to the EFT, and it has been used to diagnose, treat and serve as a basis for EFT prognosis. We have briefly summarized the progress of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene in basic and clinical investigation within the past several years.

  13. Bacteriophage P22 transduction of integrated plasmids: single-step cloning of Salmonella typhimurium gene fusions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, M. J.; Slauch, J M; Mekalanos, J.J. (John J.)

    1993-01-01

    Transcriptional fusions to Salmonella typhimurium chromosomal genes were constructed by integration of a suicide fusion vector into the chromosome by homologous recombination with random cloned chromosomal fragments. We describe here a transductional method using the generalized transducing phage of S. typhimurium, P22, to clone these fusions directly from the bacterial chromosome, in a single step, without the use of restriction enzymes. In this transduction, the phage packages the chromosom...

  14. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  15. KIF5B/RET fusion gene in surgically-treated adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Shigeki; Shitara, Masayuki; Hikosaka, Yu; Moriyama, Satoru; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2012-10-01

    Recently, a novel fusion gene resulting from a linkage between the kinesin family member 5B gene (KIF5B; 10p11.22) and the rearranged during transfection gene (RET; 10q11.21) was identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the correlation between the KIF5B/RET fusion gene status and the clinicopathological features of surgically-treated lung cancer has not been well characterized. In this study, we have independently investigated the KIF5B/RET fusion gene status in 371 surgically-treated NSCLCs (270 were adenocarcinomas and 101 were squamous cell carcinomas), 60 breast cancers, 11 metastatic lung cancers from colon cancers and thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma cases at the Nagoya City University Hospital. The fusion gene status was analyzed by an RT-PCR-based assay and by using direct sequencing. We detected 3 of 270 cases of KIF5B/RET fusion genes in adenocarcinomas (1.1%) consisting of female and never smokers with mixed subtype adenocarcinomas. The fusion genes were detected exclusively with other mutations, such as EGFR, Kras, Braf, erbB2 mutations, and EML4/ALK fusion. KIF5B/RET fusion was not detected in the cases with squamous cell carcinoma or other types of cancers. From the 3 cases, 2 were KIF5B (exon 15); RET (exon 12) fusions with papillary dominant and 1 case was KIF5B (exon 22); RET (exon 12) fusion with solid dominant adenocarcinoma. The matched normal lung tissues did not display translocation. We reported KIF5B/RET fusion genes as a driver somatic mutation of lung adenocarcinomas. The cinicopathological backgrounds of the KIF5B/RET fusion-positive patients were similar with those of the EML4/ALK fusion-positive patients. The chimeric oncogene may be a promising molecular target for the personalized diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC. PMID:22797671

  16. Fusion genes with ALK as recurrent partner in ependymoma-like gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thale Kristin; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Meling, Torstein R;

    2015-01-01

    . Both tumors harbored structural aberrations involving the ALK locus 2p23. Tumor 1 had an unbalanced t(2;14)(p23;q22) translocation which led to the fusion gene KTN1-ALK. Tumor 2 had an interstitial del(2)(p16p23) deletion causing the fusion of CCDC88A and ALK. In both samples, the breakpoint of ALK was...

  17. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  18. INHIBITION OF APOPTOSIS BY bcr-abl FUSION GENE IN K562 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-hong; SUN Bing-zhong; YUAN Yue-chuan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of bcr-abl fusion gene on CML cell apoptosis. Methods: Apoptosis of exvivo cultured K562 cells were observed after exposure to synthetic 18 mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to the bcr-abl junction (b3a2). Results: Apoptosis of K562 cells was significantly increased associated with inhibition of bcr-abl expression. Conclusion: bcr-abl fusion gene formation due to chromosome translocation may be the major mechanism of CML via inhibition of apoptosis.

  19. Significances of RET Fusion Gene in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingjing; Minghong BI

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, molecular target therapy has become a hot research direction of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. RET fusion gene with an identifiable clinical pathological features, is present in some subsets of lung cancer, and its treatment is effective by RET inhibitor, suggesting that RET fusion gene may be a new target for individualized treatment to the subgroup of NSCLC. This article reviews the structural characteristics...

  20. Fusion of Biogeography based optimization and Artificial bee colony for identification of Natural Terrain Features

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Arora; Harish Kundra; Dr. V.K Panchal

    2012-01-01

    Swarm Intelligence techniques expedite the configuration and collimation of the remarkable ability of group members to reason and learn in an environment of contingency and corrigendum from their peers by sharing information. This paper introduces a novel approach of fusion of two intelligent techniques generally to augment the performance of a single intelligent technique by means of information sharing. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is a recently developed heuristic algorithm, which...

  1. Recurrent Fusion Genes in Gastric Cancer: CLDN18-ARHGAP26 Induces Loss of Epithelial Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome rearrangements, a hallmark of cancer, can result in gene fusions with oncogenic properties. Using DNA paired-end-tag (DNA-PET whole-genome sequencing, we analyzed 15 gastric cancers (GCs from Southeast Asians. Rearrangements were enriched in open chromatin and shaped by chromatin structure. We identified seven rearrangement hot spots and 136 gene fusions. In three out of 100 GC cases, we found recurrent fusions between CLDN18, a tight junction gene, and ARHGAP26, a gene encoding a RHOA inhibitor. Epithelial cell lines expressing CLDN18-ARHGAP26 displayed a dramatic loss of epithelial phenotype and long protrusions indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Fusion-positive cell lines showed impaired barrier properties, reduced cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, retarded wound healing, and inhibition of RHOA. Gain of invasion was seen in cancer cell lines expressing the fusion. Thus, CLDN18-ARHGAP26 mediates epithelial disintegration, possibly leading to stomach H+ leakage, and the fusion might contribute to invasiveness once a cell is transformed.

  2. Cloning an artificial gene encoding angiostatic anginex: From designed peptide to functional recombinant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anginex, a designed peptide 33-mer, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and anti-tumor agent in vivo. Anginex functions by inhibiting endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration leading to detachment and apoptosis of activated EC's. To better understand tumor endothelium targeting properties of anginex and enable its use in gene therapy, we constructed an artificial gene encoding the biologically exogenous peptide and produced the protein recombinantly in Pichia pastoris. Mass spectrometry shows recombinant anginex to be a dimer and circular dichroism shows the recombinant protein folds with β-strand structure like the synthetic peptide. Moreover, like parent anginex, the recombinant protein is active at inhibiting EC growth and migration, as well as inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. This study demonstrated that it is possible to produce a functionally active protein version of a rationally designed peptide, using an artificial gene and the recombinant protein approach

  3. Data Fusion Using Different Activation Functions in Artificial Neural Networks for Vehicular Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALLESWARAN M,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global positioning System (GPS and Inertial Navigation System (INS data can be integrated together to provide a reliable navigation. GPS/INS data integration provides reliable navigation solutions by overcoming each of their shortcomings, including signal blockage for GPS and increase in position errors with time for INS. This paper aims to provide GPS/INS data integration utilizing Artificial Neural Network (ANN architecture. This architecture is based on Feed Forward Neural Networks, which generally includes Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network and Back Propagation neural network (BPN. These are systematic methods for training multi-layer artificial networks. The BPN-ANN and RBF-ANN modules are trained to predict the INS position error and provide accurate positioning of the moving vehicle. This paper also compares performance of theGPS/INS data integration system by using different activation function like Bipolar Sigmoidal Function (BPSF, Binary Sigmoidal Function (BISF, Hyperbolic Tangential Function (HTF and Gaussian Function (GF in BPN-ANN and using Gaussian function in RBF-ANN.

  4. Low frequency of ESRRA-C11orf20 fusion gene in ovarian carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Micci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification of recurrent gene fusions in common epithelial cancers--for example, TMPRSS2/ERG in prostate cancer and EML4/ALK in nonsmall cell lung carcinomas--has raised the question of whether fusion genes are pathogenetically important also in ovarian carcinomas. The first recurrent fusion transcript in serous ovarian carcinomas was reported by Salzman et al. in 2011, who used deep paired-end sequencing to detect the fusion gene ESRRA-C11orf20 in 10 out of 67 (15% serous ovarian carcinomas examined, a finding that holds great promise for our understanding of ovarian tumorigenesis as well as, potentially, for new treatment strategies. We wanted to test how frequent the ESRRA/C11orf20 fusion is in ovarian carcinomas of all subtypes, and therefore examined a series of 230 ovarian carcinomas of which 197 were of the serous subtype and 163 of the 197 were of stages III and IV--that is, the very same carcinoma subset where the fusion transcript had been found. We performed PCR and high-throughput sequencing analyses in search of the fusion transcript. We used the same primers described previously for the detection of the fusion and the same primer combination, but found no ESRRA/C11orf20 fusion in our series. A synthetic DNA plasmid containing the reported ESRRA/C11orf20 fusion was included as a positive control for our PCR experiments. Data from high-throughput sequencing of 23 ovarian carcinomas were screened in search of alternative partner(s for the ESRRA and/or C11orf20 gene, but none was found. We conclude that the frequency of the ESRRA/C11orf20 gene fusion in serous ovarian carcinomas of stages III and IV must be considerable less than that reported previously (0/163 in our experience compared with 10/67 in the previous study. At the very least, it seems clear that the said fusion cannot be a common pathogenetic event in this tumor type.

  5. Molecular Detection of BCR/ ABL Fusion Gene in Saudi Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Molecular cytogenetics is becoming one of the most useful tools targeting some genes which are generally considered to lead to leukemic transformation (as well as for numerical abnormalities). A fraction of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases carry the translocation t(9;22) (q34;ql1.2) which juxtaposes the ABL proto-oncogene to the BCR gene generating a chimeric gene, BCR/ABL. This aberration is more frequent in adult ALL (20%-40%) than in pediatric ALL >)5%), and predicts poor clinical outcome. Aim of our Work: Is to study BCR/ A BL fusion gene in ALL cases using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Patients and Methods: Twenty newly diagnosed ALL patients, 16 adult and 4 paediatric cases, were included in the study, 11 cases (55%) were of precursor B phenotype, S cases (40%) belonged to T lineage, while one case was bi phenotypic expressing mainly precursor B cell markers tether with CD13, CD33, CD117, Detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene was done using interphase FISH technique and was confirmed molecularly using the RT-PCR technique. Results: BCR/ ABL fusion gene was negative in all the examined cases, yet abnormality involving 9q34, ABL gene, either by addition or deletion was detected in three cases (15%). Two of these cases were associated with BCR gene extra copies (three and four copies, respectively). Conclusion: This may reflect the frequency of association of ABL gene and BCR gene abnormality in our cases, and that absence of fusion gene BCR/ABL does not exclude their role in the leukomogenic process, yet a larger study is required to confirm and detect the prevalence of these gene disturbances in ALL and their association

  6. A simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for gene fusion, site-directed mutagenesis, short sequence insertion and domain deletions and swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etchells J Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progress and completion of various plant genome sequencing projects has paved the way for diverse functional genomic studies that involve cloning, modification and subsequent expression of target genes. This requires flexible and efficient procedures for generating binary vectors containing: gene fusions, variants from site-directed mutagenesis, addition of protein tags together with domain swaps and deletions. Furthermore, efficient cloning procedures, ideally high throughput, are essential for pyramiding of multiple gene constructs. Results Here, we present a simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for construction of binary vectors for a range of gene fusions or variants with single or multiple nucleotide substitutions, short sequence insertions, domain deletions and swaps. Results from selected applications of the procedure which include ORF fusion, introduction of Cys>Ser mutations, insertion of StrepII tag sequence and domain swaps for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall AtCesA genes are demonstrated. Conclusion The PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure described provides an elegant, simple and efficient solution for a wide range of diverse and complicated cloning tasks. Through streamlined cloning of sets of gene fusions and modification variants into binary vectors for systematic functional studies of gene families, our method allows for efficient utilization of the growing sequence and expression data.

  7. Construction of expression vector for NT4-ADNF-9 fusion gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To construct the prokaryotic expression vector bearing fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 and lay foundation for further study on genetic therapy of neurosensory deafness. Methods By means of asymmetrical primer/ template,double stranded cDNA of activity dependent neurotrophic factor-9 (ADNF-9) was obtained,which included restriction enzymes sites on the two extremities. ADNF-9 cDNA was ligated to the signal and leader peptides of neurotrophin 4 (NT4),and the fusion gene was named NT4-ADNF-9. Then it was subc...

  8. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mihálik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v and 0%–1.53% (v/v from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat.

  9. CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linea; Fehr, André; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2012-01-01

    -grade MEC of the lacrimal gland. There were no signs of recurrence or metastases during a five-year follow-up. Using RT-PCR and FISH we demonstrated that the tumor was positive for the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion previously shown to be associated with in particular low-grade salivary MECs with favorable...... prognosis. By immunohistochemistry we showed that the majority of tumor cells, including epidermoid, intermediate and mucous producing cells, expressed the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion protein. In contrast, 15 non-MEC lacrimal neoplasm were fusion-negative. Our findings show that lacrimal MEC is not only clinically...... anatomical sites and organs. Moreover, our findings indicate that the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lacrimal MEC....

  10. Expression of photosynthesis-related gene fusions is restricted by cell type in transgenic plants and in transfected protoplasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Harkins, K R; Jefferson, R A; Kavanagh, T A; Bevan, M W; Galbraith, D W

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the expression of chimeric genes in populations of protoplasts isolated from the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic tissues within leaves of transgenic tobacco plants and separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Expression of transcriptional gene fusions controlled by promoters from photosynthesis-associated genes showed a striking dependence on cell type. These patterns of expression were preserved when the gene fusions were transfected into normal (nontransgenic)...

  11. RELATIVE EXPRESSION AND STABILITY OF A CHROMOSOMALLY INTEGRATED AND PLASMID-BORNE MARKER GENE FUSION IN ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPETENT BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A xyIE-iceC transcriptional fusion was created by ligating a DNA fragment harboring the cloned xyIE structural gene from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 into the cloned iceC gene of Pseudomonas syringae Cit7. This fusion construct was integrated into chromosome of Pseu...

  12. Design and characterization of novel recombinant listeriolysin O-protamine fusion proteins for enhanced gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Hyung; Provoda, Chester; Lee, Kyung-Dall

    2015-02-01

    To improve the efficiency of gene delivery for effective gene therapy, it is essential that the vector carries functional components that can promote overcoming barriers in various steps leading to the transport of DNA from extracellular to ultimately nuclear compartment. In this study, we designed genetically engineered fusion proteins as a platform to incorporate multiple functionalities in one chimeric protein. Prototypes of such a chimera tested here contain two domains: one that binds to DNA; the other that can facilitate endosomal escape of DNA. The fusion proteins are composed of listeriolysin O (LLO), the endosomolytic pore-forming protein from Listeria monocytogenes, and a 22 amino acid sequence of the DNA-condensing polypeptide protamine (PN), singly or as a pair: LLO-PN and LLO-PNPN. We demonstrate dramatic enhancement of the gene delivery efficiency of protamine-condensed DNA upon incorporation of a small amount of LLO-PN fusion protein and further improvement with LLO-PNPN in vitro using cultured cells. Additionally, the association of anionic liposomes with cationic LLO-PNPN/protamine/DNA complexes, yielding a net negative surface charge, resulted in better in vitro transfection efficiency in the presence of serum. An initial, small set of data in mice indicated that the observed enhancement in gene expression could also be applicable to in vivo gene delivery. This study suggests that incorporation of a recombinant fusion protein with multiple functional components, such as LLO-protamine fusion protein, in a nonviral vector is a promising strategy for various nonviral gene delivery systems. PMID:25521817

  13. Developing transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) with insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance by fusion gene transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN He; LANG Zhi-hong; LU Wei; ZHANG Jie; HE Kang-lai; ZHU Li; LIN Min; HUANG Da-fang

    2015-01-01

    Using linker peptide LP4/2A for multiple gene transformation is considered to be an effective method to stack or pyramid several traits in plants. Bacil us thuringiensis (Bt) cry gene and epsps (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene are two important genes for culturing pest-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant crops. We used linker peptide LP4/2A to connect the Bt cry1Ah gene with the 2mG2-epsps gene and combined the wide-used manA gene as a selective marker to construct one coordinated expression vector cal ed p2EPUHLAGN. The expression vector was transferred into maize by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and 60 plants were obtained, 40%of which were positive transformants. Molecular detection demonstrated that the two genes in the fusion vector were expressed simultaneously and spliced correctly in translation processing;meanwhile bioassay detection proved the transgenic maize had preferable pest resistance and glyphosate tolerance. Therefore, linker peptide LP4/2A provided a simple and reliable strategy for producing gene stacking in maize and the result showed that the fusion gene transformation system of LP4/2A was feasible in monocot plants.

  14. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for gene function prediction in baker's yeast and slime mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker's yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps. PMID:24297565

  15. Novel Data Fusion Method and Exploration of Multiple Information Sources for Transcription Factor Target Gene Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Revealing protein-DNA interactions is a key problem in understanding transcriptional regulation at mechanistic level. Computational methods have an important role in predicting transcription factor target gene genomewide. Multiple data fusion provides a natural way to improve transcription factor target gene predictions because sequence specificities alone are not sufficient to accurately predict transcription factor binding sites. Methods. Here we develop a new data fusion method to combine multiple genome-level data sources and study the extent to which DNA duplex stability and nucleosome positioning information, either alone or in combination with other data sources, can improve the prediction of transcription factor target gene. Results. Results on a carefully constructed test set of verified binding sites in mouse genome demonstrate that our new multiple data fusion method can reduce false positive rates, and that DNA duplex stability and nucleosome occupation data can improve the accuracy of transcription factor target gene predictions, especially when combined with other genome-level data sources. Cross-validation and other randomization tests confirm the predictive performance of our method. Our results also show that nonredundant data sources provide the most efficient data fusion.

  16. A gold nanoparticle pentapeptide: gene fusion to induce therapeutic gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroski, Megan E; Morgan, Thomas J; Levenson, Cathy W; Strouse, Geoffrey F

    2014-10-22

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been identified as having great potential as autologous cell therapeutics to treat traumatic brain injury and spinal injury as well as neuronal and cardiac ischemic events. All future clinical applications of MSC cell therapies must allow the MSC to be harvested, transfected, and induced to express a desired protein or selection of proteins to have medical benefit. For the full potential of MSC cell therapy to be realized, it is desirable to systematically alter the protein expression of therapeutically beneficial biomolecules in harvested MSC cells with high fidelity in a single transfection event. We have developed a delivery platform on the basis of the use of a solid gold nanoparticle that has been surface modified to produce a fusion containing a zwitterionic, pentapeptide designed from Bax inhibiting peptide (Ku70) to enhance cellular uptake and a linearized expression vector to induce enhanced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat-derived MSCs. Ku70 is observed to effect >80% transfection following a single treatment of femur bone marrow isolated rat MSCs with efficiencies for the delivery of a 6.6 kbp gene on either a Au nanoparticle (NP) or CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD). Gene expression is observed within 4 d by optical measurements, and secretion is observed within 10 d by Western Blot analysis. The combination of being able to selectively engineer the NP, to colocalize biological agents, and to enhance the stability of those agents has provided the strong impetus to utilize this novel class of materials to engineer primary MSCs. PMID:25198921

  17. A validated gene expression profile for detecting clinical outcome in breast cancer using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, L J; Powe, D G; Reis-Filho, J S; Rakha, E; Lemetre, C; Weigelt, B; Abdel-Fatah, T M; Green, A R; Mukta, R; Blamey, R; Paish, E C; Rees, R C; Ellis, I O; Ball, G R

    2010-02-01

    Gene expression microarrays allow for the high throughput analysis of huge numbers of gene transcripts and this technology has been widely applied to the molecular and biological classification of cancer patients and in predicting clinical outcome. A potential handicap of such data intensive molecular technologies is the translation to clinical application in routine practice. In using an artificial neural network bioinformatic approach, we have reduced a 70 gene signature to just 9 genes capable of accurately predicting distant metastases in the original dataset. Upon validation in a follow-up cohort, this signature was an independent predictor of metastases free and overall survival in the presence of the 70 gene signature and other factors. Interestingly, the ANN signature and CA9 expression also split the groups defined by the 70 gene signature into prognostically distinct groups. Subsequently, the presence of protein for the principal prognosticator gene was categorically assessed in breast cancer tissue of an experimental and independent validation patient cohort, using immunohistochemistry. Importantly our principal prognosticator, CA9, showed that it is capable of selecting an aggressive subgroup of patients who are known to have poor prognosis. PMID:19347577

  18. Gene function analysis by artificial microRNAs in Physcomitrella patens.

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~21 nt long small RNAs transcribed from endogenous MIR genes which form precursor RNAs with a characteristic hairpin structure. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary sequences resulting in cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. Artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) can be generated by exchanging the miRNA/miRNA sequence of endogenous MIR precursor genes, while maintaining the general pattern of matches and mismatches in the foldback. Thus, for functional gene analysis amiRNAs can be designed to target any gene of interest. During the last decade the moss Physcomitrella patens emerged as a model plant for functional gene analysis based on its unique ability to integrate DNA into the nuclear genome by homologous recombination which allows for the generation of targeted gene knockout mutants. In addition to this, we developed a protocol to express amiRNAs in P. patens that has particular advantages over the generation of knockout mutants and might be used to speed up reverse genetics approaches in this model species.

  19. IGF1 is a common target gene of Ewing's sarcoma fusion proteins in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cironi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein is associated with 85-90% of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT, the remaining 10-15% of cases expressing chimeric genes encoding EWS or FUS fused to one of several ets transcription factor family members, including ERG-1, FEV, ETV1 and ETV6. ESFT are dependent on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 for growth and survival and recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells constitute a candidate ESFT origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the functional relatedness between ESFT-associated fusion proteins, we compared mouse progenitor cell (MPC permissiveness for EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG and FUS-ERG expression and assessed the corresponding expression profile changes. Whereas all MPC isolates tested could stably express EWS-FLI-1, only some sustained stable EWS-ERG expression and none could express FUS-ERG for more than 3-5 days. Only 14% and 4% of the total number of genes that were respectively induced and repressed in MPCs by the three fusion proteins were shared. However, all three fusion proteins, but neither FLI-1 nor ERG-1 alone, activated the IGF1 promoter and induced IGF1 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Whereas expression of different ESFT-associated fusion proteins may require distinct cellular microenvironments and induce transcriptome changes of limited similarity, IGF1 induction may provide one common mechanism for their implication in ESFT pathogenesis.

  20. The distribution of BRAF gene fusions in solid tumors and response to targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey S; Wang, Kai; Chmielecki, Juliann; Gay, Laurie; Johnson, Adrienne; Chudnovsky, Jacob; Yelensky, Roman; Lipson, Doron; Ali, Siraj M; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Roels, Steven; Miller, Vincent A; Nakamura, Brooke N; Gray, Adam; Wong, Michael K; Stephens, Philip J

    2016-02-15

    Although the BRAF V600E base substitution is an approved target for the BRAF inhibitors in melanoma, BRAF gene fusions have not been investigated as anticancer drug targets. In our study, a wide variety of tumors underwent comprehensive genomic profiling for hundreds of known cancer genes using the FoundationOne™ or FoundationOne Heme™ comprehensive genomic profiling assays. BRAF fusions involving the intact in-frame BRAF kinase domain were observed in 55 (0.3%) of 20,573 tumors, across 12 distinct tumor types, including 20 novel BRAF fusions. These comprised 29 unique 5' fusion partners, of which 31% (9) were known and 69% (20) were novel. BRAF fusions included 3% (14/531) of melanomas; 2% (15/701) of gliomas; 1.0% (3/294) of thyroid cancers; 0.3% (3/1,062) pancreatic carcinomas; 0.2% (8/4,013) nonsmall-cell lung cancers and 0.2% (4/2,154) of colorectal cancers, and were enriched in pilocytic (30%) vs. nonpilocytic gliomas (1%; p pilocytic astrocytomas, pancreatic acinar and papillary thyroid cancers. PMID:26314551

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable environment. Given that they have been detected, how do such associations inform cognitive-level theories? To investigate this question, we employed a multiscale computational model of development, using a sample domain drawn from the field of language acquisition. The model comprised an artificial neural network model of past-tense acquisition trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm, extended to incorporate population modeling and genetic algorithms. It included five levels of description-four internal: genetic, network, neurocomputation, behavior; and one external: environment. Since the mechanistic assumptions of the model were known and its operation was relatively transparent, we could evaluate whether cross-level associations gave an accurate picture of causal processes. We established that associations could be detected between artificial genes and behavioral variation, even under polygenic assumptions of a many-to-one relationship between genes and neurocomputational parameters, and when an experience-dependent developmental process interceded between the action of genes and the emergence of behavior. We evaluated these associations with respect to their specificity (to different behaviors, to function vs. structure), to their developmental stability, and to their replicability, as well as considering issues of missing heritability and gene-environment interactions. We argue that gene

  2. Directing oncogenic fusion genes into stem cells via an SCL enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, Mariko; Eguchi-Ishimae, Minenori; Green, Anthony; Enver, Tariq; Greaves, Mel

    2005-01-01

    TEL-TRKC is a fusion gene generated by chromosomal translocation and encodes an activated tyrosine kinase. Uniquely, it is found in both solid tumors and leukemia. However, a single exon difference (in TEL) in TEL-TRKC fusions is associated with the two sets of cancer phenotypes. We expressed the two TEL-TRKC variants in vivo by using the 3′ regulatory element of SCL that is selectively active in a subset of mesodermal cell lineages, including endothelial and hematopoietic stem cells and prog...

  3. Identification of leukemia-associated genes by MLL-EEN fusion protein through dysregulation of histone modification and DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Lui, Wing-chi; 呂穎芝

    2012-01-01

    Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene undergoes chromosomal translocation with over 60 different fusion partner genes in human leukemias. The resultant MLL-fusion oncoproteins are profoundly implicated in leukemias with poor prognosis. Epigenetic dysregulations have been frequently reported in MLL-rearranged leukemogenesis. Our study aims to investigate the correlations between epigenetic alterations, including both histone modification and DNA methylation, and gene dysregulation in MLL-rearrange...

  4. Single-Copy Green Fluorescent Protein Gene Fusions Allow Accurate Measurement of Salmonella Gene Expression In Vitro and during Infection of Mammalian Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hautefort, Isabelle; Proença, Maria José; Hinton, Jay C. D.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a reliable and flexible green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based system for measuring gene expression in individual bacterial cells. Until now, most systems have relied upon plasmid-borne gfp gene fusions, risking problems associated with plasmid instability. We show that a recently developed GFP variant, GFP+, is suitable for assessing bacterial gene expression. Various gfp+ transcriptional fusions were constructed and integrated as single copies into the chromosome of Salmonella e...

  5. MEAF6/PHF1 is a recurrent gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micci, Francesca; Gorunova, Ludmila; Gatius, Sonia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Davidson, Ben; Heim, Sverre; Panagopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-05-28

    The chimeric transcripts described in endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are JAZF1/SUZ12, YWHAE/FAM22, ZC3H7/BCOR, MBTD1/CXorf67, and recombinations of PHF1 with JAZF1, EPC1, and MEAF6. The MEAF6/PHF1 fusion had hitherto been identified in only one tumor. We present two more ESS with MEAF6/PHF1 detected by transcriptome sequencing (case 1) and RT-PCR (case 2), proving that this fusion is recurrent in ESS. The transcript of both cases was an in-frame fusion between exon 5 of MEAF6 and exon 2 of PHF1. Both genes are involved in epigenetic modification, and this may well be their main pathogenetic theme also in ESS tumorigenesis. PMID:24530230

  6. Gene expression, single nucleotide variant and fusion transcript discovery in archival material from breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Norton

    Full Text Available Advantages of RNA-Seq over array based platforms are quantitative gene expression and discovery of expressed single nucleotide variants (eSNVs and fusion transcripts from a single platform, but the sensitivity for each of these characteristics is unknown. We measured gene expression in a set of manually degraded RNAs, nine pairs of matched fresh-frozen, and FFPE RNA isolated from breast tumor with the hybridization based, NanoString nCounter (226 gene panel and with whole transcriptome RNA-Seq using RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq V2 library preparation kits. We performed correlation analyses of gene expression between samples and across platforms. We then specifically assessed whole transcriptome expression of lincRNA and discovery of eSNVs and fusion transcripts in the FFPE RNA-Seq data. For gene expression in the manually degraded samples, we observed Pearson correlations of >0.94 and >0.80 with NanoString and ScriptSeq protocols, respectively. Gene expression data for matched fresh-frozen and FFPE samples yielded mean Pearson correlations of 0.874 and 0.783 for NanoString (226 genes and ScriptSeq whole transcriptome protocols respectively, p<2x10(-16. Specifically for lincRNAs, we observed superb Pearson correlation (0.988 between matched fresh-frozen and FFPE pairs. FFPE samples across NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms gave a mean Pearson correlation of 0.838. In FFPE libraries, we detected 53.4% of high confidence SNVs and 24% of high confidence fusion transcripts. Sensitivity of fusion transcript detection was not overcome by an increase in depth of sequencing up to 3-fold (increase from ~56 to ~159 million reads. Both NanoString and ScriptSeq RNA-Seq technologies yield reliable gene expression data for degraded and FFPE material. The high degree of correlation between NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms suggests discovery based whole transcriptome studies from FFPE material will produce reliable expression data. The RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq protocol

  7. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly

  8. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Kazuo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeya, Makoto [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuta, Makoto [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Woltjen, Knut [Department of Reprogramming Sciences, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Otsuka, Takanobu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Toguchida, Junya, E-mail: togjun@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly

  9. Knockdown of Polyphenol Oxidase Gene Expression in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with Artificial MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming; Bhagwat, Basdeo; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    It is of great importance and interest to develop crop varieties with low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity for the food industry because PPO-mediated oxidative browning is a main cause of post-harvest deterioration and quality loss of fresh produce and processed foods. We recently demonstrated that potato tubers with reduced browning phenotypes can be produced by inhibition of the expression of several PPO gene isoforms using artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology. The approach introduces a single type of 21-nucleotide RNA population to guide silencing of the PPO gene transcripts in potato tissues. Some advantages of the technology are: small RNA molecules are genetically transformed, off-target gene silencing can be avoided or minimized at the stage of amiRNA designs, and accuracy and efficiency of the processes can be detected at every step using molecular biological techniques. Here we describe the methods for transformation and regeneration of potatoes with amiRNA vectors, detection of the expression of amiRNAs, identification of the cleaved product of the target gene transcripts, and assay of the expression level of PPO gene isoforms in potatoes. PMID:26843174

  10. Gene fusion analysis in the battle against the African endemic sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Trimpalis

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs, vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc., (b their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.

  11. PosMed (Positional Medline): prioritizing genes with an artificial neural network comprising medical documents to accelerate positional cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Yuko; Makita, Yuko; Heida, Naohiko; Asano, Satomi; Matsushima, Akihiro; Ishii, Manabu; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Masuya, Hiroshi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Kobayashi, Norio; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    PosMed (http://omicspace.riken.jp/) prioritizes candidate genes for positional cloning by employing our original database search engine GRASE, which uses an inferential process similar to an artificial neural network comprising documental neurons (or ‘documentrons’) that represent each document contained in databases such as MEDLINE and OMIM. Given a user-specified query, PosMed initially performs a full-text search of each documentron in the first-layer artificial neurons and then calculates...

  12. Construction of expression vector for NT4-ADNF-9 fusion gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-xi Zheng; Kang Zhu; Yang Jing; Jun-rong Wei; Hong-liang Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To construct the prokaryotic expression vector bearing fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 and lay foundation for further study on genetic therapy of neuraseusory deafness. Methods By means of asymmetrical prince/ template, double stranded eDNA of activity dependent neurotrophic factor-9 (ADNF-9) was obtained, which included restriction enzymes sites on the two extremities. ADNF-9 eDNA was ligated to the signal and leader peptides of nenrotrophin 4 (NT4), and the fusion gene was named NT4-ADNF-9. Then it was suheluned into prokaryotic expression vector pBV220, and called pBV220/ NT4-ADNF-9. Results Evidences of DNA sequence analysis and restrtction enzymes digestion showed that we recombined ADNF-9 eDNA to the 3'terminal of the signal and leader peptides of NT4, and the fusion gene was subcluned into pBV220 successfully. Bioactivity of the products was proved that it could support the cell survival and neurite growth in the primary cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of embryonic day-8 cbicken neurons as compared to the control. Conclusion Prokaryotic expression vector pBV220/NT4-ADNF-9 can be constructed successfully and the bioactivtty is satisfactory.

  13. Differential regulation of rat beta-casein-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion gene expression in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. F.; Atiee, S H; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the mammary-specific expression of the entire rat beta-casein gene with 3.5 kilobases (kb) of 5' and 3.0 kb of 3' DNA in transgenic mice (Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 16:1027-1041, 1988). In an attempt to localize sequences that dictate this specificity, lines of transgenic mice carrying two different rat beta-casein promoter-bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) fusion genes have been established. Twenty and eight lines of tr...

  14. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  15. Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle vectors for operon and gene fusions to lacZ: the pJEM series.

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, J; Lim, E.M.; Gicquel, B

    1994-01-01

    A series of Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle plasmids for the isolation and study of gene regulatory sequences was constructed. These pJEM vectors contain an efficient transcription terminator and multiple cloning sites and allow either operon or gene fusions to lacZ. By constructing operon fusions with pJEM15, we assessed various previously characterized mycobacterial promoters in the fast-growing species Mycobacterium smegmatis and the slow-growing species M. bovis BCG. Our results sug...

  16. Wnt signaling induces transcription, spatial proximity, and translocation of fusion gene partners in human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Giorgia D; Vargas, Macarena F; Medina, Matías A; León, Pablo; Necuñir, David; Elorza, Alvaro A; Gutiérrez, Soraya E; Moon, Randall T; Loyola, Alejandra; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a wide variety of cancers, particularly hematologic malignancies. A recurrent chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia is the reciprocal translocation t(8;21) that fuses RUNX1 and ETO genes. We report here that Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases the expression of ETO and RUNX1 genes in human hematopoietic progenitors. We found that β-catenin is rapidly recruited into RNA polymerase II transcription factories (RNAPII-Ser5) and that ETO and RUNX1 genes are brought into close spatial proximity upon Wnt3a induction. Notably, long-term treatment of cells with Wnt3a induces the generation a frequent RUNX1-ETO translocation event. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces transcription and translocation of RUNX1 and ETO fusion gene partners, opening a novel window to understand the onset/development of leukemia. PMID:26333776

  17. Recurrent LRP1-SNRNP25 and KCNMB4-CCND3 fusion genes promote tumor cell motility in human osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jilong; Annala, Matti; Ji, Ping; Wang, Guowen; ZHENG, HONG; Codgell, David; Du, Xiaoling; Fang, Zhiwei; Sun, Baocun; Nykter, Matti; Chen, Kexin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of fusion genes such as SYT-SSX1/SSX2, PAX3-FOXO1, TPM3/TPM4-ALK and EWS-FLI1 in human sarcomas has provided important insight into the diagnosis and targeted therapy of sarcomas. No recurrent fusion has been reported in human osteosarcoma. Methods Transcriptome sequencing was used to characterize the gene fusions and mutations in 11 human osteosarcomas. Results Nine of 11 samples were found to harbor genetic inactivating alterations in the TP53 pathway. Two recu...

  18. Molecular evolution of the fusion protein gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hirokazu; Nagasawa, Koo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Matsushima, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Tanaka, Ryota; Ishii, Haruyuki; Shimojo, Naoki; Kuroda, Makoto; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-09-01

    We studied the molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in the human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (HRSV-A). We performed time-scaled phylogenetic analyses using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. We also conducted genetic distance (p-distance), positive/negative selection, and Bayesian skyline plot analyses. Furthermore, we mapped the amino acid substitutions of the protein. The MCMC-constructed tree indicated that the HRSV F gene diverged from the bovine RSV (BRSV) gene approximately 550years ago and had a relatively low substitution rate (7.59×10(-4) substitutions/site/year). Moreover, a common ancestor of HRSV-A and -B diverged approximately 280years ago, which has since formed four distinct clusters. The present HRSV-A strains were assigned six genotypes based on F gene sequences and attachment glycoprotein gene sequences. The present strains exhibited high F gene sequence similarity values and low genetic divergence. No positive selection sites were identified; however, 50 negative selection sites were identified. F protein amino acid substitutions at 17 sites were distributed in the F protein. The effective population size of the gene has remained relatively constant, but the population size of the prevalent genotype (GA2) has increased in the last 10years. These results suggest that the HRSV-AF gene has evolved independently and formed some genotypes. PMID:27291709

  19. Biomechanics of Hybrid Anterior Cervical Fusion and Artificial Disc Replacement in 3-Level Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Pu, Ting; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal surgical approach for cervical disk disease remains controversial, especially for multilevel cervical disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the cervical spine after 3-level hybrid surgery compared with 3-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were evaluated under displacement-input protocol. After intact testing, a simulated hybrid construct or fusion construct was ...

  20. Transforming activity of a novel mutant of HPV16 E6E7 fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiang; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Ze-Lin; Zeng, Yi

    2011-06-01

    An optimized recombinant HPV16 E6E7 fusion gene (HPV16 ofE6E7) was constructed according to codon usage for mammalian cell expression, and a mutant of HPV16 ofE6E7 fusion gene (HPV16 omfE6E7) was generated by site-directed mutagenesis at L57G, C113R for the E6 protein and C24G, E26G for the E7 protein for HPV16 ofE6E7 [patent pending (CN 101100672)]. The HPV16 omfE6E7 gene constructed in this work not only lost the transformation capability to NIH 3T3 cells and tumorigenicity in SCID mice, but also maintained very good stability and antigenicity. These results suggests that the HPV16 omfE6E7 gene should undergo further study for application as a safe antigen-specific therapeutic vaccine for HPV16-associated tumors. PMID:21667341

  1. Studying Gene Expression: Database Searches and Promoter Fusions to Investigate Transcriptional Regulation in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy M. Martinez- Vaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory project was designed to illustrate how to search biological databases and utilize the information provided by these resources to investigate transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli. The students searched several databases (NCBI Genomes, RegulonDB and EcoCyc to learn about gene function, regulation, and the organization of transcriptional units. A fluorometer and GFP promoter fusions were used to obtain fluorescence data and measure changes in transcriptional activity. The class designed and performed experiments to investigate the regulation of genes necessary for biosynthesis of amino acids and how expression is affected by environmental signals and transcriptional regulators. Assessment data showed that this activity enhanced students’ knowledge of databases, reporter genes and transcriptional regulation.

  2. Structural analysis of the genome of breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 identifies twelve expressed fusion genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte Ina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently emerged that common epithelial cancers such as breast cancers have fusion genes like those in leukaemias. In a representative breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-30, we searched for fusion genes, by analysing genome rearrangements. Results We first analysed rearrangements of the ZR-75-30 genome, to around 10kb resolution, by molecular cytogenetic approaches, combining array painting and array CGH. We then compared this map with genomic junctions determined by paired-end sequencing. Most of the breakpoints found by array painting and array CGH were identified in the paired end sequencing—55% of the unamplified breakpoints and 97% of the amplified breakpoints (as these are represented by more sequence reads. From this analysis we identified 9 expressed fusion genes: APPBP2-PHF20L1, BCAS3-HOXB9, COL14A1-SKAP1, TAOK1-PCGF2, TIAM1-NRIP1, TIMM23-ARHGAP32, TRPS1-LASP1, USP32-CCDC49 and ZMYM4-OPRD1. We also determined the genomic junctions of a further three expressed fusion genes that had been described by others, BCAS3-ERBB2, DDX5-DEPDC6/DEPTOR and PLEC1-ENPP2. Of this total of 12 expressed fusion genes, 9 were in the coamplification. Due to the sensitivity of the technologies used, we estimate these 12 fusion genes to be around two-thirds of the true total. Many of the fusions seem likely to be driver mutations. For example, PHF20L1, BCAS3, TAOK1, PCGF2, and TRPS1 are fused in other breast cancers. HOXB9 and PHF20L1 are members of gene families that are fused in other neoplasms. Several of the other genes are relevant to cancer—in addition to ERBB2, SKAP1 is an adaptor for Src, DEPTOR regulates the mTOR pathway and NRIP1 is an estrogen-receptor coregulator. Conclusions This is the first structural analysis of a breast cancer genome that combines classical molecular cytogenetic approaches with sequencing. Paired-end sequencing was able to detect almost all breakpoints, where there was adequate read depth. It supports

  3. Artificial Neural Networks and Gene Expression Programing based age estimation using facial features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddrud Z. Laskar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is about estimating human age automatically through analysis of facial images. It has got a lot of real-world applications. Due to prompt advances in the fields of machine vision, facial image processing, and computer graphics, automatic age estimation via faces in computer is one of the dominant topics these days. This is due to widespread real-world applications, in areas of biometrics, security, surveillance, control, forensic art, entertainment, online customer management and support, along with cosmetology. As it is difficult to estimate the exact age, this system is to estimate a certain range of ages. Four sets of classifications have been used to differentiate a person’s data into one of the different age groups. The uniqueness about this study is the usage of two technologies i.e., Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Gene Expression Programing (GEP to estimate the age and then compare the results. New methodologies like Gene Expression Programing (GEP have been explored here and significant results were found. The dataset has been developed to provide more efficient results by superior preprocessing methods. This proposed approach has been developed, tested and trained using both the methods. A public data set was used to test the system, FG-NET. The quality of the proposed system for age estimation using facial features is shown by broad experiments on the available database of FG-NET.

  4. The prognostic value of PCA3, the fusion gene TMPRSS2:ERG and other markers in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Hana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to assess the presence of fusion gene TMPRSS2:ERG and expressions of PCA3, miR23b, miR26 and miR221 in PCa. PSA was measured in peripheral blood and tumor tissue (FFPE samples). The presence of fusion gene TMPRSS2:ERG and expression of PCA3 gene and miRNA in FFPE tumor tissue was analysed by RT real-time PCR. This determination would help to identify patients with high-risk tumors.

  5. Decoding of exon splicing patterns in the human RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinev, Vasily V; Migas, Alexandr A; Kirsanava, Aksana D; Mishkova, Olga A; Siomava, Natalia; Ramanouskaya, Tatiana V; Vaitsiankova, Alina V; Ilyushonak, Ilia M; Nazarov, Petr V; Vallar, Laurent; Aleinikova, Olga V

    2015-11-01

    The t(8;21) translocation is the most widespread genetic defect found in human acute myeloid leukemia. This translocation results in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene that produces a wide variety of alternative transcripts and influences the course of the disease. The rules of combinatorics and splicing of exons in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts are not known. To address this issue, we developed an exon graph model of the fusion gene organization and evaluated its local exon combinatorics by the exon combinatorial index (ECI). Here we show that the local exon combinatorics of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene follows a power-law behavior and (i) the vast majority of exons has a low ECI, (ii) only a small part is represented by "exons-hubs" of splicing with very high ECI values, and (iii) it is scale-free and very sensitive to targeted skipping of "exons-hubs". Stochasticity of the splicing machinery and preferred usage of exons in alternative splicing can explain such behavior of the system. Stochasticity may explain up to 12% of the ECI variance and results in a number of non-coding and unproductive transcripts that can be considered as a noise. Half-life of these transcripts is increased due to the deregulation of some key genes of the nonsense-mediated decay system in leukemia cells. On the other hand, preferred usage of exons may explain up to 75% of the ECI variability. Our analysis revealed a set of splicing-related cis-regulatory motifs that can explain "attractiveness" of exons in alternative splicing but only when they are considered together. Cis-regulatory motifs are guides for splicing trans-factors and we observed a leukemia-specific profile of expression of the splicing genes in t(8;21)-positive blasts. Altogether, our results show that alternative splicing of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts follows strict rules and that the power-law component of the fusion gene organization confers a high flexibility to this process. PMID:26320575

  6. A case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Hisashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR - tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI is used for the patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Recently, phase III studies in the patients with EGFR-mutant demonstrated that EGFR-TKI monotherapy improved progression-free survival compared with platinum-doublet chemotherapy. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4 - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK fusion oncogene represents one of the newest molecular targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Patients who harbor EML4-ALK fusions have been associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations. Case presentation We report a 39-year-old patient diagnosed as adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene. We treated this patient with erlotinib as the third line therapy, but no clinical benefit was obtained. Conclusion We experienced a rare case with EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK. Any clinical benefit using EGFR-TKI was not obtained in our case. The therapeutic choice for the patients with more than one driver mutations is unclear. We needs further understanding of the lung cancer molecular biology and the biomarker infomation.

  7. KIAA1549: BRAF Gene Fusion and FGFR1 Hotspot Mutations Are Prognostic Factors in Pilocytic Astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Aline Paixão; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Carloni, Adriana C; Paulino, Alessandra; Sheren, Jamie; Aisner, Dara L; Musselwhite, Evelyn; Clara, Carlos; Machado, Hélio R; Oliveira, Ricardo S; Neder, Luciano; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Reis, Rui M

    2015-07-01

    Up to 20% of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) experience a poor outcome. BRAF alterations and Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) point mutations are key molecular alterations in Pas, but their clinical implications are not established. We aimed to determine the frequency and prognostic role of these alterations in a cohort of 69 patients with PAs. We assessed KIAA1549:BRAF fusion by fluorescence in situ hybridization and BRAF (exon 15) mutations by capillary sequencing. In addition, FGFR1 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and this was compared with gene amplification and hotspot mutations (exons 12 and 14) assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and capillary sequencing. KIAA1549:BRAF fusion was identified in almost 60% of cases. Two tumors harbored mutated BRAF. Despite high FGFR1 expression overall, no cases had FGFR1 amplifications. Three cases harbored a FGFR1 p.K656E point mutation. No correlation was observed between BRAF and FGFR1 alterations. The cases were predominantly pediatric (87%), and no statistical differences were observed in molecular alterations-related patient ages. In summary, we confirmed the high frequency of KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in PAs and its association with a better outcome. Oncogenic mutations of FGFR1, although rare, occurred in a subset of patients with worse outcome. These molecular alterations may constitute alternative targets for novel clinical approaches, when radical surgical resection is unachievable. PMID:26083571

  8. Proteus mirabilis urease: operon fusion and linker insertion analysis of ure gene organization, regulation, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Island, M D; Mobley, H L

    1995-10-01

    Urease is an inducible virulence factor of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Although eight contiguous genes necessary for urease activity have been cloned and sequenced, the transcriptional organization and regulation of specific genes within the Proteus gene cluster has not been investigated in detail. The first gene, ureR, is located 400 bp upstream and is oriented in the direction opposite the other seven genes, ureDABCEFG. The structural subunits of urease are encoded by ureABC. Previously, UreR was shown to contain a putative helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif 30 residues upstream of a consensus sequence which is a signature for the AraC family of positive regulators; this polypeptide is homologous to other DNA-binding regulatory proteins. Nested deletions of ureR linked to either ureD-lacZ or ureA-lacZ operon fusions demonstrated that an intact ureR is required for urea-induced synthesis of LacZ from either ureA or ureD and identified a urea-regulated promoter in the ureR-ureD intergenic region. However, lacZ operon fusions to fragments encompassing putative promoter regions upstream of ureA and ureF demonstrated that no urea-regulated promoters occur upstream of these open reading frames; regions upstream of ureR, ureE, and ureG were not tested. These data suggest that UreR acts as a positive regulator in the presence of urea, activating transcription of urease structural and accessory genes via sequences upstream of ureD. To address the role of the nonstructural regulatory and accessory genes, we constructed deletion, cassette, and linker insertion mutations throughout the ure gene cluster and determined the effect of these mutations on production and regulation of urease activity in Escherichia coli. Mutations were obtained, with locations determine by DNA sequencing, in all genes except ureA and ureE. In each case, the mutation resulted in a urease-negative phenotype. PMID:7559355

  9. Fusions of bacteriophage P22 late genes to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, P D; Botstein, D

    1987-01-01

    The late genes of bacteriophage P22 were fused to lacZ to study their differential expression from the late operon transcript. No instances of posttranscriptional regulation were uncovered, thus supporting the model that the late genes are expressed, by and large, in fixed ratios based on their translational efficiency and message stability.

  10. Evolution by Pervasive Gene Fusion in Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Synthesizing Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Coleman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic (tree-based approaches to understanding evolutionary history are unable to incorporate convergent evolutionary events where two genes merge into one. In this study, as exemplars of what can be achieved when a tree is not assumed a priori, we have analysed the evolutionary histories of polyketide synthase genes and antibiotic resistance genes and have shown that their history is replete with convergent events as well as divergent events. We demonstrate that the overall histories of these genes more closely resembles the remodelling that might be seen with the children’s toy Lego, than the standard model of the phylogenetic tree. This work demonstrates further that genes can act as public goods, available for re-use and incorporation into other genetic goods.

  11. A clinical and laboratory study of chronic myeloid leukemia with atypical BCR-ABL fusion gene subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂晓敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical and laboratory features of chronic myeloid leukemia(CML)with atypical e14a3 and e19a2 BCR-ABL fusion gene subtypes.Methods We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of CML patients with Ph chromosome positive confirmed by cytogenetic and FISH but classical e13a3(b2a2),e14a2(b3a2)and e1a2 fusion transcripts negative identified by

  12. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZα-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  13. HIV gene expression from intact proviruses positioned in bacterial artificial chromosomes at integration sites previously identified in latently infected T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV integration predominantly occurs in introns of transcriptionally active genes. To study the impact of the integration site on HIV gene expression, a complete HIV-1 provirus (with GFP as a fusion with Nef) was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) at three sites previously identified in latent T cells of patients: topoisomerase II (Top2A), DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), or basic leucine transcription factor 2 (BACH2). Transfection of BAC-HIV into 293 T cells resulted in a fourfold difference in production of infectious HIV-1. Cell lines were established that contained BAC-Top2A, BAC-DNMT1, or BAC-BACH2, but only BAC-DNMT1 spontaneously produced virus, albeit at a low level. Stimulation with TNF-α resulted in virus production from four of five BAC-Top2A and all BAC-DNMT1 cell lines, but not from the BAC-BACH2 lines. The results of these studies highlight differences between integration sites identified in latent T cells to support virus production and reactivation from latency.

  14. Ethanol utilization regulatory protein: profile alignments give no evidence of origin through aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase gene fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, H B; Persson, B; Jörnvall, H; Hempel, J.

    1995-01-01

    The suggestion that the ethanol regulatory protein from Aspergillus has its evolutionary origin in a gene fusion between aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase genes (Hawkins AR, Lamb HK, Radford A, Moore JD, 1994, Gene 146:145-158) has been tested by profile analysis with aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase family profiles. We show that the degree and kind of similarity observed between these profiles and the ethanol regulatory protein sequence is that expected from random sequences of the same c...

  15. Horizontal gene transfers and cell fusions in microbiology, immunology and oncology (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2009-09-01

    Evolving young genomes of archaea, prokaryota and unicellular eukaryota were wide open for the acceptance of alien genomic sequences, which they often preserved and vertically transferred to their descendants throughout three billion years of evolution. Established complex large genomes, although seeded with ancestral retroelements, have come to regulate strictly their integrity. However, intruding retroelements, especially the descendents of Ty3/Gypsy, the chromoviruses, continue to find their ways into even the most established genomes. The simian and hominoid-Homo genomes preserved and accommodated a large number of endogenous retroviral genomic segments. These retroelements may mature into exogenous retroviruses, or into functional new genes. Phages and viruses have been instrumental in incorporating and transferring host cell genes. These events profoundly influenced and altered the course of evolution. Horizontal (lateral) gene transfers (HGT) overwhelmed the genomes of the ancient protocells and the evolving unicellular microorganisms, actually leading to their Cambrian explosion. While the rigidly organized genomes of multicellular organisms increasingly resist H/LGT, de-differentiated cells assuming the metabolism of their onto- or phylogenetic ancestors, open up widely to the practice of H/LGT by direct transfer, or to transfers mediated by viruses, or by cell fusions. This activity is intensified in malignantly transformed cells, thus rendering these subjects receptive to therapy with oncolytic viruses and with viral vectors of tumor-suppressive or immunogenic genetic materials. Naturally formed hybrids of dendritic and tumor cells are often tolerogenic, whereas laboratory products of these unisons may be immunogenic in the hosts of origin. As human breast cancer stem cells are induced by a treacherous class of CD8+ T cells to undergo epithelial to mesenchymal (ETM) transition and to yield to malignant transformation by the omnipresent proto

  16. Expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML fusion gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, M; Zangrilli, D; Fagioli, M; Pandolfi, P P; Mencarelli, A; Lo Coco, F; Biondi, A; Grignani, F; Pelicci, P G

    1992-06-01

    Two chimeric genes, PML-RAR alpha and RAR alpha-PML, are formed as a consequence of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-specific reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [t(15;17)]. PML-RAR alpha is expressed as a fusion protein. We investigated the organization and expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML gene in a series of APL patients representative of the molecular heterogeneity of the t(15;17) and found (i) two types of RAR alpha-PML mRNA junctions (RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 4 or RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 7) that maintain the RAR alpha and PML longest open reading frames aligned and are the result of chromosome 15 breaking at two different sites; and (ii) 10 different RAR alpha-PML fusion transcripts that differ for the assembly of their PML coding exons. A RAR alpha-PML transcript was present in most, but not all, APL patients. PMID:1317574

  17. A rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase gene fusion functions in visual perception in a fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Gabriela M; Schumacher, Robert I; Zaini, Paulo A; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas A; Gomes, Suely L

    2014-06-01

    Sensing light is the fundamental property of visual systems, with vision in animals being based almost exclusively on opsin photopigments [1]. Rhodopsin also acts as a photoreceptor linked to phototaxis in green algae [2, 3] and has been implicated by chemical means as a light sensor in the flagellated swimming zoospores of the fungus Allomyces reticulatus [4]; however, the signaling mechanism in these fungi remains unknown. Here we use a combination of genome sequencing and molecular inhibition experiments with light-sensing phenotype studies to examine the signaling pathway involved in visual perception in the closely related fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. Our data show that in these fungi, light perception is accomplished by the function of a novel gene fusion (BeGC1) of a type I (microbial) rhodopsin domain and guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. Photobleaching of rhodopsin function prevents accumulation of cGMP levels and phototaxis of fungal zoospores exposed to green light, whereas inhibition of guanylyl cyclase activity negatively affects fungal phototaxis. Immunofluorescence microscopy localizes the BeGC1 protein to the external surface of the zoospore eyespot positioned close to the base of the swimming flagellum [4, 5], demonstrating this is a photoreceptive organelle composed of lipid droplets. Taken together, these data indicate that Blastocladiomycota fungi have a cGMP signaling pathway involved in phototaxis similar to the vertebrate vision-signaling cascade but composed of protein domain components arranged as a novel gene fusion architecture and of distant evolutionary ancestry to type II rhodopsins of animals. PMID:24835457

  18. ITER, an artificial sun at the hand? Myths and realities on researches in the field of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on what is the nuclear fusion, the obstacles to produce nuclear fusion on Earth (why reinventing the sun?), the false promises of the experimental reactor ITER (it will not produce electricity, it will cost 10 billion euros, it will use tritium and will not be safe, it will produce 30 000 tonnes of radioactive wastes), the installation of ITER in Provence (it will cause new damages to the environment, will create jobs at a high cost and to the detriment of clean energies), the vision of ITER as a prestigious project for France with essentially military goals, a research program that is contested by several high profile physicists and is extremely expensive, etc. The paper reviews 20 years of negotiations for the ITER project, and recommends other ways to take up the energy challenge

  19. Propagating gene expression fronts in a one-dimensional coupled system of artificial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayar, Alexandra M.; Karzbrun, Eyal; Noireaux, Vincent; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.

    2015-12-01

    Living systems employ front propagation and spatiotemporal patterns encoded in biochemical reactions for communication, self-organization and computation. Emulating such dynamics in minimal systems is important for understanding physical principles in living cells and in vitro. Here, we report a one-dimensional array of DNA compartments in a silicon chip as a coupled system of artificial cells, offering the means to implement reaction-diffusion dynamics by integrated genetic circuits and chip geometry. Using a bistable circuit we programmed a front of protein synthesis propagating in the array as a cascade of signal amplification and short-range diffusion. The front velocity is maximal at a saddle-node bifurcation from a bistable regime with travelling fronts to a monostable regime that is spatially homogeneous. Near the bifurcation the system exhibits large variability between compartments, providing a possible mechanism for population diversity. This demonstrates that on-chip integrated gene circuits are dynamical systems driving spatiotemporal patterns, cellular variability and symmetry breaking.

  20. Efficient transformation and artificial miRNA gene silencing in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó-Pastor, A; Mollá-Morales, A; Ernst, E; Dahl, W; Zhai, J; Yan, Y; Meyers, B C; Shanklin, J; Martienssen, R

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapid doubling time, simple architecture and ease of metabolic labelling, a lack of genetic tools in the Lemnaceae (duckweed) has impeded the full implementation of this organism as a model for biological research. Here, we present technologies to facilitate high-throughput genetic studies in duckweed. We developed a fast and efficient method for producing Lemna minor stable transgenic fronds via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration from tissue culture. Additionally, we engineered an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) gene silencing system. We identified a Lemna gibba endogenous miR166 precursor and used it as a backbone to produce amiRNAs. As a proof of concept we induced the silencing of CH42, a magnesium chelatase subunit, using our amiRNA platform. Expression of CH42 in transgenic L. minor fronds was significantly reduced, which resulted in reduction of chlorophyll pigmentation. The techniques presented here will enable tackling future challenges in the biology and biotechnology of Lemnaceae. PMID:24989135

  1. Construction of hpaA gene from a clinical isolate of Helicobacter pyloriand identification of fusion protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Mao; Jie Yan; Li-Wei Li; Shu-Ping Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To clone hpaA gene from a clinical strain of Helicobacter pylori and to construct the expression vector of the gene and to identify immunity of the fusion protein.METHODS: The hpaA gene from a clinical isolate Y06 of H.pylori was amplified by high fidelity PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the target DNA amplification fragment was sequenced after T-A cloning. The recombinant expression vector inserted with hpaA gene was constructed. The expression of HpaA fusion protein in E. coli BL21DE3 induced by IPTG at different dosages was examined by SDS-PAGE.Western blot with commercial antibody against whole cell of H. pylorias well as immunodiffusion assay with selfprepared rabbit antiserum against HpaA fusion protein were applied to determine immunity of the fusion protein. ELISA was used to detect the antibody against HpaA in sera of 125 patients infected with H. pylori and to examine HpaA expression of 109 clinical isolates of H. pylori.RESULTS: In comparison with the reported corresponding sequences, the homologies of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences of the cloned hpaA gene were from 94.25-97.32 % and 95.38-98.46 %, respectively. The output of HpaA fusion protein in its expression system of pET32ahpaA-BL21DE3 was approximately 40 % of the total bacterial proteins. HpaA fusion protein was able to combine with the commercial antibody against whole cell of H. pyloriand to induce rabbit producing specific antiserum with 1:4immunodiffusion titer after the animal was immunized with the fusion protein. 81.6 % of the serum samples from 125patients infected with H.pylori(102/125) were positive for HpaA antibody and all of the tested isolates of H.pylori(109/109) were detectable for HpaA.CONCLUSION: A prokaryotic expression system with high efficiency of H.pylorihpaA gene was successfully established.The HpaA expressing fusion protein showed satisfactory immunoreactivity and antigenicity. High frequencies of HpaA expression in different H. pyloriclinicalstrains

  2. Loss of the NKX3.1 tumorsuppressor promotes the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In normal prostate epithelium the TMPRSS2 gene encoding a type II serine protease is directly regulated by male hormones through the androgen receptor. In prostate cancer ERG protooncogene frequently gains hormonal control by seizing gene regulatory elements of TMPRSS2 through genomic fusion events. Although, the androgenic activation of TMPRSS2 gene has been established, little is known about other elements that may interact with TMPRSS2 promoter sequences to modulate ERG expression in TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion context. Comparative genomic analyses of the TMPRSS2 promoter upstream sequences and pathway analyses were performed by the Genomatix Software. NKX3.1 and ERG genes expressions were evaluated by immunoblot or by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in response to siRNA knockdown or heterologous expression. QRT-PCR assay was used for monitoring the gene expression levels of NKX3.1-regulated genes. Transcriptional regulatory function of NKX3.1 was assessed by luciferase assay. Recruitment of NKX3.1 to its cognate elements was monitored by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay. Comparative analysis of the TMPRSS2 promoter upstream sequences among different species revealed the conservation of binding sites for the androgen inducible NKX3.1 tumor suppressor. Defects of NKX3.1, such as, allelic loss, haploinsufficiency, attenuated expression or decreased protein stability represent established pathways in prostate tumorigenesis. We found that NKX3.1 directly binds to TMPRSS2 upstream sequences and negatively regulates the expression of the ERG protooncogene through the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. These observations imply that the frequently noted loss-of-function of NKX3.1 cooperates with the activation of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions in prostate tumorigenesis

  3. Expression of human beta-globin genes in transgenic mice: effects of a flanking metallothionein-human growth hormone fusion gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Townes, T M; Chen, H. Y.; Lingrel, J B; Palmiter, R. D.; Brinster, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to place a human beta-globin gene in an open chromatin domain regardless of its site of integration in the mouse genome, we microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs a construct in which the human beta-globin gene and a mouse metallothionein-human growth hormone fusion gene were juxtaposed and oriented in opposite directions. Mice that developed from injected eggs and that grew larger than normal were analyzed for human beta-globin mRNA. The globin genes were not expressed in ery...

  4. Genome-wide identification of genes with amplification and/or fusion in small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Reika; Takenaka, Masataka; Kohno, Takashi; Shimada, Yoko; Totoki, Yasushi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Tsuta, Koji; Nishikawa, Ryo; Noguchi, Masayuki; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Yokota, Jun

    2013-09-01

    To obtain a landscape of gross genetic alterations in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), genome-wide copy number analysis and whole-transcriptome sequencing were performed in 58 and 42 SCLCs, respectively. Focal amplification of known oncogene loci, MYCL1 (1p34.2), MYCN (2p24.3), and MYC (8q24.21), was frequently and mutually exclusively detected. MYCL1 and MYC were co-amplified with other regions on either the same or the different chromosome in several cases. In addition, the 9p24.1 region was identified as being amplified in SCLCs without amplification of MYC family oncogenes. Notably, expression of the KIAA1432 gene in this region was significantly higher in KIAA1432 amplified cells than in non-amplified cells, and its mRNA expression showed strong correlations with the copy numbers. Thus, KIAA1432 is a novel gene activated by amplification in SCLCs. By whole-transcriptome sequencing, a total of 60 fusion transcripts, transcribed from 95 different genes, were identified as being expressed in SCLC cells. However, no in-frame fusion transcripts were recurrently detected in ≥2 SCLCs, and genes in the amplified regions, such as PVT1 neighboring MYC and RLF in MYCL1 amplicons, were recurrently fused with genes in the same amplicons or with those in different amplicons on either the same or different chromosome. Thus, it was indicated that amplification and fusion of several genes on chromosomes 1 and 8 occur simultaneously but not sequentially through chromothripsis in the development of SCLC, and amplification rather than fusion of genes plays an important role in its development. PMID:23716474

  5. Synovial Sarcoma Microvesicles Harbor the SYT-SSX Fusion Gene Transcript: Comparison of Different Methods of Detection and Implications in Biomarker Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, A; Ullrich, P V; Cimniak, A F V; Follo, M; Nestel, S; Heimrich, B; Nazarenko, I; Stark, G B; Bannasch, H; Braig, D; Eisenhardt, S U

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft-tissue malignancy. This study examines the presence of the SYT-SSX fusion transcript in synovial sarcoma microvesicles as well as its potential role as a biomarker for synovial sarcoma. Patients and Methods. Microvesicle release of synovial sarcoma cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. RNA-content was analyzed by qPCR, nested PCR, nested qPCR, and droplet digital PCR to compare their sensitivity for detection of the SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript. Whole blood RNA, RNA of mononuclear cells, and microvesicle RNA of synovial sarcoma patients were analyzed for the presence of the fusion gene transcripts. Results. Electron microscopic analysis revealed synovial sarcoma cells releasing membrane-enclosed microvesicles. In vitro, the SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript was detected in both synovial sarcoma cells and microvesicles. Nested qPCR proved to be the most sensitive in detecting the SYT-SSX fusion gene mRNA. In contrast, the fusion gene transcript was not detected in peripheral blood cells and microvesicles of synovial sarcoma patients. Conclusion. Synovial sarcoma cells release microvesicles harboring the SYT-SSX fusion transcript. Nested qPCR proved to be the most sensitive in detecting the SYT-SSX fusion gene mRNA; however, more sensitive assays are needed to detect cancer-specific microvesicles in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. PMID:27069481

  6. Human VE-Cadherin Fusion Protein as an Artificial Extracellular Matrix Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation Functions of Endothelial Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Shuai, Qizhi; Li, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Chao; Cao, Lei; Hu, Feifei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Wang, Jian-Xi; Gu, Zhongwei; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-14

    In an attempt to enhance endothelial cell capture and promote the vascularization of engineered tissue, we biosynthesized and characterized the recombinant fusion protein consisting of human vascular endothelial-cadherin extracellular domain and immunoglobulin IgG Fc region (hVE-cad-Fc) to serve as a bioartificial extracellular matrix. The hVE-cad-Fc protein naturally formed homodimers and was used to construct hVE-cad-Fc matrix by stably adsorbing on polystyrene plates. Atomic force microscop assay showed uniform hVE-cad-Fc distribution with nanorod topography. The hVE-cad-Fc matrix markedly promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) adhesion and proliferation with fibroblastoid morphology. Additionally, the hVE-cad-Fc matrix improved HUVECs migration, vWF expression, and NO release, which are closely related to vascularization. Furthermore, the hVE-cad-Fc matrix activated endogenous VE-cadherin/β-catenin proteins and effectively triggered the intracellular signals such as F-actin stress fiber, p-FAK, AKT, and Bcl-2. Taken together, hVE-cad-Fc could be a promising bioartificial matrix to promote vascularization in tissue engineering. PMID:26859785

  7. Establishment of cells to monitor Microprocessor through fusion genes of microRNA and GFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microprocessor, the complex of Drosha and DGCR8, promotes the processing of primary microRNA to precursor microRNA, which is a crucial step for microRNA maturation. So far, no convenient assay systems have been developed for observing this step in vivo. Here we report the establishment of highly sensitive cellular systems where we can visually monitor the function of Microprocessor. During a series of screening of transfectants with fusion genes of the EGFP cDNA and primary microRNA genes, we have obtained certain cell lines where introduction of siRNA against DGCR8 or Drosha strikingly augments GFP signals. In contrast, these cells have not responded to Dicer siRNA; thus they have a unique character that GFP signals should be negatively and specifically correlated to the action of Microprocessor among biogenesis of microRNA. These cell lines can be useful tools for real-time analysis of Microprocessor action in vivo and identifying its novel modulators

  8. Delivery system for creation of one-step in vivo lac gene fusions in Pseudomonas spp. involved in biological control.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, D J; O'Gara, F

    1988-01-01

    The suicide plasmid pVA838 carrying the operon fusion transposon Tn5-lac was used as a delivery system to introduce Tn5-lac into Pseudomonas sp. strain M114. Random, in vivo lac gene fusions were successfully isolated in a one-step conjugation approach with this vector system. Tn5-lac-containing exconjugants were recovered at a frequency of approximately 10(-7) per recipient. However, when the mating temperature was increased from the normal growth temperature (28 degrees C) to 34 degrees C, ...

  9. Association of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion with clinical characteristics and outcomes: results from a population-based study of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in prostate tumors has recently been associated with an aggressive phenotype, as well as recurrence and death from prostate cancer. These associations suggest the hypothesis that the gene fusion may be used as a prognostic indicator for prostate cancer. In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were used to assess TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in a group of 214 prostate cancer cases from two population-based studies. The FISH assays were designed to detect both fusion type (deletion vs. translocation) and the number of fusion copies (single vs. multiple). Genotyping of four ERG and one TMPRSS2 SNPs using germline DNA was also performed in a sample of the cases (n = 127). Of the 214 tumors scored for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, 64.5% were negative and 35.5% were positive for the fusion. Cases with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion did not exhibit reduced prostate cancer survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.22–3.93), nor was there a significant difference in cause-specific survival when stratifying by translocation or deletion (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.23–3.12) or by the number of retained fusion copies (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.45–3.34). However, evidence for reduced prostate cancer-specific survival was apparent in those cases whose tumor had multiple copies of the fusion. The variant T allele of the TMPRSS2 SNP, rs12329760, was positively associated with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion by translocation (p = 0.05) and with multiple copies of the gene fusion (p = 0.03). If replicated, the results presented here may provide insight into the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion arises and also contribute to diagnostic evaluations for determining the subset of men who will go on to develop metastatic prostate cancer

  10. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene and features associated with EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen MM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miaomiao Wen, Xuejiao Wang, Ying Sun, Jinghua Xia, Liangbo Fan, Hao Xing, Zhipei Zhang, Xiaofei Li Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR define specific molecular subsets of lung cancer with distinct clinical features. We aimed at revealing the clinical features of EML4-ALK fusion gene and EGFR mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Methods: We enrolled 694 Chinese patients with NSCLC for analysis. EML4-ALK fusion gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and EGFR mutations were analyzed by amplified refractory mutation system.Results: Among the 694 patients, 60 (8.65% patients had EML4-ALK fusions. In continuity correction χ2 test analysis, EML4-ALK fusion gene was correlated with sex, age, smoking status, and histology, but no significant association was observed between EML4-ALK fusion gene and clinical stage. A total of 147 (21.18% patients had EGFR mutations. In concordance with previous reports, EGFR mutation was correlated with age, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage, whereas patient age was not significantly associated with EGFR mutation. Meanwhile, to our surprise, six (0.86% patients had coexisting EML4-ALK fusions and EGFR mutations.Conclusion: EML4-ALK fusion gene defines a new molecular subset in patients with NSCLC. Six patients who harbored both EML4-ALK fusion genes and EGFR mutations were identified in our study. The EGFR mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion genes are coexistent. Keywords: NSCLC, EML4-ALK fusion gene, EGFR mutation, RT-PCR

  11. Fusion of Clostridium perfringens type D and B epsilon and beta toxin genes and it’s cloning in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarzi, H.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing and producing a proper fusion construction is the most important problem of producing large quantities of a properly folded functional protein. This construction should have all necessary components of a real gene. A good designed fusion gene construction could be cloned into a good and suitable host. Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen of humans and livestock and produces numerous toxins including epsilon and beta which are responsible for severe diseases. In the present study a new construction containing Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin gene and type B beta toxin gene was designed. At the first step two pairs of primers were used for these genes amplification. At the next step epsilon forward and beta reveres primers were used to produce a chimeric gene containing amplified partial cds of etxD and partial cds of cpbB which are linked together by the AEAAAKEAAAKA fragment as a small linker. The method was based on fusion PCR and using of Pfu DNA polymerase, which has a proofreading activity. The fusion gene inserted into pJET1.2blunt and cloned into E.coli strain TOP10. Based on the latest information, this is the first design and cloning of epsilon-beta fusion gene and also this is the first time that PCR fusion strategy is used for Clostriadial gene fusion, which could be used for development of a recombinant epsilon-beta fusion protein vaccine. This construction also could serve as a model for development and production of novel fusion protein for other potential proteins and toxins.

  12. Design and optimization of Artificial Neural Networks for the modelling of superconducting magnets operation in tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froio, A.; Bonifetto, R.; Carli, S.; Quartararo, A.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2016-09-01

    In superconducting tokamaks, the cryoplant provides the helium needed to cool different clients, among which by far the most important one is the superconducting magnet system. The evaluation of the transient heat load from the magnets to the cryoplant is fundamental for the design of the latter and the assessment of suitable strategies to smooth the heat load pulses, induced by the intrinsically pulsed plasma scenarios characteristic of today's tokamaks, is crucial for both suitable sizing and stable operation of the cryoplant. For that evaluation, accurate but expensive system-level models, as implemented in e.g. the validated state-of-the-art 4C code, were developed in the past, including both the magnets and the respective external cryogenic cooling circuits. Here we show how these models can be successfully substituted with cheaper ones, where the magnets are described by suitably trained Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for the evaluation of the heat load to the cryoplant. First, two simplified thermal-hydraulic models for an ITER Toroidal Field (TF) magnet and for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) are developed, based on ANNs, and a detailed analysis of the chosen networks' topology and parameters is presented and discussed. The ANNs are then inserted into the 4C model of the ITER TF and CS cooling circuits, which also includes active controls to achieve a smoothing of the variation of the heat load to the cryoplant. The training of the ANNs is achieved using the results of full 4C simulations (including detailed models of the magnets) for conventional sigmoid-like waveforms of the drivers and the predictive capabilities of the ANN-based models in the case of actual ITER operating scenarios are demonstrated by comparison with the results of full 4C runs, both with and without active smoothing, in terms of both accuracy and computational time. Exploiting the low computational effort requested by the ANN-based models, a demonstrative optimization study has been

  13. Construction and Expression of Methionine-rich and Lysine-rich Fusion Gene inBacillus natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuang; Luo Chao-chao; Wu Cai-xia; Gao Xue-jun

    2015-01-01

    Methionine and lysine are restrictive essential amino acids of livestock, they are also the most attentive indexes in the feed production to carry out the quality control and quality evaluation. Their contents in feed directly affect livestock protein synthesis. Bacillus natto has excellent probiotic properties. In this experiment, we used the genetic engineering method, fusion PCR technique, to connect methionine-rich gene (zein) from maize endosperm protein with lysine-rich gene (Cflr) from the pepper anther, then the fusion gene was inserted into the expression vector pHT43, and the recombinant plasmid pHT43/zein-Cflr was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transferred intoBacillus natto, and induced by IPTG for the expression of the fusion gene. We found an apparent band at 40 ku site for the recombinant strain by SDS-PAGE. The contents of methionine and lysine were individually detected with HPLC, the quantities of methionine and lysine in the recombinant strain increased by 18.37% and 24.68% than the wild one, respectively. We also verified the stability of the recombinant bacterium during passaging, and found the stability was 100%. This study provided research-basis for the application of the recombinedBacillus nattoas feed additive.

  14. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion in solitary fibrous tumor can be reliably detected by anchored multiplexed PCR for targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Natalya V; Tanas, Munir R; Stence, Aaron A; Sompallae, Ramakrishna; Schade, Jenna C; Bossler, Aaron D; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Ma, Deqin

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor of fibroblastic origin, which can affect any region of the body. 10-15% of SFTs metastasize and metastatic tumors are uniformly lethal with no effective therapies. The behavior of SFT is difficult to predict based on morphology. Recently, an intrachromosomal gene fusion between NAB2 and STAT6 was identified as the defining driving genetic event of SFT and different fusion types correlated with tumor histology and behavior. Due to the proximity of NAB2 and STAT6 on chromosome 12, this fusion may be missed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. We evaluated 12 SFTs from 10 patients. All tumors showed strong nuclear staining for STAT6 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The same formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks for IHC were used for gene fusion detection by a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay. Targeted RNA fusion sequencing for gene fusions was performed using the Universal RNA Fusion Detection Kit, the Archer(™) FusionPlex(™) Sarcoma Panel and the Ion Torrent PGM, and data were analyzed using the Archer Analysis Pipeline 3.3. All tumors were positive for NAB2-STAT6 fusion. Six types of fusions were detected: NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2, NAB2ex2-STAT6ex5, NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16, NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17, NAB2ex3-STAT6ex18 and NAB2intron6-STAT6Ex17. The NGS findings were confirmed by RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. No STAT6 fusion was detected in selected morphologic mimics of SFT. The assay also allows for detection of novel fusions and can detect NAB2-STAT6 fusions at a single-base resolution. PMID:27292373

  15. The “Grep” Command But Not FusionMap, FusionFinder or ChimeraScan Captures the CIC-DUX4 Fusion Gene from Whole Transcriptome Sequencing Data on a Small Round Cell Tumor with t(4;19)(q35;q13)

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Panagopoulos; Ludmila Gorunova; Bodil Bjerkehagen; Sverre Heim

    2014-01-01

    Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to study a small round cell tumor in which a t(4;19)(q35;q13) was part of the complex karyotype but where the initial reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) examination did not detect a CIC-DUX4 fusion transcript previously described as the crucial gene-level outcome of this specific translocation. The RNA sequencing data were analysed using the FusionMap, FusionFinder, and ChimeraScan programs which are specifically designed to identify fusion genes. Fusio...

  16. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clara Bueno; Agustin F Femández; Mario F Fraga; Inmaculada Moreno-Gimeno; Deborah Burks; Maria del Carmen Plaza-Calonge; Juan C Rodríguez-Manzaneque; Pablo Menendez; Rosa Montes; Gustavo J Melen; Verónica Ramos-Mejia; Pedro J Real; Verónica Ayllón; Laura Sanchez; Gertrudis Ligero; Iván Gutierrez-Aranda

    2012-01-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in inants.Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development,its effects on hematopoieric development in utero remain unexplored.We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).Functional studies,clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic,functional and gene expression impact.MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs.Functionally,MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate.MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation,as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis.Furthermore,we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells.This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes,known to arise prenatally,regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification.

  17. Cloned s-Lap Gene Coding Area, Expression and Localizationof s-Lap/GFP Fusion Protein in Mammal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yi-shu; SONG Zhi-yu; LI Hong-jun; Wu Yin; BAO Yong-li; TAN Da-peng; LI Yu-xin

    2005-01-01

    s-Lap is a new gene sequence from pig retinal pigment epithelial(RPE) cells, which was found and cloned in the early period of apoptosis of RPE cells damaged with visible light. We cloned the coding area sequence of the novel gene of s-Lap and constructed its recombinant eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA3.1-GFP/s-lap with the recombinant DNA technique. The expression and localization of s-lap/GFP fusion protein in CHO and B16 cell lines were studied with the instantaneously transfected pcDNA3.1-GFP/s-lap recombinant plasmid. s-Lap/GFP fusion protein can be expressed in CHO and B16 cells with a high rate expression in the nuclei.

  18. Fusion of ZMYND8 and RELA genes in acute erythroid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Micci, Francesca; Thorsen, Jim;

    2013-01-01

    Acute erythroid leukemia was diagnosed in a 4-month-old boy. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow (BM) cells showed a t(11;20)(p11;q11) translocation. RNA extracted from the BM was sequenced and analyzed for fusion transcripts using the software FusionMap. A ZMYND8-RELA fusion was ranked first. RT...... the translocation. The putative ZMYND8-RELA fusion protein contains the Zinc-PHD finger domain, a bromodomain, a PWWP domain, a MYND type of zinc finger of ZMYND8, and the entire RELA protein, indicating that it might act leukemogenically by influencing several cellular processes including the NF-kappa-B pathway....

  19. Genomic binding and regulation of gene expression by the thyroid carcinoma-associated PAX8-PPARG fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanxiao; Yu, Jingcheng; Lee, Chee; Xu, Bin; Sartor, Maureen A.; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    A chromosomal translocation results in production of an oncogenic PAX8-PPARG fusion protein (PPFP) in thyroid carcinomas. PAX8 is a thyroid transcription factor, and PPARG is a transcription factor that plays important roles in adipocytes and macrophages. PPFP retains the DNA binding domains of both proteins; however, the genomic binding sites of PPFP have not been identified, and only limited data exist to characterize gene expression in PPFP thyroid carcinomas. Therefore, the oncogenic func...

  20. Overlapping TATA-dependent and TATA-independent early promoter activities in the baculovirus gp64 envelope fusion protein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, P H; Chen, X.; Blissard, G W

    1995-01-01

    In previous studies to characterize basal and activated transcription from the early promoter of the gp64 envelope fusion protein (efp) gene of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus, the TATA box was identified as a functional element, essential for basal transcription from a minimal promoter construct. In the current study, we used discrete deletions and multiple point mutations that removed the functional TATA box from larger promoter constructs of the gp64 efp gen...

  1. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Strebel, K; De Beck, E.; K Strohmaier; Schaller, H

    1986-01-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible lambda PL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35S-labeled extracts from ...

  2. Identification of a novel SEPT9-ABL1 fusion gene in a patient with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikio Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL, a rare type of peripheral T-cell leukemia, is characterized by marked splenomegaly with rapidly progressive lymphocytosis and a poor prognosis. Nine kinds of ABL1 chimeric genes have been identified in various kinds of hematological malignancies, such as chronic myeloid leukemia and B- or T-lymphoblastic leukemia. However, there have been no reports describing T-PLL cases with ABL1 rearrangements. We herein report a case of T-PLL with a novel SEPT9-ABL1 fusion gene which induced strong resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib and dasatinib.

  3. Antitumor effects and radiosensitization of cytosine deaminase and thymidine kinase fusion suicide gene on colorectal carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Hua Wu; Li Liu; Long-Hua Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the killing effect and radiosensitization of double suicide gene mediated by adenovirus on colorectal carcinoma cells.METHODS: Colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480 was transfected with adenovirus expression vector containing cytosine deaminase (CD) and thymidine kinase (Tk) fusion gene. The expression of CD-TK fusion gene was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The toxic effect of ganciclovir (GCV) and 5-fiuorocytosine (5FC) on infected cells was determined by MTT assay. The radiosensitization of double suicide gene was evaluated by clonogenic assay.RESULTS: After prodrugs were used, the survival rate of colorectal carcinoma cells was markedly decreased. When GCV and 5-FC were used in combination, the cytotoxicity and bystandereffect were markedly superior to a single prodrug (x2 = 30.371, P<0.01). Both GCV and 5-FC could sensitize colorectal carcinoma cells to the toxic effect of radiation, and greater radiosensitization was achieved when both prodrug were used in combination. CONCLUSION: CD-TK double suicide gene can kill and radiosensitize colorectal carcinoma cells.

  4. Characterization of Gene Expression Patterns among Artificially Developed Cancer Stem Cells Using Spherical Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Akimasa; Kasai, Tomonari; Ikeda, Masashi; Vaidyanath, Arun; Masuda, Junko; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Seno, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We performed gene expression microarray analysis coupled with spherical self-organizing map (sSOM) for artificially developed cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSCs were developed from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with the conditioned media of cancer cell lines, whereas the CSCs were induced from primary cell culture of human cancer tissues with defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4). These cells commonly expressed human embryonic stem cell (hESC)/hiPSC-specific genes (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, and SALL4) at a level equivalent to those of control hiPSC 201B7. The sSOM with unsupervised method demonstrated that the CSCs could be divided into three groups based on their culture conditions and original cancer tissues. Furthermore, with supervised method, sSOM nominated TMED9, RNASE1, NGFR, ST3GAL1, TNS4, BTG2, SLC16A3, CD177, CES1, GDF15, STMN2, FAM20A, NPPB, CD99, MYL7, PRSS23, AHNAK, and LOC152573 genes commonly upregulating among the CSCs compared to hiPSC, suggesting the gene signature of the CSCs.

  5. Characterization of Gene Expression Patterns among Artificially Developed Cancer Stem Cells Using Spherical Self-Organizing Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Akimasa; Kasai, Tomonari; Ikeda, Masashi; Vaidyanath, Arun; Masuda, Junko; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Seno, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We performed gene expression microarray analysis coupled with spherical self-organizing map (sSOM) for artificially developed cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSCs were developed from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with the conditioned media of cancer cell lines, whereas the CSCs were induced from primary cell culture of human cancer tissues with defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4). These cells commonly expressed human embryonic stem cell (hESC)/hiPSC-specific genes (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, and SALL4) at a level equivalent to those of control hiPSC 201B7. The sSOM with unsupervised method demonstrated that the CSCs could be divided into three groups based on their culture conditions and original cancer tissues. Furthermore, with supervised method, sSOM nominated TMED9, RNASE1, NGFR, ST3GAL1, TNS4, BTG2, SLC16A3, CD177, CES1, GDF15, STMN2, FAM20A, NPPB, CD99, MYL7, PRSS23, AHNAK, and LOC152573 genes commonly upregulating among the CSCs compared to hiPSC, suggesting the gene signature of the CSCs. PMID:27559294

  6. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible λPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro

  7. Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0 lx, 1 lx, 10 lx, 100 lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1 lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities. PMID:26584071

  8. Bifunctional chimeric SuperCD suicide gene -YCD: YUPRT fusion is highly effective in a rat hepatoma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian Graepler; Ulrike A Lauer; Reinhard Vonthein; Michael Gregor; Sorin Armeanu; Michael Bitzer; Ulrich M. Lauer; Marie-Luise Lemken; Wolfgang A Wybranietz; Ulrike Schmidt; Irina Smirnow; Christine D Groβ; Martin Spiegel; Andrea Schenk; Hansj(o)rg Graf

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of catalytically superior gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy systems on a rat hepatoma model.METHODS: To increase hepatoma cell chemosensitivity for the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), we generated a chimeric bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene, a fusion of the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) and the yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (YUPRT) gene.RESULTS: In vitro stably transduced Morris rat hepatoma cells (MH) expressing the bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene (MH SuperCD) showed a clearly marked enhancement in cell killing when incubated with 5-FC as compared with MH ceils stably expressing YCD solely (MH YCD) or the cytosine deaminase gene of bacterial origin(MH BCD), respectively. In vivo, MH SuperCD tumors implanted both subcutaneously as well as orthotopically into the livers of syngeneic ACI rats demonstrated significant tumor regressions (P<0.01) under both high dose as well as low dose systemic 5-FC application,whereas MH tumors without transgene expression (MH naive) showed rapid progression. For the first time, an order of in vivo suicide gene effectiveness (SuperCD>>YCD > > BCD > > > negative control) was defi ned as a result of a directin vivo comparison of all three suicide genes.CONCLUSION: Bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene expression is highly effective in a rat hepatoma model,thereby significantly improving both the therapeutic index and the efficacy of hepatocellular carcinoma killing by fluorocytosine.

  9. Thyroid hormone regulates expression of a transfected human. alpha. -myosin heavy-chain fusion gene in fetal rat heart cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsika, R.W.; Bahl, J.J.; Morkin, E. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (USA)); Leinwand, L.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The rat {alpha}-myosin heavy-chain ({alpha}-MHC) gene is regulated by 3,5,3{prime}-triiodo-L-thyronine (T{sub 3}) in ventricular myocardium and is constitutively expressed in atrial tissue. Less is known about regulation of the human gene, but conservation of sequences in the 5{prime}-flanking region between the rat and human {alpha}-MHC genes suggests that the human gene may be regulated similarly. Accordingly, T{sub 3}-responsiveness and tissue-specific expression of human and rat {alpha}-MHC/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion constructs have been compared in rat fetal heart cells, L{sub 6}E{sub 9} myoblasts and myotubes, 3T3 fibroblasts, and HeLa cells. Transient transfection assays revealed a complex series of cis-regulatory elements in the 5{prime}-flanking sequences in the human genes, including a basal promoter element with canonical TATAA and CAAT sequences, two positive regulatory element(s), and two negative regulatory-elements, which markedly diminished both constitutive and T{sub 3}-inducible activity. Interestingly, the human gene seemed to contain a proximal thyroid-hormone response element(s) not found in the rat gene. The authors propose that interactions among the thyroid hormone responsive elements and other cis-acting elements in the human {alpha}-MHC 5{prime}-flanking sequences may be sufficient to explain the characteristic features of expression of this gene in cardiac tissues.

  10. TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Causing ERG Overexpression Precedes Chromosome Copy Number Changes in Prostate Carcinomas, Paired HGPIN Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Cerveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions have been found recurrently in prostate carcinomas, but not in the presumed precursor lesion, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN. However, HGPIN lesions may share chromosomal changes with prostate cancer. To determine the relative order of genetic events in prostate carcinogenesis, we have analyzed 34 prostate carcinomas, 19 paired HGPIN lesions, 14 benign prostate hyperplasias, 11 morphologically normal prostatic tissues for TMPRSS2-ERG, TMPRSS2-ETV1 rearrangements, genomic imbalances. TMPRSS2 exon 1 was fused in-frame with ERG exon 4 in 17 of 34 (50% prostate carcinomas, in 4 of 19 (21% HGPIN lesions, but in none of controls. The findings were further validated by sequencing analysis, by the real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript, the ERG exons 5/6:exons 1/2 expression ratio. Chromosome copy number changes were detected by comparative genomic hybridization in 42% of clinically confined carcinomas, in none of the 16 HGPIN lesions analyzed. We demonstrate for the first time that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene can be detected in a proportion of HGPIN lesions, that this molecular rearrangement is an early event that may precede chromosome-level alterations in prostate carcinogenesis.

  11. Examination of Gene Fusion Status in Archival Samples of Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma Entered on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-III Trial : A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Frederic G.; Smith, Lynette M.; Lynch, James C.; Strzelecki, Donna; Parham, David M.; Qualman, Stephen J.; Breitfeld, Philip P.

    2006-01-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a soft tissue cancer in which chromosomal translocations generate PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR gene fusions. To improve the approach for fusion detection in archival samples, we developed a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for these fusion transcripts. By incorporating consensus primers and gene-specific probes, both presence and subtype of the fusion were determined in one assay. We applied this approach to a convenience sample of...

  12. Dysregulation of gene expression in the artificial human trisomy cells of chromosome 8 associated with transformed cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisakatsu Nawata

    Full Text Available A change in chromosome number, known as aneuploidy, is a common characteristic of cancer. Aneuploidy disrupts gene expression in human cancer cells and immortalized human epithelial cells, but not in normal human cells. However, the relationship between aneuploidy and cancer remains unclear. To study the effects of aneuploidy in normal human cells, we generated artificial cells of human primary fibroblast having three chromosome 8 (trisomy 8 cells by using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. In addition to decreased proliferation, the trisomy 8 cells lost contact inhibition and reproliferated after exhibiting senescence-like characteristics that are typical of transformed cells. Furthermore, the trisomy 8 cells exhibited chromosome instability, and the overall gene expression profile based on microarray analyses was significantly different from that of diploid human primary fibroblasts. Our data suggest that aneuploidy, even a single chromosome gain, can be introduced into normal human cells and causes, in some cases, a partial cancer phenotype due to a disruption in overall gene expression.

  13. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...

  14. Cellular automata-based artificial life system of horizontal gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-xin Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and natural selection is the core of Darwin's idea about evolution. Many algorithms and models are based on this idea. However, in the evolution of prokaryotes, more and more researches have indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT would be much more important and universal than the authors had imagined. Owing to this mechanism, the prokaryotes not only become adaptable in nearly any environment on Earth, but also form a global genetic bank and a super communication network with all the genes of the prokaryotic world. Under this background, they present a novel cellular automata model general gene transfer to simulate and study the vertical gene transfer and HGT in the prokaryotes. At the same time, they use Schrodinger's life theory to formulate some evaluation indices and to discuss the intelligence and cognition of prokaryotes which is derived from HGT.

  15. Precise cloning and tandem integration of large polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster using Streptomyces artificial chromosome system

    OpenAIRE

    Nah, Hee-Ju; Woo, Min-Woo; Choi, Si-Sun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct cloning combined with heterologous expression of a secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster has become a useful strategy for production improvement and pathway modification of potentially valuable natural products present at minute quantities in original isolates of actinomycetes. However, precise cloning and efficient overexpression of an entire biosynthetic gene cluster remains challenging due to the ineffectiveness of current genetic systems in manipulating large-si...

  16. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, De-Chun; Zhong, Guo-Cai; Su, Ju-Xiang [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Liu, Yan-Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Li, Yan; Wang, Jia-Ye [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Hattori, Toshio [Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808574 (Japan); Ling, Hong, E-mail: lingh@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Department of Parasitology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province for Infection and Immunity, Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province Education Bureau for Etiology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Zhang, Feng-Min, E-mail: fengminzhang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province for Infection and Immunity, Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province Education Bureau for Etiology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China)

    2010-01-22

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potential entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.

  17. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potential entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.

  18. Analysis of NAB2-STAT6 Gene Fusion in 17 Cases of Meningeal Solitary Fibrous Tumor/Hemangiopericytoma: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Sayaka; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Lei; Tsuda, Masumi; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a mesenchymal tumor that can affect virtually any region of the body. SFT/HPC of the thoracic cavity and soft tissue has been histologically considered a single biological entity termed SFT; in fact, NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion was recently identified in both diseases. In contrast, meningeal SFT and HPC still need to be investigated in detail with regard to gene fusion variants. The aim of this study was to verify the frequency of NAB2-STAT6 fusion and the relationship between fusion variants and clinicopathologic findings of SFT/HPC, especially meningeal SFT/HPC. We examined the NAB2-STAT6 fusion by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with 4 cases of meningeal SFT and 13 cases of meningeal HPC. NAB2-STAT6 fusion transcripts were identified in 12 of 17 cases, including NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17 (4/17, 24%), NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16 and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 (3/17, 18%, respectively), and NAB2ex5-STAT6ex16 (2/17, 12%). Three cases showed a pseudopapillary pattern, and 2 of them carried NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17. In addition, our meta-analysis revealed that the major fusion variant in meningeal SFT/HPC was NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17 (29/54, 54%), which was also common in soft tissue and intraperitoneum/retroperitoneum but rare in thoracic SFT. Fusion variant significantly correlated with age and histologic diagnosis in meningeal SFT/HPC but not with prognosis. Our results represented that meningeal SFT and HPC were in a single biological spectrum with NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion as was nonmeningeal SFT and further confirmed the organ-specific tumorigenic process and morphologic differences on the basis of fusion variants in meningeal SFT/HPC. PMID:26927892

  19. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  20. A high-coverage artificial chromosome library for the genome-wide screening of drug-resistance genes in malaria parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kaneko, Izumi; Yuda, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of drug-resistant parasites is a serious problem for the treatment of malaria. Although identifying drug-resistance genes is crucial for the efforts against resistant parasites, an effective approach has not yet been developed. Here, we report a robust method for identifying resistance genes from parasites by using a Plasmodium artificial chromosome (PAC). Large genomic DNA fragments (10–50 kb) from the drug-resistant rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei were ligated i...

  1. Retrovirus-mediated transfer of the fusion gene encoding EGFP-BMP2 in mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yingang; Guo Xiong; Liu Zheng; Wang Shijie

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop retrovirus-mediated transfer of the fusion gene encoding EGFP-BMP2 in mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells from New Zealand white rabbits were transduced with retroviral pLEGFP-BMP2 vector by the optimized retroviral transduction protocol. Fluorescent microscopy's examination was to evaluate the results of the transduction, flow cytometer's analysis was to evaluate the transduction efficiency and the Fluorescence-activated cell sorting method was to sort the transduced cells. Bioactivity test from C2C12K4 cells was to show the expression and bio-activity of the fusion gene. Results Fluorescent microscopy showed the success of the transduction. By flow cytometer's analysis, the mean efficiency of the transduction with EGFP was (42.8±6.1)% SD. Transduced cells were sorted efficiently by the fluorescence-activated cell sorting method and after sorting, almost of those showed the expression of BMP2. Fluorescently and strongly bioactivity test for C2C12K4 cells demonstrated that fluorescent materials were located the surface of cells and the activity of luciferase increased compared with the control. Analysis of long-term expression showed there was no difference between 2 week-time point and 3 month-time point of culture post-sorting. Conclusion Mesenchymal stem cells can be transduced efficiently by retrovirus-mediated transfer of the fusion gene encoding EGFP-BMP2, the highly pure transduced cells are obtained by the fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique, the expressed chimeric protein embraced the double bioactivity of EGFP and BMP2, and moreover, the expression had not attenuated over time.

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such…

  3. Expression of Chlamydomonas actin-gfp fusion gene in to-bacco suspension cell and polymerization of the actin-gfp protein in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fusion gene of actin (cDNA of Chlamydo- monas reinhardtii) and green fluorescence protein (gfp) had been constructed into two expression vectors which could be expressed in E. coli and tobacco suspension cells BY2. The correct expression was observed in E. coli and BY2 with a fluorescence microscopy. The fusion protein, which took part in the membrane skeleton, was mainly located peripherally along the membrane, specially the fusion protein was dis-tributed around nucleus and cell plate, while the fusion pro-tein also forms F-actin in the cell. The fusion protein was purified from Bl21plus by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified production could polymerize into F-actin when the actin polymerizing buffer was added. It was demonstrated that the characteristics and function of actin in Chlamydomonas was similar with those of animals and higher plants.

  4. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals. PMID:25265085

  5. FGFR3–TACC3: A novel gene fusion in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito A. Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer epitomizes the success of cancer prevention through the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, but significant challenges remain in the treatment of advanced disease. We report the first three cases of cervical carcinoma harboring an FGFR3–TACC3 fusion, which serves as a novel therapeutic target. The fusion, identified by comprehensive genomic profiling, activates the FGFR pathway that has been implicated in HPV-driven carcinogenesis. One of the patients whose tumor contained the FGFR3–TACC3 fusion was treated with an investigational FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Concomitant molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAF/MEK pathways were also identified and suggest other treatment strategies that deserve investigation. This case series highlights the role of comprehensive genomic profiling in the identification of new therapeutic targets and in targeted therapy selection for patients with cervical cancer.

  6. The Drosophila dysfusion basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS gene controls tracheal fusion and levels of the trachealess bHLH-PAS protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lan; Crews, Stephen T

    2003-08-01

    The development of the mature insect trachea requires a complex series of cellular events, including tracheal cell specification, cell migration, tubule branching, and tubule fusion. Here we describe the identification of the Drosophila melanogaster dysfusion gene, which encodes a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS protein conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans, insects, and humans, and controls tracheal fusion events. The Dysfusion protein functions as a heterodimer with the Tango bHLH-PAS protein in vivo to form a putative DNA-binding complex. The dysfusion gene is expressed in a variety of embryonic cell types, including tracheal-fusion, leading-edge, foregut atrium cells, nervous system, hindgut, and anal pad cells. RNAi experiments indicate that dysfusion is required for dorsal branch, lateral trunk, and ganglionic branch fusion but not for fusion of the dorsal trunk. The escargot gene, which is also expressed in fusion cells and is required for tracheal fusion, precedes dysfusion expression. Analysis of escargot mutants indicates a complex pattern of dysfusion regulation, such that dysfusion expression is dependent on escargot in the dorsal and ganglionic branches but not the dorsal trunk. Early in tracheal development, the Trachealess bHLH-PAS protein is present at uniformly high levels in all tracheal cells, but since the levels of Dysfusion rise in wild-type fusion cells, the levels of Trachealess in fusion cells decline. The downregulation of Trachealess is dependent on dysfusion function. These results suggest the possibility that competitive interactions between basic helix-loop-helix-PAS proteins (Dysfusion, Trachealess, and possibly Similar) may be important for the proper development of the trachea. PMID:12897136

  7. ESRRA-C11orf20 Is a Recurrent Gene Fusion in Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Salzman, Julia; Marinelli, Robert J.; Wang, Peter L.; Green, Ann E.; Julie S Nielsen; Nelson, Brad H; Drescher, Charles W.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, ovarian cancer kills approximately 14,000 women in the United States and more than 140,000 women worldwide. Most of these deaths are caused by tumors of the serous histological type, which is rarely diagnosed before it has disseminated. By deep paired-end sequencing of mRNA from serous ovarian cancers, followed by deep sequencing of the corresponding genomic region, we identified a recurrent fusion transcript. The fusion transcript joins the 5′ exons of ESRRA, encoding a ligand-in...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Cell Wall Stress Stimulon Gene-lacZ Fusion Strains: Potential for Use in Screening for Cell Wall-Active Antimicrobials▿

    OpenAIRE

    Steidl, Rebecca; Pearson, Stacy; Stephenson, Robert E.; Ledala, Nagender; Sitthisak, Sutthirat; Wilkinson, Brian J; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K.

    2008-01-01

    lacZ fusion strains were constructed using the promoters of five cell wall stress stimulon genes: pbp2, tcaA, vraSR, sgtB, and lytR. All fusion strains were induced only in the presence of cell wall-active antibiotics, suggesting the potential of these strains for use in high-throughput screening for new cell wall-active agents.

  9. Construction of prokaryotic expression system of TGF-β1 epitope gene and identification of recombinant fusion protein immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hong Guo; Zhi-Ming Hao; Jin-Yan Luo; Jun-Hong Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To insert the constructed TGF-β1the el loop of C-terminus of truncated hepatitis B core antigen to increase TGF-β1expression system and to identify immunity of the expressed recombinant protein in order to exploit the possibility for obtaining anti- TGF-β1METHODS: The TGF-β1mature TGF-β1TGF-32) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the recombinant pGEM-7z/TGF-β1HBcAg gene fragments (encoding HBcAg from 1-71 and 89-144 amino acid residues) were amplified from PYTA1-HBcAg vector. The recombinant vector pGEMEX-1 was used to insert HBcAg1-71, TGF-β1into restrictive endonuclease enzyme and ligated with T4ligase. The fusion gene fragments HBcAg1-71-TGF-β1HBcAg89-144 were recloned to pET28a(+) and the DNA sequence was confirmed by the dideoxy chain termination method. The recombinant vector pET28a (+)/CTC was transformed and expressed in E.. Coli BL21 (DE3)under induction of IPTG. After purification with Ni+2-NTA agarose resins, the antigenicity of purified protein was detected by ELISA and Western blot and visualized under electron microscope.RESULTS: Enzyme digestion analysis and sequencing showed that TGF-β1loop of C-terminus of truncated hepatitis B core antigen.SDS-PAGE analysis showed that relative molecular mass(Mr) of the expressed product by pET28a (+)/CTC was Mr 24 600.The output of the target recombinant protein was approximately 34.8% of the total bacterial protein,mainly presented in the form of inclusion body. Western blotting and ELISA demonstrated that the fusion protein could combine with anti-TGF-β1not with anti-HBcAg. The purity of protein was about 90% and the protein was in the form of self-assembling particles visualized under electron microscope. This fusion protein had good anti-TGF-β1could be used as anti-TGF-β1CONCLUSION: A recombinant prokaryotic expression system with high expression efficiency of the target TGF- epitope gene was successfully established.The fusion protein is in the form of self-assembling particles

  10. The landscape of gene fusions and somatic mutations in salivary gland neoplasms - Implications for diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Mattias K; Stenman, Göran

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies of the genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors have provided important insights into the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors. The most consistent alterations identified include a translocation-generated gene fusion network involving transcription factors, transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and other kinases. In addition, next-generation sequencing studies of a few subtypes of salivary neoplasms have revealed hotspot mutations in individual genes and mutations clustering to specific pathways frequently altered in cancer. Although limited, these studies have opened up new avenues for improved classification and targeted therapies of salivary gland cancers. In this review, we summarize the latest developments in this field, focusing on tumor types for which clinically important molecular data are available. PMID:27101980

  11. Inactivation of encapsulated cells and their therapeutic effects by means of TGL triple-fusion reporter/biosafety gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Edorta; Larzabal, Leyre; Calvo, Alfonso; Orive, Gorka; Pedraz, José Luis; Hernández, Rosa Ma

    2013-01-01

    The immobilization of cells within alginate-poly-l-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules has been demonstrated to be an effective technology design for long term delivery of therapeutic products. Despite promising advances, biosafety aspects still remain to be improved. Here, we describe a complete characterization of the strategy based on TGL triple-fusion reporter gene--which codifies for Herpes Simplex virus type 1 thymidine-kinase (HSV1-TK), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Firefly Luciferase--(SFG(NES)TGL) to inactivate encapsulated cells and their therapeutic effects. Myoblasts genetically engineered to secrete erythropoietin (EPO) were retroviraly transduced with the SFG(NES)TGL plasmid to further characterize their ganciclovir (GCV)-mediated inactivation process. GCV sensitivity of encapsulated cells was 100-fold lower when compared to cells plated onto 2D surfaces. However, the number of cells per capsule and EPO secretion decayed to less than 15% at the same time that proliferation was arrested after 14 days of GCV treatment in vitro. In vivo, ten days of GCV treatment was enough to restore the increased hematocrit levels of mice implanted with encapsulated TGL-expressing and EPO-secreting cells. Altogether, these results show that TGL triple-fusion reporter gene may be a good starting point in the search of a suitable biosafety strategy to inactivate encapsulated cells and control their therapeutic effects. PMID:23174140

  12. Glucose-responsive artificial promoter-mediated insulin gene transfer improves glucose control in diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaeseok Han; Eung-Hwi Kim; Woohyuk Choi; Hee-Sook Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of insulin gene therapy using a glucose-responsive synthetic promoter in type 2 diabetic obese mice.METHODS:We employed a recently developed novel insulin gene therapy strategy using a synthetic promoter that regulates insulin gene expression in the liver in response to blood glucose level changes.We intravenously administered a recombinant adenovirus expressing furin-cleavable rat insulin under the control of the synthetic promoter (rAd-SP-rINSfur) into diabetic Leprdb/db mice.A recombinant adenovirus expressing β-galactosidase under the cytomegalovirus promoter was used as a control (rAd-CMV-βgal).Blood glucose levels and body weights were monitored for 50 d.Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed.Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate islet morphology and insulin content.RESULTS:Administration of rAd-SP-rINSfur lowered blood glucose levels and normoglycemia was maintained for 50 d,whereas the rAd-CMV-βgal control virus-injected mice remained hyperglycemic.Glucose tolerance tests showed that rAd-SP-rINSfur-treated mice cleared exogenous glucose from the blood more efficiently than control virus-injected mice at 4 wk [area under the curve (AUC):21 508.80 ± 2248.18 vs 62 640.00 ± 5014.28,P < 0.01] and at 6 wk (AUC:29 956.60 ± 1757.33 vs 60 016.60 ± 3794.47,P < 0.01).In addition,insulin sensitivity was also significantly improved in mice treated with rAd-SP-rINSfur compared with rAd-CMV-βgal-treated mice (AUC:9150.17±1007.78 vs 11 994.20 ± 474.40,P < 0.05).The islets from rAd-SP-rINSfur-injected mice appeared to be smaller and to contain a higher concentration of insulin than those from rAd-CMV-βgal-injected mice.CONCLUSION:Based on these results,we suggest that insulin gene therapy might be one therapeutic option for remission of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Exploring sRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms using artificial small RNAs derived from a natural RNA scaffold in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hongmarn; Bak, Geunu; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Younghoon

    2013-01-01

    An artificial small RNA (afsRNA) scaffold was designed from an Escherichia coli sRNA, SibC. Using the lacZ reporter system, the gene silencing effects of afsRNAs were examined to explore the sRNA-mediated gene-silencing mechanisms in E. coli. Substitution of the original target recognition sequence with a new sequence recognizing lacZ mRNA led to effective reduction of lacZ gene expression. Single-strandedness of the target recognition sequences in the scaffold was essential for effective gen...

  14. Gene identification and analysis: an application of neural network-based information fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, S.; Xu, Y.; Shah, M.B.; Mural, R.J.; Einstein, J.R.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    Identifying genes within large regions of uncharacterized DNA is a difficult undertaking and is currently the focus of many research efforts. We describe a gene localization and modeling system called GRAIL. GRAIL is a multiple sensor-neural network based system. It localizes genes in anonymous DNA sequence by recognizing gene features related to protein-coding slice sites, and then combines the recognized features using a neural network system. Localized coding regions are then optimally parsed into a gene mode. RNA polymerase II promoters can also be predicted. Through years of extensive testing, GRAIL consistently localizes about 90 percent of coding portions of test genes with a false positive rate of about 10 percent. A number of genes for major genetic diseases have been located through the use of GRAIL, and over 1000 research laboratories worldwide use GRAIL on regular bases for localization of genes on their newly sequenced DNA.

  15. Development of GFP fusions for examination of the effects of the space environment on gene expression in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R.; Fahlen, T.

    The goal of the In situ Space Gene Expression on Nano-satillites (ISGEN) program is to be ready to fly technology that can support a fully automated experiment to quantify changes in model organisms in situ in low earth orbit in a free flyer platform in less than two years. A straightforward gene expression assay that meets the ISGEN flight objective for testing flight hardware as well as return data regarding the effects of microgravity on gene expression has been developed. Escherichia coli K-12, a bacterium that exhibits changes in its growth pattern when flown in micro-gravity on the Space Shuttle, was used. The scientific objective of this work is to determine if there is a discernable change in metabolic and stress pathway gene expression due to growth in the space environment. To that end, we have linked the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gfp to phoP, a gene that responds to extracellular Mg2+ levels, and pykF, a gene involved in the glycolytic pathway that responds to changes in intracellular pyruvate. These genes respond to the metabolic needs of the cell and may be altered in the micro-gravity environment. E. coli cells containing a plasmid encoding the phoP-gfp-mut3 reporter construct were grown with or without MgSO_4. The effect of the added MgSO_4 is the repression of the expression of GFP. This is the expected result if GFP expression were under the control of a magnesium-regulated promoter such as phoP. Consistent with the negative feedback loop, we observe repression of GFP production in cells containing our pykF-gfp plasmid construct, when grown in the presence of excess glucose. Thus, the pykF-gfp fusion functions as a glucose sensor.

  16. Functional expression of the FeMo-cofactor-specific biosynthetic genes nifEN as a NifE-N fusion protein synthesizing unit in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Man Hee; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Gavini, Nara

    2002-11-29

    The nifEN encodes an E2N2 tetrameric metalloprotein complex that serves as scaffold for assembly of the FeMo cofactor of nitrogenase. In most diazotrophs, the NifE and NifN are translated as separate polypeptides and then assembled into tetrameric E2N2 complex. However, in Anabaena variabilis which has two nif clusters that encode two different NifEN complexes, the NifEN2 is encoded by a single nifE-N like gene, which has high homology to the NifE at amino-terminus and to the NifN at the carboxy-terminus. These observations implied that a metalloprotein like NifEN can accommodate large variations in their amino acid composition and also in the way they are synthesized (as two separate proteins or as a single protein) and yet remain functional. In Azotobacter vinelandii NifE and NifN are synthesized separately. To test whether NifEN could retain its functionality when encoded by a single gene, we generated a translational fusion of the nifE and nifN genes of A. vinelandii that could encode a large NifE-N fusion protein. When expressed in the nifEN-minus strain of A. vinelandii, the nifE-N gene fusion could complement the NifEN function. Western blot analysis by using polyclonal NifEN antibodies revealed that the complementing nifEN product is a large NifE-N fusion protein unit. The fact that the gene fusion of nifE-N specifies a functional NifE-N fusion protein reflects that these metalloproteins can accommodate a wide range of flexibility in their gene organization, structure, and assembly. PMID:12437975

  17. Modelling formulations using gene expression programming--a comparative analysis with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourn, E A; Roskilly, S J; Rowe, R C; York, P

    2011-10-01

    This study has investigated the utility and potential advantages of gene expression programming (GEP)--a new development in evolutionary computing for modelling data and automatically generating equations that describe the cause-and-effect relationships in a system--to four types of pharmaceutical formulation and compared the models with those generated by neural networks, a technique now widely used in the formulation development. Both methods were capable of discovering subtle and non-linear relationships within the data, with no requirement from the user to specify the functional forms that should be used. Although the neural networks rapidly developed models with higher values for the ANOVA R(2) these were black box and provided little insight into the key relationships. However, GEP, although significantly slower at developing models, generated relatively simple equations describing the relationships that could be interpreted directly. The results indicate that GEP can be considered an effective and efficient modelling technique for formulation data. PMID:21903163

  18. Imaging of dihydrofolate reductase fusion gene expression in xenografts of human liver metastases of colorectal cancer in living rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide imaging has been demonstrated to be feasible to monitor transgene expression in vivo. We hypothesized that a potential application of this technique is to non-invasively detect in deep tissue, such as cancer cells metastatic to the liver, a specific molecular response following systemic drug treatment. Utilizing human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from a patient's liver lesion we first developed a nude rat xenograft model for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Expression of a dihydrofolate reductase-herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase fusion (DHFR-HSV1 TK) transgene in the hepatic tumors was monitored in individual animals using the tracer [124I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodouracil-β-d-arabinofuranoside (FIAU) and a small animal micro positron emission tomograph (microPET), while groups of rats were imaged using the tracer [131I]FIAU and a clinical gamma camera. Growth of the human metastatic colorectal cancer cells in the rat liver was detected using magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by surgical inspection. Single as well as multiple lesions of different sizes and sites were observed in the liver of the animals. Next, using a subset of rats bearing hepatic tumors, which were retrovirally bulk transduced to express the DHFR-HSV1 TK transgene, we imaged the fusion protein expression in the hepatic tumor of living rats using the tracer [124I]FIAU and a microPET. The observed deep tissue signals were highly specific for the tumors expressing the DHFR-HSV1 TK fusion protein compared with parental untransduced tumors and other tissues as determined by gamma counting of tissue samples. A subsequent study used the tracer [131I]FIAU and a gamma camera to monitor two groups of transduced hepatic tumor-bearing rats. Prior to imaging, one group was treated with trimetrexate to exploit DHFR-mediated upregulation of the fusion gene product. Imaging in the living animal as well as subsequent gamma counting of tissue samples showed increased

  19. Expression pattern of the septin gene family in acute myeloid leukemias with and without MLL-SEPT fusion genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Joana; Cerveira, Nuno; Bizarro, Susana; Ribeiro, Franclim R.; Correia, Cecilia; Torres, Lurdes; Lisboa, Susana; Vieira, Joana; Mariz, Jose M.; Norton, Lucilia; Snijder, Simone; Mellink, Clemens H.; Buijs, Arjan; Shih, Lee-Yung; Strehl, Sabine; Micci, Francesca; Heim, Sverre; Teixeira, Manuel R.

    2010-01-01

    Septins are proteins associated with crucial steps in cell division and cellular integrity. In humans, 14 septin genes have been identified, of which five (SEPT2, SEPT5, SEPT6, SEPT9, and SEPT11) are known to participate in reciprocal translocations with the MLL gene in myeloid neoplasias. We have r

  20. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  1. Development of series of gateway binary vectors, pGWBs, for realizing efficient construction of fusion genes for plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kurose, Takayuki; Hino, Takeshi; Tanaka, Katsunori; Kawamukai, Makoto; Niwa, Yasuo; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Jinbo, Tetsuro; Kimura, Tetsuya

    2007-07-01

    We developed a new series of binary vectors useful for Gateway cloning to facilitate transgenic experiments in plant biotechnology. The new system, Gateway Binary Vectors (pGWBs) realized efficient cloning, constitutive expression using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the construction of fusion genes by simple clonase reaction with an entry clone. The reporters employable in this system are beta-glucuronidase (GUS), synthetic green fluorescent protein with S65T mutation (sGFP), luciferase (LUC), enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP). The tags available are 6xHis, FLAG, 3xHA, 4xMyc, 10xMyc, GST, T7-epitope, and tandem affinity purification (TAP). In total, 13 kinds of reporter or tag were arranged and were almost applicable to both N- and C-fusions. The pGWBs could be used for many purposes, such as promoter::reporter analysis, observation of subcellular localization by the expression of proteins fused to a reporter or tag, and analysis of protein-protein interaction by copurification and immunodetection experiments. The pGWBs were constructed with modified pBI101 containing a CaMV35S promoter-driven hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) gene as the second selection marker. We also constructed pGWBs with the marker HPT driven by the nopaline synthase promoter. By using the pGWB system, the expression of tagged proteins, and the localization of GFP-fused proteins were easily analyzed. Moreover, tissue-specific and inducible gene expression using a promoter was also monitored with pGWBs. It is expected that, the pGWB system will serve as a powerful tool for plasmid construction in plant research. PMID:17697981

  2. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  3. Horizontal Transmission and Retention of Malignancy, as well as Functional Human Genes, After Spontaneous Fusion of Human Glioblastoma and Hamster Host Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, David M.; Zagzag, David; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin M.; Berroa Garcia, Lissa Y; Ried, Thomas; Loo, Meiyu; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Gold, David V.

    2011-01-01

    Cell fusion in vitro has been used to study cancer, gene mapping and regulation, and the production of antibodies via hybridomas. However, in-vivo heterosynkaryon formation by cell-cell fusion has received less attention. This investigation describes the spontaneous fusion of a human glioblastoma with normal hamster cells after xenogeneic transplantation, resulting in malignant cells that express both human and hamster genes and gene products, and retention of glioblastoma traits with an enhanced ability to metastasize. Three of 7 human genes found showed translation of their proteins during serial propagation in vivo or in vitro for years; namely, CD74, CXCR4, and PLAGL2, each implicated with malignancy or glioblastoma. This supports the thesis that genetic hybridization of cancer and normal cells can transmit malignancy and also, as first described herein, regulatory genes involved in the tumor’s organotypic morphology. Evidence also is increasing that even cell-free human cancer DNA can induce malignancy and transfer genetic information to normal cells. Hence, we posit that the transfer of genetic information between tumor and stromal cells, whether by cell-cell fusion or other mechanisms, is implicated in the progression of malignancy, and may further define the crosstalk between cancer cells and their stromal neighbors. PMID:21796629

  4. Electrochemical biosensor for detection of PML/RARα fusion gene based on eriochrome cyanine R film modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication reports on a novel biosensor to study the hybridization specificity based on eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) monolayer film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor the hybridization reaction on the ECR-modified electrode. The decrease of the peak current of methylene blue (MB), an electroactive indicator, was observed upon hybridization of the probe with the target DNA. Electrochemical investigations indicated that ECR modified biosensor displayed a wide linear range of 5.0–200 pM with a detection limit of 0.982 pM. This new biosensor exhibited good selectivity for one-base mismatch and complementary sequence after hybridization in detecting promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).

  5. Characterization of the telomere complex, TERF1 and TERF2 genes in muntjac species with fusion karyotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The telomere binding proteins TRF1 and TRF2 maintain and protect chromosome ends and confer karyotypic stability. Chromosome evolution in the genus Muntiacus is characterized by numerous tandem (end-to-end) fusions. To study TRF1 and TRF2 telomere binding proteins in Muntiacus species, we isolated and characterized the TERF1 and -2 genes from Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis; 2n = 6 female) and from Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reveesi; 2n = 46). Expression analysis revealed that both genes are ubiquitously expressed and sequence analysis identified several transcript variants of both TERF genes. Control experiments disclosed a novel testis-specific splice variant of TERF1 in human testes. Amino acid sequence comparisons demonstrate that Muntiacus TRF1 and in particular TRF2 are highly conserved between muntjac and human. In vivo TRF2-GFP and immuno-staining studies in muntjac cell lines revealed telomeric TRF2 localization, while deletion of the DNA binding domain abrogated this localization, suggesting muntjac TRF2 represents a functional telomere protein. Finally, expression analysis of a set of telomere-related genes revealed their presence in muntjac fibroblasts and testis tissue, which suggests the presence of a conserved telomere complex in muntjacs. However, a deviation from the common theme was noted for the TERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase; TERT expression could not be detected in Indian or Chinese muntjac cDNA or genomic DNA using a series of conserved primers, while TRAP assay revealed functional telomerase in Chinese muntjac testis tissues. This suggests muntjacs may harbor a diverged telomerase sequence

  6. End-to-end gene fusions and their impact on the production of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizk, Mazen, E-mail: mazen.rizk@tuhh.de [Institute of Technical Microbiology, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Kasernenstr. 12, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Antranikian, Garabed, E-mail: antranikian@tuhh.de [Institute of Technical Microbiology, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Kasernenstr. 12, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Elleuche, Skander, E-mail: skander.elleuche@tuhh.de [Institute of Technical Microbiology, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Kasernenstr. 12, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multifunctional enzymes offer an interesting approach for biomass degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and conformation of separate constructs play a role in the effectiveness of chimeras. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A connecting linker allows for maximal flexibility and increased thermostability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genes with functional similarities are the best choice for fusion candidates. -- Abstract: The reduction of fossil fuels, coupled with its increase in price, has made the search for alternative energy resources more plausible. One of the topics gaining fast interest is the utilization of lignocellulose, the main component of plants. Its primary constituents, cellulose and hemicellulose, can be degraded by a series of enzymes present in microorganisms, into simple sugars, later used for bioethanol production. Thermophilic bacteria have proven to be an interesting source of enzymes required for hydrolysis since they can withstand high and denaturing temperatures, which are usually required for processes involving biomass degradation. However, the cost associated with the whole enzymatic process is staggering. A solution for cost effective and highly active production is through the construction of multifunctional enzyme complexes harboring the function of more than one enzyme needed for the hydrolysis process. There are various strategies for the degradation of complex biomass ranging from the regulation of the enzymes involved, to cellulosomes, and proteins harboring more than one enzymatic activity. In this review, the construction of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes through end-to-end gene fusions, and its impact on production and activity by choosing the enzymes and linkers is assessed.

  7. A novel recurrent NPM1-TYK2 gene fusion in cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Kiel, Mark J; Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A; Rolland, Delphine; Dixon, Catherine A; Bailey, Nathanael G; Betz, Bryan L; Brown, Noah A; Hristov, Alexandra C; Wilcox, Ryan A; Miranda, Roberto N; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Jeon, Yoon K; Inamdar, Kedar V; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2014-12-11

    The spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) includes lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Chromosomal translocations targeting tyrosine kinases in CD30-positive LPDs have not been described. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we identified a chimeric fusion involving NPM1 (5q35) and TYK2 (19p13) that encodes an NPM1-TYK2 protein containing the oligomerization domain of NPM1 and an intact catalytic domain in TYK2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed NPM1-TYK2 fusions in 2 of 47 (4%) primary cases of CD30-positive LPDs and was absent in other mature T-cell neoplasms (n = 151). Functionally, NPM1-TYK2 induced constitutive TYK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT3, and STAT5 activation. Conversely, a kinase-defective NPM1-TYK2 mutant abrogated STAT1/3/5 signaling. Finally, short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of TYK2 abrogated lymphoma cell growth. This is the first report of recurrent translocations involving TYK2, and it highlights the novel therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of CD30-positive LPDs with TYK2 translocations. PMID:25349176

  8. pBaSysBioll : an integrative plasmid generating gfp transcriptional fusions for high-throughput analysis of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botella, Eric; Fogg, Mark; Jules, Matthieu; Piersma, Sjouke; Doherty, Geoff; Hansen, Annette; Denham, Emma. L.; Le Chat, Ludovic; Veiga, Patrick; Bailey, Kirra; Lewis, Peter J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Aymerich, Stephane; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Devine, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid pBaSysBioll was constructed for high-throughput analysis of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis. It is an integrative plasmid with a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) site, allowing the generation of transcriptional gfpmut3 fusions with desired promoters. Integration is by a Campbell-type

  9. Fusion protein gene nucleotide sequence similarities, shared antigenic sites and phylogenetic analysis suggest that phocid distemper virus 2 and canine distemper virus belong to the same virus entity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.J.H. Kenter (Marcel); C. Örvell; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (F) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2), recently isolated from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame ATG translation initiation codons. We suggest that the secon

  10. Tethering of the conserved piggyBac transposase fusion protein CSB-PGBD3 to chromosomal AP-1 proteins regulates expression of nearby genes in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T Gray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein arose more than 43 million years ago when a 2.5-kb piggyBac 3 (PGBD3 transposon inserted into intron 5 of the Cockayne syndrome Group B (CSB gene in the common ancestor of all higher primates. As a result, full-length CSB is now coexpressed with an abundant CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein by alternative splicing of CSB exons 1-5 to the PGBD3 transposase. An internal deletion of the piggyBac transposase ORF also gave rise to 889 dispersed, 140-bp MER85 elements that were mobilized in trans by PGBD3 transposase. The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein binds MER85s in vitro and induces a strong interferon-like innate antiviral immune response when expressed in CSB-null UVSS1KO cells. To explore the connection between DNA binding and gene expression changes induced by CSB-PGBD3, we investigated the genome-wide DNA binding profile of the fusion protein. CSB-PGBD3 binds to 363 MER85 elements in vivo, but these sites do not correlate with gene expression changes induced by the fusion protein. Instead, CSB-PGBD3 is enriched at AP-1, TEAD1, and CTCF motifs, presumably through protein-protein interactions with the cognate transcription factors; moreover, recruitment of CSB-PGBD3 to AP-1 and TEAD1 motifs correlates with nearby genes regulated by CSB-PGBD3 expression in UVSS1KO cells and downregulated by CSB rescue of mutant CS1AN cells. Consistent with these data, the N-terminal CSB domain of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein interacts with the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun and with RNA polymerase II, and a chimeric CSB-LacI construct containing only the N-terminus of CSB upregulates many of the genes induced by CSB-PGBD3. We conclude that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein substantially reshapes the transcriptome in CS patient CS1AN and that continued expression of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein in the absence of functional CSB may affect the clinical presentation of CS patients by directly altering the transcriptional program.

  11. In-vitro activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by fusion of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells and lymphotactin gene-modified dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in-vitro activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by fusion of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and lymphotactin gene-modified dendritic cells (DCs).METHODS: Lymphotactin gene modified DCs (DCLptn) were prepared by lymphotactin recombinant adenovirus transduction of mature DCs which differentiated from mouse bone marrow cells by stimulation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). DCLptn and H22 fusion was prepared using 50% PEG. Lymphotactin gene and protein expression levels were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Lymphotactin chemotactic responses were examined by in-vitro chemotaxis assay. In-vitro activation of CTLs by DCLptn/H22 fusion was measured by detecting CD25 expression and cytokine production after autologous T cell stimulation. Cytotoxic function of activated T lymphocytes stimulated with DCLptn/H22 cells was determined by LDH cytotoxicity assay.RESULTS: Lymphotactin gene could be efficiently transduced to DCs by adenovirus vector and showed an effective biological activity. After fusion, the hybrid DCLptn/H22 cells acquired the phenotypes of both DCLptn and H22 cells. In T cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry showed a very high CD25 expression, and cytokine release assay showed a significantly higher concentration of IFN-γ and IL-2 in DCLptn/H22 group than in DCLptn, DCLptn+H22, DC/H22 or H22 groups. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that T cells derived from DCLptn/H22 group had much higher anti-tumor activity than those derived from DCLptn, H22, DCLptn + H22, DC/H22 groups.CONCLUSION: Lymphotactin gene-modified dendritoma induces T-cell proliferation and strong CTL reaction against allogenic HCC cells. Immunization-engineered fusion hybrid vaccine is an attractive strategy in prevention and treatment of HCC metastases.

  12. A novel type of EWS-CHOP fusion gene in myxoid liposarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytogenetic hallmark of myxoid type and round cell type liposarcoma consists of reciprocal translocation of t(12;16)(q13;p11) and t(12;22)(q13;q12), which results in fusion of TLS/FUS and CHOP, and EWS and CHOP, respectively. Nine structural variations of the TLS/FUS-CHOP chimeric transcript have been reported, however, only two types of EWS-CHOP have been described. We describe here a case of myxoid liposarcoma containing a novel EWS-CHOP chimeric transcript and identified the breakpoint occurring in intron 13 of EWS. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence showed that exon 13 of EWS was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. Genomic analysis revealed that the breaks were located in intron 13 of EWS and intron 1 of CHOP

  13. Cloning of rabies virus fusion gene pVax-G/N%狂犬病毒融合基因pVax-G/N的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政; 王小英; 蔡苗

    2012-01-01

    Object To construct rabies virus gene expression fusion vector of N and G genes for laying the foundation of the study on fusion gene vaccine. Methods Molecular biology technology was being employed to clone hydrophobic poison G and N gene from the plasmid pVax-G. After the success of the connection and appraisal,the cloned G and N gene were connected with wine yeast expression vector pYes2. And then the recombinant plasmid of G and N gene were appraised by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. Results The sequencing result of fusion gene pVax-G/N was consistent with excepted results. Conclusion Fusion expression vector of pYes2-pVax-C/N were successfully constructed, which would lay the foundation to study further on the stability and safety of rabies vaccine.%目的 构建狂犬病病毒C基因和N基因的融合表达载体,为研究融合基因疫苗打下基础.方法 利用分子生物学技术从质粒pVax-G中克隆出狂犬病毒G和N基因,经连接及鉴定成功后与酿酒酵母表达载体pYes2连接,并进行酶切及测序鉴定.结果 融合基因pVax-G/N测序结果与预期完全符合.结论 成功构建了融合表达载体pYes2-pVax-G/N,为进一步研究稳定、安全的狂犬病疫苗奠定基础.

  14. t(8;21)(q22;q22) fusion proteins preferentially bind to duplicated AML1/RUNX1 DNA-binding sequences to differentially regulate gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Akiko J.; Peterson, Luke F.; Okumura, Fumihiko; Boyapati, Anita; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are frequently associated with cancer development. The 8;21(q22;q22) chromosomal translocation is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities identified in leukemia. It generates fusion proteins between AML1 and ETO. Since AML1 is a well-defined DNA-binding protein, AML1-ETO fusion proteins have been recognized as DNA-binding proteins interacting with the same consensus DNA-binding site as AML1. The alteration of AML1 target gene expression due to the presence of ...

  15. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  16. Ewing Sarcoma With ERG Gene Rearrangements: A Molecular Study Focusing on the Prevalence of FUS-ERG and Common Pitfalls in Detecting EWSR1-ERG Fusions by FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sonja; Deniz, Kemal; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Dry, Sarah; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2016-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) are characterized by a canonical fusion involving EWSR1 gene and a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, such as FLI1 and ERG. In fact, ERG gene rearrangements represent the second most common molecular alteration, with EWSR1-ERG being identified in 5–10% of cases, while only a handful of reports document a FUS-ERG fusion. In this study, we focus on ES with ERG gene abnormalities, specifically to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of FUS-ERG fusions in a large cohort of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) and compare to the eight reported FUS-positive ES. Among the 85 SBRCTs tested, seven (8.2%) cases harbored FUS gene rearrangements; six fused to ERG and one with FEV. During this investigation we came across a number of ERG-rearranged ES lacking both EWSR1 and FUS abnormalities by FISH. In one case, RNA sequencing identified an EWSR1-ERG transcript despite the negative EWSR1 rearrangements by FISH. Additional 3-color FISH fusion assay demonstrated the fusion of EWSR1 and ERG signals in all four cases negative for break-apart EWSR1 FISH. These results emphasize a potential pitfall of relying on EWSR1 FISH assay alone for diagnosis of ES. In cases with classic morphology and/or strong CD99 and ERG immunoreactivity, additional molecular testing should be applied, such as ERG FISH or RT-PCR/next generation sequencing, for a more definitive diagnosis. Although our study group is small, there were no differences noted between the clinical, morphologic features and immunoprofile of the different subsets of ERG-rearranged SBRCTs. PMID:26690869

  17. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Cancer Classification and Diagnosis Prediction of a Subtype of Lymphoma Based on Gene Expression Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ziaei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. DLBCL patients have different survivals after diagnosis. 40% of patients respond well to current therapy and have prolonged survival, whereas the remainders survive less than 5 years. In this study, we have applied artificial neural network to classify patients with DLBCL on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Finally, we have attempted to extract a number of genes that their differential expression were significant in DLBCL subtypes. Methods: We studied 40 patients and 4026 genes. In this study, genes were ranked based on their signal to noise (S/N ratios. After selecting a suitable threshold, some of them whose ratios were less than the threshold were removed. Then we used PCA for more reducing and Perceptron neural network for classification of these patients. We extracted some appropriate genes based on their prediction ability. Results: We considered various targets for patients classifying. Thus patients were classified based on their 5 years survival with accuracy of 93%, in regard to Alizadeh et al study results with accuracy of 100%, and regarding with their International Prognosis Index (IPI with accuracy of 89%. Conclusion: Combination of PCA and S/N ratio is an effective method for the reduction of the dimension and neural network is a robust tool for classification of patients according to their gene expression profile. Keywords: classification, gene expression, DLBCL, neural network, Perceptron

  18. Fusion of the TBL1XR1 and HMGA1 genes in splenic hemangioma with t(3;6)(q26;p21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PANAGOPOULOS, IOANNIS; GORUNOVA, LUDMILA; BJERKEHAGEN, BODIL; LOBMAIER, INGVILD; HEIM, SVERRE

    2016-01-01

    RNA-sequencing of a splenic hemangioma with the karyotype 45~47,XX,t(3;6)(q26;p21) showed that this translocation generated a chimeric TBL1XR1-HMGA1 gene. This is the first time that this tumor has been subjected to genetic analysis, but the finding of an acquired clonal chromosome abnormality in cells cultured from the lesion and the presence of the TBL1XR1-HMGA1 fusion in them strongly favor the conclusion that splenic hemangiomas are of a neoplastic nature. Genomic PCR confirmed the presence of the TBL1XR1-HMGA1 fusion gene, and RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of the fusion transcripts. The molecular consequences of the t(3;6) would be substantial. The cells carrying the translocation would retain only one functional copy of the wild-type TBL1XR1 gene while the other, rearranged allele could produce a putative truncated form of TBL1XR1 protein containing the LiSH and F-box-like domains. In the TBL1XR1-HMGA1 fusion transcript, furthermore, untranslated exons of HMGA1 are replaced by the first 5 exons of the TBL1XR1 gene. The result is that the entire coding region of HMGA1 comes under the control of the TBL1XR1 promoter, bringing about dysregulation of HMGA1. This is reminiscent of similar pathogenetic mechanisms involving high mobility genes in benign connective tissue tumors such as lipomas and leiomyomas. PMID:26708416

  19. Identification of a lung adenocarcinoma cell line with CCDC6-RET fusion gene and the effect of RET inhibitors in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makito; Makinoshima, Hideki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Suzuki, Ayako; Mimaki, Sachiyo; Matsushima, Koutatsu; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ishii, Genichiro; Ochiai, Atsushi; Tsuta, Koji; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Kohno, Takashi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    Rearrangements of the proto-oncogene RET are newly identified potential driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). However, the absence of cell lines harboring RET fusion genes has hampered the investigation of the biological relevance of RET and the development of RET-targeted therapy. Thus, we aimed to identify a RET fusion positive LAD cell line. Eleven LAD cell lines were screened for RET fusion transcripts by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The biological relevance of the CCDC6-RET gene products was assessed by cell growth, survival and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT with or without the suppression of RET expression using RNA interference. The efficacy of RET inhibitors was evaluated in vitro using a culture system and in an in vivo xenograft model. Expression of the CCDC6-RET fusion gene in LC-2/ad cells was demonstrated by the mRNA and protein levels, and the genomic break-point was confirmed by genomic DNA sequencing. Mutations in KRAS and EGFR were not observed in the LC-2/ad cells. CCDC6-RET was constitutively active, and the introduction of a siRNA targeting the RET 3' region decreased cell proliferation by downregulating RET and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, treatment with RET-inhibitors, including vandetanib, reduced cell viability, which was accompanied by the downregulation of the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Vandetanib exhibited anti-tumor effects in the xenograft model. Endogenously expressing CCDC6-RET contributed to cell growth. The inhibition of kinase activity could be an effective treatment strategy for LAD. LC-2/ad is a useful model for developing fusion RET-targeted therapy. PMID:23578175

  20. Polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes, chromosome damage, and risk of Down syndrome in Italian women: identification of key factors using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migheli Francesca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mothers of Down syndrome individuals (MDS point to a role for polymorphisms in folate metabolic genes in increasing chromosome damage and maternal risk for a Down syndrome (DS pregnancy, suggesting complex gene-gene interactions. This study aimed to analyze a dataset of genetic and cytogenetic data in an Italian group of MDS and mothers of healthy children (control mothers to assess the predictive capacity of artificial neural networks assembled in TWIST system in distinguish consistently these two different conditions and to identify the variables expressing the maximal amount of relevant information to the condition of being mother of a DS child. The dataset consisted of the following variables: the frequency of chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes (BNMN frequency and the genotype for 7 common polymorphisms in folate metabolic genes (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C, MTRR 66A>G, MTR 2756A>G, RFC1 80G>A and TYMS 28bp repeats and 1494 6bp deletion. Data were analysed using TWIST system in combination with supervised artificial neural networks, and a semantic connectivity map. Results TWIST system selected 6 variables (BNMN frequency, MTHFR 677TT, RFC1 80AA, TYMS 1494 6bp +/+, TYMS 28bp 3R/3R and MTR 2756AA genotypes that were subsequently used to discriminate between MDS and control mothers with 90% accuracy. The semantic connectivity map provided important information on the complex biological connections between the studied variables and the two conditions (being MDS or control mother. Conclusions Overall, the study suggests a link between polymorphisms in folate metabolic genes and DS risk in Italian women.

  1. Primary endobronchial synovial sarcoma confirmed by SYT-SSX1 fusion gene transcript by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajiv

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary sarcomas of lung are rare compared to metastatic sarcomas. Herein, we report a rare case of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma with polypoid endobronchial growth in a 35-year-old lady who presented with cough and dyspnea. A malignant pulmonary tumor was suspected and left pneumonectomy was performed. Grossly, a non-encapsulated polypoidal endobronchial tumor measuring 6 cm in greatest diameter, with a solid, tan-white cut surface was identified. Microscopically, tumor was characterized by a proliferation of oval to spindle-shaped cells arranged in sheets and fascicles. Focal hemangiopericytomatous pattern was noted. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for vimentin, BCL-2, MIC-2 and calponin and focally positive for pancytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. A subsequent molecular analysis performed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with RNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue, revealed SYT/SSX1 fusion gene which confirmed the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. The utility of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques in diagnosis of such a rare case is stressed and the relevant literature is discussed.

  2. Using a GFP-gene fusion technique to study the cell cycle-dependent distribution of calmodulin in living cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝军; 吕品; 张东才

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-calmodulin (CaM) fusion gene method was used to examine the distribution of calmodulin during various stages of cell cycle. First, it was found that the distribution of CaM in living cells changes with the cell cycle. CaM was found mainly in the cytoplasm during G1 phase. It began to move into the nucleus when the cell entered S phase. At G2 phase, CaM became more concentrated in the nucleus than in cytoplasm. Second, the accumulation of CaM in the nucleus during G2 phase appeared to be related to the onset of mitosis, since inhibiting the activation of CaM at this stage resulted in blocking the nuclear membrane breakdown and chromatin condensation. Finally, after the cell entered mitosis, a high concentration of CaM was found at the polar regions of the mitotic spindle. At this time, inhibiting the activity of CaM would cause a disruption of the spindle structure. The relationship between the stage-specific distribution of CaM and its function in regulat

  3. A simple, rapid, low-cost technique for naked-eye detection of urine-isolated TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin M; Wee, Eugene J H; Mainwaring, Paul N; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion is one of a series of highly promising prostate cancer (PCa) biomarker alternatives to the controversial serum PSA. Current methods for detecting TMPRSS2:ERG are limited in terms of long processing time, high cost and the need for specialized equipment. Thus, there is an unmet need for less complex, faster, and cheaper methods to enable gene fusion detection in the clinic. We describe herein a simple, rapid and inexpensive assay which combines robust isothermal amplification technique with a novel visualization method for evaluating urinary TMPRSS2:ERG status at less than USD 5 and with minimal equipment. The assay is sensitive, and rapidly detects as low as 10(5) copies of TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts while maintaining high levels of specificity. PMID:27470540

  4. A simple, rapid, low-cost technique for naked-eye detection of urine-isolated TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin M.; Wee, Eugene J. H.; Mainwaring, Paul N.; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion is one of a series of highly promising prostate cancer (PCa) biomarker alternatives to the controversial serum PSA. Current methods for detecting TMPRSS2:ERG are limited in terms of long processing time, high cost and the need for specialized equipment. Thus, there is an unmet need for less complex, faster, and cheaper methods to enable gene fusion detection in the clinic. We describe herein a simple, rapid and inexpensive assay which combines robust isothermal amplification technique with a novel visualization method for evaluating urinary TMPRSS2:ERG status at less than USD 5 and with minimal equipment. The assay is sensitive, and rapidly detects as low as 105 copies of TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts while maintaining high levels of specificity. PMID:27470540

  5. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  6. Multiple controls exerted on in vivo expression of the pepN gene in Escherichia coli: studies with pepN-lacZ operon and protein fusion strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi, S.; Belaich, A; Murgier, M; Lazdunski, A

    1985-01-01

    Three physiological conditions were shown to promote transcriptional regulation of pepN expression: phosphate limitation, the nature of the source of carbon and energy, and anaerobiosis. The transcriptional level of regulation can be deduced from the observation of these effects in strains carrying operon fusion pepN-lacZ. Mutations in the various genes phoB, phoM, phoR, crp, and fnr (oxrA) did not affect pepN expression.

  7. Spatial Localization of Genes Determined by Intranuclear DNA Fragmentation with the Fusion Proteins Lamin KRED and Histone KRED und Visible Light

    OpenAIRE

    Waldeck, Waldemar; Mueller, Gabriele; Glatting, Karl-Heinz; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Diessl, Nicolle; Chotewutmonti, Sasithorn; Langowski, Jörg; Semmler, Wolfhard; Wiessler, Manfred; Braun, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The highly organized DNA architecture inside of the nuclei of cells is accepted in the scientific world. In the human genome about 3 billion nucleotides are organized as chromatin in the cell nucleus. In general, they are involved in gene regulation and transcription by histone modification. Small chromosomes are localized in a central nuclear position whereas the large chromosomes are peripherally positioned. In our experiments we inserted fusion proteins consisting of a component of the nuc...

  8. Hot fusion, cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication of observations of nuclear fusion reactions in electrolysis experiments has led to hope that an easy way to domesticate this major source of energy had been found. In this article are recalled the classical solutions which are studied for hot fusion, the state of the art the difficulties and the perspectives, followed by the present situation concerning the experiments related to what has been called, perhaps a little too quickly, cold fusion

  9. Intraparenchymal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the frontal lobe--a case report and molecular detection of specific gene fusions from archival FFPE sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Emir Ahmed; Sikora, Katarzyna; Paciejewski, Tomasz; Garbicz, Filip; Paskal, Wiktor; Szacht, Milena; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Włodarski, Pawel Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor of cartilaginous origin characterized by its bimorphic pattern composed of highly undifferentiated small round cells separated by islands of well-differentiated hyaline cartilage. It exhibits higher malignancy and earlier occurrence in comparison to classic chondrosarcomas. Recently identified HEY1-NCOA2 and IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusions confirm their distinct molecular origin and pose a promising diagnostic marker. The majority of cases arise from craniofacial bones. In this study, we present a rare case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma encompassed within the brain parenchyma of the frontal lobe without any dural or bone attachment. We demonstrate histopathological findings and confirm the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion in a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival sample using simple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusion was absent in the analyzed sample. The clinical follow-up is also presented with a review of treatment modalities for this entity. PMID:25907264

  10. Investigating effect of fusion gene therapy by MR diffusion-weighted imaging in a rat C6 glioma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for early detection of tumor response to Angiostatin-Endostatin (Statin-AE) fusion gene therapy in a rat C6 glioma model. Methods: Fifty male wistar rats with C6 tumor cells implanted into the striatum were examined by a 3.0T MR scanner, then the rats bearing tumors were divided into two groups, treatment group and control group. Rats in the treatment group received 107 plaque forming unit (pfu) recombinant herps simplex viral (R-HSV) mediated Statin-AE fusion gene therapy on day 7, and then the tumors were conformed on MRI. Conventional MR and DWI examination were acquired on 1, 2, 3 weeks after implantation with a 5-inch surface coil. Two (1 w), eight (2 w) and all the residual rats (3 w) of each group were sacrificed to perform the histopathological examination after each MRI examination. Pretreatment and post treatment tumor volumes and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated. Bank sum test and t test were employed for statistical analysis. Results: On MRI, 43 rats demonstrated tumors on day 7 with a successful rate of 86%. On week 2, the tumor volumes of the controls and treatment group were 90. 6 and 91.64 mm3 , with no significant difference (Z=-0.14, P>0.05). On week 3, the tumor volumes of the controls and treatment group were 156.64 and 29.64 mm3, and a significant difference was observed (Z=-3.45, P-3 and (0.99 ± 0.08) x 10-3mm2/s, and the values of the tumor peripheral parts of the two groups were (1.00 ± 0.25) x 10-3 and (0.83 ± 0.12) x 10-3 mm2/s, the ADC values of both tumor centers and peripheral parts of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group (t=-0.82 and -0.46, P-3 and (0.99 ± 0.09) x 10-3mm2/s, and the values of the tumor peripheral parts of the two groups were (0.81±0.19) x 10-3 and (0.78±0.11) x 10-3 mm2/s, there were no statistical difference between the two groups (t=0.82, and -0.46, P<0.05). HE stained slices

  11. A novel system for simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple gene-loading vectors into a defined site of a human artificial chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Human artificial chromosomes (HACs are gene-delivery vectors suitable for introducing large DNA fragments into mammalian cells. Although a HAC theoretically incorporates multiple gene expression cassettes of unlimited DNA size, its application has been limited because the conventional gene-loading system accepts only one gene-loading vector (GLV into a HAC. We report a novel method for the simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple GLVs into a HAC vector (designated as the SIM system via combined usage of Cre, FLP, Bxb1, and φC31 recombinase/integrase. As a proof of principle, we first attempted simultaneous integration of three GLVs encoding EGFP, Venus, and TdTomato into a gene-loading site of a HAC in CHO cells. These cells successfully expressed all three fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microcell-mediated transfer of HACs enabled the expression of those fluorescent proteins in recipient cells. We next demonstrated that GLVs could be introduced into a HAC one-by-one via reciprocal usage of recombinase/integrase. Lastly, we introduced a fourth GLV into a HAC after simultaneous integration of three GLVs by FLP-mediated DNA recombination. The SIM system expands the applicability of HAC vectors and is useful for various biomedical studies, including cell reprogramming.

  12. Paired Box Gene 8-Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Fusion Protein and Loss of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Synergistically Cause Thyroid Hyperplasia in Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo-Krou, Ericka; Yu, Jingcheng; Colby, Lesley A.; Inoki, Ken; Wilkinson, John E.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 35% of follicular thyroid carcinomas and a small fraction of follicular adenomas are associated with a t(2;3)(q13;p25) chromosomal translocation that fuses paired box gene 8 (PAX8) with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ gene (PPARG), resulting in expression of a PAX8-PPARγ fusion protein, PPFP. The mechanism by which PPFP contributes to follicular thyroid neoplasia is poorly understood. Therefore, we have created mice with thyroid-specific expression of PPFP. At 1...

  13. A YAC contig encompassing the XRCC5 (Ku80) DNA repair gene and complementation of defective cells by YAC protoplast fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, T.; Priestley, A.; Hafezparast, M.; McMillan, T. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    The Chinese hamster ovary xrs mutants are sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in DNA double-strand break rejoining, and unable to carry out V(D)J recombination effectively. Recently, the gene defective in these mutants, XRCC5, has been shown to encode Ku80, a component of the Ku protein and DNA-dependent protein kinase. We present here a YAC contig involving 25 YACs mapping to the region 2q33-q34, which encompasses the XRCC5 gene. Eight new markers for this region of chromosome 2 are identified. YACs encoding the Ku80 gene were transferred to xrs cells by protoplast fusion, and complementation of all the defective phenotypes has been obtained with two YACs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach as a strategy for cloning human genes complementing defective rodent cell lines. 44 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The role of the Aspergillus niger furin-type protease gene in processing of fungal proproteins and fusion proteins: Evidence for alternative processing of recombinant (fusion-) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Drint-Kuijvenhoven, A.; Lokman, B.C.; Spencer, J.A.; Jeenes, D.; Archer, D.A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized growth and protein processing characteristics of Aspergillus niger strains carrying a disrupted allele of the previously cloned and characterized kexB gene [Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (2000) 363] encoding a furin-type endoprotease. Deletion of the single-copy gene confirms it

  15. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development

  16. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  17. The 3; 21 translocation in myelodysplasia results in a fusion transcript between the AML1 gene and the gene for EAP, a highly conserved protein associated with the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucifora, G.; Begy, C.R.; Rowley, J.D. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)); Erickson, P.; Drabkin, H.A. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-08-15

    In the 8;21 translocation, the AML1 gene, located at chromosome band 21q22, is translocated to chromosome 8 (q22), where it is fused to the ETO gene and transcribed as a chimeric gene. AML1 is the human homolog of the recently cloned mouse gene pebp2[alpha]B, homologous to the DNA binding [alpha] subunit of the polyoma enhancer factor pebp2. AML1 is also involved in a translocation with chromosome 3 that is seen in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome and in chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. The authors have isolated a fusion cDNA clone from a t(3;21) library derived from a patient with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome; this clone contains sequences from AML1 and from EAP, which have now been localized to ban 3q26. EAP has previously been characterized as a highly expressed small nuclear protein of 128 residues (EBER 1) associated with Epstein-Barr virus small RNA. The fusion clone contains the DNA binding 5[prime] part of AML1 that is fused to ETO in the t(8;21) and, in addition, at least one other exon. The translocation replaces the last nine codons of AML1 with the last 96 codons of EAP. The fusion does not maintain the correct reading frame of EAP and may not lead to a functional chimeric protein. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Genetic interaction between Tmprss2-ERG gene fusion and Nkx3.1-loss does not enhance prostate tumorigenesis in mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E Linn

    Full Text Available Gene fusions involving ETS family transcription factors (mainly TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusions have been found in ~50% of human prostate cancer cases. Although expression of TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusion alone is insufficient to initiate prostate tumorigenesis, they appear to sensitize prostate epithelial cells for cooperation with additional oncogenic mutations to drive frank prostate adenocarcinoma. To search for such ETS-cooperating oncogenic events, we focused on a well-studied prostate tumor suppressor NKX3.1, as loss of NKX3.1 is another common genetic alteration in human prostate cancer. Previous studies have shown that deletions at 8p21 (harboring NKX3.1 and 21q22 (resulting in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion were both present in a subtype of prostate cancer cases, and that ERG can lead to epigenetic silencing of NKX3.1 in prostate cancer cells, whereas NKX3.1 can in turn negatively regulate TMPRSS2-ERG fusion expression via suppression of the TMPRSS2 promoter activity. We recently generated knockin mouse models for TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusions, utilizing the endogenous Tmprss2 promoter. We crossed these knockin models to an Nkx3.1 knockout mouse model. In Tmprss2-ERG;Nkx3.1+/- (or -/- male mice, although we observed a slight but significant upregulation of Tmprss2-ERG fusion expression upon Nkx3.1 loss, we did not detect any significant cooperation between these two genetic events to enhance prostate tumorigenesis in vivo. Furthermore, retrospective analysis of a previously published human prostate cancer dataset revealed that within ERG-overexpressing prostate cancer cases, NKX3.1 loss or deletion did not predict biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy. Collectively, these data suggest that although TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and loss of NKX3.1 are among the most common mutational events found in prostate cancer, and although each of them can sensitize prostate epithelial cells for cooperating with other oncogenic events, these

  19. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in Turkish patients with localized prostate cancer: results of radical prostatectomy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ömer; Berber, Ufuk; Okçelik, Sezgin; Soydan, Hasan; Ateş, Ferhat; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate and determine the frequency of Transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion in Turkish patients with clinically localized prostate cancer by using immunohistochemistry and reveal its relationship with clinicopathologic variables. Material and methods Radical prostatectomy specimens of 99 patients, who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy for localized cancer, between January 2002 and December 2011 were analyzed in the study. To detect ERG fusions, monoclonal ERG antibodyclone ID: EPR3864 (Epitomics, San Diego, CA, USA) and monoclonal anti-ERG antibody (9FY) (BiocareMedical, LLC, USA) were used. The immunistochemical expression of ERG protein was assessed as positive or negative regardless of stain intensity. Patients’ age, total and primary Gleason scores, PSA levels, prostate volumes, tumor volumes, tumor stages and perineural invasion status were analysed retrospectively. Total fusion rate and correlation between the variables and fusion were evaluated. Results Mean age, prostate volume, tumor volume, PSA value of 99 patients were 62.02 years (±5.93), 50.02 cc (±20.67), 3.19 cc (±4.16), and 9.34 ng/mL (±3.37) respectively. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was seen in 46 (46.5%) of 99 patients. When the variables analysed with independent samples t test to predict fusion (+) status, none of them was found to be statistically significant. When evaluated by logistic regression analysis for (+) or (−) status, only tumor stage was found to be statistically significantly correlated with fusion (p=0.049). Conclusion The incidence of TMPRSS-ERG fusion in patients with localised prostate cancer in our study with Turkish population was found as 46.5%. Only tumor stage correlated with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion.

  20. Horizontal transmission of malignancy: in-vivo fusion of human lymphomas with hamster stroma produces tumors retaining human genes and lymphoid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available We report the in-vivo fusion of two Hodgkin lymphomas with golden hamster cheek pouch cells, resulting in serially-transplanted (over 5-6 years GW-532 and GW-584 heterosynkaryon tumor cells displaying both human and hamster DNA (by FISH, lymphoma-like morphology, aggressive metastasis, and retention of 7 human genes (CD74, CXCR4, CD19, CD20, CD71, CD79b, and VIM out of 24 tested by PCR. The prevalence of B-cell restricted genes (CD19, CD20, and CD79b suggests that this uniform population may be the clonal initiating (malignant cells of Hodgkin lymphoma, despite their not showing translation to their respective proteins by immunohistochemical analysis. This is believed to be the first report of in-vivo cell-cell fusion of human lymphoma and rodent host cells, and may be a method to disclose genes regulating both organoid and metastasis signatures, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of tumor DNA to adjacent stromal cells may be implicated in tumor heterogeneity and progression. The B-cell gene signature of the hybrid xenografts suggests that Hodgkin lymphoma, or its initiating cells, is a B-cell malignancy.

  1. Novel BCOR-MAML3 and ZC3H7B-BCOR Gene Fusions in Undifferentiated Small Blue Round Cell Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Katja; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Nucci, Marisa; Dry, Sarah; Vaiyapuri, Sumathi; Richter, Gunther H S; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-04-01

    Small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) are a heterogenous group of tumors that are difficult to diagnose because of overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical features. About two-thirds of EWSR1-negative SBRCTs are associated with CIC-DUX4-related fusions, whereas another small subset shows BCOR-CCNB3 X-chromosomal paracentric inversion. Applying paired-end RNA sequencing to an SBRCT index case of a 44-year-old man, we identified a novel BCOR-MAML3 chimeric fusion, which was validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. We then screened a total of 75 SBRCTs lacking EWSR1, FUS, SYT, CIC, and BCOR-CCNB3 abnormalities for BCOR break-apart probes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect potential recurrent BCOR gene rearrangements outside the typical X-chromosomal inversion. Indeed, 8/75 (11%) SBRCTs showed distinct BCOR gene rearrangements, with 2 cases each showing either a BCOR-MAML3 or the alternative ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, whereas no fusion partner was detected in the remaining 4 cases. Gene expression of the BCOR-MAML3-positive index case showed a distinct transcriptional profile with upregulation of HOX-gene signature, compared with classic Ewing's sarcoma or CIC-DUX4-positive SBRCTs. The clinicopathologic features of the SBRCTs with alternative BCOR rearrangements were also compared with a group of BCOR-CCNB3 inversion-positive cases, combining 11 from our files with a meta-analysis of 42 published cases. The BCOR-CCNB3-positive tumors occurred preferentially in children and in bone, in contrast to alternative BCOR-rearranged SBRCTs, which presented in young adults, with a variable anatomic distribution. Furthermore, BCOR-rearranged tumors often displayed spindle cell areas, either well defined in intersecting fascicles or blending with the round cell component, which appears distinct from most other fusion-positive SBRCTs and shares histologic overlap with poorly

  2. Data fusion mathematics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, Jitendra R

    2015-01-01

    Fills the Existing Gap of Mathematics for Data FusionData fusion (DF) combines large amounts of information from a variety of sources and fuses this data algorithmically, logically and, if required intelligently, using artificial intelligence (AI). Also, known as sensor data fusion (SDF), the DF fusion system is an important component for use in various applications that include the monitoring of vehicles, aerospace systems, large-scale structures, and large industrial automation plants. Data Fusion Mathematics: Theory and Practice offers a comprehensive overview of data fusion, and provides a

  3. Trans-activation function of a 3' truncated X gene-cell fusion product from integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the expression and transactivation function of the X gene in integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from chronic hepatitis tissues, a series of transfectants containing cloned integrated HBV DNAs was made and analyzed for X mRNA expression and trans-activation activity by using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Most of the integrated HBV DNAs expressed X mRNA and encoded a product with trans-activation activity in spite of the loss of the 3' end region of the X gene due to integration. From cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of X mRNA transcribed from native or integrated HBV DNA, the X protein was found to be translated from the X open reading frame without splicing. For integrated HBV DNA, transcription was extended to a cellular flanking DNA and an X gene-cell fusion transcript was terminated by using a cellular poly(A) signal. The amino acid sequence deduced from an X-cell fusion transcript indicated truncation of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, but the upstream region of seven amino acids conserved among hepadnaviruses was retained in the integrated HBV DNA, suggesting that this conserved region is essential for the transactivation function of the X protein. These findings support the following explanation for hepatocarcinogenesis by HBV DNA integration: the expression of a cellular oncogene(s) is transactivated at the time of chronic infection by the increasing amounts of the integrated HBV gene product(s), such as the X-cell fusion product

  4. Involvement of primary mesenchymal precursors and hematopoietic bone marrow cells from chronic myeloid leukemia patients by BCR-ABL1 fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandia, Mauricio; Sayagués, José-María; Gutiérrez, María-Laura; Chillón, María-Laura; Aristizábal, José-Alejandro; Corrales, Alejandro; Castellanos, Marta; Melón, Alberto; Sánchez, María-Luz; Bárcena, Paloma; Matarraz, Sergio; González-González, María; Barrena, Susana; López, Antonio; Cañizo, María-Consuelo; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    For decades now, it is well established that chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell(HPC) disorder. However, it remains to be determined whether BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangement occurs in a HPC or at an earlier stem cell and whether the degree of involvement of hematopoiesis by the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene relates to the response to therapy. Here, we have investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) the distribution of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in FACS-sorted bone marrow (BM) populations of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) and other hematopoietic cell populations from 18 newly diagnosed CML patients. Overall, our results showed systematic involvement at relatively high percentages of BM maturing neutrophils (97%615%), basophils (95%612%), eosinophils (90%68%), CD341 precursors cells (90%67%),monocytes (84%630%), nucleated red blood cells (87%624%), and mast cells (77%633%). By contrast, MPC(30%634%), B-cells (15%627%), T-lymphocytes (50%626%), and NK-cells (35%634%) were involved at lower percentages. In 8/18 CML patients, 2 tumor BCR-ABL11 subclones were detected by iFISH. Of note, all tumor cell subclones were systematically detected in CD341 cells, whereas MPC were only involved by the ancestral tumor cell subclone. In summary, here we confirm the presence at diagnosis of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene inMPC, CD341 precursors, and other different BM hematopoietic myeloid cell lineages from CML patients,including also in a significant fraction of cases, a smaller percentage of T, B, and NK lymphocytes.Interestingly, involvement of MPC was restricted to the ancestral BCR-ABL11 subclone. PMID:24779036

  5. [Correlation between expression of SIL-TAL1 fusion gene and deletion of 6q in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Li-Li; Dai, Hai-Ping; Ping, Na-Na; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Jin-Lan; Cen, Jian-Nong; Qiu, Hui-Ying; Chen, Su-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of SIL-TAL1 rearrangements in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The incidence of SIL-TAL1 rearrangements was analyzed by nest real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 68 patients with T-ALL. Karyotypic analysis was performed by conventional R-banding assay and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The results showed that SIL-TAL1 rearrangements were identified in 10/26 (38.5%) pediatric and 2/42 (4.8%) adult T-ALL cases, which indicate a pediatric preference for SIL-TAL1 rearrangements in T-ALL. Two different transcripts were detected in 6/12(50%) T-ALL samples. Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 6 out of 11 cases (54.5%) and a deletion of the long arm of chromosome 6 was observed in 4 cases. Array-CGH results of 2 T-ALL cases with SIL-TAL1 rearrangement revealed that this fusion gene was resulted from a cryptic deletion of 1p32, and the overlap region of 6q deletion was 6q14.1-16.3. These cases with SIL-TAL1 fusion had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count and higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) than cases without SIL-TAL1 fusion. It is concluded that SIL-TAL1 rearrangements are associated with loss of heterozygosity of chromosomal 6q, and SIL-TAL1-positive patients are younger than SIL-TAL1-negative patients. In contrast to the cases without SIL-TAL1 fusion, there are many adverse prognostic factors in the cases with SIL-TAL1 fusion, such as higher WBC count and higher LDH levels. PMID:25543465

  6. Data Fusion Method for Manufacturing Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A data fusion method of online multisensors is prop os ed in this paper based on artificial neuron. First, the dynamic data fusion mode l on artificial neuron is built. Then the calibration of data fusion is discusse d with self-adaptive weighing technique. Finally performance of the method is d emonstrated by an online vibration measurement case. The results show that the f used data are more stable, sensitive, accurate, reliable than that of single sen sor data.Data Fusion Method for Manufacturing Measure...

  7. Construction of prokaryotic expression system of ItB-ureB fusion gene and identification of the recombinant protein immunity and adjuvanticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yan; Yuan Wang; Shi-He Shao; Ya-Fei Mao; Hua-Wen Li; Yi-Hui Luo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct ItB-ureB fusion gene and its prokaryotic expression system and identify immunity and adjuvanticity of the expressed recombinant protein.METHODS: The ureB gene from a clinical Helicobacterpylori(Hpylori) strain Y06 and the ItB gene from Escherichiacoli(E coli) strain 44851 were linked into ItB-ureB fusiongene by PCR. The fusion gene sequence was analyzedafter T-A cloning. A prokaryotic recombinant expressionvector pET32a inserted with ItB-ureB fusion gene (pET32aItB-ureB) was constructed. Expression of the recombinantLTB-UreB protein (rLTB-UreB)in E. coliBL21DE3 inducedby isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) at differentconcentrations was detected by SDS-PAGE. Western blot assays were used to examine the immunoreaction of rLTBUreB by a commercial antibody against whole cell of H pylori and a self-prepared rabbit anti-rUreB serum, respectively, and determine the antigenicity of the recombinant proteinon inducing specific antibody in rabbits. GM1-ELISA wasused to demonstrate the adjuvanticity of rLTB-UreB. Immunoreaction of rLTB-UreB to the UreB antibody positivesera from 125 gastric patients was determined by using ELISA. RESULTS: In comparison with the corresponding sequences of original genes, the nucleotide sequence homologies of the cloned ItB-ureB fusion gene were 100%. IPTG withdifferent dosages of 0.1-1.0 mmol/L could efficiently inducepET32a-ItB-ureB-E.coli BL21DE3 to express the rLTB-UreB. The output of the target recombinant protein expressed by pET32a-ureB-E. coli BL21DE3 was approximately 35%of the total bacterial proteins. rLTB-UreB mainly presented in the form of inclusion body. Western blotting results demonstrated that rLTB-UreB could combine with the commercial antibody against whole cell of H pylori andanti-rUreB serum as well as induce rabbit to produce specific antibody. The strong ability of rLTB-UreB bindingbovine GM1 indicated the existence of adjuvanticity of the recombinant protein. All the UreB antibody positive sera from

  8. Temsirolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion proteins: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Brown

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (TRCCs are a rare family of tumors newly recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2004. These tumors result in the fusion of partner genes to the TFE3 gene located on Xp11.2. They are most common in the pediatric population, but have been recently implicated in adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC presenting at an early age. TFE3-mediated direct transcriptional upregulation of the Met tyrosine kinase receptor triggers dramatic activation of downstream signaling pathways including the protein kinase B (Akt/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways. Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR kinase, a component of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the growth and proliferation of malignant cells. Here we present a case of a 22-year old female who has been treated with temsirolimus for her Xp11.2/TFE3 gene fusion RCC.

  9. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  10. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  11. Transformation of Arabidopsis by Rice OsWRKY78:: GFP Fusion Gene and Subcellular Localization of OsWRKY78 Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunzhi LIU; Mei ZHANG; Xin TANG; Xiaolan WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to understand the subcellular localization of OsWRKY78 protein in plants. [Method] Primers specific for OsWRKY78 gene were designed according to the OsWRKY78 full length sequence in Genbank. The gene was cloned by RT-PCR method. The gene was then recombined into a plasmid ex- pression vector carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, pBinGFP. The re- combinant was confirmed by PCR and enzyme digestion. The recombinant plasmid pBinGFP-OsWRKY was transformed into Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium tume- faciens strain GV3101 and transgenic plants were obtained. [Result] Measured by fluorescence microscopy, the expression of OsWRKY78 and GFP fusion protein in root tip cells was localized in the nucleus. [Conclusion] This study laid the foundation for further investigating the function of OsWRKY78 gene and its role in related sig- nal transduction and provided theoretical basis for exploring the relation between OsWRKY78 gene and brown planthoppers.

  12. Fusion protein gene nucleotide sequence similarities, shared antigenic sites and phylogenetic analysis suggest that phocid distemper virus 2 and canine distemper virus belong to the same virus entity.

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Ilona; Heijden, Roger; van de Bildt, Marco; Kenter, Marcel; Örvell, C.; Osterhaus, Albert

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (F) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2), recently isolated from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame ATG translation initiation codons. We suggest that the second in-frame ATG triplet at positions 264 to 266 initiates the translation, resulting in a protein of 537 amino acid residues with a calculated M(r) of 63,035. The putative F1/F2 cleavage site, locat...

  13. FUSION CITIES - consolidation of movement

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Jula-Kim

    2009-01-01

    Urban, social, cultural analysis of fusion cities, two bordering cities growing together, with different types of borders: natural, artificial, political, and social. The work is displayed in maps and visual language. BRAKIN_natural : Brazzaville and Kinshasa by Humerto Sarabio and Marion Bouchard SAN JUANA_artificial : San Diego and Tijuana by Julio Obregon Zepeda and Anne Touchet JERUSALEM_political : East and West Jerusalem by Slobodan Subotić and Petko Gogov FAVEMINIO_social : Favela and ...

  14. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  15. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Amphioxus genes of the proprotein convertase family, including aPC6C, a marker of epithelial fusions during embryology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Bertrand, Alain Camasses, Mathilde Paris, Nicholas D. Holland, Hector Escriva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprotein convertases (PCs comprise a family of subtilisin-like endoproteases that activate precursor proteins (including, prohormones, growth factors, and adhesion molecules during their transit through secretory pathways or at the cell surface. To explore the evolution of the PC gene family in chordates, we made a phylogenetic analysis of PC genes found in databases, with special attention to three PC genes of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative to the vertebrates. Since some vertebrate PC genes are essential for early development, we investigated the expression pattern of the C isoform of the amphioxus PC6 gene (aPC6C. In amphioxus embryos and larvae, aPC6C is expressed at places where epithelia fuse. Several kinds of fusions occur: ectoderm-to-ectoderm during neurulation; mesoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the preoral ciliated pit; and endoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the mouth, pharyngeal slits, anus, and external opening of the club-shaped gland. Presumably, at all these sites, aPC6C is activating proteins favoring association between previously disjunct cell populations.

  17. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  18. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using cotyledonary node as explant and a promoterless gus::nptII fusion gene based vector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Swathi Anuradha; S K Jami; R S Datla; P B Kirti

    2006-06-01

    We have generated putative promoter tagged transgenic lines in Arachis hypogaea cv JL-24 using cotyledonary node (CN) as an explant and a promoterless gus::nptII bifunctional fusion gene mediated by Agrobacterium transformation. MS medium fortified with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 4 mg/l in combination with 0.1 mg/l -napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was the most effective out of the various BAP and NAA combinations tested in multiple shoot bud formation. Parameters enhancing genetic transformation viz. seedling age, Agrobacterium genetic background and co-cultivation periods were studied by using the binary vector p35SGUSINT. Genetic transformation with CN explants from 6-dayold seedlings co-cultivated with Agrobacterium GV2260 strain for 3 days resulted in high kanamycin resistant shoot induction percentage (45%); approximately 31% transformation frequency was achieved with p35S GUSINT in -glucuronidase (GUS) assays. Among the in vivo GUS fusions studied with promoterless gus::nptII construct, GUS-positive sectors occupied 38% of the total transient GUS percentage. We have generated over 141 putative T0 plants by using the promoterless construct and transferred them to the field. Among these, 82 plants survived well in the green house and 5 plants corresponding to 3.54% showed stable integration of the fusion gene as evidenced by GUS, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Twenty-four plants were positive for GUS showing either tissue-specific expression or blue spots in at least one plant part. The progeny of 15 T0 plants indicated Mendelian inheritance pattern of segregation for single-copy integration. The tissue-specific GUS expression patterns were more or less similar in both T0 and corresponding T1 progeny plants. We present the differential patterns of GUS expression identified in the putative promoter-tagged transgenic lines in the present communication.

  19. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  20. Specific detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola in infected rice plant by use of PCR assay targeting a membrane fusion protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Man Jung; Shim, Jae Kyung; Cho, Min Seok; Seol, Young Joo; Hahn, Jang Ho; Hwang, Duk Ju; Park, Dong Suk

    2008-09-01

    Successful control of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, requires a specific and reliable diagnostic tool. A pathovar-specific PCR assay was developed for the rapid and accurate detection of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola in diseased plant. Based on differences in a membrane fusion protein gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and other microorganisms, which was generated from NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and CMR (http://cmr.tigr.org/) BLAST searches, one pair of pathovar-specific primers, XOCMF/XOCMR, was synthesized. Primers XOCMF and XOCMR from a membrane fusion protein gene were used to amplify a 488-bp DNA fragment. The PCR product was only produced from 4 isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola among 37 isolates of other pathovars and species of Xanthomonas, Pectobacterium, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Escherichia coli, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. The results suggested that the assay detected the pathogen more rapidly and accurately than standard isolation methods. PMID:18852502

  1. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  2. Quantitative PCR monitoring of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial pathogens in three European artificial groundwater recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckelmann, Uta; Dörries, Hans-Henno; Ayuso-Gabella, M Neus; Salgot de Marçay, Miquel; Tandoi, Valter; Levantesi, Caterina; Masciopinto, Costantino; Van Houtte, Emmanuel; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Wintgens, Thomas; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Aquifer recharge presents advantages for integrated water management in the anthropic cycle, namely, advanced treatment of reclaimed water and additional dilution of pollutants due to mixing with natural groundwater. Nevertheless, this practice represents a health and environmental hazard because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and chemical contaminants. To assess the quality of water extracted from recharged aquifers, the groundwater recharge systems in Torreele, Belgium, Sabadell, Spain, and Nardò, Italy, were investigated for fecal-contamination indicators, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes over the period of 1 year. Real-time quantitative PCR assays for Helicobacter pylori, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, human pathogens with long-time survival capacity in water, and for the resistance genes ermB, mecA, blaSHV-5, ampC, tetO, and vanA were adapted or developed for water samples differing in pollutant content. The resistance genes and pathogen concentrations were determined at five or six sampling points for each recharge system. In drinking and irrigation water, none of the pathogens were detected. tetO and ermB were found frequently in reclaimed water from Sabadell and Nardò. mecA was detected only once in reclaimed water from Sabadell. The three aquifer recharge systems demonstrated different capacities for removal of fecal contaminators and antibiotic resistance genes. Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in the Torreele plant proved to be very efficient barriers for the elimination of both contaminant types, whereas aquifer passage followed by UV treatment and chlorination at Sabadell and the fractured and permeable aquifer at Nardò posed only partial barriers for bacterial contaminants. PMID:19011075

  3. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  4. Polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism-related genes ESR1 , UGT2B17 , and UGT1A1 are not associated with osteoporosis in artificial menopausal Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Yokota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Previous studies have reported an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of developing osteoporosis. However, the relationship between osteoporosis and genetic polymorphisms in Japanese women treated with BSO is not well understood. To improve the quality of life for post-BSO patients, it is important to determine the genetic factors that influence their risk for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gene variations of estrogen metabolism-related genes and osteoporosis in surgically menopausal patients, which may improve the quality of life for surgically menopausal patients. Material and methods : This study included 203 menopausal women treated with BSO because of gynecologic disorders. One hundred and twenty-six women with artificial (surgical menopause, who had undergone BSO in the premenopausal period, were compared with 77 women with natural menopause, who had undergone BSO in the postmenopausal period. The women were tested for bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1 and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT genes UGT2B17 and UGT1A1 were analyzed, and their association with bone mass and osteoporosis was statistically evaluated. Results : No significant association was found between osteoporosis and polymorphisms in ESR1 , UGT2B17 , or UGT1A1 in both groups, suggesting that BSO might be a more significant physiological factor in influencing bone mass density compared to genetic variations. Conclusions : These results suggest that the ESR1 , UGT2B17 , and UGT1A1 polymorphisms are not genetic factors affecting osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese women.

  5. TMPRSS2-ERG基因融合在前列腺癌中研究新进展%Recent Research Progress of TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusions in Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琦

    2012-01-01

    TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is the most common subtype of gene fusions in prostate cancer. Interacting with AK,PARP1 and DNA-PKcs,NE-kB and CR1SP3 ,TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene leads to the genesis of prostate cancer. By fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene and the related protein have a higher positive rate in specimen of prostate cancer. Lrinary detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene also has a higher specificity and positive predictive value.%TMPRSS2-ERG基因融合是前列腺癌中最常出现的基因融合类型.TMPRSS2-ERG融合基因通过与雄激素受体、多聚ADP-核糖聚合酶1和DNA-PKcs、核因子κB和富含半胱氨酸分泌蛋白3的相互作用介导前列腺癌的发生.利用荧光原位杂交技术和免疫组织化学技术检测前列腺癌标本中融合基因发生及其蛋白表达,具有较高的阳性率;尿液 TMPRSS2-ERG 融合基因检测有较高的特异度和阳性预测值.

  6. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Weiming, Xiao [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Juqun, Xi [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Yanbing, Ding [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Li, Qian [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Xingyuan, Pan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Mingchun, Ji [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Weijuan, Gong, E-mail: wjgong@yzu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009 (China)

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  7. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8+ T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle

  8. TFE3-Fusion Variant Analysis Defines Specific Clinicopathologic Associations Among Xp11 Translocation Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argani, Pedram; Zhong, Minghao; Reuter, Victor E; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-06-01

    Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to

  9. Characterization of a novel fusion gene EML4-NTRK3 in a case of recurrent congenital fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum-Dvir, Sarah; Glade Bender, Julia L; Church, Alanna J; Janeway, Katherine A; Harris, Marian H; Mansukhani, Mahesh M; Nagy, Peter L; Andrews, Stuart J; Murty, Vundavalli V; Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela; Connolly, Eileen P; Kung, Andrew L; Dela Cruz, Filemon S

    2015-10-01

    We describe the clinical course of a recurrent case of congenital fibrosarcoma diagnosed in a 9-mo-old boy with a history of hemimelia. Following complete surgical resection of the primary tumor, the patient subsequently presented with bulky bilateral pulmonary metastases 6 mo following surgery. Molecular characterization of the tumor revealed the absence of the prototypical ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. However, tumor characterization incorporating cytogenetic, array comparative genomic hybridization, and RNA sequencing analyses, revealed a somatic t(2;15)(2p21;15q25) translocation resulting in the novel fusion of EML4 with NTRK3. Cloning and expression of EML4-NTRK3 in murine fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells revealed a potent tumorigenic phenotype as assessed in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that multiple fusion partners targeting NTRK3 can contribute to the development of congenital fibrosarcoma. PMID:27148571

  10. Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of VEGF-SLC Fusion Gene%VEGF-SLC融合基因的克隆与原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋攀; 陈全; 郑毅; 刘革力; 张璐瑜

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建血管内皮生长因子(Vascular endothelial growthfactor,VEGF)-次级淋巴组织趋化因子(Secondary lymphoid-fissue chemokine,SLC)融合基因(VEGF-SLC)的原核表达质粒,表达并纯化重组VEGF-SLC融合蛋白.方法 利用Gene SOEing法扩增VEGF-SLC基因,将融合基因插入载体pQE30,构建重组表达质粒pQE30-VEGF-SLC,转化大肠杆菌M15,IPTG诱导表达.表达产物经SDS-PAGE和Western blot鉴定后,用Ni-Agarose His标签蛋白纯化试剂盒纯化.结果 重组表达质粒经双酶切和测序证明构建正确;表达的重组融合蛋白相对分子质量约28 000,诱导5 h表达量最高,约占菌体总蛋白的19%,主要以包涵体形式存在,可与鼠抗人VEGF单抗特异性结合;纯化的重组融合蛋白纯度可达90%以上.结论 已成功在大肠杆菌中表达并纯化了重组VEGF-SLC融合蛋白,为进一步研究其生物学活性及其靶向抗肿瘤效应以及开发肺癌等肿瘤的靶向生物制剂奠定了基础.%Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression vector for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC) fusion gene and purify the expressed fusion protein. Methods VEGF-SLC gene was amplified by Gene SOEing and inserted into vector pQE30. The constructed recombinant plasmid pQE30-VEGF-SLC was transformed to E. coli M15 for expression under induction of IPTG. The expressed product was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, then purified by Ni-Agarose His-tagged protein purification kit. Results Both restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid pQE30-VEGF-SLC was constructed correctly. The relative molecular mass of expressed recombinant fusion protein was about 28 000.The expression level reached a peak value 5 h after induction, which accounted for about 19% of total somatic protein. The expressed product mainly existed in a form of inclusion body, showed specific binding to mouse anti-human VEGF monoclonal antibody, and

  11. TMPRSS2:ERG融合基因与前列腺原位癌和外周转移癌的相关性研究%Relationship between TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene and primary and metastatic prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛易捷; 史伟峰; 李青

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between primary and metastatic prostate cancers (PCa) with fusion gene of transmembrane protease, serine 2(TMPRSS2) gene and ETS related gene(ERG).Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to evaluated the rearrangement of ERG gene(TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene) in 24 patients with PCa.Results In 6 patients with primary PCa, 4 cases were with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene.In 18 patients with metastatic PCa, 14 cases were with this fusion gene.In multifocal prostate cancer, the status of this fusion gene was concordant between primary tumor focus and metastasis in all cases.Conclusion There might be a close relationship between TMPRSS2: ERG fusion gene and primary and metastatic PCa.Positivity of this fusion gene could suggest the susceptibility of metastasis, which lead to death.%目的 分析跨膜丝氨酸蛋白酶2 (TMPRSS2)基因和ETS转录因子家族成员相关基因(ERG)融合基因与前列腺原位癌和外周转移癌的相关性.方法 采用荧光原位杂交技术对24例前列腺癌(PCa)患者组织标本进行TMPRSS2:ERG融合基因检测,评价TMPRSS2:ERG与前列腺原位癌和外周转移癌的相关性.结果 6例PCa原发癌患者中,4例检出TMPRSS2:ERG融合基因;18例转移性PCa患者中,14例检出该融合基因.外周淋巴结组织标本TMPRSS2:ERG融合基因阳性率为100%(8/8).14例融合基因阳性转移性PCa患者原发病灶和转移病灶具有一致的融合基因情况.结论 TMPRSS2:ERG融合基因具有较高的PCa诊断特异性和敏感性;应对该融合基因阳性患者尽早采取综合、有效的治疗措施,从而延长患者生存期.

  12. Fusion protein Isl1–Lhx3 specifies motor neuron fate by inducing motor neuron genes and concomitantly suppressing the interneuron programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghee; Cuvillier, James M.; Lee, Bora; Shen, Rongkun; Lee, Jae W.; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Combinatorial transcription codes generate the myriad of cell types during development and thus likely provide crucial insights into directed differentiation of stem cells to a specific cell type. The LIM complex composed of Isl1 and Lhx3 directs the specification of spinal motor neurons (MNs) in embryos. Here, we report that Isl1–Lhx3, a LIM-complex mimicking fusion, induces a signature of MN transcriptome and concomitantly suppresses interneuron differentiation programs, thereby serving as a potent and specific inducer of MNs in stem cells. We show that an equimolar ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3 are crucial for generating MNs without up-regulating interneuron genes. These led us to design Isl1–Lhx3, which maintains the desirable 1:1 ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3. Isl1–Lhx3 drives MN differentiation with high specificity and efficiency in the spinal cord and embryonic stem cells, bypassing the need for sonic hedgehog (Shh). RNA-seq analysis revealed that Isl1–Lhx3 induces the expression of a battery of MN genes that control various functional aspects of MNs, while suppressing key interneuron genes. Our studies uncover a highly efficient method for directed MN generation and MN gene networks. Our results also demonstrate a general strategy of using embryonic transcription complexes for producing specific cell types from stem cells. PMID:22343290

  13. Fusion protein Isl1-Lhx3 specifies motor neuron fate by inducing motor neuron genes and concomitantly suppressing the interneuron programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghee; Cuvillier, James M; Lee, Bora; Shen, Rongkun; Lee, Jae W; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2012-02-28

    Combinatorial transcription codes generate the myriad of cell types during development and thus likely provide crucial insights into directed differentiation of stem cells to a specific cell type. The LIM complex composed of Isl1 and Lhx3 directs the specification of spinal motor neurons (MNs) in embryos. Here, we report that Isl1-Lhx3, a LIM-complex mimicking fusion, induces a signature of MN transcriptome and concomitantly suppresses interneuron differentiation programs, thereby serving as a potent and specific inducer of MNs in stem cells. We show that an equimolar ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3 are crucial for generating MNs without up-regulating interneuron genes. These led us to design Isl1-Lhx3, which maintains the desirable 1:1 ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3. Isl1-Lhx3 drives MN differentiation with high specificity and efficiency in the spinal cord and embryonic stem cells, bypassing the need for sonic hedgehog (Shh). RNA-seq analysis revealed that Isl1-Lhx3 induces the expression of a battery of MN genes that control various functional aspects of MNs, while suppressing key interneuron genes. Our studies uncover a highly efficient method for directed MN generation and MN gene networks. Our results also demonstrate a general strategy of using embryonic transcription complexes for producing specific cell types from stem cells. PMID:22343290

  14. Retrovirus-mediated transfer of the fusion gene encoding EGFP-BMP_2 in mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stemcells(MSCs)are pluripotential stemcells that have the capacitytodifferentiate into chondrocytes and osteoblasts[1].Ithas been well documented that bone morphogeneticproteins(BMPs),a group of proteins belonging tothe TGF-βsuperfamily,can induce bone for mationbothin vivoandin vitroas well as promote osteo-blastic differentiation of MSC[2].HeterologousBMP2is successfully transferred to MSCs and genetherapy is employed based on repairing bony andcartilage defects,spinal fusion[3-5]....

  15. Identification of a recurrent transforming UBR5–ZNF423 fusion gene in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Grace TY; Lung, Raymond WM; Hui, Angela BY; Yip, Kevin YL; Woo, John KS; Chow, Chit; Tong, Carol YK; Lee, Sau-Dan; Yuen, Jessie WF; Lun, Samantha WM; Tso, Ken KY; Wong, Nathalie; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Yip, Timothy TC; Busson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a distinct type of head and neck cancer which is prevalent in southern China, south-east Asia and northern Africa. The development and stepwise progression of NPC involves accumulation of multiple gross genetic changes during the clonal expansion of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cell population. Here, using paired-end whole-transcriptome sequencing, we discovered a number of chimeric fusion transcripts in a panel of EBV-positive ...

  16. Preliminary Results of Noninvasive Detection of TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusion in a Cohort of Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tavukcu, Hasan Huseyin; Mangir, Naside; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Turkeri, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate TMPRSS2:ERG fusion rates in tissue, urine, blood, and pubic hair samples in a cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer and to correlate these findings with various clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods A cohort of 40 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (RRP group) and 10 control patients undergoing prostate biopsy were enrolled between 2006 and 2008. Urine, pubic hair, and peripheral blo...

  17. Control of silicification by genetically engineered fusion proteins: Silk–silica binding peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shun; Huang, Wenwen; Belton, David J.; Simmons, Leo O.; Perry, Carole C.; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an artificial spider silk gene, 6mer, derived from the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk gene, was fused with different silica-binding peptides (SiBPs), A1, A3 and R5, to study the impact of the fusion protein sequence chemistry on silica formation and the ability to generate a silk–silica composite in two different bioinspired silicification systems: solution–solution and solution– solid. Condensed silica nanoscale particles (600–800 nm) were formed i...

  18. Artificial noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

  19. The Asia 2 specific signal peptide region and other domains in fusion protein genes characterized Asia 1 and Asia 2 canine distemper viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Ryoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H gene, the fusion (F protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had not been identified. So, the sequence analysis of F gene was carried out to elucidate the genotypic varaitons among Asian isolates. Results The phylogenetic analysis of F and H gene sequences from fourteen CDV isolates obtained from diseased dogs in Japan and Thailand indicated that the F genes had a new initiation codon and extra 27 nucleotides upstream of the usual open reading frame (ORF and the F proteins had extra 9 amino acids at the N-terminal position only in Asia 2 isolates. On the contrary, the Asia 1 isolates had three extra putative N-glycosylation sites (two sites in the signal peptide region and one site in the F1 region except for two strains of Th12 and Ac96I (two sites in signal peptide region adding to four putative N-glycosylation sites that were conserved among all Asian isolates and Onderstepoort strain. In addition to this difference in N-glycosylation sites, the signal peptide region had a great diversity between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Also, characteristic amino acids were detected for some strains. Conclusion Asia 2 isolates were distinguished from other CDV lineages by the extra 27 nucleotide sequence. The signal peptide region of F gene gives a remarkable differentiation between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Strains Th12 and Ac96I were differentiated from other Asia 1 strains by the F protein glycosylation sites.

  20. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  1. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  2. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8(+) T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. PMID:26022121

  3. Modeling daily reference ET in the karst area of northwest Guangxi (China) using gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fu, Zhi-yong; Chen, Hong-song; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear complexity is a characteristic of hydrologic processes. Using fewer model parameters is recommended to reduce error. This study investigates, and compares, the ability of gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in modeling ET0 by using fewer meteorological parameters in the karst area of northwest Guangxi province, China. Over a 5-year period (2008-2012), meteorological data consisting of maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration were collected from four weather stations: BaiSe, DuAn, HeChi, and RongAn. The ET0 calculated by the FAO-56 PM equation was used as a reference to evaluate results for GEP, ANN, and Hargreaves models. The coefficient of determination (R 2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were used as statistical indicators. Evaluations revealed that GEP, and ANN, can be used to successfully model ET0. In most cases, when using the same input variables, ANN models were superior to GEP. We then established ET0 equations with fewer parameters under various conditions. GEP can produce simple explicit mathematical formulations which are easier to use than the ANN models.

  4. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  5. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  6. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  7. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  8. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  9. Spatial Localization of Genes Determined by Intranuclear DNA Fragmentation with the Fusion Proteins Lamin KRED and Histone KRED und Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Waldemar; Mueller, Gabriele; Glatting, Karl-Heinz; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Diessl, Nicolle; Chotewutmonti, Sasithorn; Langowski, Jörg; Semmler, Wolfhard; Wiessler, Manfred; Braun, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The highly organized DNA architecture inside of the nuclei of cells is accepted in the scientific world. In the human genome about 3 billion nucleotides are organized as chromatin in the cell nucleus. In general, they are involved in gene regulation and transcription by histone modification. Small chromosomes are localized in a central nuclear position whereas the large chromosomes are peripherally positioned. In our experiments we inserted fusion proteins consisting of a component of the nuclear lamina (lamin B1) and also histone H2A, both combined with the light inducible fluorescence protein KillerRed (KRED). After activation, KRED generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing toxic effects and may cause cell death. We analyzed the spatial damage distribution in the chromatin after illumination of the cells with visible light. The extent of DNA damage was strongly dependent on its localization inside of nuclei. The ROS activity allowed to gain information about the location of genes and their functions via sequencing and data base analysis of the double strand breaks of the isolated DNA. A connection between the damaged gene sequences and some diseases was found. PMID:23869190

  10. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems. PMID:16203606

  11. Developmental and environmental regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-beta-glucuronidase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X W; Dron, M; J. Schmid; Dixon, R. A.; Lamb, C J

    1989-01-01

    A 1.1-kilobase promoter fragment of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) gene PAL2 was translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated leaf disk transformation. The distribution of beta-glucuronidase activity in these transgenic plants is very similar to that of endogenous PAL2 transcripts in bean, with very high levels in petals; marked accumulation in anthers, stigmas, roots, ...

  12. Application of bone morphogenetic protein 2 loaded nano-hydroxyapatite artificial bone in the correction and fusion of adult idiopathic scoliosis%骨形态发生蛋白2纳米人工骨在成人特发性脊柱畸形矫正融合中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文; 黄旗凯; 苏佳灿; 李明

    2012-01-01

    背景:复合骨形态发生蛋白2 纳米人工骨具有独特的生物特性,模仿天然骨的成分及结构特征,可为细胞提供与天然骨相类似的微环境.目的:观察复合骨形态发生蛋白2 纳米人工骨与同种异体骨植骨在成人特发性脊柱畸形矫正融合的临床效果.方法:回顾分析69 例成人特发性脊柱侧弯患者资料,分别采用复合骨形态发生蛋白2 纳米人工骨移植36 例,同种异体骨移植33 例,植骨后第3,6 个月拍摄脊柱全长正侧位片,观察植骨融合情况.结果与结论:69 例患者畸形明显矫正,3,6 个月的影像学观测两组均可见骨小梁生长.植骨后6 个月,复合骨形态发生蛋白2 纳米人工骨组明显融合33 例,同种异体骨组26 例.复合骨形态发生蛋白2 纳米人工骨组早期融合率高于同种异体骨组(P < 0.05).提示成人特发性脊柱侧凸后路矫形手术中,复合骨形态发生蛋白2 纳米人工骨是比较理想的骨移植材料,在融合效果方面优于同种异体骨.%BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) loaded nano-hydroxyapatite artificial bone has unique biological properties that can imitate the component and structure of natural bone. It can provide cells a microenvironment which is similar to that of natural bone. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effects of BMP-2 loaded nano-hydroxyapatite artificial bone and allogeneic bone grafting on the correction and fusion of adult idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: A retrospective review of 69 patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis was performed. These patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A and group B. In group A, 36 patients were received BMP-2 loaded nano-hydroxyapatite artificial bone; in group B, 33 patients were received allogeneic bone grafting. The anterioposterior and lateral full spinal films were taken at 3 and 6 months after operation, and the spinal fusion status in the two groups were observed and compared. RESULTS

  13. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta; Haas, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.marwan@ovgu.de

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level.

  14. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level

  15. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  16. Genetic variability available through cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.H.; Mastrangelo-Hough, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for the following studies: plant hybridization through protoplast fusion using species of Nicotiana and Petunia; chromosome instability studies on culture-induced chromosome changes and chromosome elimination; chloroplast distribution in parasexual hybrids; chromosomal introgression following fusion; plant-animal fusion; and microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and chromosome-mediated gene transfer. (HLW)

  17. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  18. Structural and functional studies of FKHR-PAX3, a reciprocal fusion gene of the t(2;13 chromosomal translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiande Hu

    Full Text Available Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS is an aggressive pediatric cancer of skeletal muscle. More than 70% of ARMS tumors carry balanced t(2;13 chromosomal translocation that leads to the production of two novel fusion genes, PAX3-FKHR and FKHR-PAX3. While the PAX3-FKHR gene has been intensely studied, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 gene has rarely been described. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of the FKHR-PAX3 gene as the first step towards a better understanding of its potential impact on ARMS biology. From RH30 ARMS cells, we detected and isolated three versions of FKHR-PAX3 cDNAs whose C-terminal sequences corresponded to PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3e isoforms. Unlike the nuclear-specific localization of PAX3-FKHR, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 proteins stayed predominantly in the cytoplasm. FKHR-PAX3 potently inhibited myogenesis in both non-transformed myoblast cells and ARMS cells. We showed that FKHR-PAX3 was not a classic oncogene but could act as a facilitator in oncogenic pathways by stabilizing PAX3-FKHR expression, enhancing cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and matrix adhesion in vitro, and accelerating the onset of tumor formation in xenograft mouse model in vivo. In addition to these pro-oncogenic behaviors, FKHR-PAX3 also negatively affected cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these functional characteristics suggested that FKHR-PAX3 might have a critical role in the early stage of ARMS development.

  19. An ancient history of gene duplications, fusions and losses in the evolution of APOBEC3 mutators in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münk Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The APOBEC3 (A3 genes play a key role in innate antiviral defense in mammals by introducing directed mutations in the DNA. The human genome encodes for seven A3 genes, with multiple splice alternatives. Different A3 proteins display different substrate specificity, but the very basic question on how discerning self from non-self still remains unresolved. Further, the expression of A3 activity/ies shapes the way both viral and host genomes evolve. Results We present here a detailed temporal analysis of the origin and expansion of the A3 repertoire in mammals. Our data support an evolutionary scenario where the genome of the mammalian ancestor encoded for at least one ancestral A3 gene, and where the genome of the ancestor of placental mammals (and possibly of the ancestor of all mammals already encoded for an A3Z1-A3Z2-A3Z3 arrangement. Duplication events of the A3 genes have occurred independently in different lineages: humans, cats and horses. In all of them, gene duplication has resulted in changes in enzyme activity and/or substrate specificity, in a paradigmatic example of convergent adaptive evolution at the genomic level. Finally, our results show that evolutionary rates for the three A3Z1, A3Z2 and A3Z3 motifs have significantly decreased in the last 100 Mya. The analysis constitutes a textbook example of the evolution of a gene locus by duplication and sub/neofunctionalization in the context of virus-host arms race. Conclusions Our results provide a time framework for identifying ancestral and derived genomic arrangements in the APOBEC loci, and to date the expansion of this gene family for different lineages through time, as a response to changes in viral/retroviral/retrotransposon pressure.

  20. Characterization of recombinant CEL-I, a GalNAc-specific C-type lectin, expressed in Escherichia coli using an artificial synthetic gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Shiba, Kouhei; Matsuo, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Tokiko; Oda, Tatsuya; Sugawara, Hajime; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    CEL-I is a C-type lectin isolated from the Holothuroidea Cucumaria echinata. This lectin shows very high N-acetylgalactosamine-binding specificity. We constructed an artificial gene encoding recombinant CEL-I (rCEL-I) using a combination of synthetic oligonucleotides, and expressed it in Escherichia coli cells. Since the recombinant protein was obtained as inclusion bodies, the latter were solubilized using urea and 2-mercaptoethanol, and the protein was refolded during the purification and dialysis steps. The purified rCEL-I showed comparable hemagglutinating activity to that of native CEL-I at relatively high Ca(2+)-concentrations, whereas it was weaker at lower Ca(2+)-concentrations due to decreased Ca(2+)-binding affinity. rCEL-I exhibited similar carbohydrate-binding specificity to native CEL-I, including strong GalNAc-binding specificity, as examined by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Comparison of the far UV-CD spectra of recombinant and native CEL-I revealed that the two proteins undergo a similar conformational change upon binding of Ca(2+). Single crystals of rCEL-I were also obtained under the same conditions as those used for the native protein, suggesting that they have similar tertiary structures. Although native CEL-I exhibited strong cytotoxicity toward cultured cells, rCEL-I showed low cytotoxicity. These results indicate that rCEL-I has a tertiary structure and carbohydrate-binding specificity similar to those of native CEL-I. Howeger, there is a subtle difference in the properties between the two proteins probably due to the additional methionine residue at the N-terminus of rCEL-I. PMID:14999015

  1. Fusion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  2. Artificial fertilization in corn and prospects of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Satarova

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Summarizing article is devoted to the results and perspectives of artificial fertilization in vitro in maize. The methods of purification of male and female gametes, their fusion, production of endosperm and zygotes, which are able to produce the embryo, are described. The possibilities of the combination of the transgenic technique and the technique of the artificial fertilization are estimated.

  3. Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery of CC Chemokine Binding Fc Fusion Proteins to Target Acute Vascular Inflammation In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Eileen McNeill; Iqbal, Asif J; White, Gemma E.; Jyoti Patel; Greaves, David R.; CHANNON, KEITH M

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of CC chemokines is an attractive yet under utilized therapeutic strategy. We report the in vivo pharmacokinetics of a broad-spectrum vaccinia virus CC chemokine binding protein (35 K) fused to human IgG1 Fc. We demonstrate that the in vivo efficacy of the protein can be interrogated using hydrodynamic gene delivery of a standard mammalian expression plasmid. High plasma levels of the 35 K-Fc protein are maintained for at least 14 days post gene transfer, with the protein still detec...

  4. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  5. Requirements for an artificial intervertebral disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, MF; van Donkelaar, CC; Veldhuizen, AG; van Horn, [No Value; Huyghe, JM; Verkerke, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is an important social and economic problem. Presently available artificial intervertebral discs (AIDs) are insufficient and the main surgical intervention is still spinal fusion. The objective of the present study is to present a list of requirements for the develop

  6. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  7. Fusion of the promoter region of rRNA operon rrnB to lac Z gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, G; Kobi, S.; Oppenheim, A B

    1980-01-01

    A Lambda phage was constructed in which the structural gene for beta galactosidase is fused to a DNA segment carrying the ribosomal promoter rrnB of E. coli. In this hybrid operon beta galactosidase synthesis in vitro is repressed by ppGpp. Repression of beta galactosidase synthesis by cAMP is reported.

  8. Gene Amplification by PCR and Subcloning into a GFP-Fusion Plasmid Expression Vector as a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Joshua A.; Deibel, Michael A.; Mulnix, Amy B.

    2004-01-01

    A novel experimental sequence for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course has been developed at Earlham College. Utilizing recent improvements in molecular techniques for a time-sensitive environment, undergraduates were able to create a chimera of a selected gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a bacterial expression plasmid over the…

  9. Controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last fifty years the researches on controlled thermonuclear fusion reached great performance in the magnetic confinement (tokamaks) as in the inertial confinement (lasers). But the state of the art is not in favor of the apparition of the fusion in the energy market before the second half of the 21 century. To explain this opinion the author presents the fusion reactions of light nuclei and the problems bound to the magnetic confinement. (A.L.B.)

  10. ARTIFICIAL LIVING SYSTEM AND ITS COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongguang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the author shows some artificial living systems, whose basic life characteristics are explored, especially the differentiation in evolution from single cellular to multi-cellular organism. In addition, the author discusses diversity and evolvability also.The author gives a modified entropy function to measure the diversity. Finally, the author drops an open problem about the structure of "gene" of artificial living systems, so that we can measure the evolutionary order between the artificial living systems.

  11. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between the vesicu......SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between...

  12. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  13. A new transcriptional variant and small azurophilic granules in an acute promyelocytic leukemia case with NPM1/RARA fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuma, Tomoe; Nakamachi, Yuji; Noguchi, Yoriko; Okazaki, Yoko; Shimomura, Daisuke; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Minami, Hironobu; Itoh, Tomoo; Kawano, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    We report here the first case of NPM1/RARA-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) preceded by myeloid sarcoma (MS) in the vertebra. A 52-year-old man was diagnosed with MS, as the tumor cells were positive for myeloperoxidase and CD68 but negative for CD163. After treatment with steroids and radiation, the size of the tumor was markedly reduced and peripheral blood count was normal. Bone marrow examination showed 89.2% consisted of unclassified promyelocytes characterized by round nuclei and abundant small azurophilic granules but no Auer rods. The results of chromosome analysis showed 46,XY,t(5;17)(q35;q12). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction amplified the NPM1/RARA fusion transcripts derived from a combination of NPM1 exon 4 and RARA exon 5, or of NPM1 exon 1 and RARA exon 5; the latter of these has not been reported previously. Electron microscopic examination of the promyelocyte nuclei showed they were oval with mild nuclear chromatin condensation and small- to medium-sized nucleoli. Hematological and molecular complete remission was attained after induction therapy including all-trans retinoic acid. As MS was also diagnosed in two of the seven other reported cases of APL with NPM1/RARA, MS may occur more frequently in APL with NPM1/RARA than APL with PML/RARA. PMID:26342691

  14. Prognostic and therapeutic role of targetable lesions in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia without recurrent fusion genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Monica; Chiaretti, Sabina; Wang, Jiguang; Fedullo, Anna Lucia; Peragine, Nadia; Gianfelici, Valentina; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Brugnoletti, Fulvia; Di Giacomo, Filomena; Pauselli, Simona; Holmes, Antony B; Puzzolo, Maria Cristina; Ceglie, Giulia; Apicella, Valerio; Mancini, Marco; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Testi, Anna Maria; Vitale, Antonella; Vignetti, Marco; Guarini, Anna; Rabadan, Raul; Foà, Robin

    2016-03-22

    To shed light into the molecular bases of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia lacking known fusion transcripts, i.e. BCR-ABL1, ETV6-RUNX1, E2A-PBX1, and MLL rearrangements (B-NEG ALL) and the differences between children, adolescents/young adults (AYA) and adults, we analyzed 168 B-NEG ALLs by genome-wide technologies. This approach showed that B-NEG cases carry 10.5 mutations and 9.1 copy-number aberrations/sample. The most frequently mutated druggable pathways were those pertaining to RAS/RTK (26.8%) and JAK/STAT (12.5%) signaling. In particular, FLT3 and JAK/STAT mutations were detected mainly in AYA and adults, while KRAS and NRAS mutations were more frequent in children. RAS/RTK mutations negatively affected the outcome of AYA and adults, but not that of children. Furthermore, adult B-NEG ALL carrying JAK/STAT mutations had a shorter survival. In vitro experiments showed that FLT3 inhibitors reduced significantly the proliferation of FLT3-mutated primary B-NEG ALL cells. Likewise, PI3K/mTOR inhibitors reduced the proliferation of primary cells harboring RAS and IL7R mutations. These results refine the genetic landscape of B-NEG ALL and suggest that the different distribution of lesions and their prognostic impact might sustain the diverse outcome between children, adults and partly AYA - whose genomic scenario is similar to adults - and open the way to targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:26883104

  15. Image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  16. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for the Australian saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and its utilization in gene isolation and genome characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Crocodilians (Order Crocodylia) are an ancient vertebrate group of tremendous ecological, social, and evolutionary importance. They are the only extant reptilian members of Archosauria, a monophyletic group that also includes birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs. Consequently, crocodilian genomes represent a gateway through which the molecular evolution of avian lineages can be explored. To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. This is the first BAC library for a crocodile and only the second BAC resource for a crocodilian. Results The C. porosus BAC library consists of 101,760 individually archived clones stored in 384-well microtiter plates. NotI digestion of random clones indicates an average insert size of 102 kb. Based on a genome size estimate of 2778 Mb, the library affords 3.7 fold (3.7×) coverage of the C. porosus genome. To investigate the utility of the library in studying sequence distribution, probes derived from CR1a and CR1b, two crocodilian CR1-like retrotransposon subfamilies, were hybridized to C. porosus macroarrays. The results indicate that there are a minimum of 20,000 CR1a/b elements in C. porosus and that their distribution throughout the genome is decidedly non-random. To demonstrate the utility of the library in gene isolation, we probed the C. porosus macroarrays with an overgo designed from a C-mos (oocyte maturation factor) partial cDNA. A BAC containing C-mos was identified and the C-mos locus was sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment of the C. porosus C-mos coding sequence with avian and reptilian C-mos orthologs reveals greater sequence similarity between C. porosus and birds (specifically chicken and zebra finch) than between C. porosus and squamates (green anole). Conclusion We have demonstrated the utility of the

  17. 纤维蛋白胶复合自体骨髓与人工骨促进脊柱融合的现状与展望%Fibrin sealant combined with autologous bone marrow and artificial bone to promote spine fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志刚; 芮钢

    2011-01-01

    背景:如何利用纤维蛋白胶的黏合性在术中复合自体骨髓与人工骨来提高脊柱融合的成功率,得进一步研究.目的:综述纤维蛋白胶的研究背景、成分、作用原理及理化特性,维蛋白胶及自体骨髓复合人工骨在脊柱融合中应用的现状.方法:由第一作者检索1994/2010 CNKI系列数据库及PubMed数据库有关纤维蛋白胶的研究背景、成分、作用原理及理化特性,维蛋白胶在构建组织工程骨及修复骨缺损中的应用,体骨髓复合人工骨移植在修复骨缺损中的应用,柱融合中植骨方法应用等方面的文献.结果与结论:自体骨髓复合人工骨移植修复骨缺损在临床取得了较好的疗效,此在脊柱融合中利用自体骨髓复合人工骨来提高脊柱融合率应该是可行的方案,以往自体骨髓混合人工骨的过程相对简单,由于自体骨髓流动性大,射后容易流失,显降低了自体骨髓的成骨作用.因此设想在临床手术中,用纤维蛋白胶的黏合特性将自体骨髓与人工骨黏合在一起,入脊柱关节突、横突部位,分发挥骨髓的最大成骨作用,将是临床一个提高脊柱融合率的简易、快速、有效的方法,待进一步的深入研究.%BACKGROUND: How to use the adhesion of fibrin glue to combine with autologous bone marrow and artificial bone to increase the success rate of spinal fusion in surgery, it is worthy of further study.OBJECTIVE: To review the research background, composition, function theory, physical and chemical properties of fibrin glue,the present of fibrin glue, autologous bone marrow combined with artificial bone in spinal fusion.METHODS: China Knowledge Resources Library-CNKI Series Database (1994 to 2010) and PubMed database were retrieved by the first author for literatures concerning the research background, composition, function theory and physical and chemical properties of fibrin glue, the application of fibrin glue in bone tissue engineering

  18. Genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission network of human metapneumovirus: identification of a unique sub-lineage of the fusion and attachment genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor'E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November-April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion and attachment genes identified the co-circulation of three known HMPV sub-lineages, A2b and B1 (30.2% each, 26/86) and B2 (20.9%, 18/86), with genotype shift from sub-lineage B1 to A2b observed in 2013. Interestingly, a previously unrecognized sub-lineage of A2 was identified in 18.6% (16/86) of the population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV. PMID:27279080

  19. Differential roles of SS18-SSX fusion gene and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in synovial sarcoma cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently we demonstrated that the synovial sarcoma specific fusion gene SS18-SSX is crucial for cyclin D1 expression and is linked to cell proliferation. In this report we explore the role of SS18-SSX and IGF-1R for their potential functions in cellular proliferation and survival in cultured synovial sarcoma cells. We found that targeting of SS18-SSX mRNA by antisense oligonucleotide treatment drastically and rapidly decreased cell proliferation but caused only a slight increase of apoptosis. The synovial sarcoma cells were confirmed to express IGF-1R, and treatment with an IGF-1R inhibitor resulted in substantially reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in these cells. Conversely, inhibition of the IGF-1R resulted only in a slight to moderate decrease in DNA synthesis. In conclusion, SS18-SSX and IGF-1R seem to play important but different roles in maintaining malignant growth of synovial sarcoma cells. Whereas SS18-SSX maintains cyclin D1 and cell proliferation, IGF-1R protects from apoptosis

  20. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future. PMID:26138876

  1. Over-expression of BvMTSH, a fusion gene for maltooligosyltrehalose synthase and maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Joungsu; Choi, Hae Jong; Lee, Youn Hab; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Chung Ho; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do; Song, Sang Ik

    2014-01-01

    Plant abiotic stress tolerance has been modulated by engineering the trehalose synthesis pathway. However, many stress-tolerant plants that have been genetically engineered for the trehalose synthesis pathway also show abnormal development. The metabolic intermediate trehalose 6-phosphate has the potential to cause aberrations in growth. To avoid growth inhibition by trehalose 6-phosphate, we used a gene that encodes a bifunctional in-frame fusion (BvMTSH) of maltooligosyltrehalose synthase (BvMTS) and maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase (BvMTH) from the nonpathogenic bacterium Brevibacterium helvolum. BvMTS converts maltooligosaccharides into maltooligosyltrehalose and BvMTH releases trehalose. Transgenic rice plants that over-express BvMTSH under the control of the constitutive rice cytochrome c promoter (101MTSH) or the ABA-inducible Ai promoter (105MTSH) show enhanced drought tolerance without growth inhibition. Moreover, 101MTSH and 105MTSH showed an ABA-hyposensitive phenotype in the roots. Our results suggest that over-expression of BvMTSH enhances drought-stress tolerance without any abnormal growth and showes ABA hyposensitive phenotype in the roots. PMID:24209631

  2. Coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites for the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xueping [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Chongqing The Fourth Hospital), Chongqing, 400016 (China); Sheng, Shangchun [The No.2 Peoples' Hospital of Yibin, Sichuan, 644000 (China); Wang, Teng; Yang, Juan [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Xie, Guoming, E-mail: guomingxie@cqmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Feng, Wenli, E-mail: fengwlcqmu@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China)

    2015-08-19

    This article described a novel method by coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites (GS/PANI/AuNPs) for highly sensitive and specific detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene (bcr/abl) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). DNA circuit known as catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) is enzyme-free and can be simply operated to achieve exponential amplification, which has been widely employed in biosensing. However, application of CHA has been hindered by the need of specially redesigned sequences for each single-stranded DNA input. Herein, a transducer hairpin (HP) was designed to obtain a universal DNA circuit with favorable signal-to-background ratio. To further improve signal amplification, GS/PANI/AuNPs with excellent conductivity and enlarged effective area were introduced into this DNA circuit. Consequently, by combining the advantages of CHA and GS/PANI/AuNPs, bcr/abl could be detected in a linear range from 10 pM to 20 nM with a detection limit of 1.05 pM. Moreover, this protocol showed excellent specificity, good stability and was successfully applied for the detection of real sample, which demonstrated its great potential in clinical application. - Highlights: • A transducer hairpin was designed to improve the versatility of DNA circuit. • GS/PANI/AuNPs were introduced to the DNA circuit for further signal amplification. • The established biosensor displayed high sensitivity and good specificity.

  3. Coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites for the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article described a novel method by coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites (GS/PANI/AuNPs) for highly sensitive and specific detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene (bcr/abl) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). DNA circuit known as catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) is enzyme-free and can be simply operated to achieve exponential amplification, which has been widely employed in biosensing. However, application of CHA has been hindered by the need of specially redesigned sequences for each single-stranded DNA input. Herein, a transducer hairpin (HP) was designed to obtain a universal DNA circuit with favorable signal-to-background ratio. To further improve signal amplification, GS/PANI/AuNPs with excellent conductivity and enlarged effective area were introduced into this DNA circuit. Consequently, by combining the advantages of CHA and GS/PANI/AuNPs, bcr/abl could be detected in a linear range from 10 pM to 20 nM with a detection limit of 1.05 pM. Moreover, this protocol showed excellent specificity, good stability and was successfully applied for the detection of real sample, which demonstrated its great potential in clinical application. - Highlights: • A transducer hairpin was designed to improve the versatility of DNA circuit. • GS/PANI/AuNPs were introduced to the DNA circuit for further signal amplification. • The established biosensor displayed high sensitivity and good specificity

  4. Artificial cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the treatment of single segmental cervical disc herniation:a 3-year follow-up%颈椎人工间盘置换与前路减压融合修复单节段颈椎间盘突出症:3年随访

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程俊杰; 眭江涛; 马原; 田慧中

    2015-01-01

    stages. Artificial disc replacement can not only play a role in mitigation of cervical disease neurological symptoms and signs, but also maintain stability and semental activity of cervical spine, and reduce secondary adjacent segmental degeneration. These two methods which applied in cervical degenerative intervertebral disc herniation stil remain controversial. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the short-term effect of artificial cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the treatment of single segmental cervical disc herniation. METHODS:Total y 48 patients with single segment radiculopathy or myelopathy cervical diseases induced by cervical disc herniation that required surgery and received a three-month fol ow-up were included and retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into replacement group (n=21) and fusion group (n=27) according to the different repair programs. Patients in the replacement group were subjected to Prestige LP cervical artificial disc replacement, and patients in the fusion group were subjected to disc fusion using interbody fusion cage of Johnson or al ogeneic fibularing. They were fol owed up at 1 week, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 months after treatment. Complications were recorded during the fol ow-up. The pain of patients was evaluated using neck and upper limb pain visual analogue scale scores. The therapeutic effect was evaluated using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. The clinical symptoms improvement and daily functional status of patients after treatment were evaluated using cervical disability index. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:During the final fol ow-up, the fusion rate in fusion group was 93%(25/27). Comparisons between groups:at the 1 week and final fol ow-up after treatment, the visual analog scale scores of neck and upper limbs and cervical dysfunction indexes were al lower than those before treatment;the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores were higher than those before treatment (P0.05). The

  5. RT-PCR ANALYSIS OF E2A-PBX1, TEL-AML1, BCR-ABL AND MLL-AF4 FUSION GENE TRANSCRIPTS IN B-LINEAGE ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliu-Cristian Ivanov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia represents a heterogeneous group of hematological malignancies, defined by clonal proliferation of lymphoid cells. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and molecular analysis for the detection of genetic anomalies are clinical standard procedures for diagnosis, sub-classification and post-therapeutic evaluation. Samples from 105 patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were immunophenotyped at diagnosis and were investigated by molecular analysis in order to identify the occurrence of four fusion genes: MLL-AF4, TEL-AML-1, BCR-ABL-p190, E2A-PBX-1. There were no associations found between the immunophenotype and the presence of any fusion genes evaluated. Both methods in combination remain a prerequisite for an improved subclassification of hematological malignancies, therapeutic decision, and evaluation of treatment response.

  6. Peaceful fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  7. Unintended Changes in Genetically Modified Rice Expressing the Lysine-Rich Fusion Protein Gene Revealed by a Proteomics Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang; TANG Tang; LIU Fu-xia; LU Chang-li; HU Xiao-lan; JI Li-lian; LIU Qiao-quan

    2013-01-01

    Development of new technologies for evaluating genetically modiifed (GM) crops has revealed that there are unintended insertions and expression changes in GM crops. Proifling techniques are non-targeted approaches and are capable of detecting more unintended changes in GM crops. Here, we report the application of a comparative proteomic approach to investigate the protein proifle differences between a GM rice line, which has a lysine-rich protein gene, and its non-transgenic parental line. Proteome analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrum analysis of the seeds identiifed 22 differentially expressed protein spots. Apart from a number of glutelins that were detected as targeted proteins in the GM line, the majority of the other changed proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and stress responses. These results indicated that the altered proteins were not associated with plant allergens or toxicity.

  8. LOOSE FLOWER, a WUSCHEL-like Homeobox gene, is required for lateral fusion of floral organs in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lifang; Lin, Hao; Zhang, Fei; Watira, Tezera W; Li, Guifen; Tang, Yuhong; Wen, Jiangqi; Ratet, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Tadege, Million

    2015-02-01

    The Medicago truncatula WOX gene, STENOFOLIA (STF), and its orthologs in Petunia, pea, and Nicotiana sylvestris are required for leaf blade outgrowth and floral organ development as demonstrated by severe phenotypes in single mutants. But the Arabidopsis wox1 mutant displays a narrow leaf phenotype only when combined with the prs/wox3 mutant. In maize and rice, WOX3 homologs are major regulators of leaf blade development. Here we investigated the role of WOX3 in M. truncatula development by isolating the lfl/wox3 loss-of-function mutant and performing genetic crosses with the stf mutant. Lack of WOX3 function in M. truncatula leads to a loose-flower (lfl) phenotype, where defects are observed in sepal and petal development, but leaf blades are apparently normal. The stf lfl double mutant analysis revealed that STF and LFL act mainly independently with minor redundant functions in flower development, but LFL has no obvious role in leaf blade outgrowth in M. truncatula on its own or in combination with STF. Interestingly, LFL acts as a transcriptional repressor by recruiting TOPLESS in the same manner as STF does, and can substitute for STF function in leaf blade and flower development if expressed under the STF promoter. STF also complements the lfl mutant phenotype in the flower if expressed under the LFL promoter. Our data suggest that the STF/WOX1 and LFL/WOX3 genes of M. truncatula employ a similar mechanism of action in organizing cell proliferation for lateral outgrowth but may have evolved different cis elements to acquire distinct functions. PMID:25492397

  9. Cloning of the Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome: a Loss-of-Function Mutation of the rhBARF1 Immune Evasion Gene ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Makoto; Orlova, Nina; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Rhesus macaques are naturally infected with a gammaherpesvirus which is in the same lymphocryptovirus (LCV) genus as and closely related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The rhesus macaque LCV (rhLCV) contains a repertoire of genes identical to that of EBV, and experimental rhLCV infection of naive rhesus macaques accurately models acute and persistent EBV infection of humans. We cloned the LCL8664 rhLCV strain as a bacterial artificial chromosome to create recombinant rhLCV for investigation in ...

  10. Limited inter- and intra-patient sequence diversity of the genetic lineage A human metapneumovirus fusion gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Madsen, Chris D; Pedersen, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    . In this study, the inter- and intra-patient genetic diversity of the lineage A hMPV F gene was investigated. Ten isolates were collected from 10 hMPV infected children. Viral RNA was isolated and amplified, and approximately 10 clones from each isolate were sequenced. Altogether 108 clones were successfully...... sequenced. The average interpatient sequence diversity was 1.68% and 1.64% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The samples were divisible into two groups on the basis of intrapatient sequence diversity. In group 1 (4 children) the intra-patient sequence diversity was low (nt: 0.26-0.39%, aa......: 0.51-0.94%) whereas group 2 (6 children) had a higher intra-patient sequence diversity (nt: 0.85-1.98%, aa: 1.08-2.22%). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the group 1 children harboured sublineage Al only, but interestingly group 2 children harboured both sublineages Al and A2, indicating they had...

  11. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4He, 3He, 3H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  12. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wound or vertebral bones Damage to a spinal nerve, causing weakness, pain, loss of sensation, problems with your bowels or bladder The vertebrae above and below the fusion are more likely to wear away, leading to more problems later

  13. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  14. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  15. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  16. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project

  17. A t(6;12)(q23;p13) results in the fusion of ETV6 to a novel gene, STL, in a B-cell ALL cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Y; Sato, Y; Smith, S D; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1997-04-01

    ETV6 (TEL) is rearranged in various types of hematologic malignancies. The B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line SUP-B2 has a t(6;12)(q23;p13) involving ETV6 at 12p13 and a submicroscopic deletion of the other ETV6 allele. The reciprocal translocation results in the fusion of ETV6 to a previously unknown gene at 6q23, which we named STL (six-twelve leukemia gene). Both reciprocal fusion transcripts can be detected: On the der(6) chromosome, the ETV6/STL mRNA shows an apparently out of frame fusion of ETV6 at nucleotide 187 to STL, which would result in the addition of 14 amino acids to the first 54 amino acids of ETV6. On the der(12) chromosome three different variants of the STL/ETV6 fusion mRNA could be detected; variable size segments were inserted at the breakpoint between STL and ETV6 exon 3. One of these variants could give rise to a protein in which the first 54 amino acids of ETV6 are replaced by 12 amino acids from one of the STL short open reading frames. Sequence analysis of a 1.4 kb STL cDNA clone from a skeletal muscle library revealed no long open reading frames. This cell line will be very useful in studying the different mechanisms by which alterations of ETV6 contribute to leukemogenesis and in testing the hypothesis that ETV6 might act as a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:9087565

  18. Clinical application of anterior cervical subtotal corpectomy and fusion with n-HA/PA66 composite artificial vertebral body for cervical spondylosis%纳米羟基磷灰石/聚酰胺66复合人工椎体在颈椎病前路椎体次全切除术中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文志; 王潇; 段丽群; 尚希福; 许翔; 胡业丰; 姚刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨纳米羟基磷灰石/聚酰胺66(n-HA/PA66)复合人工椎体在颈椎前路次全切除术中应用的短中期临床疗效.方法 自2008年5月~2009年6月对44例脊髓型颈椎病行前路椎体次全切除、椎管减压、n-HA/PA66复合人工椎体植骨融合+钢板内固定术治疗,以JOA评分改善率评价神经功能恢复情况,并依据X线片判断椎间稳定性和融合情况.结果 本组无术中并发症,伤口均一期愈合.患者获随访12~26个月,平均18个月,症状均明显改善,JOA评分由术前(6.4±1.8)分提高到术后(15.2±1.5)分,JOA改善率83.0%,优良率86.4%,问卷调查满意度97.6%.X线检查证实无人工椎体移位、下沉,融合率100%.结论 n-HA/PA66复合人工椎体具有良好的生物相容性及安全性,是一种较理想的骨移植材料,适用于颈椎病前路次全切除术中.%Objective To evaluate the short and mid-term clinical effect of anterior cervical subtotal corpectomy and fusion with n-HA/PA66 composite artificial vertebral body for cervical spondylosis. Methods From may 2008 to June 2009, 44 patients with cervical spondylosis received anterior cervical subtotal corpectomy,spinal canal decompression and reconstruction by n-HA/PA66 composite artificial vertebral body combined with plate instrumentation. Neurological function was assessed by improvement rate of JOA score, and roentgenograms was analyzed to identify the stability of the fused level. Results In all patients, no complications occurred during operation. Wounds were normally healed without acute or chronic infection. All patients were followed up for 12 to 26 months, with an average of 18 months. Preoperative symptoms were all improved in patients, the mean JOA scores was (6.4±1.8) preoperatively and improved to (15.2±1.5) at final follow-up, JOA improvement rate was 83.0%, the excellent and good rate was 85.7%, patients of 97.6% were satisfied with this procedure. The X-ray films demonstrated that no

  19. Surgical Results of Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Calcium Phosphate Cement

    OpenAIRE

    HIRASAWA, Motohiro; Mure, Hideo; Toi, Hiroyuki; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar interbody fusion using artificial fusion cages filled with calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were retrospectively reviewed. Between 2002 and 2011, 25 patients underwent lumbar interbody fusion at Tokushima University Hospital, and 22 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 5 patients received autologous local bone grafts and 17 received CPC. Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used for clinical outcome assessments. Lumbar radiograph...

  20. The multislice CT findings of renal carcinoma associated with XP11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion and collecting duct carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qingqiang; Zhu Wenrong; Chen Wenxin; Wu Jingtao [Subei People' s Hospital, Clinical School of Medical Coll., Yangzhou (China)], e-mail: wujingtaodoctor@163.com; Wang Zhongqiu [Dept. of Radiology, East Hospital, Tongji Univ. School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE gene fusion (Xp11.2/TFE RCC), and collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) are uncommon subtypes of renal cell carcinomas. Purpose: To investigate the multislice CT (MSCT) characteristics of these two tumor types. Material and Methods Nine patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC and 10 patients with CDC were studied retrospectively. MSCT was undertaken to investigate differences in tumor characteristics and enhancement patterns. Results: All patients had single tumors centered in the renal medulla. Two patients with each tumor type had lymph node involvement and there was a single case of hepatic metastasis (Xp11.2/TFE RCC). The mean tumor diameter of Xp11.2/TFE RCC tumors was significantly larger than for CDC tumors. Two patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC had cystic components as did eight patients with CDC (P < 0.05). Calcifications were present in six patients, each with CDC. Clear tumor boundaries were visible in two patients with CDC and in nine with Xp11.2/TFE RCC (P < 0.05). The density of Xp11.2/TFE RCC tumors was greater than that of CDC tumors, normal renal cortex, or medulla on unenhanced CT. Enhancement was higher with Xp11.2/TFE RCC than with CDC tumors during all phases. Xp11.2/TFE RCC enhancement was higher than in the renal medulla during cortical and medullary phase but lower than in normal renal medulla during the delayed phase. CDC tumor enhancement was lower than that for normal renal medulla during all enhanced phases. Conclusion: Both tumor types originated from the renal medulla. Distinguishing features included density on unenhanced CT, enhancement patterns, and capsule signs. Identifying these differences may aid diagnosis.

  1. All of the human β-type globin genes compete for LCR enhancer activity in embryonic erythroid cells of yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Eiichi; Matsuzaki, Hitomi; Campbell, Andrew D.; Engel, James Douglas; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    In primitive erythroid cells of human β-globin locus transgenic mice (TgM), the locus control region (LCR)-proximal ε- and γ-globin genes are transcribed, whereas the distal δ- and β-globin genes are silent. It is generally accepted that the β-globin gene is competitively suppressed by γ-globin gene expression at this developmental stage. Previously, however, we observed that ε-globin gene expression was severely attenuated when its distance from the LCR was extended, implying that β-globin g...

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear fusion requires prior activation by alpha factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, M D; Price, B R; Fink, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a protocol for efficient fusion of spheroplasts of the same mating type. Nuclear fusion in this whole-cell system is also efficient and closely parallels nuclear fusion in heterosexual mating of intact cells. In the spheroplast fusion system, nuclear fusion is dependent on both the KAR1 gene and prior exposure to alpha factor. The major products of nuclear fusion in the spheroplast fusion assay were true diploids that were homozygous at the mating-type locus. An additional 1...

  3. 人源载体介导的minidystrophin-EGFP融合基因在Cos-7细胞中的表达%A minidystrophin-EGFP fusion gene expressed in Cos-7 cells mediated by human source vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁羽; 梁德生; 薛志刚; 龙志高; 邬玲仟; 潘乾; 胡艺俏; 戴和平; 夏昆; 夏家辉

    2005-01-01

    目的构建微小肌营养不良蛋白(minidystrophin)和增强绿色荧光蛋白(enhanced green fluoresce protein, EGFP)融合基因的人源载体,观察该载体在Cos-7细胞中的表达.方法以正常人肌营养不良基因cDNA(GenBank NM004006)为模板,通过PCR克隆的方法构建minidystrophin基因,融合EGFP基因后连接到人源载体pHrneo,大量提取重组质粒,转染Cos-7细胞,通过逆转录聚合酶链反应、荧光显微镜观察等方法检测该载体在细胞内的表达.结果成功构建pHrnDysG载体,转染Cos-7后,逆转录聚合酶链反应可扩增出735 bp特异条带,荧光显微镜观察可见表达蛋白分布于细胞膜上.结论 pHrn载体介导的minidystrophin基因可以在真核细胞表达,并被有效地转运至细胞膜,可望用于杜氏肌营养不良基因治疗的研究.%Objective To construct a human source vector containing minidystrophin-EGFP fusion gene and investigate its expression in Cos-7 cells. Methods The recombinant human source vector named pHrnDysG was constructed with PCR-clone methods. Three fragments of dystrophin gene were PCR amplified from normal human dystrophin gene cDNA (GenBank NM04006). These three fragments were ligated to generate a minidystrophin gene. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was fused to the C terminal of the minidystrophin gene, and then the pHrnDysG was finally obtained by cloning the fusion gene to pHrneo. Fluorescence microscope and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of minidystrophin-EGFP fusion gene after the recombinant construct was transfected into Cos-7 cells by lipofectamine. Results Restrictive enzyme digestion analysis and sequencing confirmed that pHrnDysG vector was constructed successfully. After the recombinant pHrnDysG was transfected to Cos-7 cells, RT-PCR demonstrated that the fusion gene was successfully transcribed, and the green fluorescence was observed at the cell membrane. Conclusion The minidystrophin-EGFP fusion gene

  4. Cloning and expression of truncated HBcAg gene,whole-length HBcAg gene and HBc-HBsAg fusion gene in vitro%截短序列和全序列HBcAg基因以及HBV C-S融合基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翔; 路文明; 丁宁玲; 叶建中; 王锋; 沙莉; 李扬; 高胜兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:构建截短序列和全序列HBcAg基因和HBc-HBsAg融合基因原核表达质粒,研究目的蛋白在大肠杆菌中的表达及其免疫原性。方法利用HBV全基因(adr亚型)质粒pUCmT-HBV分别扩增HBsAg截短基因、HBcAg截短基因和HBcAg全基因,构建成重组质粒pSK-HBs、pSK-HBc和pKS-HBV C,经DNA序列测定鉴定后,分别将HBcAg截短基因、HBcAg全基因及HBc-HBsAg融合基因亚克隆至表达质粒PET-30a,在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行表达HBcAg截短基因、HBcAg全基因和HBc-HBsAg融合基因产物,采用PAGE-SDS和免疫印迹法对表达产物进行鉴定。结果成功构建了含HBcAg截短基因、HBcAg全基因和HBc-HBsAg融合基因的原核表达质粒;成功构建的质粒在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中能大量表达HBcAg蛋白和HBc-HBsAg融合蛋白,免疫印迹分析结果显示表达产物具有免疫原性。结论成功构建的原核表达载体在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中能顺利表达HBcAg蛋白和HBc-HBsAg融合蛋白,表达产物具有免疫原性,为慢性乙型肝炎特异性免疫治疗研究提供了实验基础。%Objective To construct the prokaryotic recombinant plasmids carring truncated HBcAg gene, whole-length HBcAg gene and HBc-HBsAg fusion gene,and to observe the expression of target proteins in E.coli and their immunogenicity in vitro. Methods Truncated HBcAg gene,whole-length HBcAg gene and HBc-HBsAg fusion gene were obtained from plasmid pUCmT-HBV containing whole-length HBV gene (subtype adr)and con-struct recombinant plasmids of pSK-HBs,pSK-HBc and pKS-HBV C. Truncated HBcAg gene,whole-length HBcAg gene and HBc-HBsAg fusion gene which were obtained by fusing truncated HBsAg and truncated HBcAg gene,were subcloned into a expression vector pET-30a respectively after confirmed by DNA sequencing. The gene products were expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3) and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results The prokaryotic expression plasmids

  5. In Nicotiana species, an artificial microRNA corresponding to the virulence modulating region of Potato spindle tuber viroid directs RNA silencing of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase gene and the development of abnormal phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamens, Andrew L; Smith, Neil A; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Wassenegger, Michael; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2014-02-01

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small non-protein-coding RNA pathogen that can induce disease symptoms in a variety of plant species. How PSTVd induces disease symptoms is a long standing question. It has been suggested that PSTVd-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) could direct RNA silencing of a targeted host gene(s) resulting in symptom development. To test this, we expressed PSTVd sequences as artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) in Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana benthamiana. One amiRNA, amiR46 that corresponds to sequences within the PSTVd virulence modulating region (VMR), induced abnormal phenotypes in both Nicotiana species that closely resemble those displayed by PSTVd infected plants. In N. tabacum amiR46 plants, phenotype severity correlated with amiR46 accumulation and expression down-regulation of the bioinformatically-identified target gene, a Nicotiana soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (siPPase). Taken together, our phenotypic and molecular analyses suggest that disease symptom development in Nicotiana species following PSTVd infection results from sRNA-directed RNA silencing of the host gene, siPPase. PMID:24503090

  6. Characterization of an Artificial Swine-Origin Influenza Virus with the Same Gene Combination as H1N1/2009 Virus: A Genesis Clue of Pandemic Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xueli; Sun, Yipeng; Pu, Juan; Fan, Lihong; Shi, Weimin; Hu, Yanxin; Yang, Jun; Xu, Qi; Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Dongjun; Ma, Guangpeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, derived from a reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses, possesses a unique gene segment combination that had not been detected previously in animal and human populations. Whether such a gene combination could result in the pathogenicity and transmission as H1N1/2009 virus remains unclear. In the present study, we used reverse genetics to construct a reassortant virus (rH1N1) with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus (NA and M genes...

  7. KIF5B-RET fusion gene and non-small cell lung cancer%KIF5B-RET融合基因与非小细胞肺癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英; 成志勇

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality in cancer worldwide. Molecular targeted therapy is the hotpot of lung cancer study in recent years. In 2012, a novel fusion gene KIF5B-RET was identified in non-small cell lung cancer. This fusion gene is more frequently detected in the lung adenocarcinoma, with no or little history of cigarette smoking. The mutually exclusive nature of the RET fusions and other oncogenic alterations such as EGFR,K-Ras,ALK,etc. .suggests that the KIF5B-RET fusion is a new driver mutation. It could be a promising molecular target for the personalized diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.%肺癌是全世界范围死亡率最高的肿瘤.近年来,靶向治疗成为肺癌研究的热点.2012年研究发现肺癌中存在一种新的融合基因KIF5B-RET,其阳性患者多为不吸烟或很少吸烟的腺癌患者.其存在与其他已知的基因改变如EGFR、K-Ras、ALK等相互排斥,提示KIF5B-RET是一种新的致癌驱动突变,有可能成为非小细胞肺癌个体化诊断与治疗的一个分子靶点.

  8. Discover颈人工椎间盘置换术联合颈椎前路减压融合术治疗颈椎病的临床疗效%The clinic effect of discover cervical artificial disc replacement combined with anterior cervical decompression and fusion in treatment of cervical spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinic effect of discover cervical artificial disc replacement combined with anterior cervical decompression and fusion in treatment of cervical spondylosis. Methods 96 patients were selected from our hospital,and the they were evenly divied into two group by random,experimental group patients were treated with discover cervical artificial disc replacement combined with anterior cervical decompression,the control group patients were treated with anterior cervical decompression and fusion.Compared and analyzed the two groups'cervical spine,the average hospital stay,postoperative cervical fixation time,normal activity recovery time and clinical effect after treatment. Results The experimental group's cervical average activity was (44.6±4.7) degree which was higher than control group,and the difference was significantly(P < 0.05);The experimental group was shorter than control group in average hospital stay,postoperative cervical fixation time,normal activity recovery time,and the difference was significantly(P < 0.05);Experimental group's total effective rate was 97.9% which was higher than the control group(87.5%),and the difference was significantly(P<0.05). Conclusion Discover cervical artificial disc replacement combined with anterior cervical decompression and fusion can reduce the average hospital stay,postoperative cervical fixation time,normal activity recovery time,can ensure the patients's cervical average activity to recover normal,and can improve the clinical effect.%目的:探讨分析Discover颈人工椎间盘置换术联合颈椎前路减压融合术的临床疗效。方法选择我院96例患者,将其随机均分为两组,实验组行Discover颈人工椎间盘置换术联和颈椎前路减压融合术治疗;对照组行颈椎前路减压融合术治疗,比较患者术后颈椎活动度、平均住院时间、术后颈椎固定时间、恢复正常活动时间以及患者临床疗效,并进行统计学分析。

  9. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  10. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  11. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors

  12. 人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病%Artificial Disc Replacement Combined with Anterior Cervical Decompression and Autograft Bone Fusion for the Treatment of Multi-segment Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖维峰; 肖晟; 黄象望; 刘向阳; 张毅; 向铁城

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病的临床疗效。[方法]湖南省人民医院2008年2月至2012年6月收治的12例多节段颈椎病手术病例,均行人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术,随访时间为12~18个月,平均随访15.5个月,均摄术前、术后及末次随访时的颈椎正侧位及颈椎过伸过屈位X线片及磁共振检查,观察植骨融合、内固定及人工椎间盘的情况,以JO A评分评价神经功能改善情况。[结果]所有病例内置物无松动、移位,植骨融合时间在3~6个月,平均4.9个月。置换间隙活动度术后1年时为12.5°±5.0°,与术前(12.3°±4.9°)比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。术前JOA 评分平均为9.3分,术后6个月时平均为16.1分,平均改善率为91.2%。[结论]人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病近期疗效满意,是治疗多节段颈椎病的一种可行方法。%[Objective]To explore the clinical efficacy of cervical artificial disc replacement combined with anterior cervical decompression and autograft bone fusion for the treatment of multi -segment cervical spon-dylosis .[Methods]Twelve patients with multi- segment cervical spondylosis operated in Hunan provincial people's hospital from Feb .2008 to June 2012 underwent cervical artificial disc replacement combined with an-terior cervical decompression and autograft bone fusion .The follow up time was 12~18 months(average 15 .5 months) .Cervical MRI and X-ray films of cervical normal lateral position ,hyperextension and hyperflexion position were performed before and after operation and at the last time of follow up .Bone fusion ,internal fixa-tion and artificial disc were observed .JOA score was used to evaluate the improvement of neurological func-tion .[Results]No loosening and displacement of

  13. An Introduction to Artificial Prediction Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Prediction markets are used in real life to predict outcomes of interest such as presidential elections. This paper presents a mathematical theory of artificial prediction markets for supervised learning of conditional probability estimators. The artificial prediction market is a novel method for fusing the prediction information of features or trained classifiers, where the fusion result is the contract price on the possible outcomes. The market can be trained online by updating the participants' budgets using training examples. Inspired by the real prediction markets, the equations that govern the market are derived from simple and reasonable assumptions. Efficient numerical algorithms are presented for solving these equations. The obtained artificial prediction market is shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator. It generalizes linear aggregation, existent in boosting and random forest, as well as logistic regression and some kernel methods. Furthermore, the market mechanism allows the aggregation of spec...

  14. Multi-slice spiral CT findings of renal cell carcinoma associated with XP11.2 translocation-TFE gene fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the MSCT features of the renal cell carcinoma associated with XP11.2 translocation-TFE gene fusion (XP11.2-TFE Ca). Methods: The MSCT features of XP11.2-TFE Ca in six patients were retrospectively analyzed,which were confirmed by postoperative histopathology. All the tumor features were recorded and compared to the histopathological findings. Variance test analysis was performed to compare the CT values among tumor, normal renal cortex and normal renal medulla.Results XP11.2-TFE Ca appeared as a solitary lesion in all the 6 patients, which limited in the medulla in 3 patients and infiltrated both medulla and renal pelvis in other 3 patients. The tumor diameter ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 cm [mean diameter, (4.2 ± 1.3) cm], And the adjacent renal cortex was compressed or involved. Four lesions were oval, 2 lesions were irregular shape. Tumor capsule showed in all lesions in the six patients. Cystic component and retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis respectively occurred in one patient. In all lesions, calcification was not detected. On unenhanced CT scan phase, the CT values of the normal cortex, normal medulla and XP11.2-TFE Ca were (42 ±5), (38 ±4) and (48 ±4) HU respectively, with no significant statistical difference (F=1.267, P>0.05); on cortical nephrographic phase after contrast injection, they were (174 ± 10), (72 ± 8) and (100 ± 9) HU respectively, with significant statistical difference among the three groups (F=6.588, P<0.01); on parenchymal nephrographic phase,they were (207±12), (109±8) and (121±11) HU respectively, with significant statistical difference (F=7.172, P<0.01); and on the excretory phase,they were (148 ± 12), (67 ±8) and (83 ±7) HU respectively, with significant statistical difference (F=2.678, P<0.05). On each phase of contrast-enhanced MSCT scan,the enhancement of XP11.2-TFE Ca was higher than that of the medulla and lower than that of the cortex. Conclusions: XP11.2-TFE Ca had some characteristic MSCT

  15. Preparation, characterization, and in ovo vaccination of dextran-spermine nanoparticle DNA vaccine coexpressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes against Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzamandi M

    2016-01-01

    to the chickens from lethal viral challenge. In addition, vaccination with pDNA/D-SPM complex did not induce high antibody titer when compared with naked pDNA. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA vaccination with plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F can be suitable for in ovo application against ND, whereas D-SPM is not recommended for in ovo gene delivery. Keywords: Newcastle disease, DNA vaccine, in ovo vaccination, Newcastle disease virus, dextran-spermine nanoparticle, hemagglutinin and fusion

  16. Application of data fusion in computer facial recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ai Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition rate of single recognition method is inefficiency in computer facial recognition. We proposed a new confluent facial recognition method using data fusion technology, a variety of recognition algorithm are combined to form the fusion-based face recognition system to improve the recognition rate in many ways. Data fusion considers three levels of data fusion, feature level fusion and decision level fusion. And the data layer uses a simple weighted average algorithm, which is easy to implement. Artificial neural network algorithm was selected in feature layer and fuzzy reasoning algorithm was used in decision layer. Finally, we compared with the BP neural network algorithm in the MATLAB experimental platform. The result shows that the recognition rate has been greatly improved after adopting data fusion technology in computer facial recognition.

  17. Next Level of Data Fusion for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates two different fusion techniques at two different levels of a human face recognition process. The first one is called data fusion at lower level and the second one is the decision fusion towards the end of the recognition process. At first a data fusion is applied on visual and corresponding thermal images to generate fused image. Data fusion is implemented in the wavelet domain after decomposing the images through Daubechies wavelet coefficients (db2). During the data fusion maximum of approximate and other three details coefficients are merged together. After that Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is applied over the fused coefficients and finally two different artificial neural networks namely Multilayer Perceptron(MLP) and Radial Basis Function(RBF) networks have been used separately to classify the images. After that, for decision fusion based decisions from both the classifiers are combined together using Bayesian formulation. For experiments, IRIS thermal/visible Face Database h...

  18. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  19. Late Results of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Interbody Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Dağlı, Murat; Er, Uygur; Şimşek, Serkan; Bavbek, Murad

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion for degenerative cervical disc disease. Overview of Literature Anterior spinal surgery originated in the mid-1950s and graft for fusion was also employed. Currently anterior cervical microdiscectomy and fusion with an intervertebral cage is a widely accepted procedure for treatment of cervical disc hernia. Artificial grafts and cages for fusion are preferred because of their ...

  20. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran Narayanan; Qingwen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. BACs are large enough to transfer intact genes in their native chromosomal setting together with flanking regulatory elements to provide all the signals for correct spatiotemporal gene expression. Until recently, the use of BACs for functional studies has been limited because their large size has inherently presented...

  1. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  2. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  3. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  4. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi; Mohammad Hossein Herischi; Shahyar Pashaei; Ali Akbar Ameri

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  5. Cold Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chu; Yue, Manyu; Yu, Huanzhang; Chen, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Science can often result in technologies which can solve energy problems in societies. On March 23, 1989, two scientists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann claimed at a press conference that they had been able to perform nuclear fusion at room temperature. Their claim was quickly investigated and checked by many scientists around the world. Their discovery generated a heated debate in the scientific literature and magazines in the next few years, and their work was criticized for being unsci...

  6. Fusion fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States and other countries are in the process of formulating energy policies to meet an anticipated world-wide shortage of fuel supplies. Immediate attention will necessarily focus on fuel conservation and on stretching-out conventional energy technologies (oil, gas, coal and light water reactors). The underlying concern of all policy, however, must be to guard against the emergence of a time gap between the exhaustion of conventional fuels and the availability of appropriate inexhaustible energy sources in the next century. The only known candidates for providing the bulk of the world's long-term energy needs are fusion, solar and fission breeder reactors. These are all still in the development stage and, consequently, it is too early to precisely identify their relative advantages and disadvantages. To assure that fusion will be available as one of the long-term option, the US is continuing a dedicated research and development program to take fusion from its present state to a point where its commercial viability can be ascertained. Similar programs are being carried out in the USSR, Europe, and Japan. 2 tables

  7. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  8. Cloning and molecular characterization of a novel lectin gene from Pinellia ternata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN HONG YAO; XIU YUN ZHAO; ZHI HUA LIAO; JUAN LIN; ZHONG HAI CHEN; FEI CHEN; JUN SONG; XIAO FEN SUN; KE XUAN TANG

    2003-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of Pinellia ternata agglutinin (PTA) was cloned from inflorescences using RACE-PCR. Through comparative analysis of PTA gene (pta) and its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other Araceae species, pta was found to encode a precursor lectin with signal peptide and to have extensive homology with those of other Araceae species. PTA was a heterotetrameric mannose-binding lectin with three mannose-binding boxes like lectins from other Araceae and Amaryllidaceae species. Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA revealed that pta belonged to a low-copy gene family. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that pta constitutively expressed in various plant tissues including root, leaf, stem and inflorescence. The pta cDNA sequence encoding for mature PTA protein was cloned into pET-32a plasmid and the resulting plasmid, pET-32a-PTA containing Trx-PTA fusion protein, was investigated for the expression in E. coli BL21. SDS-PAGE gel analysis showed that the Trx-PTA fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 when induced by IPTG. Artificial diet assay revealed that PTA fusion protein had significant levels of resistance against peach potato aphids when incorporated into artificial diet at 0.1% (w/v). The cloning of the pta gene will enable us to further test its effect in depth on aphids by transferring the gene into crop plants.

  9. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  10. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in metastatic prostate cancers: a study of fine needle aspiration specimens%TMPRSS2-ERG融合基因在转移性前列腺癌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立; 朱雄增; WANG Yan; GONG Yun; GUO C Charles

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测转移性前列腺癌中TMPRSS2-ERG基因融合的发生率,探讨ERG基因重排在前列腺癌进展中的作用.方法 收集32例由细针穿刺诊断的转移性前列腺癌,穿刺部位包括盆腔及远处淋巴结、肝、骨、甲状腺等,回顾相关临床病理学资料.免疫组织化学采用EnVision法标记前列腺特异性抗原、突触素和嗜铬粒素A.运用ERG分离断裂探针荧光原位杂交(FISH)方法,检测细胞学蜡块中转移性前列腺癌的TMPRSS2-ERG基因融合.结果 患者平均年龄67岁,26例有经治疗的前列腺癌病史,其余6例以转移性病灶为首发症状.11例转移灶形态上提示为前列腺小细胞癌,免疫组织化学突触素(9/9)、嗜铬粒素A(7/8)阳性,前列腺特异性抗原(7/7)阴性.FISH分析显示,共有31.3%(10/32)转移性前列腺癌存在TMPRSS2-ERG基因融合,其中6例为ERG基因5′端缺失性重排;8例ERG基因重排伴拷贝数增加.11例转移性前列腺小细胞癌中,5例显示TMPRSS2-ERG基因融合,3例为5′端缺失性重排伴拷贝数增加.结论 细胞学细针穿刺标本可用于检测TMPRSS2-ERG融合基因状态;转移性前列腺癌常表达多拷贝ERG重排基因;即使发生小细胞癌转变后,仍然保持融合基因状态;TMPRSS2-ERG融合基因可用于区分前列腺来源的小细胞癌.%Objective To investigate diagnostic values of the detection of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in metastatic prostate cancer. Methods A total of 32 fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens of metastatic prostate carcinomas were retrieved from the pathology files at MD Anderson Cancer Center. The metastatic sites included the pelvic and remote lymph nodes, liver, bone, and thyroid gland. Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PAP, synaptophysin, chromogranin A was performed. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was evaluated on sections of cell blocks by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using ERG gene break-apart probes. Results The mean age of the patients was 67

  11. Molecular cytogenetic findings in a three-way novel variant of t(1;8;21)(p35;q22;q22): a unique relocation of the AML1/ETO fusion gene 1p35 in AML-M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Firoz; Kokate, Prajakta; Chheda, Pratiksha; Dalvi, Rupa; Das, Bibhu Ranjan; Mandava, Swarna

    2008-01-15

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant neoplasm of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by an abnormal proliferation of myeloid precursors, a reduced rate of apoptosis, and an arrest in cellular differentiation. The present report deals with the results of hematologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular analyses of a 53-year-old female patient diagnosed with AML-M2. Cytogenetic and FISH analysis revealed a complex translocation involving three chromosomes showing t(1;8;21)(p35;q22;q22). The observation of breakpoints at 8q22 and 21q22 suggests a rearrangement of the ETO and AML1 genes, respectively. Using a dual-color FISH test with ETO and AML1 probes, an AML1/ETO fusion signal on the derivative 1p35 instead of der(8) was demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the relocation of the AML1/ETO fusion gene to the 1p35 rather than der(8), suggesting the presence of a novel variant of t(8;21)(q22;q22) in the observed patient. PMID:18206543

  12. Responses of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes in Maize Embryo to Artificial Aging Treatment%玉米种胚内质网胁迫相关基因对人工老化处理的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广灿; 林一欣; 薛梅真; 邢芦蔓; 吕伟增; 杨伟飞; 陈军营

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in plant responses to environmental stresses. However, the expression of ER stress-related genes during maize seed aging has not been reported. In this study, the expression of ER stress-related genes during maize seed aging was investigated by Digital Gene Expression Profile (DGE) to provide theoretical support for clarifying the molecular mechanism of seed deterioration.[Method] Hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar Zhengdan 958 seeds were used as experimental material and treated by artificial aging treatment (45℃, 100% relative humidity). DGE analysis was carried out on the Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform using total RNA extracted from 3 d artificial aging treatment and the untreated embryos (CK) of maize seeds. The reads with adaptor and ambiguous sequences, and the low-quality reads were filtered out to obtain the high quality clean reads. Clean reads were mapped to the maize reference genome and genes database using SOAPaligner/SOAP2. The gene expression level was calculated by the RPKM (Reads Per kb per million reads) method. A combination of FDR<0.001 and the absolute value of |log2 ratio (T/CK)|≥1 was used as the threshold to determine the significance of gene expression difference. All differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were assigned to the pathways in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database and searched for the differentially expressed genes related to ER stress. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to analyze the expression patterns of ER stress-related genes in the different artificial aging times.[Result] Analysis of the DEG revealed that 104 DEGs were relevant to the protein processing in ER during the process of artificial aging treatment. A total of 97 DEGs related to ER stress including 81 and 16 genes respectively up- and down-regulated were screened out. The expression levels of ER stress markerBiP gene, as well as ER chaperones

  13. 玉米种胚内质网胁迫相关基因对人工老化处理的响应%Responses of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes in Maize Embryo to Artificial Aging Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广灿; 林一欣; 薛梅真; 邢芦蔓; 吕伟增; 杨伟飞; 陈军营

    2016-01-01

    ERAD)途径的有83个差异表达基因(70个上调,13个下调),其中启动ERAD途径的关键酶基因EDEM(ER degradation enhancing mannosidase I-like protein)下调,参与蛋白泛素化的E2泛素结合酶基因UbcH5、E3泛素连接酶基因Hrd1和Doa10等也发生显著的表达变化。qRT-PCR结果表明,内质网胁迫相关基因在不同人工老化时间内表现表达多样性和复杂性。【结论】人工老化处理能造成玉米种胚细胞发生内质网胁迫。细胞通过上调分子伴侣基因表达和诱导ERAD途径响应内质网胁迫,但ERAD途径受阻可能引起错误折叠蛋白聚集,从而进一步加剧细胞损伤,最终导致种子活力降低甚至丧失。%[Objective] Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in plant responses to environmental stresses. However, the expression of ER stress-related genes during maize seed aging has not been reported. In this study, the expression of ER stress-related genes during maize seed aging was investigated by Digital Gene Expression Profile (DGE) to provide theoretical support for clarifying the molecular mechanism of seed deterioration.[Method] Hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar Zhengdan 958 seeds were used as experimental material and treated by artificial aging treatment (45℃, 100% relative humidity). DGE analysis was carried out on the Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform using total RNA extracted from 3 d artificial aging treatment and the untreated embryos (CK) of maize seeds. The reads with adaptor and ambiguous sequences, and the low-quality reads were filtered out to obtain the high quality clean reads. Clean reads were mapped to the maize reference genome and genes database using SOAPaligner/SOAP2. The gene expression level was calculated by the RPKM (Reads Per kb per million reads) method. A combination of FDR<0.001 and the absolute value of |log2 ratio (T/CK)|≥1 was used as the threshold to determine the

  14. Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Janaki Ramaiah, M; Pavithrakumari, Manickam; Jayapriya, Jaganathan; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-15

    In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400μg/day) and B12 (6μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A×MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L×CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A×cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2×CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1. PMID:26784656

  15. Carpal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformation, Stickler syndrome, thalidomide embryopathy, Turner syndrome and many other conditions as mentioned in Rubinstein-Taybi's book. Sometimes there is no known causative disease.Diagnosis is usually made by plain X-ray during studying a syndrome or congenital disease or could be an incidental finding like our patients. Hand bone anomalies are more common in syndromes or other congenital or non-hereditary conditions, but polydactyly, syndactyly or oligodactyly and carpal fusions are interesting. X-ray is the modality of choice, but MRI and X-ray CT with multiplanar reconstructions may be used for diagnosis.

  16. Development and Evolution of Neural Networks in an Artificial Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Astor, Jens C.; Adami, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    We present a model of decentralized growth for Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) inspired by the development and the physiology of real nervous systems. In this model, each individual artificial neuron is an autonomous unit whose behavior is determined only by the genetic information it harbors and local concentrations of substrates modeled by a simple artificial chemistry. Gene expression is manifested as axon and dendrite growth, cell division and differentiation, substrate production and c...

  17. HIV-1 vif基因人工miRNA的构建和功能分析%Construction and Function Analysis of Artificial miRNA Targeting to HIV-1 Vif Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳宇; 周云; 何丽芳; 滕涛; 杨海; 陈小卫

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct artificial miR-vif and study their effects on HIV-1 infection. Methods To replace the stem sequence in the stem-loop structure of the well-characterized native miR-155 with siRNA sequences targeting to HIV-1 vif gene, and construct four artificial miR-vif. To detect the vif gene silence efficiency and the expression of IFN-β gene by qPCR; to test the cell toxicity through MTT assays and analyze the HIV-1 infection by using HIV-1 pseudotyped virus experiment. Results The qPCR results showed that four miR-vif could downregulate vif gene expression, and miR-vif-1 presented the highest gene silence efficiency, reached 68%. The further experiments confirmed that miR-vif-1 had neither effect on the viability of the transfected cells nor interference the expression of IFN-β gene. In addition, the results verified that miR-vif-1 has inhibition effect of 66. 5% on HIV-1 replication. Conclusion The miR-vif-1 could efficiently suppress HIV-1 replication and would be a useful candidate for further study on anti-HIV-1 infection.%目的 构建人工miR-vif,并研究其对HIV-1感染宿主细胞的影响.方法 以miR-155为基础骨架,根据HIV-1 vif基因序列设计并合成4对miRNA寡聚单链DNA,构建4个人工miR-vif.采用qPCR技术检测其对vif基因的沉默效率和对干扰素表达的影响;MTT法测定其对被转染细胞的毒性;HIV-1假病毒实验技术检测其对感染的抑制作用.结果 qPCR结果显示,4个人工miR-vif对vif基因都具有一定的沉默效果,其中miR-vif-1的沉默效率最高,达68%.且不会对细胞干扰素的表达产生影响.MTT实验证实miR-vif-1不会影响被转染细胞的活性,此外,HIV-1假病毒实验显示,miR-vif-1对HIV-1 p24的抑制作用达66.5%,效果明显.结论 所获得的miR-vif-1对HIV-1的复制具有良好的抑制作用,可为进一步的抗HIV-1感染研究提供基础.

  18. Combining Heavy Ion Radiation and Artificial MicroRNAs to Target the Homologous Recombination Repair Gene Efficiently Kills Human Tumor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Zhiming [Department of Neurosurgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang Ping; Wang Hongyan; Zhang Xiangming [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang Minli [Division of Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas (United States); Cucinotta, Francis A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang Ya, E-mail: ywang94@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Previously, we demonstrated that heavy ions kill more cells at the same dose than X-rays because DNA-clustered lesions produced by heavy ions affect nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair but not homologous recombination repair (HRR). We have also shown that our designed artificial microRNAs (amiRs) could efficiently target XRCC4 (an essential factor for NHEJ) or XRCC2 (an essential factor for HRR) and sensitize human tumor cells to X-rays. Based on these data, we were interested in testing the hypothesis that combining heavy ions and amiRs to target HRR but not NHEJ should more efficiently kill human tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human tumor cell lines (U87MG, a brain tumor cell line, and A549, a lung cancer cell line) and their counterparts, overexpressed with amiR to target XRCC2, XRCC4 or both, were used in this study. Survival sensitivities were examined using a clonogenic assay after these cells were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. In addition, these cell lines were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to form xenografts and the tumor size was compared after the tumor areas were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. Results: Although targeting either XRCC4 (NHEJ factor) or XRCC2 (HRR factor) sensitized the human tumor cells to X-rays, in vitro and the xenograft animal model, targeting only XRCC2 but not XRCC4 sensitized the human tumor cells to heavy ions in vitro and in the xenograft animal model. Conclusions: Combining heavy ions with targeting the HRR pathway, but not the NHEJ pathway, could significantly improve the efficiency of tumor cell death.

  19. Combining Heavy Ion Radiation and Artificial MicroRNAs to Target the Homologous Recombination Repair Gene Efficiently Kills Human Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previously, we demonstrated that heavy ions kill more cells at the same dose than X-rays because DNA-clustered lesions produced by heavy ions affect nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair but not homologous recombination repair (HRR). We have also shown that our designed artificial microRNAs (amiRs) could efficiently target XRCC4 (an essential factor for NHEJ) or XRCC2 (an essential factor for HRR) and sensitize human tumor cells to X-rays. Based on these data, we were interested in testing the hypothesis that combining heavy ions and amiRs to target HRR but not NHEJ should more efficiently kill human tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human tumor cell lines (U87MG, a brain tumor cell line, and A549, a lung cancer cell line) and their counterparts, overexpressed with amiR to target XRCC2, XRCC4 or both, were used in this study. Survival sensitivities were examined using a clonogenic assay after these cells were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. In addition, these cell lines were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to form xenografts and the tumor size was compared after the tumor areas were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. Results: Although targeting either XRCC4 (NHEJ factor) or XRCC2 (HRR factor) sensitized the human tumor cells to X-rays, in vitro and the xenograft animal model, targeting only XRCC2 but not XRCC4 sensitized the human tumor cells to heavy ions in vitro and in the xenograft animal model. Conclusions: Combining heavy ions with targeting the HRR pathway, but not the NHEJ pathway, could significantly improve the efficiency of tumor cell death.

  20. Synovial Sarcoma Microvesicles Harbor the SYT-SSX Fusion Gene Transcript: Comparison of Different Methods of Detection and Implications in Biomarker Research

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fricke; Ullrich, P. V.; Cimniak, A. F. V.; Follo, M; S. Nestel; Heimrich, B.; Nazarenko, I.; Stark, G. B.; H. Bannasch; D. Braig; S. U. Eisenhardt

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft-tissue malignancy. This study examines the presence of the SYT-SSX fusion transcript in synovial sarcoma microvesicles as well as its potential role as a biomarker for synovial sarcoma. Patients and Methods. Microvesicle release of synovial sarcoma cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. RNA-content was analyzed by qPCR, nested PCR, nested qPCR, and droplet digital PCR to compare their sensitivity for detection of the SYT-SSX ...

  1. The leukemogenic t(8;21) fusion protein AML1-ETO controls ribosomal RNA genes and associates with nucleolar organizing regions at mitotic chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Rachit; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Pande, Sandhya; Hassan, Mohammad Q.; Young, Daniel W; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.

    2008-01-01

    RUNX1/AML1 is required for definitive hematopoiesis and is frequently targeted by chromosomal translocation in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). The t(8;21) related AML1-ETO fusion protein blocks differentiation of myeloid progenitors. Here, we show by immunofluorescence microscopy that during interphase, endogenous AML1-ETO localizes to nuclear microenvironments distinct from those containing native RUNX1/AML1 protein. At mitosis, we clearly detect binding of AML1-ETO to nucleolar organizing re...

  2. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Schuster; Daniel Berrar; Naoyuki Sato

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  3. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  4. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  5. Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Libal, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is rai...

  6. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  7. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  8. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  9. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  10. 人工选育浆蜂与原种意大利蜜蜂csd基因多态性比较%Comparison of csd gene polymorphism between artificially bred high royal jelly producing honeybee and native Italy honeybee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 曾志将; 吴小波; 颜伟玉; 王子龙

    2015-01-01

    In this study,artificially bred high jelly producing honeybees were used as the experimental mate⁃rial.Genome DNA was extracted from each honeybee sample for PCR amplification of the csd region 3,PCR prod⁃ucts were cloned and sequenced.Finally 13 csd haplotypes were obtained.The difference in the polymorphism of csd gene between high royal jelly producing honeybee and native Italy honeybee was compared. The results showed that the nucleotide diversity (π) values of csd in these two strains are 0.057 85±0.004 92 and 0.043 80 ±0.005 75,respectively.Z test indicated that there is no significant difference between the πvalues of these two strains.Phylogenetic tree showed that csd haplotypes do not form two branches reflecting the two strains.Rather, they are well mixed among each other.The Fst distance between high royal jelly producing honeybee and native Italy honeybee is 0.036 9,indicating a weak genetic differentiation between these two strains.These results indica⁃ted that artificial selection has no effect on the polymorphism of csd gene in high royal jelly producing honeybees.%以人工选育的浆蜂为材料,提取每个工蜂样品的基因组DNA,对csd 基因3区进行PCR扩增、克隆和测序,最终获得了13个浆蜂csd基因单倍型。对浆蜂与原种意大利蜜蜂csd基因的多态性进行比较。结果表明浆蜂和原种意大利蜜蜂的核苷酸多样度(π)分别为0.05785±0.00492和0.04380±0.00575,两者之间没有显著差异。系统进化树表明来自浆蜂和原种意大利蜜蜂的单倍型混杂在一起,没有形成完全独立的2个分支。群体分析表明浆蜂和原种意大利蜜蜂之间的Fst 距离是0.0369,两者之间的遗传分化很弱。这些结果说明人工选育对浆蜂csd基因的多态性没有产生显著影响。

  11. Four Machine Learning Algorithms for Biometrics Fusion: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Damousis, I. G.; Argyropoulos, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the efficiency of four machine learning algorithms for the fusion of several biometrics modalities to create a multimodal biometrics security system. The algorithms examined are Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Expert Systems (FESs), and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The fusion of biometrics leads to security systems that exhibit higher recognition rates and lower false alarms compared to unimodal biometric security systems. Supervised lear...

  12. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  13. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  14. Fracto-fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a cold fusion mechanism we investigated a fracto-fusion by which reacting particles are accelerated by the electric field generated between the crack surfaces in a crystal and the beam fusion occurs. By assuming the possible magnitude of the potential difference we calculated the fusion rate and energy multiplication factor. These results are consistent with cold fusion experiments. On the basis of a simple model it is conjectured that necessary electric potential difference to accelerate particles can be generated even in a metal crystal with rather low resistivity, and we conclude that the fracto-fusion mechanism can explain the cold fusion phenomena successfully. (author)

  15. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  16. Nucleotide sequence of a region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 gB glycoprotein gene: mutations affecting rate of virus entry and cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzik, D J; Fox, B A; DeLuca, N A; Person, S

    1984-08-01

    The tsB5 isolate of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) enters host cells more rapidly than does KOS, an independent isolate of HSV-1, and this rate-of-entry determinant is located between prototypic map coordinates 0.350 and 0.360 (1). The nucleotide sequence of strain tsB5 has now been determined between prototypic map coordinates 0.347 and 0.360. Comparison of the tsB5 sequence to the homologous KOS sequence revealed that the rate-of-entry difference between these two HSV-1 strains may be due to the single amino acid difference observed within these sequences (0.350 to 0.360). A cell fusion determinant in tsB5 is located between coordinates 0.345 and 0.355 and to the left of the rate-of-entry determinant (1). Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a second amino acid difference between tsB5 and KOS at coordinate 0.349. The cell fusion determinant was tentatively assigned to this location. PMID:6089415

  17. A FISH-based chromosome map for the European corn borer yields insights into ancient chromosomal fusions in the silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Y; Ohno, M; Shibata, F; Jouraku, A; Nakano, R; Ishikawa, Y; Sahara, K

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of the genomes of Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the high conservation of chromosome organization. Recent remarkable progress in genome sequencing of Lepidoptera has revealed that syntenic gene order is extensively conserved across phylogenetically distant species. The ancestral karyotype of Lepidoptera is thought to be n=31; however, that of the most well-studied moth, Bombyx mori, is n=28, and diverse studies suggest that three chromosomal fusion events occurred in this lineage. To identify the boundaries between predicted ancient fusions involving B. mori chromosomes 11, 23 and 24, we constructed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosome maps of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (n=31). We first determined a 511 Mb genomic sequence of the Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis, a congener of O. nubilalis, and isolated bacterial artificial chromosomes and fosmid clones that were expected to localize in candidate regions for the boundaries using these sequences. Combined with FISH and genetic analysis, we narrowed down the candidate regions to 40 kb-1.5 Mb, in strong agreement with a previous estimate based on the genome of a butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. The significant difference in the lengths of the candidate regions where no functional genes were observed may reflect the evolutionary time after fusion events. PMID:26264548

  18. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  19. From natural to artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D

    2013-04-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO(2) levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an 'artificial leaf' able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  20. 检测循环前列腺癌细胞中TMPRSS2:ERG融合基因%Detection of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene in circulating prostate cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueying Mao; Dan Berney; David M. Prowse; Yong-Jie Lu; Greg Shaw; Sharon Y. James; Patraicia Purkis; Sakunthala C. Kudahetti; Theodora Tsigani; Saname Kia; Bryan D. Young; R. Tim D. Oliver

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究前列腺癌病人的循环癌细胞(CTC)中TMPRSS2:ERG融合基因的存在及其与肿瘤转移之间的潜在关系.方法:利用RT-PCR,在27例前列腺切除术中得到的前列腺癌活检标本中检测TMPRSS2:ERG和TMPRSS2:ETV1转录子出现的频率,在15名晚期雄激素非依赖病人的循环癌细胞中检测TMPRSS2:ERGG转录子出现的频率.利用荧光原位杂交技术(FISH)分析10个CTC样本(取自15个CTC样本)中导致TMPRSS2:ERG融合的ERG基因组截短情况.结果:在44%的样本中发现了TMPRSS2:ERGG转录子,但是没有检测到TMPRSS2:ETV1转录子的表达.FISH分析结果显示在10例CTC样本的6例中发现染色体重组影响了ERG基因,包括一例在原癌位置上发生了TMPRSS2:ERG融合.可是,在15例CTC样本中没有检测到TMPRSS2:ERG转录子,包括用FISH检测的10例.结论:虽然需要进一步研究来确认TMPRSS2:ERG融合与前列腺癌转移之间的关系,但是通过FISH分析ERG基因基因组截短是一种有效的监测CTC的出现和前列腺癌潜在转移的方法.%Aim: To investigate the existence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene in circulating tumor cells (CTC) from prostate cancer patients and its potential in monitoring tumor metastasis. Methods: We analyzed the frequency of TMPRSS2:ERG and TMPRSS2:ETV1 transcripts in 27 prostate cancer biopsies from prostatectomies, and TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts in CTC isolated from 15 patients with advanced androgen independent disease using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to analyze the genomic truncation of ERG, which is the result of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion in 10 of the 15 CTC samples. Results: TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts were found in 44% of our samples, but we did not detect expression of TMPRSS2:ETV1. Using FISH analysis we detected chromosomal rearrangements affecting the ERG gene in 6 of 10 CTC samples, including 1 case with associated TMPRSS2:ERG fusion at the

  1. Artificial ecosystem selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R

    2000-08-01

    Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915

  2. Novel ZEB2-BCL11B Fusion Gene Identified by RNA-Sequencing in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(2;14(q22;q32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synne Torkildsen

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing of a case of acute myeloid leukemia with the bone marrow karyotype 46,XY,t(2;14(q22;q32[5]/47,XY,idem,+?4,del(6(q13q21[cp6]/46,XY[4] showed that the t(2;14 generated a ZEB2-BCL11B chimera in which exon 2 of ZEB2 (nucleotide 595 in the sequence with accession number NM_014795.3 was fused to exon 2 of BCL11B (nucleotide 554 in the sequence with accession number NM_022898.2. RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of the above-mentioned fusion transcript. All functional domains of BCL11B are retained in the chimeric protein. Abnormal expression of BCL11B coding regions subjected to control by the ZEB2 promoter seems to be the leukemogenic mechanism behind the translocation.

  3. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehne, R W

    2006-01-01

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  4. Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary condition for making this argument. Rather than requiring that the system be hermetically sealed to avoid perceptions...

  5. C11orf95-MKL2 is the resulting fusion oncogene of t(11;16)(q13;p13) in chondroid lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dali; Sumegi, Janos; Dal Cin, Paola; Reith, John D; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Nelson, Marilu; Muirhead, David; Bridge, Julia A

    2010-09-01

    Chondroid lipoma, a rare benign adipose tissue tumor, may histologically resemble myxoid liposarcoma or extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, but is genetically distinct. In this study, an identical reciprocal translocation, t(11;16)(q13;p13), was identified in three chondroid lipomas, a finding consistent with previously isolated reports. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based positional cloning strategy using a series of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probe combinations designed to narrow the 16p13 breakpoint revealed MKL2 as the candidate gene. Subsequent 5' RACE studies demonstrated C11orf95 as the MKL2 fusion gene partner. MKL/myocardin-like 2 (MKL2) encodes myocardin-related transcription factor B in a megakaryoblastic leukemia gene family, and C11orf95 (chromosome 11 open reading frame 95) is a hypothetical protein. Sequencing analysis of reverse transcription-polymerse chain reaction (RT-PCR) generated transcripts from all three chondroid lipomas defined the fusion as occurring between exons 5 and 9 of C11orf95 and MKL2, respectively. Dual-color breakpoint spanning probe sets custom-designed for recognition of the translocation event in interphase cells confirmed the anticipated rearrangements of the C11orf95 and MKL2 loci in all cases. The FISH and RT-PCR assays developed in this study can serve as diagnostic adjuncts for the identification of this novel C11orf95-MKL2 fusion oncogene in chondroid lipoma. PMID:20607705

  6. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  7. EML4-ALK融合基因在非小细胞肺癌中的研究进展%Research Progress of EML4-ALK Fusion Gene in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵腾; 夏凡; 王晓红

    2012-01-01

    肺癌是发病率和死亡率最高的恶性肿瘤,分子靶向治疗以其特异性高、副反应轻的特点正日益受到关注.近年来临床研究发现EML4-ALK融合基因是除EGFR突变及KRAS突变之外的另-个重要的酪氨酸激酶抑制剂的作用靶点,该融合基因在年轻、不吸烟或少吸烟、腺癌、无EGFR和KRAS突变的非小细胞肺癌患者中发生率较高,且该融合基因阳性者对酪氨酸激酶抑制剂耐药,对于ALK抑制剂(如克唑替尼)则有良好的治疗反应,关于该药的临床试验表明:总有效率达57%(46例确定为部分缓解,1例确定为完全缓解),估计6个月无进展生存概率为72%,常见的副反应是1、2级胃肠道反应.该基因及该药的发现为非小细胞肺癌患者带来了希望.%The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer is currently the highest in all the malignant tumors. Because of its higher specificity and milder side-effects, molecule target therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is drawing concern at present Recently clinical studies have found that EML4-ALK fusion gene is another important molecular target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in addition to EGFR mutations and KRAS mutations. The fusion gene has higher morbidity in NSCLC patients who are young, never or light smoking history, adenocarcinomas, without EGFR and KRAS mutation. Although patients who harbor this mutation do not benefit from EGFR TKIs , they have shown good response to ALK inhibitor (for example: Crizotinib). Clinical trials about the drug have shown: the Overall response rate was 57% (with 46 confirmed partial responses and 1 confirmed complete response), and the estimated probability of 6-month progression-free survival was 72%, grade 1 or 2 mild gastrointestinal effects are the common side effects. Discovery of the gene and the drug may bring new hope for the patients with NSCLC.

  8. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Artificial Personality and Disfluency

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, Mirjam; Aylett, Matthew; Tomalin, Marcus; Dall, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is artificial voices with different personalities. Previous studies have shown links between an individual's use of disfluencies in their speech and their perceived personality. Here, filled pauses (uh and um) and discourse markers (like, you know, I mean) have been included in synthetic speech as a way of creating an artificial voice with different personalities. We discuss the automatic insertion of filled pauses and discourse markers (i.e., fillers) into otherwise f...

  11. The Artificial Anal Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, John

    2000-01-01

    The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...

  12. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination. PMID:27349114

  13. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  14. 2A self-cleaving peptide-based multi-gene expression system in the silkworm Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental and applied studies of silkworms have entered the functional genomics era. Here, we report a multi-gene expression system (MGES) based on 2A self-cleaving peptide (2A), which regulates the simultaneous expression and cleavage of multiple gene targets in the silk gland of transgenic silkworms. First, a glycine-serine-glycine spacer (GSG) was found to significantly improve the cleavage efficiency of 2A. Then, the cleavage efficiency of six types of 2As with GSG was analyzed. The shortest porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A-GSG) exhibited the highest cleavage efficiency in all insect cell lines that we tested. Next, P2A-GSG successfully cleaved the artificial human serum albumin (66 kDa) linked with human acidic fibroblast growth factor (20.2 kDa) fusion genes and vitellogenin receptor fragment (196 kD) of silkworm linked with EGFP fusion genes, importantly, vitellogenin receptor protein was secreted to the outside of cells. Furthermore, P2A-GSG successfully mediated the simultaneous expression and cleavage of a DsRed and EGFP fusion gene in silk glands and caused secretion into the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using our sericin1 expression system. We predicted that the MGES would be an efficient tool for gene function research and innovative research on various functional silk materials in medicine, cosmetics, and other biomedical areas. PMID:26537835

  15. Analysis artefacts of the INS-IGF2 fusion transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Frogne, Thomas; Rescan, Claude;

    2015-01-01

    Background: In gene expression analysis, overlapping genes, splice variants, and fusion transcripts are potential sources of data analysis artefacts, depending on how the observed intensity is assigned to one, or more genes. We here exemplify this by an in-depth analysis of the INS-IGF2 fusion...... proteomics analysis we could not demonstrate INS-IGF2 protein in samples of human islets nor in EndoC-βH1. Conclusions: Sequence features, such as fusion transcripts spanning multiple genes can lead to unexpected results in gene expression analysis, and care must be taken in generating and interpreting...... the results. For the specific case of INS-IGF2 we conclude that the abundance of the fusion transcript/protein is exceedingly lower than previously reported, and that current immuno-reagents available for detecting INS-IGF2 protein have a strong cross-reaction to native human proinsulin. Finally, we were...

  16. Promoter hypermethylation of the retinoic acid receptor beta2 gene is frequent in acute myeloid leukaemia and associated with the presence of CBFβ-MYH11 fusion transcripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rethmeier, Anita; Aggerholm, Anni; Olesen, Lene Hyldahl;

    2006-01-01

    Silencing of the putative tumour suppressor gene retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2) caused by aberrant promoter hypermethylation has been identified in several solid tumours. In order to evaluate the extent of RARbeta2 hypermethylation and transcription in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) at...

  17. Induction of cell-cell fusion by ectromelia virus is not inhibited by its fusion inhibitory complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Pinhas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectromelia virus, a member of the Orthopox genus, is the causative agent of the highly infectious mousepox disease. Previous studies have shown that different poxviruses induce cell-cell fusion which is manifested by the formation of multinucleated-giant cells (polykaryocytes. This phenomenon has been widely studied with vaccinia virus in conditions which require artificial acidification of the medium. Results We show that Ectromelia virus induces cell-cell fusion under neutral pH conditions and requires the presence of a sufficient amount of viral particles on the plasma membrane of infected cells. This could be achieved by infection with a replicating virus and its propagation in infected cells (fusion "from within" or by infection with a high amount of virus particles per cell (fusion "from without". Inhibition of virus maturation or inhibition of virus transport on microtubules towards the plasma membrane resulted in a complete inhibition of syncytia formation. We show that in contrast to vaccinia virus, Ectromelia virus induces cell-cell fusion irrespectively of its hemagglutination properties and cell-surface expression of the orthologs of the fusion inhibitory complex, A56 and K2. Additionally, cell-cell fusion was also detected in mice lungs following lethal respiratory infection. Conclusion Ectromelia virus induces spontaneous cell-cell fusion in-vitro and in-vivo although expressing an A56/K2 fusion inhibitory complex. This syncytia formation property cannot be attributed to the 37 amino acid deletion in ECTV A56.

  18. Calponin 3 Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement in Trophoblastic Cell Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shibukawa, Yukinao; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Daimon, Etsuko; Tajiri, Michiko; Okada, Yuka; Ikawa, Masahito; Wada, Yoshinao

    2010-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is an intriguing differentiation process, essential for placental development and maturation. A proteomic approach identified a cytoplasmic protein, calponin 3 (CNN3), related to the fusion of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. CNN3 was expressed in cytotrophoblasts in human placenta. CNN3 gene knockdown promoted actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and syncytium formation in BeWo cells, suggesting CNN3 to be a negative regulator of trophoblast fusion. Indeed, CNN3 depletion promoted Be...

  19. Fusion Canada issue 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  20. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  2. Fusion Canada issue 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a funding report for CFFTP, a technical update for Tokamak de Varennes and a network for university research by the National Fusion Program. 4 figs

  3. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehne, Rainer W.

    2006-01-01

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot f...

  4. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  5. Fusion technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes work performed in the following areas: system and safety studies for fusion reactors; nuclear data for fusion reactors; neutronics calculations for fusion reactors; radiation damage of vanadium alloys and stainless steel 316; facility for in-pile crack growth measurement; niobium tin magnet for Sultan - stage II; development of NET conductor; and development of ceramic tritium breeding materials

  6. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  7. Towards cognitive image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Nikolov, S.G.; Lewis, J.J.; Dixon, T.D.; Bull, D.R.; Canagarajah, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, the cognitive aspects of multisensor image fusion have not received much att

  8. Towards cognitive image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Nikolov, S.G.; Lewis, J.; Dixon, T.; Bull, D.; Canagarajah, N.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, the cognitive aspects of multisensor image fusion have not received much att

  9. Fusion Canada issue 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  11. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans

  12. Conditions Favorable for the Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot Cell Culture Enhance Expression of the roIC Promoter-GUS Fusion Gene 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    1991-01-01

    We obtained carrot (Daucus carota) cells possessing the 5′-noncoding sequence of the ORF12 gene (roIC) of TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid and a structural gene of bacterial β-glucuronidase by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. When such cells were cultured in medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, substantial reduction in β-glucuronidase activity was observed. Upon transferring the cells from a 2,4-D-containing medium to one devoid of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, enhanced expression of β-glucuronidase in somatic embryo development was recorded. Activation by gibberillic acid and suppression by abscisic acid of β-glucuronidase activities, in concord with embryogenesis, were also noted. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667958

  13. Conditions Favorable for the Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot Cell Culture Enhance Expression of the roIC Promoter-GUS Fusion Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, N; Uchimiya, H

    1991-01-01

    We obtained carrot (Daucus carota) cells possessing the 5'-noncoding sequence of the ORF12 gene (roIC) of TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid and a structural gene of bacterial beta-glucuronidase by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. When such cells were cultured in medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, substantial reduction in beta-glucuronidase activity was observed. Upon transferring the cells from a 2,4-D-containing medium to one devoid of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, enhanced expression of beta-glucuronidase in somatic embryo development was recorded. Activation by gibberillic acid and suppression by abscisic acid of beta-glucuronidase activities, in concord with embryogenesis, were also noted. PMID:16667958

  14. Robust expression and secretion of Xylanase1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by fusion to a selection gene and processing with the FMDV 2A peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasala, Beth A; Lee, Philip A; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have recently received attention as a potential low-cost host for the production of recombinant proteins and novel metabolites. However, a major obstacle to the development of algae as an industrial platform has been the poor expression of heterologous genes from the nuclear genome. Here we describe a nuclear expression strategy using the foot-and-mouth-disease-virus 2A self-cleavage peptide to transcriptionally fuse heterologous gene expression to antibiotic resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that strains transformed with ble-2A-GFP are zeocin-resistant and accumulate high levels of GFP that is properly 'cleaved' at the FMDV 2A peptide resulting in monomeric, cytosolic GFP that is easily detectable by in-gel fluorescence analysis or fluorescent microscopy. Furthermore, we used our ble2A nuclear expression vector to engineer the heterologous expression of the industrial enzyme, xylanase. We demonstrate that linking xyn1 expression to ble2A expression on the same open reading frame led to a dramatic (~100-fold) increase in xylanase activity in cells lysates compared to the unlinked construct. Finally, by inserting an endogenous secretion signal between the ble2A and xyn1 coding regions, we were able to target monomeric xylanase for secretion. The novel microalgae nuclear expression strategy described here enables the selection of transgenic lines that are efficiently expressing the heterologous gene-of-interest and should prove valuable for basic research as well as algal biotechnology. PMID:22937037

  15. Robust expression and secretion of Xylanase1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by fusion to a selection gene and processing with the FMDV 2A peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Rasala

    Full Text Available Microalgae have recently received attention as a potential low-cost host for the production of recombinant proteins and novel metabolites. However, a major obstacle to the development of algae as an industrial platform has been the poor expression of heterologous genes from the nuclear genome. Here we describe a nuclear expression strategy using the foot-and-mouth-disease-virus 2A self-cleavage peptide to transcriptionally fuse heterologous gene expression to antibiotic resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that strains transformed with ble-2A-GFP are zeocin-resistant and accumulate high levels of GFP that is properly 'cleaved' at the FMDV 2A peptide resulting in monomeric, cytosolic GFP that is easily detectable by in-gel fluorescence analysis or fluorescent microscopy. Furthermore, we used our ble2A nuclear expression vector to engineer the heterologous expression of the industrial enzyme, xylanase. We demonstrate that linking xyn1 expression to ble2A expression on the same open reading frame led to a dramatic (~100-fold increase in xylanase activity in cells lysates compared to the unlinked construct. Finally, by inserting an endogenous secretion signal between the ble2A and xyn1 coding regions, we were able to target monomeric xylanase for secretion. The novel microalgae nuclear expression strategy described here enables the selection of transgenic lines that are efficiently expressing the heterologous gene-of-interest and should prove valuable for basic research as well as algal biotechnology.

  16. Genetic recombination in Actinoplanes brasiliensis by protoplast fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Palleroni, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    Protoplast formation, fusion, and cell regeneration have been achieved with mutant strains of Actinoplanes brasiliensis. Three-, four-, and five-factor crosses have shown genetic recombination among the markers, and a five-factor cross is analyzed and discussed. Possibilities of using protoplast fusion for gene mapping and strain improvement are suggested.

  17. Impulsive Neural Networks Algorithm Based on the Artificial Genome Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To describe gene regulatory networks, this article takes the framework of the artificial genome model and proposes impulsive neural networks algorithm based on the artificial genome model. Firstly, the gene expression and the cell division tree are applied to generate spiking neurons with specific attributes, neural network structure, connection weights and specific learning rules of each neuron. Next, the gene segment duplications and divergence model are applied to design the evolutionary algorithm of impulsive neural networks at the level of the artificial genome. The dynamic changes of developmental gene regulatory networks are controlled during the whole evolutionary process. Finally, the behavior of collecting food for autonomous intelligent agent is simulated, which is driven by nerves. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm in this article has the evolutionary ability on large-scale impulsive neural networks

  18. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by reso...

  19. Fusion applications study: FAME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion has a wide spectrum of applications that appear technically possible and may become economically feasible. Near-term (approx. 2000) application for production of nuclear fuels and useful radioisotopes is an economically attractive possibility as soon as fusion is ready. Electricity production will remain a prime, large-scale application of fusion. In the longer term, as fossil fuels dwindle, production of hydrogen could become a major application. Additional applications some of which have not even been conceived of yet, will add to this potential richness and diversity of fusion. It is the purpose of the fusion applications study - FMAE - to innovate, investigate, and evaluate these potential applications.

  20. Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, R. C. (Ronald C.)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion conditions is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion.

  1. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  2. Fusion of a viral antigen to invariant chain leads to augmented T-cell immunity and improved protection in gene-gun DNA-vaccinated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grujic, Mirjana; Holst, Peter J; Christensen, Jan P;

    2009-01-01

    against lethal peripheral challenge. The current study questioned whether the same strategy, i.e. linkage of GP to an Ii chain, could be applied to a naked DNA vaccine. Following gene-gun immunization with the linked construct (DNA-IiGP), GP-specific CD4(+) T cells could not be detected by flow cytometry...... with the unlinked construct. In contrast, substantial protection against peripheral challenge was not observed. Additional experiments with T-cell subset-depleted or perforin-deficient mice revealed that virus control in vaccinated mice depends critically on cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Finally, priming...

  3. Generation of the AML1-EVI-1 fusion gene in the t(3;21)(q26;q22) causes blastic crisis in chronic myelocytic leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitani, K; Ogawa, S.; Tanaka, T; Miyoshi, H; Kurokawa, M; Mano, H.; Yazaki, Y; Ohki, M; Hirai, H

    1994-01-01

    The t(3;21)(q26;q22) translocation, which is one of the consistent chromosomal abnormalities found in blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), is thought to play an important role in the leukemic progression of CML to an acute blastic crisis phase. The AML1 gene, which is located at the translocation breakpoint of the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation found in acute myelocytic leukemia, was also rearranged by the t(3;21)(q26;q22) translocation. Screening of a cDNA library of the t(3;...

  4. Chorioallantoic Fusion Defects and Embryonic Lethality Resulting from Disruption of Zfp36L1, a Gene Encoding a CCCH Tandem Zinc Finger Protein of the Tristetraprolin Family

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpo, Deborah J.; Byrd, Noah A.; Phillips, Ruth S.; Ghosh, Sanjukta; Maronpot, Robert R.; Castranio, Trisha; Meyers, Erik N.; Mishina, Yuji; Blackshear, Perry J.

    2004-01-01

    The mouse gene Zfp36L1 encodes zinc finger protein 36-like 1 (Zfp36L1), a member of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of tandem CCCH finger proteins. TTP can bind to AU-rich elements within the 3′-untranslated regions of the mRNAs encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), leading to accelerated mRNA degradation. TTP knockout mice exhibit an inflammatory phenotype that is largely due to increased TNF secretion. Zfp36L1 has activities sim...

  5. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  6. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  7. Fusion technology 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  8. Cell fusion in tumor progression: the isolation of cell fusion products by physical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincitorio Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell fusion induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG is an efficient but poorly controlled procedure for obtaining somatic cell hybrids used in gene mapping, monoclonal antibody production, and tumour immunotherapy. Genetic selection techniques and fluorescent cell sorting are usually employed to isolate cell fusion products, but both procedures have several drawbacks. Results Here we describe a simple improvement in PEG-mediated cell fusion that was obtained by modifying the standard single-step procedure. We found that the use of two PEG undertreatments obtains a better yield of cell fusion products than the standard method, and most of these products are bi- or trinucleated polykaryocytes. Fusion rate was quantified using fluorescent cell staining microscopy. We used this improved cell fusion and cell isolation method to compare giant cells obtained in vitro and giant cells obtained in vivo from patients with Hodgkin's disease and erythroleukemia. Conclusions In the present study we show how to improve PEG-mediated cell fusion and that cell separation by velocity sedimentation offers a simple alternative for the efficient purification of cell fusion products and to investigate giant cell formation in tumor development.

  9. FusionAnalyser: a new graphical, event-driven tool for fusion rearrangements discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Rocco; Pirola, Alessandra; Spinelli, Roberta; Valletta, Simona; Redaelli, Sara; Magistroni, Vera; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Gene fusions are common driver events in leukaemias and solid tumours; here we present FusionAnalyser, a tool dedicated to the identification of driver fusion rearrangements in human cancer through the analysis of paired-end high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data. We initially tested FusionAnalyser by using a set of in silico randomly generated sequencing data from 20 known human translocations occurring in cancer and subsequently using transcriptome data from three chronic and three acute myeloid leukaemia samples. in all the cases our tool was invariably able to detect the presence of the correct driver fusion event(s) with high specificity. In one of the acute myeloid leukaemia samples, FusionAnalyser identified a novel, cryptic, in-frame ETS2-ERG fusion. A fully event-driven graphical interface and a flexible filtering system allow complex analyses to be run in the absence of any a priori programming or scripting knowledge. Therefore, we propose FusionAnalyser as an efficient and robust graphical tool for the identification of functional rearrangements in the context of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data. PMID:22570408

  10. Artificial ionospheric turbulence (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an analysis of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) arising near the level at which a powerful wave is reflected with ordinary polarization. AIT is an inhomogeneous structure in the ionosphere with a size on the order of centimeters or tens of kilometers and with characteristic frequencies from a fraction of a hertz (aperiodic inhomogeneity) to several megahertz (plasma waves). The authors are primarily concerned with small-scale artificial ionospheric turbulence (SAIT), i.e., with inhomogeneities that are greatly extended along the geomagnetic field with transverse dimensions that are less than the wavelengths of the perturbing waves - the pumping waves (PW) - in a vacuum

  11. The fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium ($30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-pathitem for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices

  12. Induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses in a mouse model following gene fusion of HSP70C and Hantaan virus Gn and S0.7 in an adenoviral vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs display adjuvant functions when given as fusion proteins to enhance vaccination efficiency. To evaluate enhanced potency of Hantaan virus (HTNV glycoprotein (GP and nucleocapsid protein (NP immunogenicity by heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, a recombinant adenovirus rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C expression vector was developed by genetically linking the HSP70 C-terminal gene (HSP70 359-610 aa, HSP70C to the Gn and 0.7 kb fragment of the NP (aa1-274-S0.7. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with these recombinant adenoviral vectors. A series of immunological assays determined the immunogenicity of the recombinant adenoviral vectors. The results showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C induced a stronger humoral and cellular immune response than other recombinant adenoviruses (rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG and rAd-GnS0.7 and the HFRS vaccine control. Animal protection experiments showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C was effective at protecting C57BL/6 mice from HTNV infection. The results of the immunological experiments showed that HSP70C lead to enhanced vaccine potency, and suggested significant potential in the development of genetically engineered vaccines against HTNV.

  13. AF4 uses the SL1 components of RNAP1 machinery to initiate MLL fusion- and AEP-dependent transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Akinori; Ito, Shinji; Matsui, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Gene rearrangements generate MLL fusion genes, which can lead to aggressive leukemia. In most cases, MLL fuses with a gene encoding a component of the AEP (AF4 family/ENL family/P-TEFb) coactivator complex. MLL–AEP fusion proteins constitutively activate their target genes to immortalize haematopoietic progenitors. Here we show that AEP and MLL–AEP fusion proteins activate transcription through selectivity factor 1 (SL1), a core component of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) of RNA polymerase ...

  14. Production of artificial radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in the production of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)

  15. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  16. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  17. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  18. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  19. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  20. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  1. Natural or Artificial Intelligence?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, 2013 - (Romportl, J.; Ircing, P.; Zackova, E.; Polak, M.; Schuster, R.), s. 15-27 ISBN 978-80-261-0275-5. [International Conference Beyond AI 2013. Plzeň (CZ), 12.11.2013-14.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : artificial intelligence * natural intelligence * artifact * natural process * intrinsic intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  3. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  4. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  5. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  6. Economics of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  7. KAR5 Encodes a Novel Pheromone-inducible Protein Required for Homotypic Nuclear Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, Christopher T.; Brizzio, Valeria; Rose, Mark D.

    1997-01-01

    KAR5 is required for membrane fusion during karyogamy, the process of nuclear fusion during yeast mating. To investigate the molecular mechanism of nuclear fusion, we cloned and characterized the KAR5 gene and its product. KAR5 is a nonessential gene, and deletion mutations produce a bilateral defect in the homotypic fusion of yeast nuclei. KAR5 encodes a novel protein that shares similarity with a protein in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that may play a similar role in nuclear fusion. Kar5p is i...

  8. RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Zhao-Shi; Chen, Hui-min; Yang, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Yu, Kai; Ye, Wan-Lu; Hu, Bo-Qiang; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Akers, Johnny; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Li, Jie; Carter, Bob; Liu, Yan-Wei; HU, HUI-MIN

    2014-01-01

    Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent ...

  9. Development of lung adenocarcinomas with exclusive dependence on oncogene fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Motonobu; Shimada, Yoko; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Tsuta, Koji; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Chiku, Suenori; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Kato, Mamoru; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Yokota, Jun; Kohno, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    This report delivers a comprehensive genetic alteration profile of lung adenocarcinomas (LADC) driven by ALK, RET, and ROS1 oncogene fusions. These tumors are difficult to study because of their rarity. Each drives only a low percentage of LADCs. Whole-exome sequencing and copy-number variation analyses were performed on a Japanese LADC cohort (n = 200) enriched in patients with fusions (n = 31, 15.5%), followed by deep resequencing for validation. The driver fusion cases showed a distinct profile with smaller numbers of nonsynonymous mutations in cancer-related genes or truncating mutations in SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex genes than in other LADCs (P < 0.0001). This lower mutation rate was independent of age, gender, smoking status, pathologic stage, and tumor differentiation (P < 0.0001) and was validated in nine fusion-positive cases from a U.S. LADCs cohort (n = 230). In conclusion, our findings indicate that LADCs with ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions develop exclusively via their dependence on these oncogene fusions. The presence of such few alterations beyond the fusions supports the use of monotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the fusion products in fusion-positive LADCs. PMID:25855381

  10. Genetic control of epithelial tube fusion during Drosophila tracheal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samakovlis, C; Manning, G; Steneberg, P; Hacohen, N; Cantera, R; Krasnow, M A

    1996-11-01

    During development of tubular networks such as the mammalian vascular system, the kidney and the Drosophila tracheal system, epithelial tubes must fuse to each other to form a continuous network. Little is known of the cellular mechanisms or molecular control of epithelial tube fusion. We describe the cellular dynamics of a tracheal fusion event in Drosophila and identify a gene regulatory hierarchy that controls this extraordinary process. A tracheal cell located at the developing fusion point expresses a sequence of specific markers as it grows out and contacts a similar cell from another tube; the two cells adhere and form an intercellular junction, and they become doughnut-shaped cells with the lumen passing through them. The early fusion marker Fusion-1 is identified as the escargot gene. It lies near the top of the regulatory hierarchy, activating the expression of later fusion markers and repressing genes that promote branching. Ectopic expression of escargot activates the fusion process and suppresses branching throughout the tracheal system, leading to ectopic tracheal connections that resemble certain arteriovenous malformations in humans. This establishes a simple genetic system to study fusion of epithelial tubes. PMID:8951068

  11. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  12. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such ... An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon ...

  13. AAAIC '88 - Aerospace Applications of Artificial Intelligence; Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference, Dayton, OH, Oct. 25-27, 1988. Volumes 1 ampersand 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics presented include integrating neural networks and expert systems, neural networks and signal processing, machine learning, cognition and avionics applications, artificial intelligence and man-machine interface issues, real time expert systems, artificial intelligence, and engineering applications. Also considered are advanced problem solving techniques, combinational optimization for scheduling and resource control, data fusion/sensor fusion, back propagation with momentum, shared weights and recurrency, automatic target recognition, cybernetics, optical neural networks

  14. Inhibitory effect of RNAi on AML1-ETO fusion gene expression in leukemia cells%RNA干扰对急性髓系白血病AML1-ETO融合基因表达的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫菊; 李肃; 王椿; 秦尤文; 马晓霞; 谢匡成; 颜式可; 高彦荣; 蔡琦

    2008-01-01

    目的 应用RNA干扰技术抑制Kasumi-1细胞AML1-ETO融合基因的表达,研究随后出现的细胞增殖和细胞周期变化.方法 体外化学合成针对AML1-ETO融合基因的小干扰RNA(siRNA),并用电穿孔方法将AML1-ETO siRNA转染Kasumi-1细胞,以非特异性的siRNA转染细胞作阴性对照;电转带有增强型绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)的载体,流式细胞术检测其绿色荧光以确定电转效率;荧光染料实时定量PCR及Western blot检测AML1-ETO siRNA的抑制效应;并应用CCK-8实验法检测细胞增殖率;采用碘化丙锭(PI)法测定细胞周期DNA含量.结果 电转增强EGFP的转染效率可达44.5%;电转AML1-ETO siRNA可以有效抑制AML1-ETO融合基因在mRNA和蛋白水平的表达;电转AML1-ETO siRNA 72 h后细胞增殖率[(47.90±0.02)%]低于对照组[(66.90±0.08)%](P<0.05);PI染色显示AML1-ETO siRNA转染细胞72 h后,G1期细胞比例为38.3%,对照组为31.6%,而处于G2/M期细胞分别为1.8%和2.4%.结论 化学合成的特异性siRNA能抑制AML1-ETO融合基因的表达,siRNA介导的AML1-ETo融合蛋白表达减少阻滞Kasnmi-1细胞在G1期,进而抑制细胞增殖.%Objective By inhibiting AML1-ETO fusion gene expression in Kasumi-I cells with RNAi, to investigate the changes in cell proliferation and cell cycle. Methods The small interference RNAs (siRNAs) specifically targeting the AML1-ETO fusion gene were synthesized in vitro and transfected into Ka-sumi-1 cells by electroporation, the non-specific siRNAs transfected cells were taken as control. EGFP plas-mid was transfected into Kasumi-1 cell and the transfection efficiency was detected by FCM. Inhibitory effect of siRNAs were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blots. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay. DNA content was detected by PI assay. Results The transfection efficiency was 44.5%. The AML1-ETO specific siRNAs inhibited AML1-ETO expression at both mRNA and protein levels. The cell proliferation rate in si

  15. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  16. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  17. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.;

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature......, Ho, depends strongly on temperature in a known way and is thus tunable. For temperatures where H-0 > 0 vesicles tyre long-term stable, while in the range H-0 fusion rate increases the more negative the Spontaneous curvature Through a quantitative;analysis of the fusion rate we arrive tit...

  18. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  19. Frequent fusion and fission of plant mitochondria with unequal nucleoid distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Arimura, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Junko; Aida, Gen Paul; Nakazono, Mikio; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    The balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission influences the reticular shape of mitochondria in yeasts. Little is known about whether mitochondria fusion occurs in plants. Plant mitochondria are usually more numerous and more grain-shaped than animal mitochondria. blast searches of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana did not find any obvious homologue of mitochondrial fusion genes found in animals and yeasts. To determine whether mitochondrial fusion ...

  20. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  1. Filter Bank Fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Chebira, Amina; Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using ...

  2. Fusion reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work covers four separate areas: (1) development of technology for processing liquid lithium from blankets, (2) investigation of hydrogen isotope permeation in candidate structural metals and alloys for near-term fusion reactors, (3) analytical studies encompassing fusion reactor thermal hydraulics, tritium facility design, and fusion reactor safety, and (4) studies involving dosimetry and damage analysis. Recent accomplishments in each of these areas are summarized

  3. Fusion11 Conference Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a summary account of the conference Fusion11, held in Saint Malo, France, May 2-6, 2011. There were 77 talks by experts in the field. The author comments on a few of the physics topics discussed during the presentations. His comments concern: new facilities, fusion cross-sections (particularly the barrier penetration model, optical potentials, the channel coupling, the barrier distribution, fusion hindrance and transfer channels), rare isotopes, clusters and superheavy elements

  4. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  5. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  6. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  7. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant

  8. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  9. Fusion reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fusion could soon become a viable energy source. Work in plasma physics, fusion technology and fusion safety is progressing rapidly in a number of Member States and international collaboration continues on work aiming at the demonstration of fusion power generation. Safety of fusion reactors and technological and radiological aspects of waste management are important aspects in the development and design of fusion machines. In order to provide an international forum to review and discuss the status and the progress made since 1983 in programmes related to operational safety aspects of fusion reactors, their waste management and decommissioning concepts, the IAEA had organized the Technical Committee on ''Fusion Reactor Safety'' in Culham, 3-7 November 1986. All presentations of this meeting were divided into four sessions: 1. Statements on National-International Fusion Safety Programmes (5 papers); 2. Operation and System Safety (15 papers); 3. Waste Management and Decommissioning (5 papers); 4. Environmental Impacts (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 31 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  11. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  12. Simulation Techniques and Prosthetic Approach Towards Biologically Efficient Artificial Sense Organs- An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Neogi, Biswarup; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Das, Achintya; Tibarewala, D N

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the applications of control theory to prosthetic sense organs including the senses of vision, taste and odor is being presented in this paper. Simulation aspect nowadays has been the centre of research in the field of prosthesis. There have been various successful applications of prosthetic organs, in case of natural biological organs dis-functioning patients. Simulation aspects and control modeling are indispensible for knowing system performance, and to generate an original approach of artificial organs. This overview focuses mainly on control techniques, by far a theoretical overview and fusion of artificial sense organs trying to mimic the efficacies of biologically active sensory organs. Keywords: virtual reality, prosthetic vision, artificial

  13. Artificial Intelligence-The Emerging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Shenoy

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI, once considered as an obscure branch of computer science, is now having a growing number of adherents in a wide variety of fields. AI is particularly useful for combat automation in defence. The combined works of computer scientists and technologists and cognitive scientists have brought out for intelligent information processing knowledge is the key factor. In the last few years, AI has been tried out with a high degree of success in certain areas such as the Expert Systems and the Computer Vision Systems. Both these have great potential in target classification and identification, information fusion, multiradar Air Defence Network, C2 (Command andControl operations etc. in defence.

  14. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that...... successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well as...

  15. Membrane fusion machines of paramyxoviruses: capture of intermediates of fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Charles J Russell; Theodore S Jardetzky; Lamb, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Peptides derived from heptad repeat regions adjacent to the fusion peptide and transmembrane domains of many viral fusion proteins form stable helical bundles and inhibit fusion specifically. Paramyxovirus SV5 fusion (F) protein-mediated fusion and its inhibition by the peptides N-1 and C-1 were analyzed. The temperature dependence of fusion by F suggests that thermal energy, destabilizing proline residues and receptor binding by the hemagglutinin–neuraminidase (HN) protein collectively contr...

  16. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  17. Impacts of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Trappl, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book, which is intended to serve as the first stage in an iterative process of detecting, predicting, and assessing the impacts of Artificial Intelligence opens with a short "one-hour course" in AI, which is intended to provide a nontechnical informative introduction to the material which follows. Next comes an overview chapter which is based on an extensive literature search, the position papers, and discussions. The next section of the book contains position papers whose richness...

  18. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Peter E.

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years artificial intelligence has changed from being the preoccupation of a handful of scientists to a thriving enterprise that has captured the imagination of world leaders and ordinary citizens alike. While corporate and government officials organize new projects whose potential impact is widespread, to date few people have been more affected by the transition than those already in the field. I review here some aspects of this transition, and pose some issues that it rai...

  20. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  1. Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise

    OpenAIRE

    Chace, William M.

    1984-01-01

    I rise now to speak with the assumption that all of you know very well what I am going to say. I am the humanist here, the professor of English. We humanists, when asked to speak on questions of science and technology, are notorious for offering an embarrassed and ignorant respect toward those matters, a respect, however, which can all too quickly degenerate into insolent condescension. Face to face with the reality of computer technology, say, or with "artificial intelligence," we humanists ...

  2. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  3. Fusion of the SUMO/Sentrin-specific protease 1 gene SENP1 and the embryonic polarity-related mesoderm development gene MESDC2 in a patient with an infantile teratoma and a constitutional t(12;15)(q13;q25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Imke M; Vreede, Lilian A; Cheng, Jinke; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Janssen, Bert; Schoenmakers, Eric F P M; Yeh, Edward T H; van Kessel, Ad Geurts

    2005-07-15

    Recently, we identified a patient with an infantile sacrococcygeal teratoma and a constitutional t(12;15)(q13;q25). Here, we show that, as a result of this chromosomal translocation, the SUMO/Sentrin-specific protease 1 gene (SENP1) on chromosome 12 and the embryonic polarity-related mesoderm development gene (MESDC2) on chromosome 15 are disrupted and fused. Both reciprocal SENP1-MESDC2 (SEME) and MESDC2-SENP1 (MESE) fusion genes are transcribed in tumor-derived cells and their open reading frames encode aberrant proteins. As a consequence of this, and in contrast to wild-type (WT) MESDC2, the translocation-associated SEME protein is no longer targeted to the endoplasmatic reticulum, leading to a presumed loss-of-function as a chaperone for the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and/or LRP6. Ultimately, this might lead to abnormal development and/or routing of germ cell tumor precursor cells. SUMO, a post-translational modifier, plays an important role in several cellular key processes and is cleaved from its substrates by WT SENP1. Using a PML desumoylation assay, we found that translocation-associated MESE proteins exhibit desumoylation capacities similar to those observed for WT SENP1. We speculate that spatio-temporal disturbances in desumoylating activities during critical stages of embryonic development might have predisposed the patient. Together, the constitutional t(12;15)(q13;q25) translocation revealed two novel candidate genes for neonatal/infantile GCT development: MESDC2 and SENP1. PMID:15917269

  4. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  5. Tight p-fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Bachoc, Christine; Ehler, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Fusion frames enable signal decompositions into weighted linear subspace components. For positive integers p, we introduce p-fusion frames, a sharpening of the notion of fusion frames. Tight p-fusion frames are closely related to the classical notions of designs and cubature formulas in Grassmann spaces and are analyzed with methods from harmonic analysis in the Grassmannians. We define the p-fusion frame potential, derive bounds for its value, and discuss the connections to tight p-fusion fr...

  6. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Katsov; M Müller; M Schick

    2005-06-01

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent field theory is applied to examine the free energy barriers in the different scenarios.

  7. Two Horizons of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  8. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at dif...

  9. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  10. Fusion Canada issue 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  11. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  12. Nuclear fusion in Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study nuclear fusion occurring according to conventional wisdom in the planet Jupiter. In particular, we consider if in a standard evolutionary model of Jupiter a significant part of Jupiter's luminosity has been due to nuclear fusion at any time during its evolution. Nuclear rate equations in dense matter allowing for screening and pressure effects have been integrated in time

  13. FUSION03, Concluding Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Fusion reactions below the Coulomb barrier provide new insights into multidimensional quantum tunneling, nuclear reaction dynamics and nuclear structure. These reactions are also of considerable interest to nuclear astrophysics. In this summary recent developments in the field are reviewed and open questions related to subbarrier fusion are presented.

  14. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  15. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, activities related to fusion focus on environmental tolerance of opto-electronic components. The objective of this program is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour, during and after neutron irradiation, of fusion-reactor materials and components. The main scientific activities for 1997 are summarized

  16. Fusion Canada issue 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  17. Fusion product spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate fusion product data is required for most fusion plasma simulations. The energy broadening of reaction products is demonstrated to be more complicated than the usual Gaussian broadening. The accurate integrals are performed to obtain , , and for all binary reactions in the four- and five-nucleon systems. Reaction cross sections were developed using R-Matrix models that include most recent measurements

  18. Magnetic fusion theory effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication is a comprehensive listing of the magnetic fusion theory effort. It updates the last publication, ERDA 77-18, and gives data on the FY 1977 and FY 1978 budgets. There is a section devoted to the National Magnetic Fusion Computer Center

  19. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  20. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Plan reflects the present conditions of the energy situation and is consistent with national priorities for the support of basic and applied research. It is realistic in taking advantage of the technical position that the United States has already established in fusion research to make cost-effective progress toward the development of fusion power as a future energy option